Volume 5 - Number 12
(Cumulated No. 54), December 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X
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Titles / Authors
Nature and nurture interaction; The
basis of who we are and how we behave.
Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi
Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Foundation,
University of Botswana
There has been a vigorous debate in recent time, about heredity
and how they coalesce to create personalities, behaviors, and
psychopathology that appeared unique to each person
and influenced their developmental process.
This paper explores and used different methodological approach
to lifespan development to underline how the interaction
between heritable and ecological factors
behavioral changes and continuity. The study planned to increase
our knowledge and understanding of
the behavioral growth and patently recognize etiological
mechanism that support the assumption that a particular
hereditary or environmental condition ultimately lead to
behavioral feature and changes during development. The study
used the accessible materials on lifespan development to analyse
the continuous source of person uniqueness in personality
Finally, citing evidence from various multidisciplinary studies,
the article concluded that shared environment significantly
influenced human behavior but decline with age
and that the strong interaction between the
two factors formed the basis of who we are and how we behave.
[Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi.
Nature and nurture interaction; The
basis of who we are and how we behave.
Academ Arena 2013;5(12):1-11]
Twins, shared environments, nature, nurture, personality,
genetic, ecological, continuity, interaction, attitude, human
antioxidant enzyme activities
seedlings of Lepidium sativum L.
propyl isothiocyanate stress In vitro
F. farzad nejad1*, R. razavizadeh2,
1-MSc student, Payam Noor University Najaf abad,
2- Department of biology, Payame Noor University,
3- Department of biology, shahrekord university
plant of the Imperial Order Brasicals, Bracicas. h family, genus
Lepidium, Sativum species, scientific name (Lepidium Sativum
L.). without Chorus annuals and a toothless man power to use it.
We have many resources in the glucosinolate Bracicas. h family
includes 350 genera and 3000 species alone is found to be.
glucosinolate and builder of pre isothiocyanate are very stable,
soluble in water, typically in the context of live and fresh
isothiocyanate values than those from which they were derived,
they appear. They There are many plant families Wallflower. More
than 20 kinds of natural and synthetic isothiocyanate
derivatives of them. glucosinolate hydrolysis products and as
anti oxidants non can be used directly in comments. One of the
major tissue damage following exposure to stress in plants is
caused by the oxidative stress. In this study effects of
different levels of propyl isothiocyanate on biochemical
parameters and antioxidant enzyme activity such as ascorbate
peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase in seedlings of
Lepidiun sativum L. under in vitro was investigated.
The seeds of Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress)
and cultured in MS medium.
After 20 days,
seedlings were treated with
concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM proptl isothiocyanate
(various levels of stress) under sterile condition.
After 3 days, result showed chlorophyll
a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and protein
were significantly decreased, while reduced sugar, proline and
antioxidant enzymes were increased in seedlings which have been
under oxidative stress. Thus propyl isothiocyanate
respectively at concentrations
[F. farzad nejad, R.
razavizadeh, L. Shabani.
and antioxidant enzyme
seedlings of Lepidium
sativum L. under
propyl isothiocyanate stress In vitro. Academ Arena
2013;5(12):12-20] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Keywords: in vitro culture, propyl
isothiocyanate, oxidative stress.
The Relationship between
Religion and Culture with an Emphasis on Juristditional Effects
Reza Ali Karami, Ph.D.
Department of Theology,
PO box 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran
Payame Noor University
A consensus exists among
researchers, especially in the Post-Secularism period, that
“religion” is the most significant, or relative to other
societies and concerning their size, one of the most important
sources of culture production, even in the modern world. A
religious prespective to different phenomenon has been a common
concern for human beings. The present paper examines the
relationship between culture and religion and the effect of
jurisprudence on the relationship. Determining the meaning of
religion and culture, the realm of religion and culture, and the
origin of them is the most important issue which influences the
discovery of the relationship between culture and religion and
the effect of jurisprudence on it. So, we first define religion
and culture and discuss the relation between them concerning the
definitions given. In the discussion on religion and culture,
from among significant approaches, the “objective evidence”
approach was dealt with and then the relationship between
jurisprudence with will be discussed.
Karami. The Relationship between Religion and Culture with an
Emphasis on Juristditional Effects.
2013;5(12):21-29] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Jurisprudence, Jurisprudence Realm, Religion Origin, Culture
Benefit-Cost Analysis of Agricultural Production in Musanze
Alfred R. Bizoza2
Department of Applied Economics, Institut d’Enseignement
Supérieur de Ruhengeri, Rwanda
Agricultural Economics, University of Rwanda, Huye Campus,
This study considered the
profitability analysis of agricultural production in Rwanda with
special reference to Musanze District. Data collection was
conducted through well structured questionnaire administered on
107 farmer respondents selected purposively. The method of data
presentation used was descriptive statistics. The benefit-cost
ratio (B-C ratio) was used to analyze the agricultural
profitability in the study area. The results revealed that, in
the short run, agricultural investment is a profitable business
in the study area. This is reflected by the BC ratio of 1.47.
The analysis also shows that
crops (potato, wheat, corn, tomato, onion, and cabbage) are
profitable except for bean. Similarly, the results of the long
run profitability analysis show that the BC ratio is 1.003102.
The corresponding NPV is RwF 4,912.84; the IRR is 17.046% with
the discount rate (the prevailing lending interest rate) of
16.749%. The sensitivity analysis shows that the agricultural
productivity is responsive to the increase of total operating
costs, the decrease in average price, the decrease in total
production, as well to the increase in the discount rate.
Consequently, farmers should
improve their equipment and allocate rationally the inputs to
improve the profitability of agricultural investments.
[Maniriho, A., Bizoza, A. R. Finacial Benefit-Cost Analysis
of Agricultural Production in Musanze District, Rwanda.
Academ Arena 2013;5(12):30-39]
Key words: financial
benefit-cost analysis; agricultural production; Musanze
Grey topsis method for
supplier selection with litrature and Delphi critaria in an auto
A. Jafarnejad 1 , M.
1-Faculty of managemnt,
University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: Selecting and evaluating the right suppliers is
imperative for an organization’s global marketplace
competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential
suppliers can dwarf an organization’s supply chain performance.
The aim of this study is to present a suitable methodology for
the evaluation and slection of suppliers for a firm in Iran.
Specifically, the study sought to use the GreyTOPSIS and Delphi
methodology to select the most appropriate auto Bumper suppliers
of an asembling company in IRAN. In this paper we have
considered two methods for selecting supplier selection
criteria. The Delphi method was chosen first and second based on
litrature we selected critaria. we mix two method findings and
select the best supplier. Based on the research findings, the
best supplier is supplier2.
[A. Jafarnejad , M. Salimi. Grey topsis method for supplier
selection with litrature and Delphi critaria in an auto company.
2013;5(12):40-46] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Key words: supply chain,
supplier selection, Grey Topsis, Delphi method.
contamination and bacterial treatment of cutting fluids from
selected metal workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria
Ogunjobi A.A. 1*, Adekanmbi A.O.1, Fadare
Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory,
Department of Microbiology,
University of Ibadan,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ibadan,
Studies were carried out on the microbial contamination and
biotreatment of cutting fluid samples collected from nine
different metal workshops within Ibadan metropolis. Isolation
was done using the pour plate technique while the heavy metal
concentration of the cutting fluids was monitored using the
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Total Organic Carbon
(TOC) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) which were used as
indices for the biotreatment of the fluids by the bacteria
isolates were monitored using different analytical procedures. A
total of thirty bacteria were isolated from the cutting fluids
samples. They include Bacillus sp, Proteus sp,
Staphylococcus sp, Citrobacter sp, Corynebacterium
sp, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter sp,
Alcaligenes sp, Flavobacterium sp, Klebsiella
sp with Pseudomonas sp being the most prevalent. The
highest concentration of Pb was observed in the cutting fluid
sample from the Physics Department (7.02µg/g), while the sample
from Maintenance Department had 1.30µg/g Ni. The Zn and Cr level
were detected to be highest in the sample from Tat metal
workshop with concentration of 0.91µg/g and 0.19µg/g
respectively. The ability of the isolates to treat the fluids
(singly or in consortium) was assessed using the TOC and BOD of
the cutting fluid after treatment using the bacteria species.
The heavy metal concentration was lowered by all the treatment,
however the highest reduction of the metal levels was observed
in the fluid treated with the consortium (Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Bacillus sp.). The same trend was
observed in the TOC and BOD values after treatment with the
bacterial isolates. The consortium reduced the TOC of the fresh
cutting fluids by 43.80% compared to 39.31% and 31.15% by
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. respectively.
The BOD value of the fresh fluid was reduced by 62.01% using the
consortium as against the 51.42% and 41.27% reduction by the
singular organism. The BOD and TOC of the spent cutting fluid,
in similar vein were reduced effectively by the consortium with
percentage reduction of 64.35% and 61.00% respectively. These
bacteria can prove to be very effective in the biotreatment of
environment contaminated with pollutants especially heavy
[Ogunjobi A.A., Adekanmbi A.O., Fadare A.D. Microbial
contamination and bacterial treatment of cutting fluids from
selected metal workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria. Academ Arena
2013;5(12):47-54] (ISSN 1553-992X).
heavy metal, BOD, TOC.
The Preceding and Following of
Connections: (Connecting Singulars to Singulars) in the Holy
Ardashir Sadraddini 1, *,
Ghader ghaderi 2
PH.D. In Arabic
literature, Department of Arabic language and literature Islamic
Azad University, Mahabad Branch, Iran.
PH.D In Arabic
literature, Assistant Professor of Payame noor university, Iran
The present article includes words of the Holy Quran that are
preceded in some verses and are followed in some others. This is
done in a sophisticated and technical way and has bothered the
reciters of revelation speech in many cases except those who are
skillful in the view of memorization. We are going to specify
the preceding and following cases in the Holy Quran. Using known
methods and techniques in the ancient Islamic heritage and
compiled texts and beliefs in the works from our ancestors, we
deal with semantic, rhetoric, syntactic and literal aspects of
the Holy Quran because it is a literary masterpiece and every
proper knowledge and interpretation of it- with any purpose and
aim- should be based on literary viewpoint of it. So we most
consider the Holy Quran as a literary work and interpreted
verify it regarding its stylistic features because it is the
most important feature of it. In this article we will discuss
syntactic and rhetoric reasons of preceding and following of jar
and majrur (مجرور
جار) in the Holy Quran
and we will prove that everywhere there is a preceding of a
word. It is the proper way and everywhere a word is followed, it
is the suitable way of that because the way of expressing the
Holy Quran is quite a technical and purposeful way and every
word and even every letter of this priceless book is put in its
place technically and meaningfully and this is kept in all
verses and its areas.
[Ardashir Sadraddini, Ghader
ghaderi. The preceding and following of connections:
(connecting singulars to singulars) in the Holy Quran.
2013;5(12):55-61] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Preceding; Following; Quran; Connections; Arabic Literature
Query optimization Pattern
matching guide index table
Instructor, Department of
University, po Box 19395-3697, IRAN.
Nowadays, XML is one of the most important models for storing
and communicating data. The flexibility of XML leads to be used
commonly In order to manage these documents, an expressive
system is needed because traditional file systems can’t manage
and accountability such a huge volume of data. With the
increasing number and size of documents that need to accelerate
the implementation of database queries can be felt. And
researchers trying to improve these methods is high.. So far,
many methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the XML
world, but each method only a small batch of queries and to
respond to large query that does a lot of time spent on query
processing are not appropriate. The result is still a certain
way as a standard, traditional relational databases like SQL in
there. In this thesis we are looking for a way to handle the
query in the form of a large tree and will respond in less time
and less number of nodes will reach. Direction indicators have a
method that combines with the middle and lower data volume does.
Way that does not pay directly to the query document. Since many
articles are written in XML, Just as content is often focused on
a particular subject and the angle is quite specific and limited
time to review the cases and rarely large family of XML
technology and XML standards are mentioned. This study describes
the key elements associated with the XML technology and their
relation to each of them to implement decisive and location
information suppliers and planners are described. The
performance of the proposed methods in this field, we, in any
precise way to look at the strengths and weaknesses of each
method are described. The third chapter presents the proposed
method, and in his fourth season with the use of several tests
on the performance pledge to prove it. We hope that this
research bright aperture open to researchers.
Query optimization Pattern matching guide index table.
2013;5(12):62-68] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Pattern matching guide index table. Query optimization
Theory on 3G Matters)
The Natural Material Universe shall be considered as evolved
from Dark Matter, Dark Energy under the influence of
Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). The EMR shall be
considered as the law of matters comprising of
three-in-one most fundamental Neutrino Particles Photon,
Electron, Proton which makes 3G Evolution and three
generation matters. “Evolution shall alternatively means
adding up mass to the fundamental neutrino particles and thereby
genetic value of matters are altered” (-Author).
Arulmani, V.R. Hema Latha. 3G EVOLUTION?.(A New
Theory on 3G Matters).
2013;5(12):69-74] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Dark Tree, Dark Stem, Dark Tablet, Expanding Universe.
Ethics For Legal Profession in India
Iqramuddin Malik1, Dr. Ashish Singhal2,
Arun Prakash Singh3
1. SARPASIL, Subharti University, Meerut, India
2. SOL, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India
3. MJPR University, Bareilly, India
Legal ethics may be taken to mean the body of rules and practice
which determine the professional conduct of members of bar. The
very first purpose and aim of legal ethics is to maintain the
dignity and honour of the law profession .In India to maintain
the honor of legal profession , the Advocate Act 1961 has been
passed and established Bar Councils . Under section 49 (1) (c)
of Advocates Act breach of Advocates duties codified in regard
to the Professional and other misconduct. So a lawyer should be
clear in expressing his views and should understand that it is
not enough for him alone to understand that his client is right
but to prove it to the judge and to the others concerned with
the case. A successful lawyer stands by his point and does not
easily agree to statements made against his client. In handling
the opponent’s tricky questions to make a lawyer disagree with
his own client, a lawyer must be alert and tackle the situation
smartly, thus having people think in his favor. A successful
lawyer must have quick thinking to handle difficult situations
in the court.
[Iqramuddin Malik, Ashish Singhal, Arun Prakash Singh. Ethics
For Legal Profession in India.
Academ Arena 2013;5(12):75-78] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Lawyer, Court, Justice, Morality, Ethics
2013;5(12):79-91] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Reservation for equal justice under Indian Constitution
Dr. Ashish Kumar Singhal1,
Iqramuddin Malik2, Arun Prakash Singh3
1. Sharda University, Greater
2. Subharti University, Meerut,
University, Bareilly, India
Since the establishment and the enforcement of Indian
Constitution there has been a vast discussion regarding
reservation till now .The purpose of the reservation in India
has been to bring about an improvement in the welfare who,
historically, has been economically and socially weaker. But, in
arriving at this judgement about who should be eligible for
reservation, the criterion has been a person’s caste rather than
his income or wealth. Consequently, groups belonging to what
Article 15 of the Indian Constitution calls “socially and
educationally backward classes” have benefited from reservation
even though, in practice, many of these groups could not be
regarded as “backward”. This has meant that the benefits of
reservation have been captured by well to do groups of other
classes and itself among the depressed classes like SCs and
STs while poorer groups among these caste have failed to take
the proper benefit of reservation and to some extent had been
Singhal, Iqramuddin Malik, Arun Prakash Singh. Reservation
for equal justice under Indian Constitution.
2013;5(12):92-96] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Caste, Constitution, Researvation, Classes.
articles in this issue are presented as online first for
peer-review starting from
comments are welcome: email@example.com
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