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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 93), March 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

新黑洞理论之4

==用作者的新黑洞理论和公式建立新的黑洞宇宙学==

==本文摘录改编自《黑洞宇宙学概论[4] ==

 

张洞生

 

17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.

zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com

 

<前言>; 本篇摘录改编自拙作《黑洞宇宙学概论[4]》一书的第二篇,但是改用另外一种不同于原书、而较简明的论证方法,可谓殊途同归,相互印证。我们宇宙从哪里来,往哪里去。,这是人类永远要想知道的神秘命题。本篇是要用作者建立的新黑洞理论5个基本公式来建立新的黑洞宇宙学的理论基础。为此,必须首先证明我们‘宇宙视界’以内的宇宙就是一个真实的‘巨无霸史瓦西宇宙黑洞-- Cosmo-BH或者CBH)’。其次,既然我们宇宙是史瓦西黑洞,就必须证明它的膨胀收缩的规律和命运就应该完全与任何黑洞的规律相同,只不过我们‘宇宙黑洞’的总质量-能量Mub比我们宇宙中的其它黑洞的总质量-能量Mb大得多多而已,即其区别仅仅是Mub>>Mb。这样,我们就可以按照新黑洞理论中的许多公式,准确地计算出我们宇宙在诞生、膨胀降温、演变发展的全过程中,各个时间节点的物理常数的数值,和形成不同的物质形态和能量。因此,我们宇宙的真实历史,即其<时间简史>,就由其任一时间的黑洞的物理参数的准确的数值所构成。这是‘广义相对论方程’建立100年来学者们‘绞尽脑汁’、想做而从未做到的事情。

[张洞生. 新黑洞理论之4, 用作者的新黑洞理论和公式建立新的黑洞宇宙学, 本文摘录改编自《黑洞宇宙学概论[4]. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):1-6]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.01.

 

<关键词>我们宇宙;我们宇宙是真实的史瓦西宇宙黑洞;我们宇宙诞生于最小黑洞Mbmmp普朗克粒子,而不是广义相对论方程解的奇点;我们宇宙的演变规律和命运完全符合任何黑洞的演变规律和命运;以「新黑洞理论」的公式为基础建立起来的「黑洞宇宙学」;哈勃定律是反映‘我们宇宙黑洞’,是由无数最小黑洞Mbm= mp不停地合并、而形成的在以光速C的膨胀规律

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2

A Critical Study of U.N. Security Council and India's Bid for Permanent Seat

 

*Dr. Qazi Mohmmad Usman *Eakramuddin

 

Professor, Jamia Milia Islamia University, Delhi

Assistant Professor, Delhi University, Delhi

 

Abstract: It was a great effort of international society to establish the United Nations Organization keeping in view to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council is the pillar of this organization. But, the recent practice of Security Council seems enable to achieve its goal. Therefore, the question that arises is whether it should be reformed? Another question to be discussed is does India deserve to include as a permanent member of this Council.

[Qazi Mohmmad Usman, Eakramuddin. A Critical Study of U.N. Security Council and India's Bid for Permanent Seat. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):7-11]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.02.

 

Keywords: Critical Study; U.N. Security Council; India; Permanent Seat

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3

Results Of Research On Natural Calamities

 

Gangadhara Rao Irlapati

 

H.No.5-30-4/1, Saibaba Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad – 500 055, Telangana State, INDIA

Email ID: scientistgangadhar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: natural calmaties are major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the earth, examples include floods, earth quakes, cyclones and other geological processes. I have conducted many researches on natural calamaties and invented some related discoveries & inventions which may also be useful in predicting the natural calamities.

[Gangadhara Rao Irlapati. Results Of Research On Natural Calamities. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):12-52]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.03.

 

Keywords: earthquakes, cyclones, droughts

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4

The determination of the best rain erosivity index for Namak lake basin and evaluation of Spatial Variations

 

Zarrin Taj Alipour

 

Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran

z.alipoor1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this research to investigate the displacement of rain erosive factor in Namak Lake Basin, Lal, EI30, Hudson and Onchev are calculated from 16 recording rainfall stations and 3 stations in the proximity of Namak lake basin with the statistics period of 16 to 26 years. Then, among Lal, Ei30, Hudson and Onchev a dependent variable and other indices and rainfall available properties such as Fournier index, modified Fournier index, average annual rainfall and the maximum monthly rainfall are considered as independent variable or regression equation. According to Coefficient of determination and standard error of different regression models, four models are selected to estimated EI30, Lal, Hudson and Onchev indices in the stations not equipped with rain intensity statistics. In the next sate, by the given regression equations, the indices were estimated in rain gauge stations. To select the best index, EI30, Lal, Hudson and Onchev indices point data were converted to regional data by a suitable Interpolation method and the average of the given indices were extracted in upstream basins of 13 stations for sediment gauge. Then the correlation relationship was made between the average EI30, Lal, Hudson and Onchev indices with the especial sediment yield of the sub basins. The results show that EI30, Lal indices with the correlation coefficient of 0.84 have the highest correlation amount with the specific sediment yield and this correlation is significant at 1% level. To provide the final rain erosivity map by EI30 index, ordinary kriging interpolation method, co-krigining, Inverse Distance Weighted with different powers, Spline and fuzzy kriging are analyzed. In fuzzy kriging the estimated EI30 values in recording rain stations were used as precise numbers. The results indicated that fuzzy kriging method reduced Mean Absolute error as 15% and it was selected as a good interpolation method to provide rain erosive map in Namak lake basin.

[Zarrin Taj Alipour. The determination of the best rain erosivity index for Namak lake basin and evaluation of Spatial Variations. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):53-62]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.04.

 

Keywords: Namak lake basin; EI30; Inverse Distance Weighted; fuzzy Kriging; rain erosive; interpolation

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5

The authentication of countries’ unilateral acts as a source in international law

 

Hosein Miri

 

Doctoral student and director of Payam Noor University Library

h.miri1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Countries in international plane take unilateral acts in various form and content and pursue the specific goals. While this article by describing the events, phenomena and social, economical and political developments and… is trying to clarify that these actions can be considered as a new and independent source than the resources in Article 38 of International Court of Justice Statute. These actions undoubtedly can be the origin of obtaining rules and legal effects. The unilateral legal actions which have been issued to create a commitment, have a legal enforcement and carry out international obligations for their perpetrators, but it doesn’t make any responsibility for other countries unless the mentioned states have already expressed prior or next their consent and or do take the commitments based on agreement and legal convention, and the unilateral offerer has acted within the specified international law or namely international consensus. Today, the votes of international tribunal and the doctrine impose on the positive significance of unilateral actions.

[Hosein Miri. The authentication of countries’ unilateral acts as a source in international law. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):63-70]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.05.

 

Keywords: Unilateral acts; source of international law; legal rules; international court of justice; doctrine; international law commission

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6

Improving UPQC Capabilities using Energy Storage Devices in DC Link of UPQC

 

Y. Hoseynpoor, T. PirzadehAshraf, Sh. Sajedi, T. Karimi

 

Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

Yaser.hoseynpoor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper introduces cooperative operation of the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) with the energy storage system. The proposed system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter, and super-capacitors as energy storage devices connected in the dc link through the DC-DC converter. The proposed UPQC can compensate the reactive power, harmonic current, voltage sag and swell, voltage unbalance, and the voltage interruption. A numerical formulation of the proposed control schemes, which are based on the instantaneous power theory, is presented. The performance of proposed system is analyzed through simulations with MATLAB\SIMULINK software. The proposed system can improve the power quality at the common connection point of the non-linear load and the sensitive load.

[Y. Hoseynpoor, T. Pirzadeh Ashraf, Sh. Sajedi, T. Karimi. Improving UPQC Capabilities using Energy Storage Devices in DC Link of UPQC. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):71-76]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.06.

 

Keywords: Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), voltage interruption, DC/DC converter, super-capacitor

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7

The Ecotourism Potentials of Golestan Province

 

Akbar Sharbati

 

Department of Geographic, Payam-e-Noor University, Gorgan Branch, Gorgan, Iran

sharbati1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Tourism is an industry with high productivity that provides a significant number of job opportunities around the world. Ecotourism is one of the branches of the industry, which deals with landscapes and natural attractions. Golestan province with the surface area of 20438.7 km2 is located in the northern part of Iran and because of having an appropriate geographical state and also ecotourism attractions is one of the main parts of Iran in this respect. Here, on the basis of documents and library searches as well as field surveys at the regional scale, we introduce the ecotourism potentials of Golestan province and appropriate strategies for attraction of tourists, and ask national and local policy makers to consider this socioeconomic capacity and provide more accurate programming in this sector.

[Akbar Sharbati. The Ecotourism Potentials of Golestan Province. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):77-82]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.07.

 

Keywords: Tourism; Ecotourism; Lagoon Waterfall; Golestan province

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8

Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places

 

M Tavalla1, H Oormazdi1, L Akhlaghi1, E Razmjou1, M Moradi Lakeh 2, S Shojaee 3, R Hadighi1 *AR Meamar1

 

1Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Email: ahmadreza.meamar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of all parasitic forms (eggs, cysts, oocyst, and larvae) by using two flotation methods in soil of public places and children’s playgrounds in Tehran City, Capital of Iran. During 2008-2009, 150 soil samples collected from various sites in Tehran by simple random selection. To recover parasites, the soil samples were examined by sodium nitrate flotation, sucrose flotation method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The McNemar test and Kappa Index were used to analysis the statistical significance of the results. The prevalence of soil parasites was as follows: Toxocara spp. eggs in sodium nitrate flotation (38.7%) and in sucrose flotation method (33%), Isospora spp. in sodium nitrate flotation (10.7%) and in sucrose flotation method (18.7%), nematode larvae in sodium nitrate flotation (40.7%) and in sucrose flotation method (24%), Eimeria spp. in sodium nitrate flotation (8.7%) and in sucrose flotation method (24.7%), coccidian oocyst and Sarcosystis spp. in sodium nitrate flotation (27%) and in sucrose flotation method (42%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sodium nitrate flotation (2.7%) and in sucrose flotation method (2%), Geohelminths in sodium nitrate flotation (6.7%) and in sucrose flotation method (3.4%). Furthermore, following sucrose flotation method performance, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was done and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 15 (10%) of soil samples. According to McNemar test, the sodium nitrate flotation and sucrose flotation method statistically were differed to parasites detection. Results of our findings provide evidence that soil may play an important role in transmission of zoonotic parasite diseases to human. In addition, control of high population of animals such as stray dogs and cats is necessary to reduce the distribution of parasites.

[M Tavalla, H Oormazdi, L Akhlaghi, E Razmjou, M Moradi Lakeh, S Shojaee, R Hadighi AR Meamar. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):83-87]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.08.

 

Keywords: Prevalence, Parasites, Flotation method, Tehran

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9

Principles of Iran Naval Defense Pattern

 

Ghasem Toraby1, Mahmoud Moghaddass 2, Alireza Rezaei3

 

1 Department of Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of International Relation, Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran starma2000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Given to the impacts of the Iran-Iraq war and strategic importance and geographical situation of Hormoz strait, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy has adopted the asymmetric defense pattern. In accordance, Iranian Naval force has deployed this naval policy with defensive aims and deterrent purpose against the enemy, through taking advantage of geographical situation and strategic importance of the region as well as focusing on Shiite-inspired concepts like martyrdom. This pattern concentrates on using the advanced technologies and modern weaponry in situation unexpected for the enemy. In other word, in this defense pattern, speed, ambiguity, spread and dispersion by the usage of armed speedboats, extensive mining and missile attacks from submarines and sites situated in the Persian Gulf shores and islands beside the combined and simultaneous air attack are considered key factors. Given to these issues, the article aims to evaluate principles of Iran’s naval defense pattern.

[Ghasem Toraby, Mahmoud Moghaddass, Alireza Rezaei. Principles of Iran Naval Defense Pattern. Academ Arena 2017;9(3):88-93]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.09.

 

Keywords: asymmetric defense, martyrdom, naval force, passive defense, decentralization, destabilizing.

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10

Iran, world economy and World Trade Organization (WTO)

 

Farzad Piltan1, Ghasem Toraby2

 

1Department of International Relation, Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran

piltan_tpo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To achieve strategic goals, Iran with an oil dependent economy, needs to make arrangements to join world economy. Participating in international economical organizations including WTO is an essential tool to reach this goal. Although disagreements exist among governmental authorities, industry owners and economical experts, becoming observer member and starting full membership process bring up more serious discussions about its relation with world economy and consequences of membership in WTO. In this article the attitude of Iran toward world economy, different views and the process of gaining observer membership, consequences and barriers of Iran’s full membership in this organization have been reviewed.

[Farzad Piltan, Ghasem Toraby. Iran, world economy and World Trade Organization (WTO). Academ Arena 2017;9(3):94-101]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090317.10.

 

Keywords: Iran, World Economy, World Trade Organization, International Economical Organizations

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 10, 2017. 

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