Volume 4 - Number 6
(Cumulated No. 36), June 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-992X
Page (online), Cover (print),
Papers, All papers in one file
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: email@example.com.
Titles / Authors
Academ Arena 2012;4(6):1-19] (ISSN 1553-992X).
English language learning through the combination of Grammar
Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching
English Discipline, Khulna
University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh
The aim of this paper is to combine the
grammar translation method and the communicative language
teaching for learning English language in Bangladesh.
For this purpose the present study makes a questionnaire where
fifty two college level students were taken as the sample of the
The sample was
selected through a random sampling method. Though some views
were depicted from them, no particular method of language
learning could give fruitful and transparent way of learning
language in Bangladesh.
Based on the current contradiction between the
grammar-translation method and the communicative language
teaching in English language learning, this paper, starting with
clarifying the task of English language learning as well as the
definition of the two teaching methods, objectively analyzes
their advantages and disadvantages and proposes establishing a
new idea by fusing them with an elaboration on the reasonability
of combining them in the practical sense of learning English
language with their complementary advantages.
Kumar Mondal. English language learning through the
combination of Grammar Translation Method and Communicative
Academ Arena 2012;4(6):20-24] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Methicillin Resistance and Beta-Lactamase Production in
Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Different Clinical
Samples in Abeokuta, Nigeria
Motayo BO1, Akinduti PA2,
Unit, Pathology Department Federal Medical Center Abeokuta,
of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Abeokuta, Nigeria
of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road,
P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;
of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada,
Edo State, Nigeria
Importance of Staphylococcus aureus cannot be
overemphasized both as a commensal and a pathogen, MRSA has been
a major source of serious community and hospital acquired
infections world wide. Recent studies suggest an increase in the
incidence of MRSA infections in Nigeria. We have therefore
evaluated the current status of MRSA in isolates of
Staphylococcus aureus in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Fifty isolates
of Staphylococcus aureus, recovered from clinical samples
were analyzed for Methicillin resistance and Beta lactamase
production using acidodometric and standard disk diffusion
methods. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) to Cloxacillin
was also determined by standard broth microdilution method.
About 38(76%) of isolates tested positive to β-lactase
production, 20(40.0%) of isolates were methicillin resistant
(MRSA) by disk diffusion. Females had a higher MRSA distribution
than males while the peadiatric age group had the highest MRSA
distribution with 9(45.0%), whiles age group 16-30 had the
lowest occurrence 5(25.0%). Distribution of Beta-lactamase
production in MRSA isolates was 16(32.0%) and 22(68.0%) was
recorded by MSSA isolates. Cloxacillin MIC50 value
for all isolates tested was 62.25µg/ml, while MIC90
value was 250µg/ml. Antibiotic susceptibility distribution of
MRSA isolates revealed that Gentamycin was the most active
antibiotic with 75.0% sensitivity, amoxicillin and augumentin
displayed poor sensitivity in both MRSA and MSSA isolates.
Generally resistance was high to Erythromycin and tetracycline.
We report a high incidence of MRSA in recent S. aureus
isolates; however a major limitation to this study was our
inability to identify PVL positive isolates, as this would have
revealed the level of potential public health risk
Staphylococcus infection. It is recommend that public health
authorities should enforce better surveillance programs to
include molecular epidemiology studies as well as routine MRSA
screening in our health institutions, and improve on preventive
health planning strategies.
BO, Akinduti PA, Okerentugba PO,
Methicillin Resistance and
Beta-Lactamase Production in Staphylococcus aureus
Isolated from Different Clinical Samples in Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Academ Arena 2012;4(6):25-29] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Staphylococcus aureus, Beta-Lactamase, Antibiotic
susceptibility, Abeokuta, MRSA.
Hormonal Profile during Ovarian Cycle in the Emballonuridae
Female Bat Taphozous Kachhensis (Dobson)
1Department of Zoology, Shri.S.S.Sci.College, Ashti 442707
2Department of Zoology, N.H.College, Bramhapuri 441206
The ovarian hormone examined during different stages of
reproductive cycle in bat Taphozous kachhensis are
describe. During estrus there is sharp increase in estrogen
level is observed, while the progesterone level is decrease.
This sharp increase in the level of estrogen correlates with
histological observation during estrus where ovary shows well
developed Graffian follicles. During the early pregnancy the
concentration of progesterone is increases, while estrogen
concentration decreases, this observation correlates with the
histological finding of corpus luteum during early pregnancy. As
the pregnancy advanced there is further decline in the level of
progesterone during mid pregnancy but it is high as compare to
estrogen, this decrease in the level of progesterone is due to
the regression of corpus luteum during mid pregnancy. The higher
level of progesterone is further maintained after the formation
of placenta. During the late pregnancy there is sharp increase
in the level of estrogen, while the progesterone level again
decreases. During lactation sharp increase in the level of
estrogen is observed, while the level of progesterone is
decreases and attains the low concentration.
[Chavhan, P.R., and Dhamani, A.A.
Hormonal Profile during Ovarian
Cycle in the Emballonuridae Female Bat Taphozous Kachhensis
Academic Arena. 2012;4(6):30-36] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Estrogen, Progesterone, Pregnancy.
Application of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) in the
Investigation of the Impact of Solid Waste Leachate Contaminant
Plumes on Groundwater
J.A. Olowofela1, O.D. Akinyemi1 and A.S.
1Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture,
2Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos,
A Direct- Current
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) was carried out at Solous
2 open dumpsite in Alimosho Local Government area of Lagos
State, Nigeria. The dumpsite is a typical non-controlled waste
facility that lacks bottom liner. Four (4) profiles employing
the Neighboring method of EIT were conducted at different
stations on the dumpsite with the aim of investigating the depth
of subsurface leachate contaminant plumes of the area. The
inversion of the EIT voltage data was accomplished using the
Electrical Impedance and Diffuse Optical Reconstruction Software
(EIDORS) version 3.0 toolkit for MATLAB to obtain
three-dimensional (3D) conductivity profiles of the dumpsite.
The scheme utilized in this paper is a forward solution solved
with a mesh of 768 finite elements with 205 nodes. With the aid
of the 3D impedance tomograms, regions of high conductivity
ranging from 2000 mS/m to 4000 mS/m were delineated.
These are believed to be leachate derived from decomposed waste.
Non-degraded refuse occurred as regions of high resistivity
(depicted with negative conductivity values on the tomograms).
The results show that the leachate contaminant plumes were found
to have migrated about 50m away from the base of the dumpsite
which is in agreement with those from earlier studies using
conventional geophysical techniques. These revelations are
alarming considering the implications on the health of the
people and the environment if not checked. The study showed that
the Electrical Impedance Tomography which has been used
extensively in the medical field can be effective in the
investigation of leachate contaminant plumes around refuse
Olowofela, O.D. Akinyemi and A.S. Ogungbe. Application of
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) in the Investigation of
the Impact of Solid Waste Leachate Contaminant Plumes on
2012;4(6):37-47] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Electrical Impedance Tomography, Solid Waste, Leachate,
Contaminant plume, Groundwater
2012;4(6):48-81] (ISSN 1553-992X).
articles in this issue are presented as online first for
peer-review starting from
comments are welcome: firstname.lastname@example.org
back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.