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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-992X

Volume 5 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 47), May 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Antimicrobial potency of Sphenocentrum jollyanum on some human pathogenic bacteria

 

Akintobi OA, Adejuwon AO, Bamkefa BA, Daniels OVC, Ojo VO

 

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

adejuwon_ao@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Water, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform were used individually to obtain extracts of the root of Sphenocentrum jollyanum. Each of the extracts was screened against some human pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity. The human pathogenic bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus. The aqueous extract of the plant root showed the least antimicrobial activity. It was effective on gram positive Staphylococcus aureus at a diluted concentration of 83mg/ml and Streptococcus faecalis at undiluted concentration of 100mg/ml. Solvent extracts of the sample were effectively better than the aqueous, with petroleum ether having the highest potency than   ethanol and chloroform. Comparison of inhibitory effect of the root extract against some broad spectrum antibiotics revealed that ciprofloxacin had the highest efficacy against the susceptible gram negative bacteria used. Antimicrobial activity of these extracts on gram positive and gram negative bacteria cannot be overemphasized as potency of these bacteria was as high as the most potent antibiotic tested.

[Akintobi OA, Adejuwon AO, Bamkefa BA, Daniels OVC, Ojo VO. Antimicrobial potency of Sphenocentrum jollyanum on some human pathogenic bacteria. Academia Arena 2013;5(5):1-7] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.01

 

Key words: Sphenocentrum jollyanum; medicinal plants; herbal medicine; antimicrobial; human pathogen; antibiotics disc

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2

Bacteriological and physico-chemical analysis of well water samples in Ibadan South-East Local Government, Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Olubiyi Akinsoji Akintobi1, Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon1, Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye2, Bukola Ayodeji Bamkefa1, Adeyanju Suliat Oyenola1

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

adejuwon_ao@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Provision of safe drinking water is one of the main purposes for community development and improvement. Having a healthy community is related to the safety of drinking water in that community. This study was conducted to assess the levels of physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality in ten different wells in Ibadan South East Local Government. The results show that most of the physical and chemical values of sampled water were within the acceptable guide-line limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) for potable water. The well water were colourless with pH range of between 6.3-7.0; hardness ranged between l2- 32mg/l; and temperature was 30C for all water samples analyzed. Nickel, cobalt, cadmum, lead and chromium were not detected in all the water samples, however, the bacteriological quality of the samples was poor rendering them unsafe for human consumption unless treated. Total coliform ranged between 2-6 cfu/ml and total viable bacterial counts ranged between 1.7-5.73 cfu/ml. Such microbial contamination pose a threat to well water quality and could lead to an increase in risk level of outbreak of water borne diseases in Ibadan South East Local Government area.

[Akintobi OA, Adejuwon AO, Arorojoye OA, Bamkefa BA, Oyenola, AS. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analysis of well water samples in Ibadan South-East Local Government, Ibadan, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2013;5(5):8-14] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.02

 

Key words: safe drinking water; Ibadan South East Local government; total coliform; total viable bacterial count.

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3

Nutritive and microbial analysis of two types of fermented locust bean (Parkia biglobosa)

 

Ladokun, Olusola Abiola1 and Adejuwon, Adekunle Odunayo2, *

 

1.                   Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2.                   Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

adejuwon_ao@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) is fermented and sold locally in Nigeria as mashed and unmashed locust bean. In this study, two forms of fermented beans were purchased from a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Their proximate composition and microbiological quality were determined using standard analytical methods. Our mashed locust bean  was observed to contain 9.62 + 0.33% moisture, 3.29 + 0.35% ash, 13.30 + 0.32% crude fibre, 39.84 + 0.29% protein and 49.93 + 0.36% fat while the unmashed contained 5.3 + 0.20% moisture, 3.24 + 0.32% ash, 17.68 + 0.40% crude fibre, 39.14 + 0.31% protein and 22.80 + 0.20% fat. Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas maltophila and Streptococcus faecalis were isolated from mashed samples Aspergillus flavus and Pseudomonas maltophila were isolated from the unmashed samples. As observed, these bacterial and fungal isolates are evidences of unhygienic procedures of processing in that environment.

[Ladokun OA, Adejuwon AO. Nutritive and microbial analysis of two types of fermented locust bean (Parkia biglobosa). Academ Arena 2013;5(5):15-17] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.03

 

Key words: Locust bean (Parkia biglobosa); fermented; microbial; nutritive.

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4

Distance learning tools in education

 

Mostafa Emami and Moslem Vezarati

 

Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

E-mail: moslemvezarati@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: While there is still prejudice surrounding some distance learning, it is increasingly being accepted as an alternative to traditional classroom learning. Courses can be offered via the Internet, where students are able to interact with instructors and other students without physically being in the same room. Getting a college education can be difficult for people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Frequent trips to the restroom, exhaustion, doctor visits, and medication side effects are all barriers to the traditional college experience. What if you could get the degree without ever setting foot on a campus? You can do just that through distance or virtual learning. Distance learning has been around for a long time (we've all seen the commercials on TV).

[Mostafa Emami and Moslem Vezarati. Distance learning tools in education. Academia Arena 2013;5(5):18-22] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.04

 

Keywords: adult education, distance learning

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5

[Academia Arena 2013;5(5):23-25] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5

 Withdrawn

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6

World First Spiral Predictive Prime Number Calculus

 

Vinoo Cameron, MD

 

hope9900@frontier.com

 

Abstract: This is for the spiral at 18 from the half-line, and is predictive. Example of spiral 18(6*3) from midline= (29*19) + (29*18) = (29*37).

[Vinoo Cameron. World First Spiral Predictive Prime Number Calculus. Academia Arena 2013;5(5):26-27] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.06

 

Keywords: world; spiral; prime number; calculus

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7

The Entropy Sb of Black-hole Mb; The Basic Information Unit Io = h/2 of Hawking Radiation mss; Researching Some Characters of Entropy With Black-hole Theory

 

Zhang Dongsheng 张洞生

 

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.comzds@outlook.com

 

Abstract: Entropy and information are first united in the black-hole theory in this article by arthor. It is proved that, entropy is nothing but information, i.e, Sb = Im/H.  Author’s purposes in this article are to want: 1*;  to find out that any black hole of mass Mb emitting every Hawking quantum radiation mss would bring away a fixed and basic information unit Io = h/2 Planck constant. Io has nothing to do with mass of Mb and mss. 2*; to prove that the entropy Sbm of  minimum black hole Mbm, Sbm = to prove that the total information amount Im of  a black hole Mb are Im = 4GMb2/C, and the total entropy amount Sb of Mb are Sb= 4GMb2/CIm= A/4Lp2.  4*; to research the charactors of entropy with the black hole theory.

[Dongsheng Zhang. The Entropy Sb of Black-hole Mb; The Basic Information Unit Io=h/2 of Hawking Radiation mss; Researching Some Characters of Entropy With Black-hole Theory. Academia Arena 2013;5(5):28-36] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.07

 

Key words: the total information amount Im of black hole Mb; the total entropy amount Sb of black hole Mb; the fixed and basic information unit Io of any Hawking radiation mss, Io = h/2 minimum black hole Mbm; Planck constant

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8

The Status of the Rights of Accused under Different Indian Laws

 

Dr. Ashish Kumar Singhal,1 Eakramuddin & Abroo Khan2

 

1School of law, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201306 India

2School of law, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut-250005 India

Email: drashiah.singhal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An accused is a person against whom an accusation has been made for alleged commission of crime or for his alleged involvement in the commission of crime, which invites Punishment under penal laws of the country the accused also have got certain rights privileges and protections, which are laid down in criminal procedure code, 1973, Indian Evidence Act, 1872, and in the constitution of India 1950.A person accused of an offence is put under the peril of his life and liberty. Therefore it becomes necessary that certain safeguards should be provided to him. These protections are almost common to all civilized legal system of the world including that of India. Many procedural rights and privileges are laid down under the Indian evidence 1872, criminal procedure code, 1973, which are available to the accused. Some of them have been guaranteed and made available by The Indian Constitution too. These rights have been inherited in India from common law.  Basically It is seen in every morning through the newspaper that in police custody. There is a violation of the rights of accused by the Police personals although there are various provisions in different laws (i.e. The criminal procedure Code 1973, The Indian Evidence Act 1872, etc) But still there is violation of their rights. The judiciary has given the guidelines in regard to the accused that how they will be treated but it is seen in day to day life that how the accused are treated for example we can see the recent incident of Ch. Charan Singh District Jail Meerut that how the police behaved with inmate prisoners. Cognizable offence without going to magistrate, so Court should be vigilant to see that theses powers are not abused for lightly used for personal benefits. No arrest can be made on mere suspicion or information. Even private person cannot follow and arrest a person on the statement of another person, however impeachable it is. Though the Code of Criminal procedure, 1973 is mainly procedural, yet it deals with three distinct but closely related subjects, the Constitution and powers of Courts, the conduct of criminal proceedings and the prevention of crimes by interference beforehand.

[Ashish Kumar Singhal, Eakramuddin & Abroo Khan. The status of the Rights of Accused under Different Indian Laws. Academia Arena 2013;5(5):37-46] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.08

 

Key Words: Penal laws, Offence, Accused, Court, Constitution of India, Human Right

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9

The changing role of the law in interdependent society

 

Dr. Ashish Kumar Singhal,1 Eakramuddin & Abroo Khan2

 

1.School of law, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201306 India

2.School of law, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut-250005 India

Email: drashiah.singhal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The changing role of law in interdependent society is a classic work on contemporary thought. This changing role of law has complex interaction with social change, its intervention into economics and the environment, it balance public power and private rights, its place in the growth of international order, its own changing role in the interdependent society from ancient to till date, with insight, imagination and an exciting breadth of scholarship. Today alternatives of economic competition, public regulation and public enterprise examines the changing role of law in the society. "The impact of law in changing surroundings on some areas, such as family law, the last decade has brought fundamental changes in many countries, with respect to matrimonial disputes divorce, abortion, the status of illegitimate children, property, and other matters due to the local panchayat and land laws of different countries. The important thing is that some time law play an important role to change the society and some time society has great impact to change the law.

[Ashish Kumar Singhal, Eakramuddin & Abroo Khan. The changing role of the law in interdependent society. Academia Arena 2013;5(5):47-51] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.09

 

Key Words: Law, Social Change, Industralisation, Economic Development, Sovereignity, Custom

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10

A survey of e-banking on the customers’ trust (case study: Damghan agricultural bank)

 

Golnar Shojaei (PH.D.) 1, Mohammad reza babakhanian (MA) 2

 

1. Department Of Management, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran

2. Department Of Management, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, 3671698945, Iran    golnar.shojaei@gmail.com, iranianman2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, e-banking is one of the most important priorities in the present era. All of top managers use from equipment and resources for e-banking. Meanwhile, we are going toward e-banking specially marketing and so on. Thus, every bank attempt to reach toward e-banking quickly.In this paper, we try to survey a set of banking G variables such as security, speed, up to date, confidence, trust, on time, availability, and so on. We study also relationship between e-banking and customers trust using electronic channels. We distribute 278 questionnaires among customers from central branch of agricultural bank (Damghan).In this paper, we survey on the education, old, sexuality. Finally we find significant relation among aforementioned variables. Moreover, we observed differences from trusteeship and truthfulness at two men and women societies toward e-banking variables too.

[Golnar Shojaei and Mohammad reza babakhanian. A survey of e-banking on the customers’ trust (case study: Damghan agricultural bank). Academia Arena 2013;5(5):52-57] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.10

 

Key words: trust ; availability ; banking system ; electronic banking

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11

Determination of Porosity and Density of rocks in Kwali Area Council, North-Central Nigeria.

 

Abdulsalam N.N. 1and Ologe O. 2

 

1 Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria

nassnaeem@gmail.com, toyin.ologe@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Porosity and density of rocks were determined in Kwali Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. This study was done towards determining rock samples densities and porosities when wet and dry; ultimately determine their specific gravity and reveals their significance to human race. The methods employed include laboratory method, computational approach which was guided by Archimedes Principle.The result suggests that density and porosity are controlled by fundamental processes that are common to all rocks. And the close correspondence of the measured and lithology porosities and densities therefore indicates that the computational approach adequately handles these textural and mineralogical variations. However, great variations are observed in both density and porosity for a particular identical rock types. Gneiss for example varies in both porosity and density from 15.79% to 36.17% and 2.60g/cm3 to 2.83g/cm3 respectively for the four samples of gneiss. The variation in density and porosity for a particular rock type gives an insight on the need of investigating even the same rock types before using them for a particular project, as some rocks have been subjected to greater pressure, temperature and weather conditions than others due to variations in geographical locations. It is apparent from this study to note that there is considerable overlap between different rock types and consequently, identification of a rock type is not possible solely on the basis of porosity and density data.

[Abdulsalam N.N. and Ologe O. Determination of Porosity and Density of rocks in Kwali Area Council, North-Central Nigeria. Academ Arena 2013;5(5):58-62] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.11

 

Keywords: porosity, density, specific gravity, rocks, lithology

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12

The reasons for the existence of fundamentalism in Afghanistan

 

Fatemeh Rajabi

 

Fatemehrajabi21@gmx.com

 

Abstract: After the Soviet war in Afghanistan, fundamentalists, issues were raised by the global media due to certain reasons, becoming known and important to the world. The way of presenting, explaining, and expanding this matter which has become “The first issue in the world politics” relates to the motivation and aim of politicians whose aims and benefits were linked to those of Afghanistan’s. It has been said that a majority of 99% of people adhere to Islamic law. Consequently, the atmosphere and growth circumstances are quite appropriate for religious theories to propagate, although they may be considered extremist. On the other hand, as discussed in the followings, Russia’s invasion to Afghanistan and the formation of communist governments with their anti-religious reforms saddened the Muslims of Afghanistan greatly, in a way that every individual or group propagating the Islamic theory or promising the religious reign would be welcomed. Especially, Mujahidin groups raised a flag against Russian invaders, as well as promoting the religious theory, and sought a war with them for the independence of Afghanistan practically.

[Fatemeh Rajabi. The reasons for the existence of fundamentalism in Afghanistan. Academ Arena 2013;5(5):63-67] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.12

 

Key words: Afghanistan, fundamentalism, the reasons for the formation of fundamentalism, Islamic theory

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13

Optimal Design of Wastewater Collection Networks Based on Production Rate of hydrogen Sulfide ()

 

Mohammad Karami1, Ehsan Drikvand 2

 

1. Department of civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Dehloran Branch, Dehlaran, Iran,

 2.Department of civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shoshtar Branch, Shoshtar, Iran

 

ABSTRACT: Unfortunately, nowadays, like the sewage collection network water supply systems just based on hydraulic parameters (quantity) are designed. The quality of wastewater produced, while that in adverse condition is very efficient. H2S production given that the relationship is in direct proportion BOD5 waste more time on the network will be more Barely also increased and this is related to hydraulic parameters. Must therefore between wastewater quality and hydraulic parameters of a relationship can create the best system design is achieved. In tropical cities due to high temperatures during the year chemical reactions are accelerated, the rate has been rising, especially H2S gases increased, destroyed sewage collection network and had to be seen along most of sewage collection networks already the end of the project did not have favorable conditions caused great financial burden on their maintenance will be contrary to the sustainable development.

[Mohammad Karami, Ehsan Drikvand. Optimal Design of Wastewater Collection Networks Based on Production Rate of hydrogen Sulfide (). Academ Arena 2013;5(5):68-72] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 13. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050513.13

 Keywords: Wastewater Collection Network,  Quantitative and Qualitative Parameters of Wastewater, Sustainable Development.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 2, 2013. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

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