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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

 

Volume 3 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 24), June 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in rural

 

1Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 2 Mojtaba Sadighi

 

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review. Changes in personal behavior and attitudes, and in organizational cultures, are implied. PRA parallels and resonates with paradigm shifts in the social and natural sciences, business management, and development thinking, supporting decentralization, local diversity, and personal responsibility. Much of the spread of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as an emerging family of approaches and methods has been lateral, South-South, through experiential learning and changes in behavior, with different local applications. Rapid spread has made quality assurance a concern, with dangers from “instant fashion”, rushing, formalism and ruts. Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mojtaba Sadighi. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in rural. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):1-5] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.01

 

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

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2

Application of Online Classes and Traditional Classes in education

 

1Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 2 Mojtaba Sadighi

 

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This article will focus on the disadvantage of taking Online Classes. Online education is not exactly a trend yet, but it is becoming increasingly popular. The reason for this is that it offers new opportunities where none existed before – Many people wouldn’t have been able to acquire the necessary higher education without it. However, like all things in life, taking Online Classes has some drawbacks and disadvantages as compared to the traditional classrooms. That said, online classes are not perfect for everyone. To avoid getting caught in the hype and making the wrong decision, consider the pros and cons of online education. There are two types of programs offered by distance education schools: synchronous learning programs and asynchronous learning programs. With synchronous learning, distance education students must log on to the school’s website at a set time. Often, they interact with their peers and professors via group chats, web seminars, video conferencing, and phone call-ins. With asynchronous learning, distance education students complete all coursework on their own time. They often learn via assignment sheets, message boards, email, pre-recorded video lectures, mp3s, and traditional mail correspondence.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mojtaba Sadighi. Application of Online Classes and Traditional Classes in education. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):6-10] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.02

 

Keywords: Online Classes, Traditional Classes, distance education

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3

Using Information and communication technologies (ICT) in education

 

Hamidreza Hossein

 

Department of Communication, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Information and communication technologies (ICT), including radio and television and the newer digital technologies like computers and the Internet as potentially are introduced powerful tools and activators of educational reform and changes. different ICT, when properly applied can be developed to help access to education and the relationship between training and workshops to strengthen the increasingly digital, the quality of education also helped to create teaching and learning in an active process connected to real life high take. However, the experience of being raised by ICT in the classroom and other educational sites around the world during the last few decades proves that is not automatic fully realize the potential benefits of ICT training. With the help of state and local funding, information technology has been purchased for schools ever since the 1980s. The state has also found many ways to support teacher training in the use of IT, and it has also allocated funds for the production of IT programs. Instruction in the use of IT has also played an important role in teacher training organized by local school authorities .It is against this background that the need arose to find out how far we have progressed in the application of ICT in education and what impacts these significant economic investments have had. It is also time to start a value-oriented discussion of how strongly the future of the Iran society—and with it, of education and training— will be linked to the vision of an information society brimming over with technology.

[Hamidreza Hossein. Using Information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):11-14] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.03

 

Keywords: information and communication technologies (ICT), Education

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4

Aspects of Decentralization in rural activities

 

Khatereh siyar

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pubic extension services are being forced to change. In the 1990s agricultural extension services were attacked for being inefficient, irrelevant, ineffective, and poorly targeted. The need for reform was obvious and national systems responded with three major strategies— privatization, decentralization, and program revitalization. Although cost reduction has been the force behind many changes, the principal objective of reforms should be an attempt to improve quality of services to clients Decentralizing extension services, when implemented effectively, can transform extension and address a range of generic problems. Decentralized extension brings decision making processes closer to clients and makes programs more responsive to user needs. Service providers become more accountable to clients and better oversight increases efficiency of operations. Decentralization itself can introduce a new dynamism in programs and can promote diversity in service providers and program approaches, thus serving as a first step toward privatization. Agricultural extension is a non-formal type of education that provides advisory services by the use of educational approach in acquiring knowledge and skills to deal with the growing needs of global world. Diverse agricultural extension funding and delivery arrangements have been undertaken since the mid-1980s by governments worldwide in the name of "privatization." When agricultural extension is discussed, privatization is used in the broadest sense – of introducing or increasing private sector participation, which does not necessarily imply a transfer of designated state-owned assets to the private sector. In fact, various cost-recovery, commercialization, and other so-called privatization alternatives have been adopted to improve agricultural extension.

[Khatereh siyar. Aspects of Decentralization in rural activities. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):15-19] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.04

 

Keywords: Decentralization, rural

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5

The role Rural women in rural economic

 

Yasin Sadighi

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: As most men leave the village to work in town, women provide much of the agriculture force in the area. In recent years the situation has been more considerable as rural migration to town is getting more. In most Iranian villages women’s population is more than men. According to FAO’s reports, in some African regions, for 60% of families, women are responsible for supervising family. Even for cases that men are the direct responsible of production affairs, women’s role in family economy can’t be denied just because they don’t get paid. Although these efforts appear to register in none of official statistics, they easily replace some other activities with significant financial value. Studies by FAO show that more than half of the world’s crops are collected by women. According to estimates, 1.3 billion of world’s poor are women, thus the slogan “poverty has a feminine face” is spread worldwide. Given that in many parts of the world, the production potential of women is not used properly, a cost-benefit study by the World Bank shows that investing on women in developing countries will be more profitable than any other investment. In addition to financial benefits of this huge force, its ancillary results will also be useful. The ancillary benefits of women’s employment include: lower population growth and children mortality rates.

[Yasin Sadighi. The role Rural women in rural economic. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):20-24] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.05

 

Keywords:, rural women, rural economic

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6

Densification and Fuel Characteristics of Briquettes produced from Corncob

 

*Oladeji 1, J. T., and Lucas 2 E.B.

 

1, 2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

*Correspondence: email: oladeji2004@yahoo.com/jtoladeji@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Corncob residues are usually dumped and flared on the farms, where they constitute health risk to both human and ecology. Densification of corncobs would improve their bulk handling, transportation and storage properties. This work investigated densification characteristics of corncobs using an experimental briquetting machine. Raw corncobs were milled into particles by a hammer mill. The blends of ground corncob and cassava starch gel were compacted in a 4-compartment briquetting machine, which operates on hydraulic principle with a dwell time of 120 seconds. The ASAE standard methods were used to determine the moisture contents (dry basis) and densities of the milled residues and briquettes, while ASTM standard methods were used to determine the proximate and ultimate analyses of the residues. The compaction, density and relaxation ratios of the briquettes were also determined. The mechanical properties were determined using instron universal testing machine, while the heating value was determined with the aid of Gallen Kamp Ballistic Bomb calorimeter. The mean moisture content of the corncob was 9.64 %, while the relaxed briquette was 7.46 %. The corresponding value of bulk density of the residue material was 95.33 kg/m3. The initial, maximum and relaxed densities of produced briquette were 193; 757 and 389 kg/m3 respectively, while the density, compaction and relaxation ratios of the briquette were 0.77, 4.38 and 1.71 respectively. The compressive strength of briquette was 2.34kN/m2, while the higher heating value of briquettes was found to be 20,890kJ/kg. The study concluded that the densification and fuel parameters were good enough and that briquettes produced from corncob would make good biomass energy.

[Oladeji, J. T., and Lucas E.B. Densification and Fuel Characteristics of Briquettes produced from Corncob. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):25-30] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.06

 

Keywords: - corncob, briquette, agricultural wastes, processing parameters, briquetting machine

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7

Self- Concept and Academic Achievement of Physically Challenged and Normal Students at Secondary level in District Baramullah (J&K).

 

Dr M. Y. Ganai1, Aqueel Ahmad Pandith2, Mudasir Hamid Malik2

 

1. Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K, India.

2. Research Scholar, Department of education, University of Kashmir, J&K, India.

 

ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken to study the self-concept and academic achievement of normal and physically challenged secondary school students of district Baramulla (J&K). The sample for the study was 300 including150 normal secondary students selected randomly and 150 physically challenged by using Purposive sampling technique. Sager and Sharma’s self-concept inventory was employed for the collection of data and t-test was employed for the analysis of the data. The result of the study highlight that the normal secondary school students have high academic achievement and real self as compared to physically challenged secondary school students. On the other hand, challenged were found to have high ideal self as compared to normal students.

[M. Y. Ganai, Aqueel Ahmad Pandith, Mudasir Hamid Malik. Self- Concept and Academic Achievement of Physically Challenged and Normal Students at Secondary level in District Baramullah (J&K). Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):31-34] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.07

 

Key Words: self – concept, academic achievement, physically challenged students, normal students

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8

评陈蜀乔引力及量子真空图像 ---- 21世纪新弦学概论6

 

朱科秋

 

摘要:陈蜀乔说他的理论和超弦/M理论都在朝统一四种力场的目标努力,但理论都未完善,且不可避免地要把这两种理论进行比对。其实,这两种理论只是分工不同:超弦/M理论是在往前冲,陈蜀乔的理论是在作超弦/M理论的回采。

[朱科秋. 评陈蜀乔引力及量子真空图像----21世纪新弦学概论. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):35-42] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.08

 

关键词:模具量子力学 形变 三旋

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9

盐亭大围坪盆塞海海啸遗迹地貌论

 

文绍文

 

Recommended by 王德奎 y-tx@163.com

 

Abstract: 海啸(tsunami)是一种巨大的海浪,主要是由海底地震、火山喷发、海岸崩塌、滑坡等海底地形大规模突变所引发的具有超长波长和周期的一种重力长波。海啸在大洋中的传播速度虽然很快(720900公里/时),但浪高不大,通常为几十厘米至1米左右;而当其接近近岸浅水区时,波速变小,振幅陡涨,有时可达2030米,骤然形成“水墙”,瞬时入侵沿岸陆地,造成极大危害。大部分海啸由深海地震引起。地震时造成海底发生激烈的上下方向的位移,从而导致其上方海水的巨大波动,海啸因此而发生。另外还有火山海啸和滑坡海啸。海啸引起海水从深海底部到海面的整体波动,蕴含的能量极大,因此有强烈的危害性,是一种严重的海洋灾害。海啸的形成条件是,海啸作为一种特殊的海洋浅水波,其形成需要如下三个主要条件: 震源较浅的大地震是先决条件。一般来说以倾滑为主(上下错动)、破裂过程持续长且震源深度较浅的海底大地震能引发海啸。第二是海啸源区的水深较大,多孕育于深海。如果地震释放的能量要变成巨大水体的波动能量,那么地震必须发生在深海,因为深海才有巨大的水体。发生在浅海的地震产生不了海啸,往往形成海洋激浪。第三是具有开阔并逐渐变浅的海岸条件。海啸要在陆地海岸带造成灾害,该海岸必须开阔,具备逐渐变浅的条件。海啸波在大洋中传播时,波高不到1米,不会造成灾害;但进入浅海后,因海水深度急剧变浅,前面的海水波减慢,后面的高速海水不停地前涌,从而造成波高急剧增加,形成巨大的破坏力。特别是,对于那些外侧宽广内侧狭窄的“三角型海湾”,越向海湾内侧,海啸的海浪越容易加剧升高,造成更大破坏。

[文绍文. 盐亭大围坪盆塞海海啸遗迹地貌论. Academia Arena, 2011;3(6):43-47] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030611.09

 

Keywords: 海啸(tsunami; 地震; 火山; 灾害; 海湾

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 5, 2011. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

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Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

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