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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

Volume 2 - Number 10, October 1, 2010, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

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1

The New Concepts to Big Bang and to Black Holes: Both Had No Singularity at All

==== Preface====

The fundamental defect of the General Theory of Relativity Equation is that any particles in EGTR has no thermodynamic action. It leads finally the gravitational collapse of a definite energy-matter only go to Singularity.

Dongsheng Zhang

Graduated in 1957 From Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China.

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com

Abstract: Right now, the General Theory of Relativity Equation (GTRE) is almost linked together with all new physical concepts, such as the Big Bang, black holes (BH), Singularity, zero point energy, dark energy, N demission spaces, etc. Perhaps say it in another way, all above new physical concepts are squeezed into GTRE by the modern physicians as the reasonable coats in the mainstream of physics. However, the observed facts have demonstrated that, those new physical concepts may be illusory. The obvious examples are singularity and the density of vacuum energy. About 40 years ago, R. Penrose and S. Hawking discovered Singularity losing the time-space significance in EGTR, but there would not be any indications of singularity of infinitely great density observed in nature. They further derived from GTRE that, our universe was originated from singularity, which would certainly exist in any BHs, and even have naked singularity in universe. They also proposed out “the hypothesis of cosmic censorship” for explaining singularity better in nature, In addition, according to J. Wheeler’s calculations, the density of vacuum energy would be up to 1095g/cm3. All above arguments are unimaginable, unrealistic and may have no way to be observed and demonstrated forever. In this article below, author will demonstrate with Hawking’s laws of black holes that, there would not be any singularity in BHs, and our universe was not born from singularity or the Big Bang of singularity at all. Singularity can only be a product from GTRE, but impossibly appear and exist in real nature.

[Dongsheng Zhang. The New Concepts to Big Bang and to Black Holes Both Had No Singularity at All. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):1-4]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.01

 

Key Words: General Theory of Relativity Equation (GTRE); singularity; black holes (BH); big bang;; Planck era; Planck particle--mp; minimum gravitational black holes-- Mbm

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2

21世纪新儒学---量子色动力学

白科大

y-tx@163.com, huchangwei5@yahoo.com.cn

 

摘要:21世纪新儒学被徐光宪先生定格在1959年后的这50年,让21世纪新儒学理科与文科交融叠加,走进北京大学。也走进了上海,走进了上海师范大学。

[白科大. 21世纪新儒学---量子色动力学. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):5-22]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.02

 

关键词:儒学 味夸克 夸克海

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3

地震起因和防治

 

孙纯武

江苏省扬州三力电器集团,中国江苏省扬州市西湖镇59

电话051482822538 邮编225008

电子信箱: yzscw@163.com 博客http://yzscw.blog.163.com

 

摘要地球的前身,就是太阳将氢聚合成氦颗粒物质后,一步步在向心力作用下,将那些坠落在日核周围各种物质就像滚雪球似地,将质量又聚合复制成一个个米粒状和球形黑子。当黑子也就是地球脱离母体后到一定距离,前端面上部就像违章操作热处理,那些由氦颗粒组合成的球表面,突然受冷收缩降温变硬发脆,将各种颗粒物质也就是一块块板块粘连处,发生爆裂,引起球面向一边一块块地滑动突出下垂加速运动。使这面特别赤道以下鼓出度大。另一面夜晚在斜面上的板块,又逐步随着向上被向心运动的拉力作向内冷收缩弯曲,就像形成了似杠杆力臂。球的物体上下两端,也就是后来称南北极板块,自身没有位移运动,由别的板块推动状态,就像形成了似杠杆支点。地核每被离心力推挤向这个杠杆力臂上一端,就被复制出更多做功能量。加快了当初大约有一千多个氦颗粒聚合成的球外壳,一个个有规律自组织地冷却爆裂,或由于球体两边运动力不平衡将粘裢处撕裂开,最终形成一块块活动板块和机械自转创造了条件。

[孙纯武. 地震起因和防治. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):23-31]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.03

 

关键词:地震起因防治 功过

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从川大走出的数理化“三剑客”

 

叶眺新

 

摘要:我国科学殿堂内外,民间科学为什么50年间能跟上国际前沿科学主流弦膜圈说不断飞速前进的步伐?赵正旭、王国雄、李后强等先生,曾分别都是从四川大学数学系、物理系、化学系毕业的,遇到他们类似遇到了仗义执言的剑客。川大有这种藴含,在新的征程中能进入大学排行榜前列也当之无愧。

[叶眺新. 从川大走出的数理化“三剑客”. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):32-46]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.04

关键词:弦膜圈说 赵本旭 王国雄 李后强

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5

The Anatomy of Earth (Global Warming)

Earth’s Orbit around the Sun is Decaying

 

Willie McDonald

cdnld30@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Global warming can be reversed, if action is taken in time. If its not reversed in time the sun’s heat will dominate this planet’s weather, and generate unusual weather patterns to the point where the only thing left to eat will be other people (cannibalism). Criminal activity will promote, disorder will rule (robbery, rape, murder, etc.) The real reason for global warming is the earth’s orbit around the sun is decaying, in other words the earth is moving closer to the sun. The earth is a planet that functions like a machine. Like cars, trucks, aircrafts, or rockets. The earth has a fuel system (crude oil/ methane gas wells), an engine system (the core), exhaust system (volcanoes), and a cooling system (the oceans). A car’s engine system generates torque, an aircraft’s engine system generates thrust, and the earth’s engine system generates a powerful magnetic field.

[Willie McDonald. The Anatomy of Earth (Global Warming), Earth’s Orbit around the Sun is Decaying. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):47-48]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.05

Keywords: Earth; Global Warming; Earth’s Orbit; Sun; Decaying

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6

Analysis of the influence of community based organizations on community development in Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Onyeozu, a.m

Department of adult and Non Formal Education, University of port harcourt

omadesope@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The study focused on analysis of political influence of community based organizations on community development in Rivers State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 960 randomly selected respondents in the study area and analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that the activities of community based organizations in Rivers State include building of market stalls, provision and servicing of boreholes, building and renovation of town halls, maintenance of community roads, provision of furniture and equipment to schools. The study also concludes that the activities of community based organizations influence respondents both physically and politically which are good development. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made: increased awareness at the community level on the formation of community based organizations. Such awareness campaigns should be carried out by the opinion leaders in the communities and the campaign should highlight the benefits open to individuals and members of associations and the communities both locally and internationally. Community Based Organizations should seek for ways of partnering with all the tiers of government for development projects in rural communities. Government should encourage community based organizations by supporting their developmental efforts or by subvention.

[Onyeozu, a.m. Analysis of the influence of community based organizations on community development in Rivers State, Nigeria Academia Arena 2010;2(10):49-53]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.06

 

Key words: political influence, community based organizations

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7

几个理论物理问题

 

Xue Sheng

 

Abstract: 现代物理学的理论是根据对称产生的,可是我们周围的世界又是不对称的,笔者根据现代科技理论提出了对称的相对性与绝对性原理,分析了有限与无限的相对性与绝对性、离散与连续的相对性与绝对性、全息的相对性与绝对性、运动与静止的相对性与绝对性、时空的相对性与绝对性、同时性的相对性与绝对性等.

[Xue Sheng. 请教几个理论物理问题. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):54-57]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.07

 

Keywords: 物理学; 称产生;相对性; 绝对性;同时性

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8

Determinants Of Farm And Off –Farm Income Among Farmhouseholds In South East Nigeira

 

Ibekwe, U.C; C.C. Eze; C.S. Onyemauwa; A. Henri-Ukoha; O.C. Korie and I.U. Nwaiwu

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

E-mail: csonyemauwa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agriculture has been considered as one of the important sectors that could help and improve the income distribution problem and its poverty implications in South Eastern Nigeria. This has led to the focus of this study on the determinants of the farm and off farm income among the farm households in South East Nigeria and Imo State in particular. Primary data were collected and ordinary least squared regression model was used to analyze the data collected. Results showed that: Farm size, age, education, occupation and hours spent on farm are important explanatory variables that influenced both farm and off farm incomes.

[Ibekwe, U.C; C.C. Eze; C.S. Onyemauwa; A. Henri-Ukoha; O.C. Korie and I.U. Nwaiwu. Determinants Of Farm And Off –Farm Income Among Farmhouseholds In South East Nigeira. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):58-61]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.08

 

Keywords: Determinants, Farm, Off-farm, Income, Diversification, Push factors

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9

对万有引力的再考察 (再评广义相对论)

 

谭天荣

青岛大学物理系青岛266071

 

内容提要:在考察加速系的物理学时,我们在狭义相对论的框架内找到了的惯性力的协变规律,以及惯性系的物理学方程在加速系的变形。在这一基础上,本文重新表述了“等效原理”,并展开了一个新的引力场论,它具有如下特征:第一,等效原理是它的逻辑结论;第二,通过“引力场张量”的概念,它与牛顿引力理论紧密衔接;第三,它的数学结构简单,与其他自然力的场论相比并没有特别迥异之处。此外,还在此基础上指出广义相对论的几个逻辑上的漏洞。

[谭天荣. 对万有引力的再考察. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):62-66]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.09

关键词:曲线坐标;加速系;惯性力;爱因斯坦;等效原理;引力场论

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惯性力与加速系的物理学 (一评广义相对论)

 

谭天荣

青岛大学物理系青岛266071

 

内容提要:本文指出,非惯性系的物理学的数学工具是四维时空的曲线坐标运算而不是黎曼几何;在这一前提下,找到了惯性力的协变规律,从而在狭义相对论的框架内给出了惯性系的物理学方程在非惯性系的变形。正如惯性系中的物理学方程对洛伦兹变换保持不变一样,非惯性系中的物理学方程也对一种特殊的参照系变换保持不变。本文还指出,在这一工作完成之前,狭义相对论作为一个理论体系是不完整的。

[谭天荣. 惯性力与加速系的物理学. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):67-71]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.10

关键词:洛伦兹坐标系;曲线坐标;洛伦兹变换;加速系;惯性力;爱因斯坦

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11

Laws of Nature: Genesis and Enforcement

 

Dr Javed Jamil*

 

doctorforu123@yahoo.com, javedjamil@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: According to the news reports, the eminent British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking argues in a new book that ‘God did not create the universe and the "Big Bang" was an inevitable consequence of the laws of physics. In "The Grand Design," co-authored with U.S. physicist Leonard Mlodinow, Hawking says a new series of theories made a creator of the universe redundant, according to the Times newspaper which published extracts on Thursday. "Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist," Hawking writes. "It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch paper and set the universe going."’ It is unfortunate that the opposition to the existence of God has become such a precondition for the think-tank of the New World Order that scientists who oppose God are being given all the attention, and those that argue against atheism are normally ignored. Hawking says that the creation of the universe is the automatic consequence of the laws of nature. But the question arises: What is the genesis of these laws and how they are being enforced. In my paper, I will discuss the questions related to Genesis and Enforcement of laws.

Academia Arena 2010;2(10):72-79]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.11

Keywords: Laws of Nature, General Theory of Relativity, Einsteinianism

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Role Of Cassava In Minimizing Household Food Insecurity In Owerri North L.G.A Of Imo State

 

Emenyonu, Christopher Akujuobi

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri Imo State. cemenyonu@yahoo.com, +2348028347174.

Inyang, Nyambi .N.

Cross Rivers State University of Technology Obubra, nyambiinyang@yahoo.com, +2348037376104.

Ohajianya Donatus .O.

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri Imo State. dohajianya@yahoo.com, +2348035438019.

Henri-Ukoha Ada

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri Imo State. haukoha@yahoo.com, +2348036682823.

Onyemauwa Sebastian .C.

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri Imo State. csonyemauwa@yahoo.com, +2348069284242.

Kadiri Fuasat Ajoke

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri Imo State. fakadiri@yahoo.com, +2348023310601.

 

Abstract: This study was aimed at analyzing' the role of cassava in minimizing household food insecurity in Owerri North L.G.A. of Imo State, based on the survey of 70 randomly selected households. The specific objectives were to determine the quantity of cassava consumed per household; factors influencing the quantity consumed and estimate the percentage contribution of cassava towards meeting daily calorific requirement as well as identification of the constraints that influence cassava consumption in the area. Multiple regression analysis was run in a bid to estimate the factors that affect the quantity of cassava consumed. The results of the analysis showed that price of cassava, price of close substitutes and household sizes were the major determinants and hence significant measures of cassava quantity consumed in the area. Food security here was measured in terms of energy value in the quantity consumed and entitlement (availability and price when compared with close substitutes) it was observed that cassava made 36% contribution towards meeting daily energy requirement per adult and hence does not provide enough food security when compared with the standard for an adult, but in terms of entitlement, it was a food secure crop as it was the cheapest and most readily available when compared with other close substitutes. The major constraint faced by the respondents was the cost of the product. Though most of the household produce it, it is often taken outside the council area to market so as to meet other family needs. It was therefore recommend that to mitigate food security in the council area, other products of cassava should be enhanced to increase household consumption of the products and again the provision of more processing centers in the villages will reduce the cost of the product.

[Emenyonu, Christopher Akujuobi, Inyang, Nyambi .N., Ohajianya Donatus .O., Henri-Ukoha Ada Onyemauwa Sebastian .C., Kadiri Fuasat AjokeRole Of Cassava In Minimizing Household Food Insecurity In Owerri North L.G.A Of Imo State. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):80-85]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.12

 

Keywords: Roles, Cassava, Minimizing, Household, Food Insecurity, Imo State

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Nesting Behaviour of a Tropical Avian Species, the Pied Bush Chat (Saxicola caprata)

 

Vinaya Kumar Sethi, Dinesh Bhatt, Amit Kumar and Vivek Saxena
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukul Kangri University,

Haridwar 249 404, Uttarakhand, India

E-mails: vinayaksethi@yahoo.co.in, dineshharidwar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nesting behaviour in majority of bird species in India is poorly studied. The present study deals with some aspects of breeding behaviour in the Pied Bush Chat (Saxicola caprata) such as the length of breeding season, peak breeding activity, nest site selection, nest building and nest site characteristics. Observations were made during March-June in 2008 and 2009 in the scrub lands, agricultural fields and suburban areas of district Haridwar (290 55' N and 780 08' E; Himalayan foothills of Uttarakhand state), India. Systematic field visits were carried out in most parts of the day almost on alternate days. The breeding activities of Pied Bush Chat commenced in late February and continued till July. The peak in breeding activity was observed in May as maximum clutches (35%) were observed in this month. Nest-site selection was performed by both the sexes. However, final decision seemed to be of the female. Male initially explored the whole territory and inspected various sites such as quarries, gravel pits, road cuttings, construction site, under-bushes etc. Thereafter, he approached the female to show her sites for final selection. Only female performed the nest building. Nest was an open cup made up of grasses and rootlets tucked into a hole or crevice. Nest construction period averaged 8.472.68 days and did not vary between study periods. The outer nest diameter, cup diameter and cup depth were measured 76.325.52 mm, 61.34.26 mm, and 51.733.61 mm respectively.

[Vinaya Kumar Sethi, Dinesh Bhatt, Amit Kumar and Vivek Saxena. Nesting behaviour of a tropical avian species, the Pied Bush Chat (Saxicola caprata). Academia Arena 2010;2(10):86-90]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.13

 

Key words: Breeding season, bird, nesting behaviour, Pied Bush Chat, Saxicola caprata

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Uptake of Phosphate and Heavy Metals by Sorghum in Automobile Waste affected Typic HaplustuLt in South east Nigeria.

 

C.N. Mbah

Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Ebonyi StateNigeria.

cnmbah10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigated the phosphate (P04-) and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb and Cd) uptake by sorghum in a typic haplustult affected by automobile waste. Results of the study showed that automobile waste enriched the soil with heavy metals above maximum acceptable limits. Similarly, higher levels of P04- and heavy metals were observed in the roots and shoots of sorghum in automobile waste soil relative to the control. However, observed levels of heavy metals in the test crop were within normal range in plants for automobile and control soils. Automobile waste soils in the area are safe for agricultural activities.

[C.N. Mbah. Uptake of Phosphate and Heavy Metals by Sorghum in Automobile Waste affected Typic HaplustuLt in South east Nigeria. Academia Arena 2010;2(10):91-93]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021010.14

 

Keywords: normal range, acceptable limit, heavy metals, sorghum, agricultural activities automobile waste

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from August 25, 2010. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

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