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Science Journal


Academia Arena


Volume 5 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 52),  October 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file


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Titles / Authors




Modified Fermi-Gas Model to Calculate the Nuclear Quantities


 Marziyeh Reshadatiyan1, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi Birgani 2, Fereshteh Ghasemi 3, Iraj Kazeminejad 4


1. Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran

2. Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Therapy, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran

3. Department of Electrical Engineering, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran

4. Department of Physics, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran



Abstract: Due to the unknown nature of nuclear forces, using nuclear models for different purposes of nuclear usage, as explanation of the interactions between nuclear particles are remarkable. In this study, by introducing a density and nucleus parameterization; we modify the Fermi gas model, and calculate nuclear quantities based on the modified model. For the first time, according to properties of the nuclear density, we consider it as an error function, then, parameterize nuclear density based on the known properties of nucleus. According to the modified Fermi gas model, we calculate quantities of density, radius and find the relationship between them. Then, we calculate the surface thickness of the nucleus and the nucleus radius, average radius of the nucleus, volumetric energy, surface energy and the Coulomb energy with the Pauli correction effect, asymmetric energy of nucleons, the nuclear compressibility; binding energy is obtained using outcomes too. At last Coefficients of Binding Energy is compared with previous studies; the result of formulation and error in the Tablecurve software shows that error calculated by the program was too little so we concluded that the formula presented to calculate the nuclear energy is appropriate to interpret nuclear properties.

[Reshadatiyan M, Tahmasebi Birgani M J, Ghasemi F, Kazeminejad I. Modified Fermi-Gas Model to Calculate the Nuclear Quantities. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):1-7] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.01


Keywords: Nuclear quantities; Fermi gas model; Nucleus density; Error function

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The effects of demographic factors on the viewpoints in shaping the dimensions of organizational justice in Isfahan


Mohammad Sotoudeh




Abstract: This study aimed to consider the organizational justice in three perspectives of distributive, procedural and interactional justice from the point of view of the teachers and staffs of Isfahan Education Organization in 2012. The research population consisted of all the teachers and staffs of the areas of education organization in Isfahan. The research participants were selected based on the cluster random sampling; from among the areas of Isfahan Education Organization, areas 1, 5, and Jay area were selected. Finally 85 staffs and 474 teachers were selected based on the cluster random sampling. The research method was descriptive and quantitative, and the data collection instrument was Noorman and Niehoff organizational justice questionnaire. The reliability of the   questionnaire was 0.95 based on the Cronbach's alpha. The data analysis was descriptive and inferential. In descriptive statistics, frequency tables and percentage graphs were used, and in inferential statistics, Z-test, dependent t-test, variance analysis and Hetling t-test were used. The results of the research show that demographic factors have an impact on organizational justice in shaping opinions and votes in the highest score lowest score of distributive justice and social justice have been awarded.

[Mohammad Sotoudeh. The effects of demographic factors on the viewpoints in shaping the dimensions of organizational justice in Isfahan. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):8-14] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.02


Key words: organizational justice, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice

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Assessment of the anti-bacterial activity of different types of natural and commercial honeys on bacteria isolated from Wounds and Burns in Saudi Arabia


Amnah A. H. Rayes


 Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of different types of commercial honeys in Sudia Arabia on some bacterial strains isolated from wounds and burns in Jeddah, Sudia Arabia. Selected honeys were katad, Sidr, Nagd, Samra El-Madena, El-Nokhba, Bashayer, Wadi EL-Adwa, Wadi El-Debaa, Wadi-rk, El-Zemma, El-Begedi, Regal, El-Zytoun and Dahyana. Antibacterial activity was determined using Agar well diffusion method, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) was performed for all investigated honeys against the isolated bacterial strains, pH of each wound and burn was determined at the same time of taking swabs. Present study indicated that Katad, El-Begedi and El-Zemma honeys were the highest antibacterial activity against the isolated bacteria from wounds and burns, as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli., staphylococcus epidermidis, and streptococcus pyogens. MIC correlates with the antibacterial activity, katad, El-begedi and El-Zemma honeys were of lowest MIC. For all isolated bacteria lowest wounds and burns pH, more inhibition zone with mixed honey (50% Katad honey and 50% Dahyana honey).

[Amnah A. H. Rayes. Assessment of the anti-bacterial activity of different types of natural and commercial honeys on bacteria isolated from Wounds and Burns in Saudi Arabia. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):15-21] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.03


Key words: Sudia Arabia honeys; wounds and burns; bacteria; Agar well diffusion; MIC; pH

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Barriers of Youths’ Participation in Farming Activities in a developing Society: The Case of Akinyele Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria


Arimi  Kayode 1, Ewebiyi, Ismaila. Ogunmola 2


1.                   Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria arimi2009@yahoo.com

2. Department of Agricultural production and Management Science, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria


Abstract: This paper identifies barriers of youths’ participation in farming activities in a developing society. This is predicated on the fact that poor participation of youths in agricultural production is largely the bane of agricultural development, food insecurity and high rate of unemployment. Primary data were used for this study; following a survey of youths’ farmers in the study area. Significant relationship existed between the barriers facing youths and their participation in farming activities (r=0.645, p=0.05).Youths in the study area are constrained by lack of farm inputs such as capital, inadequate extension agents’ visit and training on the use of improved technology. The constraints, if not check may affect the food security of the nation.

[Arimi  Kayode, Ewebiyi, Ismail. Ogunmola. Barriers of Youths’ Participation in Farming Activities in a developing Society: The Case of Akinyele Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):22-28] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.04


Keywords: Youths; participation; barriers; farming activities; developing

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Occupational Health Hazards Among Abattoir Workers In Abeokuta


**T.A. Banjo¹, A.A. Onilude 6, A.O.J. Amoo¹, A. Busari¹, O.A. Ogundahunsi², W.E. Olooto², O.B. Familoni³, A.A. Amballi², A.A.A. Oyelekan4, O.A. Abiodun 5


¹Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, OACHS, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu

²Department of Chemical Pathology & Immunology, OACHS, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu

³Department of Medicine, OACHS, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu

4. Department of Surgery, OACHS, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu

5. Department of Community Medicine, OOUTH, Sagamu

6. Department of Botany & Microbiology, University of Ibadan. Ibadan

E-mail: sirby2k@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT: Abattoir employees working in close contact with animals/animal waste products were investigated for various job-related physical and biological hazards/challenges linked to age, gender, job specializations and duration with associated risks.122 herdsmen, butchers, cleaners and 98 residents (control) whose ages ranged between 14 and 81 years participated in the study.  A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic data while blood samples were obtained in code-labeled sterile plain/EDTA bottles using standard laboratory procedures for microbial isolation, morphological and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis of data obtained thereof were processed using SPSS – version 15.The ages, marital status, types of accommodation, religious affiliations and job specialization of the participants’ --89 (73%) men and 33 (27%) women--had no effect on the types of occupation hazards. However, there was a significant difference in physical and biological hazards(X²=2.06; p<0.05) between abattoir workers and control: Butchers were mostly predisposed to physical hazards (89% knife cuts) compared to enhance biological hazards among the herdsmen (64.7%). Blood-borne infections (29.5%) were higher in the abattoir workers compared to the control (8.2%). The patterns of blood-borne-infections (X²=10.39; p<0.05) and job specializations among abattoir workers increased with years of exposure. Abattoir occupational hazards sequel to iatrogenic or transmissible agents increase with job-related exposure to risks factors though majorly under reported. Most of these identified physical injuries and zoonotic infections are preventable by health monitoring, identification of hazards, Exposure Control Plan, a combination of good occupational, environmental hygiene and design; and control of microbial contaminations.

[T.A. Banjo, A.A. Onilude, A.O.J. Amoo, A. Busari, O.A. Ogundahunsi, W.E. Olooto , O.B. Familoni, A.A. Amballi, A.A.A. Oyelekan and O.A. Abiodun. Occupational Health Hazards Among Abattoir Workers In Abeokuta. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):29-36] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.05


Keywords: Occupation, hazards, abattoir, workers, blood-borne.

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Verification of the Calculations in “The Derivation of Dirac’s Equation” and a Prediction to detect Dark Matter.


George Gerhab


Abstract: Quantization of time means time progresses in integral steps of the universal elementary time unit dtp = Planck’s time = (Gh/c5)1/2. Our real, observable elementary unit of time is (3/5)dtp , which was indicated by the calculation (see my first paper, “The Derivation of Dirac’s Equation”, sciencepub.net/academia, Vol 5 No 9)) of the elementary unit of charge, e= (dt/u0)1/2 = 1.604 x 10-19 C, where dt = (3/5)dtp. Since 3/5 is cos 53, this indicates that the time vector for our observable universe is 53o. The only 90o triangle which contains an integral number for each of its three sides is the 3,4,5 triangle, whose two angles are 37o and 53o. Since time can proceed only in integral steps, this is the only triangle that nature allows for the time vector. Hence, the two angles 37 and 53 are the only phase angles allowable for the time vector besides 0o. Our time vector’s phase angle is 53. Since the hypotenuse of the 3,4,5 triangle is 5, time moves in intervals of 5dtp in a 5 step ½ cycle of a wave-like motion which is the basis of the Dirac matrices and the matter wave.. Our time moves in intervals of 3dtp.

[George Gerhab. Verification of the Calculations in “The Derivation of Dirac’s Equation” and a Prediction to detect Dark Matter. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):37-38] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.06


Keywords: Quantization; time; integral steps; universal elementary; Dirac’s Equation; triangle; Dirac matrices; matter wave

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Assessment of health, hygiene and socio-economic status in haridwar city during kanwar mela


Vijay Sharma, Sudhanshu Kaushik*, Pankaj Saini and B. D. Joshi#


Department of Environmental Sciences, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar, India.

*Department of Applied Science, IET, IIMT, Meerut, India.

#Dept. of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, India

*E-mail: kaushiks.phd@gmail.com


Abstract: The present study was carried out in year 2009 to find out the impact of Kanwar Mela on the human health, socio-economic status and on the environmental scenario within Haridwar city. The poor municipal sanitary management and a significant rise in the number of patients, mainly suffering from water borne diseases, was noticed as a consequence of Kanwar Mela, within the city of Haridwar. High influence on solid waste generation, noise level and drinking water contamination reports were also observed during the period of Kanwar Mela. A heavy burden on the economy of local people was also noticed, except some gain to the businessmen in the main city.

[Vijay Sharma, Sudhanshu Kaushik, Pankaj Saini and B. D. Joshi. Assessment of health, hygiene and socio-economic status in haridwar city during kanwar mela. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):39-43] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.07


Keywords: Assesment; health; hygiene; socio-economic status; haridwar city; kanwar mela

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Prevalence of malaria plasmodium among children in abeokuta, nigeria


1Olasunkanmi O.I, 1, 2Akingbade O. A, 3Akinjinmi A. A


1Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: olasunkanmitayo@gmail.com, 08062392362

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: tundeuluv@yahoo.com, 08060706263


Abstract: This study was carried out in Abeokuta, Ogun State, South Western Nigeria between April 2013 and August, 2013. A total of 76 subjects; (32 males and 44 females) blood samples were collected from subjects within age 10 years old attending, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Thick and thin blood films were prepared for each person. These were stained using field’s stain A (eosin) and field’s stain B (methyl azure). The stained films were examined under the microscope, using oil immersion at 100x magnification. Twenty four (31.6%) of the blood samples showed presence of plasmodium which indicate positive results while 52(68.4%) did not showed presence of plasmodium which indicate negative results.

[Olasunkanmi O.I, Akingbade O. A, Akinjinmi A. A. Prevalence of malaria plasmodium among children in abeokuta, nigeria. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):44-47] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.08


Keywords: Prevalence, malaria plasmodium, children, abeokuta, nigeria

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Prevalence of HIV-1 & HIV-2 Antibodies Among Undergraduate Students Of Uniport, Nigeria.


Frank-Peterside N, Joshua RA, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO


Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt,

P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

Tel: +2348035380891; E-Mail:  mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng


ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 & HIV-2 antibodies among undergraduate students of Uniport. Determine® HIV-1/2 Test cards, HIV -1/2 Stat- Pak® Assay and HIV Tri Dot were used in a stepwise order for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies in the blood samples. Overall prevalence rate of HIV was 11.0%, 9(81.8%) were due to HIV-1 and 2(18.2%) were due to HIV-2. Age group 20-35 years of age had the highest prevalence of HIV (14.6%) compared to other age groups. HIV antibodies were more prevalent among females (11.7%)] than their male counterparts (10.0%). HIV prevalence was higher among Muslims 12.5% compared to Christians (10.5%). HIV prevalence was higher the married (11.4%) than singles (10.3%). Statistically, the results showed significant correlation (p<0.05) between the age groups and the prevalence of HIV among undergraduate students. However, the study did not find gender, religion and marital status differences (p>0.05) in HIV prevalence of undergraduate students. This study however further confirmed the presence of HIV antibodies among undergraduate students. Undergraduate students with HIV should be urged and encourage to take necessary measures to avoid transmitting the virus to others. Continual free HIV screening and counseling services in all institutions of higher learning in the country are further advocated.   

[Frank-Peterside N, Joshua RA, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Prevalence of HIV-1 & HIV-2 Antibodies Among Undergraduate Students Of Uniport, Nigeria. Academia Arena, 2013,5(10):48-52] (ISSN: 1553-9865) http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.09


Keywords: Antibody, undergraduates, students, HIV, seropositivity, risk factors.

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《黄帝内经》揭示前沿科学的应用 ---《黄帝内经》量子人学(2




Recommended by 王德奎 y-tx@163.com and 张洞生 zds@outlook.com; zhangds12@hotmail.com



[王马. 《黄帝内经》揭示前沿科学的应用 ---《黄帝内经》量子人学(2. Academ Arena 2013;5(10):53-68] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.10


关键词:量子 中医 应用 贝尔不等式

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(A new theory on Egyptian Great Pyramids)


M. Arulmani, B.E.



V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




ABSTRACT: A scientific based research in this article focus that Egyptian great Pyramids were constructed for communication purpose and served as RF Antennas for remote controlling of SUN, EARTH, MOON from MARS Planet just like our television is operated through remote. The Prehistoric human populations lived in MARS planet shall be considered as super scientists and expert in Astronomy, Astrophysics, Engineering Architect might have constructed the huge Pyramid structures without any difficulty. This research focus that MARS shall be considered as main switching centre (MSC) Energy centre and the Great Pyramid shall be considered as “Main Earth Station” and other three associated nearby pyramids on the same line of axis shall be considered as Base Terminal stations (BTS) for independently controlling the axial position of SUN, EARTH, MOON. It is speculated that the positional control of SUN, MOON also might have been done from EARTH Planet as SUN, MOON are not influenced with Negatively charged “Electron Particle”. It is focused that the Great pyramids might have been constructed with Prehistoric “J-Technology” derived from Akkie Principles. It is speculated that thousands of other “So called Pyramids” existing in other part of world shall not be considered as Real Pyramids within the scope of Pyramid definition. It is speculated that the outcome of this research shall provide solutions to existing current problems and theories related to Human ancestor, Missing link, Mystery of crop circles formation etc.

[M. Arulmani, V. R. Hema Latha. PYRAMIDS ARE PREHISTORIC RF ANTENNA?! (A new theory on Egyptian Great Pyramids). Academ Arena 2013;5(10):69-70] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.11


KEYWORDS: Fundamental Neutrino Oscillation; Model Cosmo Universe; Natural Planets; Mars centred Universe; Natural “J” Pyramid; Philosophy of Bermuda, Baikal Pyramids; Species Pyramids; Pyramid Logo.

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Ancient Egypt Is Dravida Nad?!...

(A New theory on Dravidian Dynasty and Diversity)


M.Arulmani, B.E.



V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.



Abstracts: By the grace of God we had opportunity to visit Holy Land Jerusalem, Egypt, Jordan on 9 days tour from 16th October to 24th October 2013.  The total strength of team is 19 including our Keralite friends. On the way to CAIRO City we had a break at Kuwait Airport.  Along the Lobby of Airport there is a prayer room for men on one side and prayer room for women on the opposite side. After roaming here and there for toilet somebody guided and told that “Prayer room is meant for Toilet”. Very good Concept!... It is understood that after the prayer one should leave away the earthly waste. When we are in Cairo City (Egypt) we had opportunity to visit great pyramids at Giza and famous Egypt Museum. We have come across many black dressed persons at Egypt.  They were very kind to us with smiling face.  At that incidence we could recall the Black Dravidian King “E.V.R. Periyar”, and his Humanity approach for social uplift of Economically suppressed people. Further we experienced to purchase one liter water bottle at the price of 1.0 US dollar (Rs. 65.0 in Indian Currency). Whereas in Tamilnad, India Hon’ble Chief Minister Dr. JAYALALITHAA Providing water at the price of only Rs.10.0 under “AMMA DRINKING WATER SCHEME”. All foreign tourists get benefit of that scheme.

[M. Arulmani, V.R. Hema Latha. Ancient Egypt Is Dravida Nad?! (A New theory on Dravidian Dynasty and Diversity). Academ Arena 2013;5(10):71-86] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051013.12


Keywords: grace; God; opportunity; Holy Land; Jerusalem; Egypt; Jordan India

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 17, 2013. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com

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