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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

Volume 2 - Number 11, November 1, 2010, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Effect of instruction in Metacognitive self-assessment strategy on Chemistry Students self-efficacy and achievement

 

Jacobson Barineka Nbina, B. Viko

 

University of Port Harcourt, P.O. Box 3 Choba, Rivers State

drnbinajacobson@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the effect of instruction in metacognitive self assessment strategy on senior secondary school students’ Chemistry self-efficacy and achievement. The study also explored the interaction effect of instruction in metacognitive self assessment strategy and gender in their Chemistry self-efficacy and achievement. The study was guided by five research questions and four hypotheses. A non-equivalent control group pretest and posttest design involving one treatment and one control group was adopted. A total of 192 SS 2 students from Port Harcourt Education zone were used for the study. The Self Assessment Instructional Programme (SAIP) was developed, validated and used for the study. Three instruments: Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT), Self Assessment Scale (SAS) and Chemistry Self-efficacy scale (CSS) were adopted, validated and used for data collection. The results suggested that instruction in the metacognitive self assessment strategy improve the students’ chemistry achievement and self-efficacy.

[Jacobson Barineka Nbina, B. Viko. Effect of instruction in Metacognitive self-assessment strategy on Chemistry Students self-efficacy and achievement. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):1-10]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.01

 

Keywords: Metacognitive; self-assessment strategy; Chemistry; self-efficacy

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2

Determinants Of Farm And Off –Farm Income Among Farmhouseholds In South East Nigeira

 

Ibekwe, U.C; C.C. Eze; C.S. Onyemauwa; A. Henri-Ukoha; O.C. Korie and I.U. Nwaiwu

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

E-mail: csonyemauwa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agriculture has been considered as one of the important sectors that could help and improve the income distribution problem and its poverty implications in South Eastern Nigeria. This has led to the focus of this study on the determinants of the farm and off farm income among the farm households in South East Nigeria and Imo State in particular. Primary data were collected and ordinary least squared regression model was used to analyze the data collected. Results showed that: Farm size, age, education, occupation and hours spent on farm are important explanatory variables that influenced both farm and off farm incomes.

[Ibekwe, U.C; C.C. Eze; C.S. Onyemauwa; A. Henri-Ukoha; O.C. Korie and I.U. Nwaiwu. Determinants Of Farm And Off –Farm Income Among Farmhouseholds In South East Nigeira. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):11-14]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.02

 

Keywords: Determinants, Farm, Off-farm, Income, Diversification, Push factors

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3

21世纪新儒学---量子色动力学

 

白科大

y-tx@163.com

 

摘要:21世纪新儒学被徐光宪先生定格在1959年后的这50年,让21世纪新儒学理科与文科交融叠加,走进北京大学。也走进了上海,走进了上海师范大学。

[白科大. 21世纪新儒学---量子色动力学. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):15-33]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.03

关键词:儒学 味夸克 夸克海

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4

惯性力与加速系的物理学 (一评广义相对论)

 

谭天荣

 

青岛大学物理系青岛266071

ttr359@126.com

 

内容提要:本文指出:对于相对论,适用于加速系物理学的数学工具不是黎曼几何,而是平直的四维时空的曲线坐标运算。在这一前提下,证明了加上了惯性力的牛顿第二定律对一系列特殊的加速系成立,从而在狭义相对论的框架内给出了加速系的物理学方程的不变性,正如惯性系的物理学方程具有“洛伦兹不变性”一样,加速系的物理学方程具有一种“准洛伦兹不变性”。最后,本文指出在这一工作完成之前,狭义相对论作为一个理论体系是不完整的。

[谭天荣. 惯性力与加速系的物理学. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):34-40]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.04

 

关键词:曲线坐标;加速系的物理学;准洛伦兹变换;惯性力场张量;惯性场论;爱因斯坦

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5

对万有引力的再考察

(再评广义相对论)

谭天荣

青岛大学物理系青岛266071, China, ttr359@126.com

内容提要:本文指出,广义相对论有两个论据不成立,一个是惯性力与引力不可分辨,另一个是惯性力不能完全抵消引力,从而证明整个广义相对论是不合逻辑的。另一方面,本文在惯性场论的基础上,一方面通过引力与电磁力的对比,另一方面通过经过改写的等效原理,建立了一种新的引力场论,它具有如下特征:第一,等效原理是它的逻辑结论;第二,通过“引力场张量”的概念,它与牛顿引力理论紧密衔接;第三,它的数学结构简单,与其他自然力的场论相比并没有特别迥异之处。

[谭天荣. 对万有引力的再考察. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):41-46]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.05

 

关键词:张量分析;惯性力;万有引力;广义相对论;等效原理;自然引力论

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Klebsiella sp has taken lead among uropathogens in outpatients of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Nigeria-An observation

 

1 Osazuwa F, 1Mordi RM, 2 Osazuwa E 3 Taiwo SS 4 Alli OAT, 4 Ogbolu DO, 4 Akanni EO, 5 Anukam KC

1 Department of medical microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City .Nigeria

2 Department of Pharmaceutical microbiology, Faculty of pharmacy, University of Benin Benin City .Nigeria

3 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of health sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Osogbo.Nigeria

4 Department of Biomedical sciences, College of health sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Osogbo.Nigeria

5 Department of medical laboratory sciences, Faculty of Basic medical Sciences University of Benin, BeninCity.Nigeria

Correspondence to: Osazuwa favour Email: osazuwafavour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Against the background of reports of changes in the prevalence of uropathogens, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among out-patients of a tertiary hospital, the most prevalent uropathogen, and the distribution of uropathogens among both genders. Clean–catch midstream urines were collected from 1,011 out–patients consisting of 412 males and 599 females. Significant bacterial isolates were identified in the urine samples using standard techniques. Female patients had significantly higher prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p <0.05). Klebsiella sp was the most common uropathogen (33.3%) as well as in both genders of patients. Other pathogens recovered includes Escherichia coli (32.3), Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%), Candida albicans (7.5%)), Coagulase negative staphylococcus (3.9%), Proteus sp (3.2%), Enterococcus faecalis (1.1%), Pseudomonas (0.7%) and Providencia sp (0.4%). An overall prevalence of (27.6%) of asymptomatic bacteriuria was found and Klebsiella sp was the predominant uropathogen in both genders of out–patients.

[Osazuwa F, Mordi RM, Osazuwa E, Taiwo SS, Alli OAT, Ogbolu DO, Akanni EO, Anukam KC. Klebsiella sp has taken lead among uropathogens in outpatients of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Nigeria-An observation. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):47-51]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.06

 

Keywords: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, uropathogens, Klebsiella, outpatients

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7

The Complete Demonstrations To Our Universe Impossible To Be Created From Singularity

====Part 2: Our Universe Didn’t Come From Singularity====

Our Universe Was Originated From Planck Era, Not From Singularity Or The Big Bang Of Singularity . Just The Birth And Combinations Of Very Large Amount Of Minimum BHs Mbm = mp = 1.0910-5g Created Our Universe And Its Continuous Expansion Until The Present.

对宇宙起源的新观念和完整论证:宇宙不可能诞生于奇点(下篇)

==== 我们宇宙诞生于在普郎克领域Planck Era新生成的大量原初最小黑洞Mbm mp

= (hC/8πG)1/2 1.09 10-5g 的合并,而不是“奇点”或“奇点的大爆炸”====

 

Dongsheng Zhang, 张洞生

 

Nov.-2005 Graduated in 1957 From Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China.

Email: ZhangDS12@hotmail.com

 

Abstract】。In this article, based on some general laws of astronomy, physics and many classical theories, the calculated results can prove that our present expansive Universe was impossibly born from Singularity or from the Big Bang of Singularity but from the Big Crunch of pre-universe in Plank Era. According to the principle of time symmetry, suppose before the birth of our universe, there could be a final Big Crunch of pre-universe. Once the final Big Crunch of pre-universe reached to Planck Era, i.e. time t ≤ [k1 (2Gκ)/C5]2/3 (3c), t = - 0.5563 10-43s and temperature T = 0.7341032k, every Planck particle (mp) simultaneously reached 3 states: 1. Reached Planck Era; 2. The gravitational linkage between the closest particles broke off and the collapse stopped at the state of no gravity; 3. Every particle (mp) at that moment would exactly become a minimum gravitational black hole (Mbm = mp =1.0910--5g)Just those 3 states could effectively stop pre-universe continuously collapse to singularity, and let all Mbm explode in Planck Era. The strongest explosions of every Mbm in whole pre-universe synchronously formed a so-called the Big Bang. After that, the new and bigger Mbmn = 2Mbm of longer lifetime could certainly occurrence due to decrease in density and temperature caused by the Big Bang. Newborn 2Mbm became the embryos of our present universe. It was the process of genesis of our present Universe. The collisions and combinations of all newborn Mbmn = 2Mbm would create an “Original Inflation”, and form the present expansion of our universe. The whole process changed from the disappearance of old pre-universe to the genesis of new universe in Plank’s Era was not reversible. Other important conclusions got in this article are those: Our universe has been a real universal black hole (UBH), which accords with all laws of general black holes (BH); Hubble law is just the expansive law of our universe to plunder energy-matters outside; the new and simple explanations and demonstrations to ” Original Inflation”, etc.

[Dongsheng Zhang. The Complete Demonstrations To Our Universe Impossible To Be Created From Singularity. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):52-71]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net)

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.07

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8

解 开 八 卦 图

 

作者简介:孙纯武(1948-),男(汉族) ,扬州市,主要从事研究自然科学等;

作者声明:我保证是此作品的著作权人

单位名称、江苏省扬州三力电器集团 通信地址、中国江苏省扬州市西湖镇59

电话: 051482822538, 邮编: 225008

电子信箱: yzscw@163.com; 博客: http://yzscw.blog.163.com

 

摘要:老子创立了道教,入世无为孔子创立了儒教出世,有为。及具体地设出了阴阳金,,,,土五行来演化万物运动上升到哲学高度。可惜他们总体上一个从宏观,一个从微观上分析看待问题, 对伏羲画的八卦图没有真正理解,继没有找到道的来源,也没有解释出八卦图所表示出事物的意义,因此几千年来八卦的作用始终没有在科学技术上发挥巨大的作用.

[孙纯武. 解 开 八 卦 图. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):72-77]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.08

 

关键词:八卦图图解 来源 功能作用

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Development and validation of extracurricular instructional package in social studies

 

Okoro, c.o.

 

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop extracurricular activities for social studies instruction and to compare learning outcomes in the extracurricular activities and the conventional groups. To achieve these objectives two research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. Four instruments were developed. The validated extracurricular instructional package((EIP) was presented to the experimental group while the control group was taught the same social studies topics using the conventional approach. the major findings were that (1) JS1 Students taught with extracurricular instructional packages relationship develop more cooperative attitude to work (2) exhibited cordial relationship with others (3) developed positive attitude to work. Recommendations were made: Teachers work load should be restructured to accommodate their involvement in extracurricular programs (2) More flexible time-release from teaching or in structuring the allow time for activities during school day.

[Okoro, c.o. Development and validation of extracurricular instructional package in social studies. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):78-84]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.09

 

Keywords: extracurricular instructional package, social studies

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An Assessment of The Effects of Problem Solving Instructional Strategies on Students’ Achievement and Retention in Chemistry with Respect to Location in Rivers State

 

B. J. Obomanu, & Jacobson Barineka Nbina

 

Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, P.O. Box 3 Choba, Rivers State

E-mail: drnbinajacobson@yahoo.com; Tel: 08033136895

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to determine how problem solving instructional strategies would affect students’ achievement and retention in Chemistry with particular reference to River State. A pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group design was adopted. Two research questions and two hypotheses were respectively answered and tested. Purposive and stratified random sampling was used to select 428 SS II students from two rural and two urban local government areas of Rivers State. These students were randomly assigned to the two treatment groups. Problem solving with Model and Feedback – Correctives (PF), Problem solving with Model Only (PM), and the control Problem Solving by The Conventional Method (PC). The model used is a Generic Problem Solving Inquiry Model developed by Hungerford (1975). A researcher developed and moderated instrument, Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and lesson plans were used for the study. Data collected were analyzed using Mean, Standard Deviation (SD) and some gains of achievement and retention and that the hierarchical order of achievement is PF, PM and PC. No significant differences were observed in the post-test mean scores of urban and rural subjects in the achievement is PF, PM and PC. No significant differences were observed in the post-test mean scores of urban and rural subjects in the achievement and retention tests administered in the course of the study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that both rural and urban Chemistry teachers use problem solving instructional strategies, particularly that in which use of a model is supplemented with feedback-correctives in teaching.

[B. J. Obomanu, & Jacobson Barineka Nbina. An Assessment of The Effects of Problem Solving Instructional Strategies on Students’ Achievement and Retention in Chemistry with Respect to Location in Rivers State. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):85-90]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.10

 

Key words: Instructional Strategies, Students’ Achievement, Chemistry

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全息照相与再现的微观机制

 

杨发成

新疆 克拉玛依市 瑞达中心 834000

e-mail: yangfacheng2006@163.com, yangfacheng6467@sohu.com

 

摘要:本文从粒子观点出发,运用惠更斯包络面概念、以及点光源辐射产生球形包络面观点,以相干性很好的激光作为光源,对全息照相和全息照相记录的再现进行了全新的理论分析,从而证明,光不具有波动性。那些象波动特征的光学现象,是大量光粒子与实物体之间的一种相互作用,其结果遵守宏观统计规律。

[杨发成. 全息照相与再现的微观机制. Academia Arena 2010; 2(11):91-95]. (ISSN 1553-992X)

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.11

关键词:点光源;球形包络面;全息照相;全息照相再现;同心圆簇;杨氏干涉仪群

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Comparative Analysis Of The Allocative Efficiency Of Cassava Producers That Use External And Internal Inputs In Imo State, Nigeria

 

Nwaiwu I.U1., Ohajianya D.O1., Ibekwe U.C1. Amaechi E.C.C2.; Emenyonu C.A1., Onyemuwa C.S1., Henri-Ukoha A1. Kadiri F.A.

1. Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.

2. Agricultural Management and Extension Department, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo.

E-mail- niuche2004@yahoo.com; dohajianya@yahoo.com;

 

ABSTRACT: The current unsustainable farming practices, high demand for staple food crops especially cassava, observed low productivity and inefficient resource allocation by farmers motivated this study to comparatively analyse the allocative efficiency of cassava producers that used external inputs and those that used internal inputs in Imo State. A random sample of 100 each of the external and internal input user farmers were collected from a pre-survey sample frame of 400 farmers drawn from across the three agricultural zones of Imo State. Data on the farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and the value of factors used and output produced were collected using structured questionnaire. The analyses were done using descriptive statistics and production function analytical tools. A critical analysis of the result of the production function indicates that the Cobb-Douglas production function best explained the relationship. Finally, the computation of the allocative efficiency of the two categories of farmers showed that both categories did not allocate resources efficiently. Therefore it was recommended among others that more efficient resource allocation procedure be sought for and subsequently disseminated to the farmers through the various change agents.

[Nwaiwu I.U., Ohajianya D.O., Ibekwe U.C. Amaechi E.C.C.; Emenyonu C.A., Onyemuwa C.S., Henri-Ukoha A. Kadiri F.A. Comparative Analysis Of The Allocative Efficiency Of Cassava Producers That Use External And Internal Inputs In Imo State, Nigeria. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):96-102]. (ISSN 1553-992X). (http://www.sciencepub.net).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.12

 

Key Words: Sustainable; Allocative; External Input; Internal Input; Efficiency

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光在不同环境中运动的基本规律

杨发成

新疆 克拉玛依市 瑞达中心 834000

e-mail: yangfacheng2006@163.com yangfacheng6467@sohu.com

 

摘要:光的运动,它无非是在真空中或非真空区域两种情况。反射和折射,其实是一个事物的两个方面。光在反射过程中,反射角等于入射角时,反射光束中的光线数量最多最密集;但并不是所有的反射光线都遵循古典反射定律,还有很多反射光线是沿任意方向的,只不过那些光线数量很少而显得非常弱。作者研究认为,折射光线与反射光线是同时产生的,不同颜色光在同一透明物质中的“速度”不同而引起相应折射角不同。[杨发成. 光在不同环境中运动的基本规律. Academia Arena 2010;2(11):103-109]. (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj021110.13

关键词:光的运动;光的折射;光的双折射;光的反射;偏振光

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 20, 2010. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

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