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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-922X, Monthly

Volume 7 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 71), May 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Cultural Anthropology (The outline)

 

Chen Guoren

 

Vice President of Chinese scientists BBS; Shanghai (international) frontier science research convener

Mobile: 13337393557; Email: guozi6@hotmail.com; Blog: http://blog.sina.com.cn/renzichen

Recommended: Zhang Dongsheng (17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A. zhangds12@hotmail.com / zds@outlook.com)

 

Abstract: The reason why human and animals have both the materiality and consciousness is that the nervous system has the materiality, and it can also evolve into conscious activities. The nervous system is connected by neurons, which have both the materiality and consciousness. The neuron is a kind of cells, which can carry out conscious activities such as metabolism, the central dogma, avoiding death and avoiding disadvantages, and the cells have both the materiality and consciousness. All the life activities of cells are performed by the biological macromolecules, which have both the materiality and consciousness. Biological macromolecules are linked of small biological molecules, which have both the materiality and consciousness. Small biological molecules are organic molecules, which have both the materiality and consciousness. Organic molecules are ordinary molecules, which have both the materiality and consciousness. Molecules compose of atoms, which have both the materiality and consciousness. The chemical reaction is both a material process and a conscious process. Atoms compose of nucleons and electrons, which have both the materiality and consciousness. Nucleons compose of protons and neutrons, which have both the materiality and consciousness, and the nuclear reaction is both a material process and a conscious process.

[Chen Guoren. Cultural Anthropology (The outline). Academ Arena 2015;7(5):1-15]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.01

 

Keywords: human; animal; materiality; consciousness

 

人类文化学提纲

 

陈果仁

 

中国科学家论坛副理事长, 上海(国际)前沿科学研究会召集人

手机:13337393557; Emailguozi6@hotmail.com; 博客:http://blog.sina.com.cn/renzichen

 Recommended: Zhang Dongsheng (17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A. zhangds12@hotmail.com / zds@outlook.com)

 

Abstract: 人与动物之所以既具物质性又具意识性,是因为神经系统既具物质性又能进化意识活动。神经系统由神经元连接而成,神经元既具物质性又具意识性。神经元是一种细胞,细胞能够进行新陈代谢、中心法则、趋生避死、趋利避害等意识活动,细胞既具物质性又具意识性。细胞的所有生命活动都由生物大分子执行,生物大分子既具物质性又具意识性。生物大分子由生物小分子链接而成,生物小分子既具物质性又具意识性。生物小分子是有机分子,有机分子既具物质性又具意识性。有机分子是普通分子,普通分子既具物质性又具意识性。分子由原子构成,原子既具物质性又具意识性。化学反应既是一个物质过程又是一个意识过程。原子由核子与电子构成,核子与电子既具物质性又具意识性。核子由质子与中子构成,质子与中子既具物质性又具意识性,核反应既是一个物质过程又是一个意识过程。

[陈果仁. 人类文化学提纲. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):1-15]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.01

 

Keywords: ; 动物; 物质; 意识;神经系统

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2

本地性科学初探 - 中国前沿科学检视与西方科学之争 (12 – 16)

 

金识

 

Recommended: 王德奎 y-tx@163.com; 张洞生 (17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.

zhangds12@hotmail.com / zds@outlook.com)

 

Abstract: 科学创新、进化因素,存在普遍性、世界性,也存在有本土性和地域性,涉及科学作为一种智力,特别是数、理、化、生等学科的公式、定理、定律,它的客观性类似早已存在,不以人存,不以天亡,只是等人早晚的条件和来发现。对于不是自己的发现,它类似传说。但他人的发现,也是可以再重复计算、推导、证明、试验检查的。发现成为非物质文化科学遗产传说,一方面它有普遍性、世界性;或者它从本土性和地域性也可以转变成普遍性、世界性。但有些非物质文化科学遗产的传说,它的可证性、表演性很小。本篇是此文的第12至第16部分。

[金识. 本地性科学初探 - 中国前沿科学检视与西方科学之争 (12-16). Academ Arena 2015;7(5):16-30]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.02

 

Keywords: 科学; 创新; 进化; 存在; 普遍性; 世界性; 文化; 遗产

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3

Tamil New Year Cool Drink?...(“Panakaram”)

 

M. Arulmani, B. E.; V. R. Hema Latha, M. A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This scientific research focus that “PANAKARAM” (Panai + Akaram) shall be considered as “Ancient Medicinal drink” which was considered in practice since Ancient Period say 3,00,000 years ago. Panakaram drink considered regulating “Blood PH value” for energetic and Healthy life and sustainability to the Particular climatic environmental system. Panakaram drink shall be called by author as “DARK WINE” (Panai Neer) considered derived naturally from “DARK PALM TREE”. Natural dark palm water shall mean “ACIDIC” (or) “INORGANIC”.

[M. Arulmani, B. E.; V. R. Hema Latha, M.A., M. Sc., M. Phil. Tamil New Year Cool Drink?...(“Panakaram”). Academ Arena 2015;7(5):31-37]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.03

 

Keywords: PANAKARAM; Ancient Medicinal drink; Blood PH value; DARK WINE; DARK PALM TREE

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4

The responsibility due to the freedom restraint for the people of a society & deprivation of their legal rights

 

Mehrnoush Ghanbar poor hoshangi

 

Department of Law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, iran

 

Abstract: The deprivation of the accused and suspects of freedom, because of its importance in criminal procedure, entails some dos and donَts which necessitate special rules and regulations, even before and after it. The development of a culture about the nature of deprivation of freedom and the involvement of the legislator in some situations which have remained disregarded so far, especially in the current Iranian regulations, can definitely contribute to the improvement of the criminal procedure. In the Iranian rules and regulations, citizens are not recognized by law to be able to deprive one of freedom, though in the new bill of criminal procedure it has been predicted. The advantage of the Iranina law system over is that the duration of the deprivation of freedom by the police is limited at most 24 hours. Limitation on the number of authorities who are legally allowed to deprive one of freedom, the acceptance and institutionalization of the possibility of the supervision of the authorities not involved in the investigation over the process of deprivation of freedom, collective decision-making about the detention of individuals, the necessity of the supervision of high-ranking police or judicial authorities, and the specialization in enforcing the related regulations are among the important rules that are formulated and explicated more carefully in the other countries law system. Also some objections can be raised to this legal system because the cases of detention and accusation are not separated, the process of objection to deprivation of freedom is not adversarial and also the accused and his solicitor are limited in expressing their ideas about the judicial detention or detention by police. However, the legislators of Iranian should remove subjects or accusations with a little or even fair degree of importance from the list of crimes they might give rise to the deprivation of freedom, predict an independent defensive institution which can provide the detainees with defensive facilities and also put emphasis on the principle of freedom. In the Iranian law system, the special and vulnerable suspects generally enjoy no special privileges.

[Mehrnoush Ghanbar poor hoshangi. The responsibility due to the freedom restraint for the people of a society & deprivation of their legal rights. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):38-43]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.04

 

Key words: arrest under warrant, arrest detention, judicial warrant, temporary detention, constable, judicial authorities

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5

Isolation and identification of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) and their effect on growth promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum L.

 

Pankaj Kumar1*, Neha Kaushal1 and R. C. Dubey2

 

1Department of Microbiology, Dolphin (PG) College of Science & Agriculture, Chunnikalan, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India

2Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar-249404, Uttarakhand, India

* E-mail: guptapankaj23@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Several Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from rhizosphere of tomato growing in Punjab. On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characters of isolates only five were selected for further studies. According to Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology all the five isolates were recognized as Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates were positive for catalase, urease, amylase and citrate utilization test. After evaluation for their plant growth promoting attributes, LPN4 were found potential strain for all Plant Growth Promoting activities such as production of IAA, HCN, Ammonia and solubilization of phosphate, Further, in vitro studies showed that LPN4 inhibited the growth of phytopathogens such as Fusarium solani and enhanced seed germination and all the growth parameter such as shoot and root length etc. significantly. Further, Plant growth promoting and antifungal activities of Pseudomonas sp. LPN4 suggest that it may be exploited as a potential bioinoculant agent for Lycopersicon esculentum.

[Pankaj Kumar, Neha Kaushal and R. C. Dubey. Isolation and identification of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) and their effect on growth promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum L. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):44-51]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.05

 

Keywords: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Pseudomonas spp. Biocontrol

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6

Science in Uncertainty

 

Manjunath R

 

16/1, 8th Main Road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar, Karnataka 560010, India

manjunath5496@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The very expression “certainty” is a contradiction in terms. There is rarely such thing as 100% certainty – and everything less than this is uncertain. The very core of science is the deep awareness that we have wrong ideas, we have prejudices. We have ingrained prejudices and these prejudices are organized into equations. For many people this might be a startling claim. Uncertainty does not mean we know nothing, that evidence is unquestionably fraught with misinterpretation. We can say how far we are from the end state, ‘almost certain’ for instance. Our facts and knowledge of the science should always be taken with a skeptical grain salt. Uncertainty in science which in effect means that nothing is real in any absolute sort of way.

[Manjunath R. Science in Uncertainty. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):52-59]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.06

 

Key words: Science; Uncertainty; Scientific knowledge; limitation

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7

Evaluation Impact of No2 Values and Aerosol on Air Pollution

 

Mahdi Ojaghi1, Ziba Beheshti2, Karim Isazadeh3, Mohammad hossein Mohammadi ashnani4

 

1. MSc in Planning, management & training of Environment, Faculty of Environment, Tehran University.

2. MSc in Assessment and Land Use Planning, Faculty of Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

3. MSc in Agero Ecology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

4. MSc in Planning, management & training of Environment, Tehran University

 

Abstract: one of the useful technique for measuring aerosol and NO2 is Differential optical absorption spectroscopy, the most important factor in environmental pollution. This paper reports on the results of dual path DOAS measurements recently conducted in a City using xenon flashlights equipped on tall constructions as aviation obstruction lights. Because of the proximity of the southern DOAS path to an industrial area, it is found that the level of air pollution generally increases with the dominance of westerly winds, from the plausible source area to the observation light path. Additionally it is confirmed that size information of aerosol particles can be derived from the DOAS data through the analysis of the wavelength dependence of the aerosol optical thickness, which shows fairly good correlation with the mass ratio suspended particulate matter obtained from the in-situ sampling station measurement. This situation is consistent with the result of wind lidar measurement covering a sector. In spite of the fact that the two DOAS paths are located in separated regions of City, the observed temporal behavior was similar for both nitrogen dioxide and aerosol, though the southern path tends to exhibit slightly higher pollution levels than the northern counterpart. 

[Mahdi Ojaghi, Ziba Beheshti, Karim Isazadeh, Mohammad hossein Mohammadi ashnani. Evaluation Impact of No2 Values and Aerosol on Air Pollution. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):60-64] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.07

 

Key words: Air Pollution, Aerosol, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

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8

Compton Theory Of The Scattering Of X-Rays By Light Elements

 

Manjunath. R

 

16/1, 8th Main Road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar, Karnataka 560010, India

manjunath5496@gmail.com

 

Abstract: At early 1920 when the particle nature of photon suggested by the photoelectric effect was still being debated, the Compton Effect gave clear and independent evidence of particle-like behavior. The Compton hypothesis is suggested that when an X-ray photon is scattered it spends all of its energy and momentum upon some particular electron (which is treated as being at rest). This electron in turn scatters the ray in some definite direction. The change in momentum of the X-ray photon due to the change in its direction of propagation results in a recoil of the scattering electron. The energy in the scattered photon is thus less than the energy of the incident photon by the kinetic energy of recoil of the scattering electron. The corresponding increase in the wavelength of the scattered photon is (λf − λi) = (h/m0C) (1− cosθ) and the time it takes for the incident photon to change its wavelength is t = (h/m0C2) (1− cosθ), where h is the Planck’s constant, m0 is the rest mass of the scattering electron, C is the speed of light in vacuum, and θ is the angle between the incident and the scattered photon. Experimental result is given which show that for graphite and the Mo- Kα radiation the value of t (for θ =90o) has been found to be 7.333 10 −21 s which being satisfactorily close to the computed value (8.089 10 −21 s). In the case of θ =135o, the value of t has been found to be 0.133 10 −19 s which also being satisfactorily close to the computed value (0.138 10 −19 s). However, the value of t has been found to vary with θ in agreement with the theory, increasing from 7.333 10 −21 s (θ =90o) to 0.133 10 −19 s (θ =135o). Velocities of recoil of the scattering electrons have not been experimentally determined. This is probably because the electrons which recoil in the process of the scattering of X-rays have not been observed. However, velocity of recoil of the scattering electron (when θ =90o) has been calculated using: (1) Law of Conservation of Energy. (2) Law of Conservation of Momentum. The value of v computed using the Law of Conservation of Energy was found to be 0. And the value of v computed using the Law of Conservation of Momentum was found to be 0.04C. Using the conservation laws the law of variation of mass with velocity has been derived which in bad agreement with the Einstein’s law of variation of mass with velocity. But according to which also when v → C, mE→ ∞.i.e., an electron travelling at the speed of light would have infinite mass and hence, no material particle can have a velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum.

[Manjunath. R. Compton Theory Of The Scattering Of X-Rays By Light Elements. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):65-68]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.08

 

Keywords: Photon; Electron; Compton; Scattering angle.

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9

停止放化疗治白血病、癌病、艾滋病

 

孙纯武

 

研究员, 江苏省扬州三力电器集团 通信地址、江苏省扬州市蜀秀花园16805,

邮编225008 电子信箱 yzscw0514@163.com qq458669609 手机号18652544068

 

摘要: Abstract: It is totally wrong to believe that the overgrowth of cancer cells is caused by viruses; a long-term chemoradiotherapy actually breaks the unity of human internal airflow, and will not cure the root causes of illnesses; such long-term treatment may trigger gene variation, a change from the original form to another new existing form, and generate a new gene at the locus to replace the original gene. Although the genes are functionally disabled to duplicate cancer cells during chemoradiotherapy, when new genes are duplicated in the human bodies, many chemical toxins introduced through chemoradiotherapy and entering the human bodies will convectively swarm into the cavities of the new cancer cells duplicated by the new genes; if combined with the patient’s painful airflow during the treatment, the new duplicated cancer cells will be largely increased, [that is, the chemotherapy fosters the generation of the treatment-resistant cancer cells, and aggregate the discordance of various organizational structures so that the systemic functions of the patients are completely destroyed.

[孙纯武. 停止放化疗治白血病、癌病、艾滋病. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):69-77]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.09

 

关键词:白血病、癌病、艾滋病起因和防治

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10

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and alpha-smooth Muscle Actin (alpha-SMA) Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Actins are cytoskeletal proteins that regulate cell motility. Cellular actins of various species have very similar immunological and physical properties. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha actins are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is commonly used as a marker of myofibroblast formation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxin, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond. LPS is found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and elicit strong immune responses in animals.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and alpha-smooth Muscle Actin Research Literatures. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):78-105]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.10

 

Key words: renal; lipopolysaccharide (LPS); alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA); life

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11

Black Hole

 

Manjunath R

 

manjunath5496@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper some aspects of the black hole is discussed.

[Manjunath R. Black Hole. Academ Arena 2015;7(5):106-107]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070515.11

 

Keywords: black hole; photon; surface; gravitation; energy; mass

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 18, 2015. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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