[an error occurred while processing this directive]



Science Journal


Academia Arena


ISSN 1553-992X; Monthly

Volume 6 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 59), May 25, 2014

Cover Page, Cover (Print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file


You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

For Microsoft Document (doc file): After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.



Titles / Authors




The legal –criminological analysis of Islamic penal law article 146passed in 2013 in the light of fuzzy logic


Amir Ahmadi 1, Shirzad Amiri 2, Shahabuddin Naseri3 Shokrollah Rezaei4


1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com

2. Department of law IslamAbad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

3. Department of law IslamAbad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

4. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran


Abstract: In the Aristotelian philosophy which is against the east philosophy, everything is divided into black and white and yes/no. Logical concepts and obtained results in Aristotelian philosophy doesn’t have any middle state in this philosophy you can`t be either honest or liar or either young or old you can`t be either covered or naked.in fact in the Aristotelian logic there isn`t a third aspect an mal covered or naked, while in the fuzzy logic there is no distinct border and different elements belonging to various issues and concepts is relative the present article focuses on this principle that in the real world everything lies in a space between two parts of black and white however, but it is a particular manner of extended logic the subject of the present article, by helping of the fuzzy logic wants to challenge the age of penal responsibility in the article 140of Islamic penal which bases on Aristotelian logic, whether we can`t differentiate between physiological growth steps of child`s sexual and intellectual maturity, which is affected by social, economical hereditary, physiological, weather coldness and hotness and other factors and is different from different people and also we can`t draw a unite border between them and we can’t present an independent criterion to determine their penal responsibility key words :fuzzy logic barriers of responsibility, educative and supplementary jobs.

[Amir Ahmadi, Shirzad Amiri, Shahabuddin Naseri, Shokrollah Rezaei. The legal –criminological analysis of Islamic penal law article 146passed in 2013 in the light of fuzzy logic. Academ Arena 2014;6(5):1-6]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.01


Key words: The Handicapped, Rights, Verses, Traditions, Laws

Full Text



Phytochemical investigation, toxicity and antimicrobial screening of essential oil and extracts from leaves and stem bark of Hura crepitans (Euphorbiaceae)


Ganiyat K. Oloyede1*, Mutairu B. Olatinwo1

1.     Natural products/Medicinal Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

oloyedegk@gmail.com; Telephone: +234 803 562 2238

 *Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract: The crude methanol extract of Hura crepitans was obtained and screened for the presence of secondary plant metabolites. The leaf essential oil was also obtained by hydro-distillation and GC and GC/MS analysis of the colourless essential oil showed the presence of seven compounds with ethyl propionate (39.6%) and isopentyl alcohol (10.6%) being the major constituents. The LC50 obtained from brine shrimp lethality test indicated that all the extracts were toxic at varied degrees. The hexane extract of the bark of H. crepitans was the most toxic with LC50 0.001 μg/ml. The partitioned extracts and essential oil were subjected to antimicrobial screening against 10 microorganisms; 6 bacteria and 4 fungi at 6.25 - 200 mg/ml and 3.125 - 200 mg/ml respectively. Appreciable in vitro activity was observed in the antimicrobial tests. The ethylacetate extract of the stem bark was the most active in the antimicrobial screening as it inhibited A. niger and C. albicans at all concentrations suggestive of a selective antifungal activity, when compared to standards; gentamicin for bacteria and tioconazole for fungi. Alkaloids, steroids and phenolic compounds were found in the methanol extracts of H. crepitans leaves and stem bark but flavonoids and tannins were only present in the bark. Lastly, the presence of ethyl propionate and isopentyl alcohol in this plant oil showed that it can be a useful source of preservative or flavoring agent in feed and food industry. This study apparently highlights the biochemical basis for possible use of the H. crepitans in ethno-medicine.

[Oloyede GK., Olatinwo M. B. Phytochemical investigation, toxicity and antimicrobial screening of essential oil and extracts from leaves and stem bark of Hura crepitans (Euphorbiaceae). Academ Arena 2014;6(5):7-15] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.02


Key words: Alkaloids, flavonoids, ethyl propionate, isopentyl alcohol, essential oil, toxicity, antimicrobial, Hura crepitans

Full Text



Effect Of Ict On Agricultural Sector In Nigeria


Aminat Showole, Bisallah Hashim


Computer Science Department, University of Abuja, Nigeria

aminatshowole@gmail.com, hbisallah@gmail.com


Abstract: The past decade is characterized by major changes in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environment in agriculture worldwide. The study is aimed at determining the influence of information communication technologies in dissemination of information to urban farmers. Primary data for the study was obtained by random sampling of 60 respondents from agricultural companies in Imo state, Abia state and FCT, Abuja. Descriptive statistics such as mean and frequency table for data analysis were used and questionnaires also administered to the farmers. Secondary data were obtained from published documents and records. From the findings, the results obtained shows that a mean score of 0.33 and standard deviation of 2.56 agree that you use statistical packages in the computer for researches. Mean score of 0.3 agree strongly that there’s a wider access to foreign journals as a result of the internet. A mean score of 0.2 agree that the problems associated with the use of ICT include poor internet connectivity, unstable power supply (0.25), high cost of using commercial cyber café (0.16) and lack of subscription to agricultural database (0.16). Based on the results, this study recommends that agricultural sectors should be well funded so that they can subscribe to outstanding databases, power supply that will meet the needs of agricultural researchers. Secondly, agricultural researchers should improve their ICT infrastructures and the larger part of its bandwidth should be given to the sector to reduce the cost of using commercial cyber cafes for the agricultural sector.  

[Aminat Showole, Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim. Effect of ICT on Agricultural Sector in Nigeria. Academ Arena 2014;6(5):16-24]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.03


Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT); environment; agriculture; commercial.

Full Text



Beyond Psychopathology in Clinical Psychology: Developmental Pathways to the future


Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi


Department of Behavioural and Social Sciences, Atlantic International University, USA


Abstract: Evidence in the past two decades on psychopathology has come up with a suggestion that research should to toy the line of dynamism and innovativeness ,both in theory and practice. Drawing together outcomes from various psychopathology’s studies, this article presents an overview on the need to move beyond psychopathology and clinical intervention and embraces developmental perspectives to elucidate adaptive and maladaptive in human behaviour and functioning The paper highlights the need for professionals in the field of clinical psychology to shoulder the policy of equivalence and gives developmental perspectives the same treatment and status enjoy by psychopathology. In realizing this objective, this paper highlights and addresses three underlying themes: 1) to understand the fact that amelioration of psychosocial problems, needs a multidisciplinary and multidimensional quality and experiential consideration from other disciplines, 2) to analyse how the field of clinical psychology and mental health in general gain from assessing psychopathology from developmental perspectives, 3) to examine behavioral, emotional and learning problems using the principles, advancement and prospect of developmental paradigm to address the concept, challenges and variances associated with human psychopathology. Finaly, the study concludes that a continued and expanded interface between normal and atypical development,coupled with interdisciplinary perspective, if fostered, will create an inspiring innovative epoch of hypothetical and experiential work in developmental sciences.

[Olusegun Emmanuel Afolabi. Beyond Psychopathology in Clinical Psychology: Developmental Pathways to the future. Academ Arena 2014;6(5):25-39]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.04


Key Word: Psychopathology, developmental psychopathology, developmental perspective, behavioural, emotional problem.

Full Text








Recommended: 王德奎, y-tx@163.com


[摘要] 人类远古联合国形成起源于自然大灾变,解体于自然大灾变,原因是那时的科学还不能预测和克服自然大灾变,所以科学成为人类基因组装的一种飞天梦“解”。今天的联合国形成起源于第二次世界大战,是否会解体于再次的世界大战,只有时间可以验证。科学乱,国家乱;科学稳。国家稳。前苏联是例子,乌克兰是例子。

[玉龙. 藏象论之殇----藏象论从刑天到撒切尔夫人. Academ Arena 2014;6(5):40-56]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.05


Key words: 人类; 远古; 联合国; 自然; 灾变; 科学; 世界大战

Full Text



Investigation the Relationship between Intelligence and Personality in Male and Female Students


Farnaz Dada


Lecturer in Payam-e-Noor University, Doolatabad, Isfahan


Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the conceptual relation of intelligence and personality. Another purpose is to review empirical research on the relation of intelligence to other traits. Personality and intelligence have often been viewed as distinct domains that intersect only to a very limited degree. The sample consisted of 96 senior executives (Males = 36; Females = 50; mean age = 40.54). Regression analyses indicated medium to large relationships between ability EI scales and achieving business outcomes. Self-reported EI also was linked to business outcomes, but was no longer significant when controlling for personality. These results may have important implications for how we select and develop executives.

[Farnaz Dada. Investigation the Relationship between Intelligence and Personality in Male and Female Students. Academ Arena 2014;6(5):57-66] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.06


Key words: Intelligence, Personality, Psychology

Full Text



Reservation Policy In India: Problems And Solutions


Jamshed Ansari


Asstt. Professor (Guest Faculty), Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, Delhi (INDIA)

E-Mail- jamshedansari024@gmail.com

Date: 13.05.2014


Abstract: The object of this paper is to find out the problems and to give some tentative solutions for the reservation policy in India. The author has concentrated his study on Articles 15 (4), 16 (4), 46, 340, 341, 342 of the Constitution of India. The careful interpretation of Article 15 (4), 16 (4) of the constitution of India is to see that whether reservation policy is satisfactory and fulfills its objects as mandated by our Constitution of India. The paper is limited to analyze the provisions of Article 15 (4), 16 (4) of the Constitution of India and case laws on the point. The author has formulated the following questions and has tried to find out the answer- What is the concept of reservation policy in India and is its purpose? Who are the weaker sections of society for which regarding reservation? What are the problems and the solutions regarding reservation?

[Ansari, Jamshed. Reservation Policy in India: Problems and Solutions. Academ Arena 2014;6(5):67-72]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.07


Key Words: Reservation, backwardness, education, services, social justice etc.

Full Text



Human Equivalent of Cosmo?...

(A new theory on J-Mathematics”)


Abstract:This Scientific research focus that the “Cosmo Universe” Considered like a “MIGHTY HUMAN” lying on the floor facing upwards having stretched hands and legs and caring for His Children with “Sleepless eyes” which act as Encode / Decode logic system for the sustainability of Universe.

[M. Arulmani, B.E.. V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. Human Equivalent of Cosmo? Academ Arena 2014;6(5):73-78]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.08


Key Words:J-Heart, J-Point, J-Gate, Energy centre, Plasma zone, 3G Galaxies, Tripod foundation pillar, Dark logic (Spirit).

Full Text



Allelopathic Potential Of Tithonia Diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray On Vegetative Performance Of Cowpea And Maize


1Aladejimokun, A. O., 2Edagbo, D. E. and 3Adesina, J. M.


1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. 2PGR Unit, National Centre for Genetic Resources & Biotechnology, P. M. B. 5382, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.



Abstract: Some plants influence the seed germination and growth of other plants by means of producing toxic chemicals, i.e. allelochemicals or allelopathins. This study examines the susceptibility of Maize (Zea mays) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to allelopathic effects of Tithonia diversifolia. Fresh shoot aqueous extract (FSE) of T. diversifolia was prepared at a concentration of 12.5%, 25% and 50% and used to wet polybags planted with cowpea and maize seeds arranged in Completely Randomized Design and replicated three times. Results obtained from the study show that number of leaves, leaf area development, plant height and stem girth progressively increased at 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after planting (WAP) thus indicating that  FSE of T. diversifolia exhibit stimulatory effects on the vegetative growth of cowpea and maize.

[Aladejimokun, A. O., Edagbo, D. E. and Adesina, J. M. Allelopathic Potential Of Tithonia Diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray On Vegetative Performance Of Cowpea And Maize. Academ Arena 2014;6(5):79-84] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060514.09


Keywords: allelochemicals, concentration, exhibit, fresh shoot aqueous extract, progressively, stimulatory effects

Full Text


The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 27, 2014. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

[an error occurred while processing this directive]




Terms of Service  |  Privacy Policy  |

© 2014 Marsland Press