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Science Journal


Academia Arena


Volume 5 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 53),  November 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

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Titles / Authors




Screening cattle dung and poultry faeces for isolation of lactic acid bacteria in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria


Uche Ruth Chiamaka, Ekundayo Emmanuel Olufemi *


Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267,Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria



Abstract: A total of 40 samples, 20 of cattle dung and 20 of poultry faeces were collected from various sites in Umuahia metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria, and were analyzed using pour plate method to screen for the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Forty eight organisms belonging to three genera and four species were isolated. The four species were Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus sakei .The total viable LAB count ranged from 2.60x106 -3.75x106 CFUs/ml for cattle dung and 1.56x106 -3.60x106 CFUs/ml for poultry faeces. The mean viable LAB counts were 3.13x106 CFUs/ml and 2.58x106 CFUs/ml for cattle dung and poultry faeces, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the mean viable LAB counts for the two types of specimens. Cattle dung and poultry faeces represent sources from which potentially useful LAB organisms could be isolated and exploited for biotechnological applications. [Uche RC, Ekundayo E O. Screening cattle dung and poultry faeces for isolation of lactic acid bacteria in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria Academ Arena 2013;5(11):1-4] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.01


Key words: Lactic acid bacteria, cattle dung, poultry faeces, probiotic

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Morphometric analysis of ovarian follicles of Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus giganteus (Brunnich)


A.V. Dorlikar1, A.A. Dhamani 2, P.N. Charde1 and A.S. Mohite1


1.                   P.G. Department of Zoology and Research Academy, Sevadal College for Women, Nagpur-440009, India

2.                   P.G. Department of Zoology and Research Academy, N.H.College, Bramhapuri- 441206, India

ajaydorlikar@gmail.com, dhamaniamir@gmail.com, anilmohite64@gmail.com


Abstract: The present study was undertaken to know the development of ovarian follicles in Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus giganteus. Ovaries were collected and fixed for histological examination. Histomorphological details of graffian follicles with their respective oocyte and nucleus were described. Analysis of correlation coefficient and regression equations between diameters of graffian follicles of developmental stages, respective oocyte and their nucleus were calculated. Result of the study revealed that growth of graffian follicle was not consistent. Oocyte diameter was not directly proportional to the graffian follicular diameter of developing stages. Non linear increase of nucleus diameter was noted when compared with diameter of graffian follicle. Significant (P< 0.01) positive correlation has been observed between oocyte and nucleus of antral follicle. Non significant increase in cytoplasmic volume of oocyte has been observed during successive development of oocyte except bilaminar secondary follicle to multilaminar preantral follicle.

[A.V. Dorlikar, A.A. Dhamani, P.N. Charde and A.S. Mohite. Morphometric analysis of ovarian follicles of Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus giganteus (Brunnich). Academ Arena 2013;5(11):5-11] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.02


Key words: Pteropus giganteus giganteus, Chiroptera, Ovary, Graffian follicle

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The Responses of Iranian intellectual and the methodical disorders

Ali asghar amini dehaghi


Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting,Vali asr street, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Today, Iranian intellectuals; is relatively unstable that reflects passively the current crisis in mistrust Due to political culture as a social mind and  Understands vaguely their role in the process of political criticism on the  societal condition. Since it is often influenced by Crises associated with policy, directly or indirectly. Therefore it lacks a methodical process of strategic projects.  Consequently, the lack of organization in the methodology makes conceptual contradiction; especially has been caused to the crisis of the public sphere. Effective factors in Iranian intellectual movements can include: Iranian intellectual of social and political passivity, Psychological fluctuation of character, Lack of reliance on epistemic base.

[Ali asghar amini dehaghi. The Responses of Iranian intellectual and the methodical disorders. Academ Arena 2013;5(11):12-19] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.03


Key words: Responsibility Intellectual, Methodological of intellectual, Religious intellectuals, Intellectual base, role of the intellectual, the crisis of relationship

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Political situation of Khorasan & Transoxiana in the late ninth century and beginning of tenth century in Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-tabari's view


Ezzatollah Khodadadi


Department of History, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran


ABSTRACT: samanids who tract back their ancestory to bahram chubin, are the descendants of saman khodat. he was among influencial figures in transoxiana that approached the governor of khorasan(Asad ibn Abdullah ghashri) and converted to islam during the rule of Umayyad caliph, hisham ibu abdul malik-he had four sons named Nuh, Ahmad, yahya, and Elyas) who were favored by ma,mun. the governor of khorasan, ghassan ibu ebad, granted them each a rule in 204 AH. With the beginning of tahirid reign in 206 AH, taher would retain their previous positions. Since samanid era has been among the brightest and most effective periods in Iranian history in terms of political, economic, and social aspects having a significant impact on history of Iran, and also because samanids have coused major political, economic and social changes, as well as high importance and credibility in foreign and domestic relationships in their period, if this era and its events are measured in works of a great impartial author as tabari, it will add to its value and validity. given the particular political conditions in dealing with Iranian and Persian emerging local powers and also, considering the contributions of samanids in scientific and cultural prosperity and development of Iran whose obvious reason is the growth and emergence of great scientists in this era more than any other eras, the revival of Persian literature and culture which can be clearly inferred from the works of other historians and authors as well as any place in tabari history, could not be realized except it would be aligned with the will of samanid rulers (Amirs) and kings. political situation of Khorasan & Transoxiana in the late ninth century and beginning of tenth century in Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-tabari's view* Academ Arena 2013;5(11):20-23] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.04


KEYWORDS: politics, samanids, khorasan, tabari

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Career Orientation And Level Of Aspiration Among The Students Of Madrasas, Government And Private Schools


Nighat Basu, Shaista Bilquees, Gulnaz Jabeen and Syed Sajad Hussain


1.        Dean & Head, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K, India

2.        Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K, India

3.        Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, J&K, India

4.        Master, School Education Department, J&K, India

E-Mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com


ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was examined the career orientation and level of Aspiration among the students of Government and Private schools as such, descriptive method research was employed to carry out this piece of research. The total sample for the present investigation consists of 300 students (150 students from each of the districts Baramulla and Srinagar). A sample of 150 students was collected randomly from the district Baramulla from three types of institutions viz. Madrasas, Government and Private Schools and the same was done for district Srinagar. It revealed that the students of Madrasas have a high level of aspiration as compared to the students of Government Schools and Private Schools and also revealed that Government Schools exhibit the greatest tendency in the area of Scientific, followed by Medical and then by Sports. The other remaining areas of the vocational areas can be written in the decreasing order of their tendencies as; Literary, Outdoor, Technical, Fine Arts, Household, Agriculture and Craft.

[Nighat Basu, Shaista Bilquees, Gulnaz Jabeen and Syed Sajad Hussain. Career Orientation And Level Of Aspiration Among The Students Of Madrasas, Government And Private Schools. Academ Arena 2013;5(11):24-40] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.05


Key words: Career Orientation, Aspiration, Madrasas, Government, Private, Students

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Investigating the relationship between problems of Agency theory and Auditor's fees in the listed companies in Tehran Stock exchange.


Ghasem Almasi1, Dr. S. Ali Vaeez 2, Habibollah rasoli3


1- Persian Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran (corresponding Author)

2-Assistant Professor of Accounting, Shahid Chamran University

3- Department of Accounting, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran


ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between agency problems associated with free cash flow and audit fees in firms listed in Tehran Stock exchange. The data were analyzed using statistical population consisted of 80 companies listed in Tehran stock exchange for the time period 2006-2011 through pooled data system and ordinary least square (OLS) regression model in present study involves three hypotheses which examine the relationship between free cash flows, financing policy, and dividend policy as independent variables and the amount of fees paid to the auditor as a dependent variable. With the confirmation of hypotheses, we conclude that free cash flow among the sample companies has a positive significant association with the fees paid to auditors. Also, debt ratio in firms with higher cash flows has a negative significant association with audit fees. In addition, dividend in firms with higher cash flows has a negative significant association with audit fees. Academ Arena 2013;5(11):41-48] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.06


KEYWORDS: Agency theory, free cash flow, dividend policy, financing policy.

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Economics Of Jammu And Kashmir Tourism: A Multiplier Effect


Samira Khan, Mohammad Ibrahim Wani


Ph. D. Research Scholars of Economics department & CCAS, University of Kashmir (J&K), India


ABSTRACT: Economic benefits and costs of tourism reach virtually everyone in the region in one way or another. Economic impact analyses provide tangible estimates of the economic interdependences and a better understanding of the role and importance of tourism in a region’s economy as per the estimate of tourism department that thirty three percent of the state’s population is directly or indirectly connected with this activity contributing sixteen percent of the state’s Domestic Product. Pure mathematical and econometric models will be used to estimate the economic impacts of tourism sector. 

[Samira Khan, Mohammad Ibrahim Wani. Economics Of Jammu And Kashmir Tourism: A Multiplier Effect. Academ Arena 2013;5(11):49-56] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.07


Keywords:  Tourism, Jammu and Kashmir, Economy

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武科大原钢院机6521班毕业生 王德奎, y-tx@163.com


Recommended by Zhang Dongsheng, ZDS@Outlook.com


Abstract: 量子科学回采机械称为新机械科学,它的基本模具就球面和环面;揭示的圣杯就是“圈与点并存,且圈比点更基本,以及物质存在有向自己内部作运动的空间属性”。 例如拓扑学中的约当定理说:在平面上画一个圆,把平面分成两部分;作圆内外两点的任一连线,都必定要与圆周线交于一点。这个定理在平面和球面上是成立的,但在环面上却不一定成立。例如沿环圈面画一个圆圈并没有把环面分成两部分,圆圈两边的点可以通过多种曲线彼此连接。这说明平面和曲面并不是本质的区别,本质的区别是在曲面中环面和球面是不同伦的。这个定理是机械拓扑学、机械微分几何的方法抽象,球面和环面模具的第一次量子化,按庞加莱猜想定理的整体对称扩张与收缩处理,各自还是球面和环面。而第二次量子化,是减少维度的不对称处理,这次球面变为杆线,弦论称为“开弦”,即类似线段。开弦两端圈合,弦论称为“闭弦”,这已是不同伦的环面了。第二次量子化属于奇异超弦论。例如设定开弦等价于球点扩散,但不是向球面而是向定域对称的杆线扩散,我们称为“杆线弦”。而化学试管类似的三维空间,也是能收缩到一点而等价于球面,所以称为“试管弦”。这样开弦就有两种:杆线弦和试管弦。同理,闭弦不是向环面而是向定域对称的管线扩散,称为“管线弦”。而套管类似的双层管外层一端封底,也能收缩到一点而等价于环面,所以称为“套管弦”。这样闭弦也有两种:管线弦和套管弦。把杆线弦及试管弦、管线弦及套管弦作纤维看,量子力学已提出有编织态区别,其次相互交缠的诸环还可构成一个3维网络。由此描述大小时空尺度,无论是宇宙还是极小子流形也可以看成是“机械”。而且再加进“泰勒桶类似的机械模型模具,泰勒桶的桶、流体、搅拌棒等三个部分的构成,可对应宇宙、物质和能量。因流体要装桶或要流动,以杆线弦及试管弦、管线弦及套管弦等4种结构对应,杆线弦是全封闭,只有试管弦、管线弦及套管弦等3种符合,占75%,可射影约73%的暗能量。剩下25%的杆线弦,如果射影约27%的物质,说明杆线弦射影的是搅拌棒和流体。这使弦论计算暗能量、暗物质及显物质有了联系。

[王德奎. 崇实去浮,揭示机械科学美好的明天 - 20131025日在武科大机械学院学生座谈会上的讲话. Academ Arena 2013;5(11):57-64] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.08


Keywords: 量子; 科学; 新机械科学; 模具; 球面; 环面;暗能量; 暗物质; 显物质

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Economic Analysis of Oil Palm Fruit Processing in Dekina Local Government Area of kogi State, Nigeria.


Ibitoye, Stephen  J.1  and  Onje S. O 2


1. Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.

2.   Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Nigeria.



Abstract: This study investigated the economic analysis of oil palm fruit processing in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. A total of 100 oil palm fruit processors were selected through purposive sampling procedure comprising 25 processors from each of the four districts. Data collected through structured questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis, gross margin and mean score. The results revealed that the oil palm fruit processing in the study area is generally practiced by females with the mean age of 33 years. Majority (71%) were married with average family size of 8 persons per household. Multiple regression analysis showed age, family size and labour cost to be positively and significantly associated with output of palm oil. The result also showed that the average gross margin was N4, 309, 750, indicating that oil palm fruit processing is profitable in the study area. Manual processing method was the predominantly used method of processing. This study recommends that government should construct roads, in the area where they do not exist and maintain thealready existing ones for easy access to oil palm fruit. It will also reduce transportation cost in order to boost the revenue of the processors.

[Ibitoye, Stephen  J. and  Onje S. O. Economic Analysis of Oil Palm Fruit Processing in Dekina Local Government Area of kogi State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2013;5(11):65-73] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051113.09


Keywords: Oil Palm; Palm Fruit; Palm Oil; Palm Kernel oil; Processing

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from November 1, 2013. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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