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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

Volume 4 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 42), December 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-992X, Monthly

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

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1

Distance learning tools in adult education

 

Maryam Khodamoradi, Esmaeel Ghorbani, Mehran Bozorgmanesh * and Abbas Emami

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: While there is still prejudice surrounding some distance learning, it is increasingly being accepted as an alternative to traditional classroom learning. Courses can be offered via the Internet, where students are able to interact with instructors and other students without physically being in the same room. Getting a college education can be difficult for people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Frequent trips to the restroom, exhaustion, doctor visits, and medication side effects are all barriers to the traditional college experience. What if you could get the degree without ever setting foot on a campus? You can do just that through distance or virtual learning. Distance learning has been around for a long time (we've all seen the commercials on TV).

[Maryam Khodamoradi, Esmaeel Ghorbani, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami. Distance learning tools in adult education. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):1-4] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.01

 

Keywords: adult education, distance learning

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2

Using Learning Styles in adult education

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There are many tests available to help you and your students discover your best learning style. Generally speaking, however, if you are someone who is more likely to think in pictures, prefer to meet with someone in person, and are more likely to want visual diagrams when completing a project you have tendencies towards visual learning. Similarly, if you are more likely to think in terms of sounds, prefer to speak on the phone with someone, and want verbal instructions then you tend towards auditory learning. Finally, if you are more likely to think in terms of moving images like mini-movies in your mind, prefer to participate in an activity when you meet to speak with someone, and tend to jump right into a project without reading directions you tend towards tactile/kinesthetic learning.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani. Using Learning Styles in adult education. Academ Arena 2012;4(12):5-10] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.02

 

Keywords: learning styles, adult learning

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The Impact of Effective Marketing Strategy on Buying Behavior of the International Consumer

 

Human Shakir1, Mansoor Shakir 2, Khalid Zaman1, *

 

1. Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

2. Research Associate, Iqra University, Islamabad, Pakistan

khalidzaman@ciit.net.pk

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to examine the purchasing habits of the international consumer. The two factors which have a strong impact on consumer buying behavior are social and cultural elements. These two factors are directly related to the income level of the consumer. The cultural and social factors affect the buying pattern of the international consumers more effectively if backed by purchasing power. This study explains the role of 4 P’s of marketing, which if properly develop would be more helpful to serve the target market. The marketing managers should effectively form a marketing strategy keeping focus on income level, cultural and social factors. This study is qualitative in nature and the variables and conceptual framework is supported with the help of literature review. The marketing mangers can be benefited from the study and enhance their marketing strategy for serving the target international consumers.

[Shakir H, Shakir M, Zaman K. The Impact of Effective Marketing Strategy on Buying Behavior of the International Consumer. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):11-17] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.03

 

Key words: marketing mix; cultural factors; social factors; income level; buying pattern.

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4

Microbiological And Mycotoxins Evaluation Of Cereals - Based Baby Food Samples Sold In Nigeria Market

 

Adebayo-Tayo BC, Oscar F., Igboekwe A.

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria,

bukola_tayo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Occurrence of microbial contaminants and mycotoxin level of cereal-based baby foods (flours) sold in Nigeria and its health impact on infants was evaluated. Random sampling of processed cereal based foods and infant formulae were done in different stores and markets in the cities of Ibadan and Uyo metropolis. The total heterotrophic count ranged from 1.0 - 7.5x103cfu/g, Total Coliform count (1.0 - 2.0 x 103cfu/g) and 1.0 x 103cfu/g for Salmonella-Shigella count, Total fungi count ranged from 1.0-4.0x103cfu/g. The microbial contamination was not above the maximum limits (103cfu/g) by ICMSF and USFDA. The bacteria isolated from the samples include: Proteus mirabilis, Proteus penneri, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Salmonella sp. B. subtilis had the highest frequency of occurrence (33.33%). The fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. flavus, A. glaucus, R.stolonifer, Penicillium sp. Fusarium semithectum, Furasium proliferatum and F. sacchari. F.sacchari had the highest frequency of occurrence (28.57%). Afloatoxin: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1 and AFM2 concentration ranged from 0.89 – 4.67 g/kg, 0.00 – 2.47g/kg, 0.00 – 0.21g/kg, 0.00 – 0.07g/kg, 0.41 – 13.34g/kg and 0.00 – 4.15g/kg. Samples FGWMC and FRMC had the highest concentration. Aflatoxins B2, G1, G2 and M2 were not detected in some of the samples. Ochratoxin (OTA) concentration ranged from 0.07 – 1.45g/kg, the highest concentration was recorded in sample FGWMC. OTB and OTC were not detected in the samples. Fumonisin: FB1 and FB2 concentration ranged from 1.08 – 6.43 g/kg and 0.00 – 0.44 g/kg the highest was recorded in sample FRMC and MWC. Patulin concentration ranged from 0.03 – 0.21g/kg, sample FRMC had the highest.

[Adebayo-Tayo BC, Oscar F., Igboekwe A. Microbiological and Mycotoxins Evaluation of Cereals - based Baby Food Samples Sold in Nigeria Market. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):18-26] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.04

 

Keywords: Baby food, microbial contaminant, Proteus sp., Fausarium sp, mycotoxin

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5

Production Of Cellulases By Trichoderma Species

 

Akinola GE., Olonila OT., Adebayo-Tayo BC.

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

bukola_tayo@yahoo.com gbemiakinola@yahoo.com

 

 ABSTRACT: Twelve Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma harzarium, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma arundinaceum, Trichoderma konnigii, Trichoderma pseudokonnigii, Trichoderma ciroviride, Trichoderma fertile, Trichoderma polysporum and Trichoderma crassum) obtained from our prevoious work was used during this study. All the isolates were screened for their ability to produce cellulases on solid agar using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and congo red as an indicator. Six isolates were selected as the best cellulases producer. The cellulases: Filterpase production ranged from 2.2172 - 4.3254 x10-7units/ml in which Trichoderma reesei had the highest production, Endoglucanase production ranged from 1.5707 - 3.3064 x10-7units/ml in which Trichoderma asperellum had the highest production and β-glucosidase production ranged from 1.1071 - 3.4668 x10-7units/ml. On submerged fermentation, agitation condition had a profound effect on cellulase production. The highest yield of cellulases was recorded at 30oC, pH 6, 6days incubation time and Tween80 at 0.15ml concentration. Among the carbon and nitrogen sources tested glucose and urea induced Filterpase and β-glucosidase production (1.1826 - 5.5522 x 10-7units/ml) by Trichoderma reseei, manitol and casein supported Endoglucanase production (0.3513 - 1.5984 x10-7units/ml) by Trichoderma viride.

[Akinola GE, Olonila OT., Adebayo-Tayo BC. Production Of Cellulases By Trichoderma Species. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):27-37] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.05

 

Keywords: Screening, Filterpase, Endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, Trichoderma

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科学与人学纠缠看希格斯世界---非线性希格斯粒子数学讨论(9

 

申之金

 

摘要:质量的起源不是世界最大难题,质量希格斯场公式和小林-益川理论扩容质量公式的统一,才是世界难题。希格斯场公式E=M2h2+Ah4把物质、能量、信息不但统一了起来,落实到信息或全息上,而且希格斯3D打印技术是很容易让人们想象韦尔和里奇的韦尔张量与里奇张量研究的协变效应。

[申之金. 科学与人学纠缠看希格斯世界---非线性希格斯粒子数学讨论(9. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):38-57] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.06

 

关键词:希格斯场 协变 格点 自手术

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Histological Changes In The Adrenal Gland Of Indian Female Mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii edwardsii (Geoffroy) During Estrus And Pregnancy

 

Misar, S. D., Dhamani, A.A. And Chavhan, P. R.

 

Department of Zoology, N.H. College, Bramhapuri 441206.

Email:- sachin.misar@gmail.com, amir_dhamani@yahoo.com, panksphd@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Present histological study was conduct to correlate changes which occurs in adrenal gland during the estrus and gestation in female Indian mongoose Herpestes edwardsii edwardsiii. During the gestation, diameter of three zones of adrenal cortex and medulla increases and variation in cellular structure relates with the histological synthesis of hormones for matching the environment to support foetal growth and also to maintain maternal and foetal homeastasis.

[Misar, S. D., Dhamani, A.A. And Chavhan, P. R. Histological Changes In The Adrenal Gland Of Indian Female Mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii edwardsii (Geoffroy) During Estrus And Pregnancy. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):58-62] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.07

 

Key words: Adrenal gland, Herpestes, Cortex, Medulla.

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A Comparative Study Of Adjustment Of Male And Female Secondary School Teachers

 

Dr. M.Y. Ganai, Ms. Shazia Siraj Zargar

 

 Associate Professor Department of Education University of Kashmir, India

Ph.D Scholar Department of Education University of Kashmir, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study is an attempt to compare study Adjustment of Male and Female Secondary school teachers. (1) To study the comparative adjustment of male and female secondary school teachers. (2) To compare male and female secondary school teachers on various dimensions of adjustment. (1) Male and female secondary school teachers differ significantly on various dimensions of adjustment. The present study was conducted upon 60 secondary school teachers of different secondary schools of zone Hajin in district Bandipora Kashmir. For the selection of the sample normal random procedure was adopted. The age range of the subjects was from 30-50 years. The investigator collected the response of all the subjects and scoring was done according to the instructions given in the manual. (1) Female Secondary school teachers have more home problems than male. (2) Female Secondary school teachers have more health problems than male. (3) Male Secondary school teachers have more social problems than female. (4) Female Secondary school teachers have more emotional problems than male. (5) Both male and female secondary school teachers have similar occupational problems.

[M.Y. Ganai, Ms. Shazia Siraj Zargar. A Comparative Study Of Adjustment Of Male And Female Secondary School Teachers. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):63-66] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.08

 

Key words: Adjustment, Male, Female, Secondary school and Teachers.

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9

Assessing characteristics of Online Education and comparing of Traditional Education

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education dictates changes in behavior for both the teacher and the learner. The successful student develops persistence and skills in self-directing work. The successful distance education teacher becomes conversant with new technology and develops new instructional styles, moving from creating instruction to managing resources and students and disseminating views. Administrative and faculty support for distance education are critical to the success of this instructional method. Administrators should take note that the implementation of a distance education program may allow access to a greater number of students. However, the time and work associated with teaching at a distance exceeds the normal requirements of campus-based instruction. Students in distance education settings perform as well or better on assignments, class activities, and exams when compared to campus-based students .Nevertheless, students must maintain persistence and a clear focus to succeed in a distance learning situation. Self-direction, a passion for learning, and strong individual responsibility are important influences on achievement. There are indications that distance education works best for more mature, motivated, well-organized, and already accomplished learners.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Assessing characteristics of Online Education and comparing of Traditional Education. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):67-72] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.09

 

Keywords: Online Education, Traditional Education.

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10

Distance Learning: definitions and applications

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Historically, most distance education courses were vocational in nature, but today courses are offered for academic, professional, and avocational purposes for students of all ages. There are numerous specialized programs, such as those for blind persons and for parents of small children with hearing impairments. Distance education is available in practically any field, from accounting to zoology. Courses are offered in gemology, high school diploma, journalism, lock smiting, child day care management, yacht design, and many fascinating subjects. Distance education courses also vary greatly in scope, level, and length. Some have a few assignments and require only a few months to complete, while others have a hundred or more lesson assignments requiring three or four years of conscientious study.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Distance Learning: definitions and applications. Academ Arena 2012;4 (12):73-77] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10

doi:10.7537/marsaaj041212.10

 

Keywords: Distance Learning, Distance education.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from December 2, 2012. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

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