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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

Volume 5 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 48,  June 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS

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黑洞宇宙学

 

====作者对黑洞理论的新发展达成了黑洞理论、宇宙学、基本信息理论之间结合====

 

张洞生  Zhang Dong Sheng, Email: zds@outlook.com; zhangds12@hotmail.com

 

笛卡儿:我们不能依赖他人的权威而接受真理,必须自己寻求。

老子:‘大道至简’。简单的方法也可能解决最困难最复杂的问题。

【内容摘要】: 本文对黑洞理论的新发展和新公式完全是根据霍金的黑洞理论发展而来的。发展后的黑洞理论的新观点和新公式可完好地解释和验证我们宇宙的演变规律,而成为名符其实的‘黑洞宇宙学’。本文分为2篇。第一篇是《黑洞理论的新发展、新公式和新结论》。最重要的成果是推导出来霍金辐射量子mss与黑洞质量Mb 之间的新公式,还有最小黑洞Mbm 、单位信息量Io SB等一系列新公式,并用经典理论解释了黑洞发射霍金辐射的机理。从而使黑洞理论趋向完善。第二篇《黑洞理论和宇宙学完善的结合成为‘黑洞宇宙学’》是作者用第一篇的黑洞理论的公式解决宇宙起源和演化中的一些重大问题。如证明我们宇宙诞生于在普郎克领域Planck Era新生成的大量原初最小黑洞Mbl= 2Mbm 2mp,即普朗克粒子 mp的合并,而不是诞生于“奇点”或“奇点的大爆炸”;证明我们现在宇宙是一个质量为1056 g的真正的巨无霸宇宙黑洞(CBH);宇宙‘原初暴涨’(Original Inflation)的新机理和新证明等。从宇宙 7种不同大小的黑洞Mb来分析宇宙黑洞的演变. 证实了作者黑洞新理论和公式与宇宙大爆炸标准模型图表是一致的。

[张洞生. 黑洞宇宙学 - 作者对黑洞理论的新发展达成了黑洞理论、宇宙学、基本信息理论之间结合. Academia Arena 2013;5(6):1-20] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.01

 

【关键词】。黑洞理论;宇宙学;普朗克粒子;霍金辐射;最小黑洞;普朗克领域;宇宙黑洞;宇宙原初暴涨;霍金辐射的信息量;单元信息量Io;黑洞的信息量;黑洞的熵

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对物理学和社会科学中一些基本观念的反思

 

谭天荣

 

青岛大学物理学教授

ttr359@126.com

 

Abstract: 代序:十二个故事. 我已年近八十,该好好回顾一下自己的一生了。我没有财产,没有儿女,也没有“事业”,只有过去写下的一些手稿(还有腹稿)难以割舍。这些手稿,我从大学二年级开始,断断续续写了几十年,其中的一部分曾经在互联网上发表过,结果是既没有人支持也没有人反对。在北大时我曾和同班同学谈过一些有关的看法,记得一位同学私下表示过他的困惑:“真不知道他是怎么想的?”今天,我选择了部分手稿编成这本书,书名是《另类人生》,书的内容分为两个两部分。第一部分题为《生平与信仰》,写我的一些往事和我所理解的马克思主义;第二部分题为《另类物理学》,写我对物理学的某些异议。作为对这位同学的疑问的回答,我把自己当年写这些手稿的思路写成十二个故事。我期望这些故事除了能为这位同学排疑解惑之外,还可供其他读者茶余饭后消遣,如果还能进一步激起某些读者阅读这本书的兴趣,我就喜出望外了。

[谭天荣. 对物理学和社会科学中一些基本观念的反思. Academia Arena 2013;5(6):21-29] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.02

 

Keywords: 人生; 信仰; 物理学; 解惑

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Optimization of energy required and energy analysis for rice production using data envelopment Analysis approach

 

* Adel ranji (Corresponding author), ** Hamed rajabzadeh, *** Hamidreza Khakrah, **** Payam hooshmand, ***** Hamid Atari

 

* Young Researchers and Elite Club, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University,Takestan, Iran

** School of Science Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, International campus, Kish Island, Iran

*** Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Fars, Iran

**** Young Researchers Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

***** Department of mechanics of Agricultural machinery, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was the application of non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to analyze the efficiency of farmers, discriminate efficient farmers from inefficient ones and to identify wasteful uses of energy for rice production in Mazandaran province, Iran. This method was used based on seven energy inputs including human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, fertilizers, biocide, Irrigation and seed energy and three output of rice( yield, straw and husk). Technical, pure technical, scale and cross efficiencies were calculated using CCR and BCC models for farmers. From this study the following results were obtained: from the total of 72 farmers, considered for the analysis, 9.7 % and 22.2 % were found to be technically and pure technically efficient, respectively. The average values of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores of farmers were found to be 0.78, 0.95 and 0.82, respectively. The energy saving target ratio for rice production was calculated as 7.47 %, indicating that by following the recommendations resulted from this study, about 4.57 GJ ha−1 of total input energy could be saved while holding the constant level of rice yield. The comparative results of energy indices revealed that by optimization of energy consumption, energy efficiency, energy productivity and net energy with respect to the actual energy use can be increased by 7.46 %, 7.46 % and 5.54 %, respectively.

[Adel ranji, Behnam Ghasemzadeh. Optimization of energy required and energy analysis for rice production using data envelopment Analysis approach. Academia Arena 2013;5(6):30-40] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.03

 

Keywords: Data envelopment, CCR and BCC models, analysis Optimization, Technical efficiency, Rice

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Studies On The Microbial Flora Found In The Intestine Of Heteroclarias Specie

 

Okadinya. M.O, Ugoh, S.C And Solomon, J.R.

 

Department Of Biological Sciences, Faculty Of Science, University Of Abuja, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT:  Studies of the microbial flora of Heteroclarias fish was carried out 48hrs prior in which the fish was starved. The enumeration of bacterial found in the intestine of Heteroclarias fish was done through serial dilution and agar plating techniques. A nutrient agar at 45c and O.1ml of the suspension was poured into a petridish. The isolation was done using various biochemical tests. The various micro organisms which were isolated were mainly, Escherichia coli, pseudomonas fluorescence’s cereus, staphyloccus aureus, klebsiella aerugenes, salmonella, entritidis, bascillus cereus, proteus vulgaris and various fungal species. The bacteria gotten from this isolation were mostly gram negative with E. coli having the highest number of growth often occurred in concentration ranging between 10 and 10 colony forming unit per ml of the fish content.

[Okadinya. M.O, Ugoh, S.C And Solomon, J.R. Studies On The Microbial Flora Found In The Intestine Of Heteroclarias Specie. Academia Arena 2013;5(6):41-51] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.04

 

KEY WORDS:  Heteroclarias, Escherichia coli, pseudomonas fluorescence’s cereus and entritidis, bascillus cereus

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Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Petroleum Ether Extract Of Piper Guineese Seeds (Schum And Thonn)

 

Usenekong O.E., Sambo David And Efiom, O

 

Department Of Chemistry, University Of Abuja, P.M.B. 117, Abuja

 

ABSTRACT: Piper guineese is herbal recipe ingredient widely used in African Traditional Medicine (ATM). The essential oil of piper guineese seeds was analysed by using GC-MS, which led to the identifications of many constituents present in the medicinal plant. The essential oil consist mainly alcohol, ether saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon. The major compounds of the essential oil were 1,3-benzodioxole, 4,7-dimethoxy,5-(2-propenyl, 1,3-Benzodioxole, 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl) and 1,3-Benzodioxole, 5-(1-propenyl).

[Usenekong O.E., Sambo David And Efiom, O. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Petroleum Ether Extract Of Piper Guineese Seeds (Schum And Thonn). Academia Arena 2013;5(6):52-55] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.05

 

KEY WORDS: Piper guineese, essential oil, constituent, hydrocarbon and Gc-Ms

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 5, 2013. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia
  

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.01

doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.02

doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.03

doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.04

doi:10.7537/marsaaj050613.05

 

 

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