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Science Journal


Academia Arena


Volume 5 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 54), December 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file


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Titles / Authors




Nature and nurture interaction; The basis of who we are and how we behave.


Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi


Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Foundation, University of Botswana


ABSTRACT: There has been a vigorous debate in recent time, about heredity versus environment and how they coalesce to create personalities, behaviors, and psychopathology that appeared unique to each person and influenced their developmental process. This paper explores and used different methodological approach to lifespan development to underline how the interaction between heritable and ecological factors contributes to behavioral changes and continuity. The study planned to increase our knowledge and understanding of the behavioral growth and patently recognize etiological mechanism that support the assumption that a particular hereditary or environmental condition ultimately lead to behavioral feature and changes during development. The study used the accessible materials on lifespan development to analyse the continuous source of person uniqueness in personality development. Finally, citing evidence from various multidisciplinary studies, the article concluded that shared environment significantly influenced human behavior but decline with age and that the strong interaction between the two factors formed the basis of who we are and how we behave.

[Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi. Nature and nurture interaction; The basis of who we are and how we behave. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):1-11] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.01


Keywords: Twins, shared environments, nature, nurture, personality, genetic, ecological, continuity, interaction, attitude, human development, lifespan

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Physiological responses and antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings of Lepidium sativum L. under propyl isothiocyanate stress In vitro


F. farzad nejad1*, R. razavizadeh2, L. Shabani3


1-MSc student, Payam Noor University Najaf abad, Isfahan, Iran

2- Department of biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IRAN

3- Department of biology, shahrekord university


Abstract: Edible plant of the Imperial Order Brasicals, Bracicas. h family, genus Lepidium, Sativum species, scientific name (Lepidium Sativum L.). without Chorus annuals and a toothless man power to use it. We have many resources in the glucosinolate Bracicas. h family includes 350 genera and 3000 species alone is found to be. glucosinolate and builder of pre isothiocyanate are very stable, soluble in water, typically in the context of live and fresh isothiocyanate values ​​than those from which they were derived, they appear. They There are many plant families Wallflower. More than 20 kinds of natural and synthetic isothiocyanate derivatives of them. glucosinolate hydrolysis products and as anti oxidants non can be used directly in comments. One of the major tissue damage following exposure to stress in plants is caused by the oxidative stress. In this study effects of different levels of propyl isothiocyanate on biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme activity such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase in seedlings of Lepidiun sativum L. under in vitro was investigated. The seeds of Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) were sterilized and cultured in MS medium. After 20 days, seedlings were treated with concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM proptl isothiocyanate (various levels of stress) under sterile condition. After 3 days, result showed chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and protein were significantly decreased, while reduced sugar, proline and antioxidant enzymes were increased in seedlings which have been under oxidative stress. Thus propyl isothiocyanate appears to cause oxidative stress and activation of the plant's defenses parameters. The maximum and minimum respectively at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.01 mM propyl isothiocyanate observed.

[F. farzad nejad, R. razavizadeh, L. Shabani. Physiological responses and antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings of Lepidium sativum L. under propyl isothiocyanate stress In vitro. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):12-20] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.02


Keywords: in vitro culture, propyl isothiocyanate, oxidative stress.

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The Relationship between Religion and Culture with an Emphasis  on Juristditional Effects


Reza Ali Karami, Ph.D.


Department of Theology, PO box 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran

Payame Noor University


Abstarct: A consensus exists among researchers, especially in the Post-Secularism period, that “religion” is the most significant, or relative to other societies and concerning their size, one of the most important sources of culture production, even in the modern world. A religious prespective to different phenomenon has been a common concern for human beings. The present paper examines the relationship between culture and religion and the effect of jurisprudence on the relationship. Determining the meaning of religion and culture, the realm of religion and culture, and the origin of them is the most important issue which influences the discovery of the relationship between culture and religion and the effect of jurisprudence on it. So, we first define religion and culture and discuss the relation between them concerning the definitions given. In the discussion on religion and culture, from among significant approaches, the “objective evidence” approach was dealt with and then the relationship between jurisprudence with will be discussed.

[Reza Ali Karami. The Relationship between Religion and Culture with an Emphasis  on Juristditional Effects. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):21-29] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.03


Key Terms: Religion, Culture, Jurisprudence, Jurisprudence Realm, Religion Origin, Culture Origin

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Financial Benefit-Cost Analysis of Agricultural Production in Musanze District, Rwanda


Aristide Maniriho1, Alfred R. Bizoza2


1.        Department of Applied Economics, Institut d’Enseignement Supérieur de Ruhengeri, Rwanda

2.        Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Rwanda, Huye Campus, Rwanda

manirihoaristide1@gmail.com; alfredbiz23@gmail.com


Abstract: This study considered the profitability analysis of agricultural production in Rwanda with special reference to Musanze District. Data collection was conducted through well structured questionnaire administered on 107 farmer respondents selected purposively. The method of data presentation used was descriptive statistics. The benefit-cost ratio (B-C ratio) was used to analyze the agricultural profitability in the study area. The results revealed that, in the short run, agricultural investment is a profitable business in the study area. This is reflected by the BC ratio of 1.47. The analysis also shows that all individual crops (potato, wheat, corn, tomato, onion, and cabbage) are profitable except for bean. Similarly, the results of the long run profitability analysis show that the BC ratio is 1.003102. The corresponding NPV is RwF 4,912.84; the IRR is 17.046% with the discount rate (the prevailing lending interest rate) of 16.749%. The sensitivity analysis shows that the agricultural productivity is responsive to the increase of total operating costs, the decrease in average price, the decrease in total production, as well to the increase in the discount rate. Consequently, farmers should improve their equipment and allocate rationally the inputs to improve the profitability of agricultural investments.

[Maniriho, A., Bizoza, A. R. Finacial Benefit-Cost Analysis of Agricultural Production in Musanze District, Rwanda. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):30-39] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.04


Key words: financial benefit-cost analysis; agricultural production; Musanze District; Rwanda

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Grey topsis method for supplier selection with litrature and Delphi critaria in an auto company


A. Jafarnejad 1 , M. Salimi 1,*


1-Faculty of managemnt, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Selecting and evaluating the right suppliers is imperative for an organization’s global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential suppliers can dwarf an organization’s supply chain performance. The aim of this study is to present a suitable methodology for the evaluation and slection of suppliers for a firm in Iran. Specifically, the study sought to use the GreyTOPSIS and Delphi methodology to select the most appropriate auto Bumper suppliers of an asembling company in IRAN. In this paper we have considered two methods for selecting supplier selection criteria. The Delphi method was chosen first and second based on litrature we selected critaria. we mix two method findings and select the best supplier. Based on the research findings, the best supplier is supplier2.

[A. Jafarnejad , M. Salimi. Grey topsis method for supplier selection with litrature and Delphi critaria in an auto company. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):40-46] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.05


Key words: supply chain, supplier selection, Grey Topsis, Delphi method.

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Microbial contamination and bacterial treatment of cutting fluids from selected metal workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria


Ogunjobi A.A. 1*, Adekanmbi A.O.1, Fadare A.D.2


1.                 Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology,

University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

2.                Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.



Abstract: Studies were carried out on the microbial contamination and biotreatment of cutting fluid samples collected from nine different metal workshops within Ibadan metropolis. Isolation was done using the pour plate technique while the heavy metal concentration of the cutting fluids was monitored using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) which were used as indices for the biotreatment of the fluids by the bacteria isolates were monitored using different analytical procedures. A total of thirty bacteria were isolated from the cutting fluids samples. They include Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Citrobacter sp, Corynebacterium sp, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter sp, Alcaligenes sp, Flavobacterium sp, Klebsiella sp with Pseudomonas sp being the most prevalent. The highest concentration of Pb was observed in the cutting fluid sample from the Physics Department (7.02µg/g), while the sample from Maintenance Department had 1.30µg/g Ni. The Zn and Cr level were detected to be highest in the sample from Tat metal workshop with concentration of 0.91µg/g and 0.19µg/g respectively. The ability of the isolates to treat the fluids (singly or in consortium) was assessed using the TOC and BOD of the cutting fluid after treatment using the bacteria species. The heavy metal concentration was lowered by all the treatment, however the highest reduction of the metal levels was observed in the fluid treated with the consortium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp.). The same trend was observed in the TOC and BOD values after treatment with the bacterial isolates. The consortium reduced the TOC of the fresh cutting fluids by 43.80% compared to 39.31% and 31.15% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. respectively. The BOD value of the fresh fluid was reduced by 62.01% using the consortium as against the 51.42% and 41.27% reduction by the singular organism. The BOD and TOC of the spent cutting fluid, in similar vein were reduced effectively by the consortium with percentage reduction of 64.35% and 61.00% respectively. These bacteria can prove to be very effective in the biotreatment of environment contaminated with pollutants especially heavy metals.

[Ogunjobi A.A., Adekanmbi A.O., Fadare A.D. Microbial contamination and bacterial treatment of cutting fluids from selected metal workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):47-54] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.06


Key words: cutting fluids, heavy metal, BOD, TOC.

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The Preceding and Following of Connections: (Connecting Singulars to Singulars) in the Holy Quran


Ardashir Sadraddini 1, *, Ghader ghaderi 2


1.       PH.D. In Arabic literature, Department of Arabic language and literature Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch, Iran. ardashir.sadraddini@gmail.com

2.       PH.D In Arabic literature, Assistant Professor of Payame noor university, Iran


Abstract:   The present article includes words of the Holy Quran that are preceded in some verses and are followed in some others. This is done in a sophisticated and technical way and has bothered the reciters of revelation speech in many cases except those who are skillful in the view of memorization. We are going to specify the preceding and following cases in the Holy Quran. Using known methods and techniques in the ancient Islamic heritage and compiled texts and beliefs in the works from our ancestors, we deal with semantic, rhetoric, syntactic and literal aspects of the Holy Quran because it is a literary masterpiece and every proper knowledge and interpretation of it- with any purpose and aim- should be based on literary viewpoint of it. So we most consider the Holy Quran as a literary work and interpreted verify it regarding its stylistic features because it is the most important feature of it. In this article we will discuss syntactic and rhetoric reasons of preceding and following of jar and majrur (مجرور و جار) in the Holy Quran and we will prove that everywhere there is a preceding of a word. It is the proper way and everywhere a word is followed, it is the suitable way of that because the way of expressing the Holy Quran is quite a technical and purposeful way and every word and even every letter of this priceless book is put in its place technically and meaningfully and this is kept in all verses and its areas.

[Ardashir Sadraddini, Ghader ghaderi. The preceding and following of connections: (connecting singulars to singulars) in the Holy Quran. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):55-61] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.07


Key words: Preceding; Following; Quran; Connections; Arabic Literature

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Query optimization Pattern matching guide index table




Instructor, Department of Engineering,Payame Noor University, po Box 19395-3697, IRAN.

Email: hamghamgin@yahoo.com


Abstract: Nowadays, XML is one of the most important models for storing and communicating data. The flexibility of XML leads to be used commonly In order to manage these documents, an expressive system is needed because traditional file systems can’t manage and accountability such a huge volume of data. With the increasing number and size of documents that need to accelerate the implementation of database queries can be felt. And researchers trying to improve these methods is high.. So far, many methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the XML world, but each method only a small batch of queries and to respond to large query that does a lot of time spent on query processing are not appropriate. The result is still a certain way as a standard, traditional relational databases like SQL in there. In this thesis we are looking for a way to handle the query in the form of a large tree and will respond in less time and less number of nodes will reach. Direction indicators have a method that combines with the middle and lower data volume does. Way that does not pay directly to the query document. Since many articles are written in XML, Just as content is often focused on a particular subject and the angle is quite specific and limited time to review the cases and rarely large family of XML technology and XML standards are mentioned. This study describes the key elements associated with the XML technology and their relation to each of them to implement decisive and location information suppliers and planners are described. The performance of the proposed methods in this field, we, in any precise way to look at the strengths and weaknesses of each method are described. The third chapter presents the proposed method, and in his fourth season with the use of several tests on the performance pledge to prove it. We hope that this research bright aperture open to researchers.

[Hamdollahghamgin. Query optimization Pattern matching guide index table. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):62-68] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.08


Key words: Pattern matching guide index table. Query optimization

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3G EVOLUTION? (A New Theory on 3G Matters)




M.Arulmani, B.E.





V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




Abstract: The Natural Material Universe shall be considered as evolved from Dark Matter, Dark Energy under the influence of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). The EMR shall be considered as the law of matters comprising of three-in-one most fundamental Neutrino Particles Photon, Electron, Proton which makes 3G Evolution and three generation matters. “Evolution shall alternatively means adding up mass to the fundamental neutrino particles and thereby genetic value of matters are altered” (-Author).

[M. Arulmani, V.R. Hema Latha. 3G EVOLUTION?.(A New Theory on 3G Matters). Academ Arena 2013;5(12):69-74] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.09


Key Words:   Dark Tree, Dark Stem, Dark Tablet, Expanding Universe.

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Ethics For Legal Profession in India


Iqramuddin Malik1, Dr. Ashish Singhal2, Arun Prakash Singh3


1. SARPASIL, Subharti University, Meerut, India

2. SOL, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India

3. MJPR University, Bareilly, India


Abstract: Legal ethics may be taken to mean the body of rules and practice which determine the professional conduct of members of bar. The very first purpose and aim of legal ethics is to maintain the dignity and honour of the law profession .In India to maintain the honor of legal profession , the Advocate Act 1961 has been passed  and established Bar Councils . Under section 49 (1) (c) of Advocates Act breach of Advocates duties codified in regard to the Professional and other misconduct. So a lawyer should be clear in expressing his views and should understand that it is not enough for him alone to understand that his client is right but to prove it to the judge and to the others concerned with the case. A successful lawyer stands by his point and does not easily agree to statements made against his client. In handling the opponent’s tricky questions to make a lawyer disagree with his own client, a lawyer must be alert and tackle the situation smartly, thus having people think in his favor. A successful lawyer must have quick thinking to handle difficult situations in the court.

[Iqramuddin Malik, Ashish Singhal, Arun Prakash Singh. Ethics For Legal Profession in India. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):75-78] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.10


Key Words: Lawyer, Court, Justice, Morality, Ethics

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Recommended by: 王德奎, y-tx@163.com; Zhang Dongsheng, ZDS@Outlook.com



[郑唤. 3D4D打印与世界工厂. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):79-91] (ISSN 1553-992X). 11



Keywords: 3D4D打印与世界工厂

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Reservation for equal justice under Indian Constitution


Dr. Ashish Kumar Singhal1, Iqramuddin Malik2, Arun Prakash Singh3


1. Sharda University, Greater Noida, India

2. Subharti University, Meerut, India

3. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, India


ABSTRACT: Since the establishment and the enforcement of Indian Constitution there has been a vast discussion regarding reservation till now .The purpose of the reservation in India has been to bring about an improvement in the welfare who, historically, has been economically and socially weaker. But, in arriving at this judgement about who should be eligible for reservation, the criterion has been a person’s caste rather than his income or wealth. Consequently, groups belonging to what Article 15 of the Indian Constitution calls “socially and educationally backward classes” have benefited from reservation even though, in practice, many of these groups could not be regarded as “backward”. This has meant that  the benefits of reservation have been captured by well to do  groups of other classes and itself among the  depressed classes like  SCs and STs while poorer groups among these caste have failed to take the proper benefit of reservation and to some extent had been uplifted.

[Ashish Kumar Singhal, Iqramuddin Malik, Arun Prakash Singh. Reservation for equal justice under Indian Constitution. Academ Arena 2013;5(12):92-96] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj051213.12


Key Words: Caste, Constitution, Researvation, Classes.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from 12/2/2013. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
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