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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 96),  June 25, 2017

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

A study on Role of women in Pnachayati Raj after 73rd Amendment in district Mahendergarh of Haryana, India

 

1Dr. Ashok Kumar Yadav and 2Mrs. Madhu

 

1Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Govt. P.G. Collage, Mahendergarh-123001, Haryana (India)

2Research Scholar, Department of Political Science, Singhania University, Pacheri Bari, Jhunjhnu-333515, Rajasthan, India

Email-madhuindora@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In present study, out of 50 interviewed adult women are more in number (70%) in village Nangal Kalia while old aged women are more in number (6%) in village Bass Kirarod. In present study the interviewed female belongs to 0% general category, 14% other backward category and 86% schedule caste category in village Bass Kirarod; 40% general category, 48% other backward category and 22% schedule caste category in village Bihali and 26% general category, 48% other backward category and 26% schedule caste category in village Nangal Kalia. In village Bass Kirarod more women’s were secondary (10%); in village Bihali qualification of interview female was secondary (52%), senior secondary (27%), graduate (4%), post graduate (10%) while in village Nangal kalia educational qualification of interview female was secondary (36%), senior secondary (30%), graduate (16%), post graduate (12%) and others (2%). and illiterate (6%). More illetrate womens (48%) in village Bass Kirarod while least women illetrate (8%) in village Nangal Kalia. In present study the family income source of interviewed female were also observed. Maximum house women observed, i.e., 56% in village Bass Kirarod, 42% in village Bihali and 32% in village Nangal Kalia; agricultural income source of family i.e., 40% in village Bass Kirarod and 28% in village Bihali and Nangal Kalia; government employee income source i.e., 20% in village Bihali, 18% in village Nangal Kalia and 0% in village Bass Kirarod and non government employee income source maximum 16% in village Nangal Kalia and 10% in village Bihali. In the present study, women awareness about 73rd amendment and Panchayati were also observed. The awareness about 73rd amendment were observed maximum 10% in village Bihali and least (0%) in village Bass Kirarod; income source of Panchayati raj maximum 16% in village Nangal Kalia and least 0% in village Bass Kiraod; knowledge of work and power of Panchayati raj were observed maximum 24% in village Bihali and minimum 2% in village Bass Kirarod; knowledge of position of female in Panchayati raj were maximum 18% in village Nangal Kalia and least 6% in village Bihali and Bass Kirarod; knowledge of women empowerment in Panchayati raj were observed maximum 16% in village Bihali and minimum 4% in village Bass Kirarod. In the present study out 50 interviewed women’s participated as 80% women as voter, 2% women’s with political parties, 8% women’s as movement and only 10% women’s as candidate in election of Panchayati Raj in village Bass Kirarod. Also in village Bihali, out 50 interviewed women’s participated as 56% women as voter, 4% women’s with political parties, 18% women’s as movement and only 10% women’s as candidate in election of Panchayati Raj. Also out 50 interviewed women’s participated as 84% women as voter, 10% women’s with political parties, 2% women’s as movement and only 4% women’s as candidate in election of Panchayati Raj in village Nangal Kalia.

[Ashok Kumar Yadav and Madhu. A study on Role of women in Pnachayati Raj after 73rd Amendment in district Mahendergarh of Haryana, India. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):1-12]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.01.

 

Keywords: Haryana, Mahendergarh, Women’s, Panchayati Raj, 73rd Amendment, India

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Comparative comparison law Tourism Iran with England

 

Behrooz Khaksari* 1, Bahar Khaksari 2 peiman latifi 3

 

1.  Department of law Kermanshah branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

Email: behrooz.nik@gmail.com

2.  Department of law Kermanshah branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

Email: bahar.nik2005@gmail.com

3.  Department of law Islam Abad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

Email: peyman.latifi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Human travel to different parts of the world led to the familiarity of nations. This reflects the fact that, despite cultural and ethnic differences, can be found harmonious and united in many aspects of life. Government intervention in the affairs of tourism is undeniable. Stable operation of all tourism capacities only in the light of the legal and principles rules is possible. Only governments that can provide stability and security and, most of all to enact laws in the field of tourists the aim of this research is to present the image of Islam and the Islamic Republic of Iran laws and legal provisions tourists, and comparison between Iran and the United Kingdom in the field of tourism. In this study, the question of what laws on the rights of foreign tourists in the Islamic Republic of Iran have been established rights of tourists in England how is Islam-based laws in Iran and the UK What about the rights of foreign tourists there; and what is the role of the rights of foreign tourists in the growth of tourism, were answered. Studies show that in Islam and the Islamic Republic of Iran human rights of all people are respected in Islamic countries and as long as they did not violate Islamic laws and the Islamic Republic, are protected by law and Islamic government. The results showed that under the laws of England and according to ethnic and religious groups in the country, Muslims are prohibited from entering some places and tourism and other religions are allowed to enter these places. England, while cares the welfare of tourists and trying to attract more foreign tourists if they violate the rules, will deal severely with them. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part the history of tourism and its rights in Iran and the UK and the second part rights and duties of tourists in Iran and the UK investigated.

[Behrooz Khaksari, Bahar Khaksari, peiman latifi. Comparative comparison law Tourism Iran with. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):13-18]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.02.

 

Key words: Iran, development, rights of tourists, Islamic tourism, England

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Evaluation of Selection Criteria for Implant-Supported Dental Prosthesis Among Iranian Dentists

 

Sina Safari 1, Bahareh Ghasemi 2, *, Ehsan Iranmanesh 3

 

1.                      Assistant Professor, Dept of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2.                      Postgraduate student, Dept of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3.                      Student, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

safari.sn@gmail.com, bahare.ghasemi@yahoo.com, e.iranmanesh74@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Demand for dental implants is highlighted in Iran similar to other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate by questionnaire, the selection criteria for implant-supported dental prostheses among dentists in Iran. In the present cross-sectional survey, 350 dentists in Iran were evaluated. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been accepted. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistical methods using SPSS 21. The results showed the major source of training in dental implants were participating in university courses (69.7%), In term of important factors in implant selection criteria, cost was considered the most common reason to choose implants among the participants (73.4%). For people who have more than 5 years of experience in the field of implants, cost factors, implant level and the geometry of the implants have higher priority than any other factor. But dentists, who are under 5 years of implant experience, give priority to easy steps in surgery, prosthetics and cost of dental implants. Analysis of data showed a significant relationship between the dentists’ age, educational level, the years of experience in field of dental implants and number of used implant systems (P<0.05). Implant with length of 8 to 13 mm and a width of 3.5 to 5mm, cemented prostheses and implants with SLA (sandblasted large gritted acid etched) level have significant difference with the other factors (P<0.05). There was great difference among the respondents concerning done treatments amount, design, and materials used for the implant prostheses.

[Safari S, Ghasemi B, Iranmanesh E. Evaluation Of Selection Criteria For Implant-Supported Dental Prosthesis Among Iranian Dentists. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):19-26]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.03

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Hepatotoxicity Effect Of Zidovudine On The Liver

 

1Oforibika, G.A. and 2Essien, E.B.

 

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

oforibikaa@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: The introduction of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the treatment of HIV infection has permitted the reliable control of disease progression and has markedly improved survival among people with HIV. As a result health care providers and patients has shifted clinical priorities as well as once delaying opportunistic illness was a primary focus increasing emphasis is now placed on preventative health, management of comorbid chronic disease and avoiding long term toxicities of ART. A total 63 Wister Albino rats of weight range (124 – 197g) were divided into five (5) groups (n = 5) labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A served as the control group while groups B, C, D, and E were the treatment groups which was done orally with 4 different doses (0.7mg/KgBw, 1.4mg/KgBw, 2.1mg/KgBw and 2.8mg/KgBw respectively for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed weekly and the liver was collected for histological examination for 4 weeks. The research found out that the different concentrations of Zidovudine has significant differences in the histoarchitecture and morphology of the liver cells of the albino rats in the experimental groups when compared to the control group. The final result was necrosis of the hepatocytes in 4 weeks of drug administration of 2.1mg/KgBw and 2.8mg/KgBw degeneration and inflammation of the hepatocytes increased simultaneously with drug dosage and timing in weeks.

[Oforibika, G.A. and Essien, E.B. Hepatotoxicity Effect of Zidovudine on the Liver. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):27-30]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.04.

 

Keywords: Zidovudine, HAART Drug, Antiretroviral drug.

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评姚志欣与潘建伟争斗量子纠缠

 

梁子章

 

Recommended: Recommended: 张洞生 (Zhang Dongsheng), 17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, USA, zhangds12@hotmail.com, zds@outlook.com; 王德奎 (Wang Dekui), y-tx@163.com

 

摘要 (Abstract): 无论爱因斯坦当初的孪生双光子相反运行,随后被薛定谔认为仍有纠缠,还是费曼说概率统计,现在看来都是可以统一的。因为他们的说法,指在各种情况都需要重复实验,而不是简单的纯理论、纯哲学争辩。姚志欣教授的所谓量子纠缠力学再认识,不谈实验检验才行,则属于后者。例如姚志欣教授说的三个条件:光子数达到统计学规模的要求;所有这些光子全都具备类同于相同的孪生光子对的量子特征;所有光子同处一个空间等,并不精准,因为一对只要是孪生就足够了。再说姚志欣教授提的1960年开始问世的激光器,谐振腔中光子所处的量子状态运转,与电子在原子能级之间的跃迁有关。但跃迁没有轨迹出现,更说明镶嵌的暗物质量子,在显物质原子量子中计量平台作用。这类似算盘的拨动,与人相关一样。这种“规律性认识”,是今天暗物质得到国际科学主流承认后才有的。

[梁子章. 评姚志欣与潘建伟争斗量子纠缠. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):31-34]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.05.

 

关键词: 爱因斯坦; 光子; 薛定谔; 纠缠; 费曼; 概率统计; 实验; 哲学; 量子; 暗物质

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新黑洞理论之7 ==宇宙微波背景輻射溫度Turm=2.7k的新計算方法,同时验证「宇宙黑洞模型 的正确性,和「大爆炸標準宇宙模型」的错误====本文摘录改编自拙作《黑洞宇宙学概论[4]==

 

张洞生 (Zhang Dongsheng)

 

17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, USA, zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com

 

摘要作者在前面第二篇2-12-2章中,已經論證了我們宇宙就是一個真正的史瓦西巨無霸宇宙黑洞Cosmo-BH而「大爆炸標準宇宙模型」與作者的「宇宙黑洞模型,认为我们宇宙的生长衰亡演變过程遵循完全不同的規律(见2-4章)「大爆炸標準宇宙模型」认为我们宇宙诞生于奇点,诞生后的宇宙Mu是一个等的能量-质量的封闭系统,而遵循绝热膨胀的规律。就是说,当宇宙外无能量-物质进入到宇宙内时,即Mu=常数时,宇宙就会一直降温膨胀下去;但是当宇宙外有能量-物质进入到宇宙内时,即Mu增加时,宇宙的密度ρr就会增加,按照弗里德曼模型,当ρr增加到ρr/ρ> 1时,宇宙就会一直收缩下去,直到最后回归成为奇点,而形成奇点大爆炸,而完成宇宙的一个轮回。更重要的是,宇宙的绝热膨胀不符合、也解释不了哈勃定律。作者的「宇宙黑洞模型认为:我们宇宙诞生于无数的最小黑洞Mbm=mp普朗克粒子,宇宙的膨胀是由无数的Mbm不停地合并产生的,宇宙黑洞Mub=Mu的视界半径Rb是以光速C膨胀的,其膨胀规律完全符合哈勃定律。因此,我们宇宙是一个开放系统;就是说,当我们宇宙吞噬外界能量-物质或者与其它的宇宙合并时,Mub=Mu就增加,宇宙就膨胀;当宇宙外无能量-物质可被吞噬近来,或者无其它的宇宙可合并时,宇宙就会不停地发射霍金辐射mss而收缩下去,直到最后收缩成为Mbm=mp而消亡,而完成宇宙的一个轮回。其演变过程和规律完全符合作者的新黑洞理论和公式。2种宇宙模型在宇宙诞生后到辐射时代结束前的约40万年之间,仅仅有着宇宙的辐射能温度T与宇宙特征时间(年龄)t的相同的关系公式,即下面的(1a)--Tt1/2= k1,而这只是一种偶合(见2-4章)。我們可以按照作者提出的「黑洞理论」的公式,并且对照「大爆炸標準宇宙模型」近似的計算出現在的宇宙微波背景輻射(Microwave Background Radiations --MBR)的實際溫度Turm = 2.7k

[张洞生 (Zhang Dongsheng). 新黑洞理论之7 ==宇宙微波背景輻射溫度Turm=2.7k的新計算方法,同时验证「宇宙黑洞模型 的正确性,和「大爆炸標準宇宙模型」的错误====本文摘录改编自拙作《黑洞宇宙学概论[4]==. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):35-39]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.06.

 

關鍵字:黑洞宇宙;宇宙微波背景輻射的實際溫度Turm = 2.7k;「大爆炸標準宇宙模型」;宇宙黑洞的膨脹規律

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Role of Onion in the Fertility Issues: A Review

 

Sijjil Shafiq, Mehak Shakir and Qurban Ali*

 

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author: saim1692@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Onion is a remarkable vegetable with numerous benefits including medicinal properties. Its medicinal properties are known to heal many health issues as it holds properties like being antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, vasodilatory, anti-carcenogenic and antioxidant properties. The positive effect of onion on the fertility has also been seen in many studies. Onion seems to enhance fertility related harmones as the LH testosterone levels goes up in rats by its consumption. Antioxidant activity is also seen to contribute in sperm health. Fresh onion bulb juices has also shown positive effects on androgenic activity of FSH, LH, testestrone hormones and spermatogenesis in rats It has been seen that onion consumption restored the damage on fertility in rats that was caused by toxic compounds like cadmium and aluminium. Thus onion can play vital role in improving the fertility issues in human and also in providing protection against infertility.

[Shafiq S, Shakir M and Ali Q. Role of onion in the fertility issues: A review. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):40-43]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.07.

 

Keywords: onion, fertility, antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, vasodilatory, anti-carcenogenic

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Analysis of allocative efficiency of plantain Farmers in Southwest Nigeria

 

Oluwatusin, Femi Michael

 

Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University

P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract Plantain is an important starchy fruit crop grown in all humid tropical zones of Africa, Asia, Central and North America. The study determined the allocative efficiency of plantain growers in Southwest Nigeria. Also the factors influencing the allocative efficiency of the farmers were determined. Structured questionnaire was used to retrieve information from 120 plantain growers. Descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier cost function were used to analyse the data collected. The diagnostics statistics revealed that the variance parameters for the stochastic frontier cost function were significant statistically at 1 percent level of significance. The estimated value of variance ratio represented by gamma (γ) was 0.927. This indicates that about 93 percent variations in the cost of production among the plantain growers were due to cost inefficiencies while the value of sigma squared (σ2) 6.761 indicates good fit and correctness of the distributional form assumed for the composite error term in the model. The exogenous variables included in the efficiency model were positively related to the cost of plantain production. The main determinants of allocative efficiency were age of the farmer, farming experience, access to credit, access to extension services and the educational level. The mean allocative efficiency of the plantain farmers was 0.72 while the maximum and minimum were 0.94 and 0.40 respectively. The farmers were fairly efficient in allocating the available factors of production. It is recommended that the governments and non-governmental organizations should improve upon the extension services available to the plantain growers.

[Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Analysis of allocative efficiency of plantain Farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):44-48]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.08.

 

Key words: Allocative, efficiency, plantain, farmers, stochastic, cost

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量子眼镜原理材料向何处去简介----非线性暗物质原子量子研究与应用(4

 

梁子章, 杜俊纲

 

Recommended: 张洞生 (Zhang Dongsheng), 17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, USA, zhangds12@hotmail.com, zds@outlook.com; 王德奎 (Wang Dekui), y-tx@163.com

 

摘要:量子眼镜的研制表明,它的原理就类似有线电话和移动电话两者的结合,由此视觉光学量子传输只管眼镜到视网膜这段距离。这是把老的视觉光学升级为部分量子纠缠视觉光学,以加强经典视觉光学信息通道传输,再与自然引力量子信息隐形传输的虚数超光速通道传输的结合。如果量子眼镜的材料研发制备欠缺这方面的理论指导,就无法清晰认识材料微结构和力学性能的关联性,而难以掌握这些高性能材料的成熟制备技术和工艺。

[梁子章  杜俊纲. 量子眼镜原理材料向何处去简介----非线性暗物质原子量子研究与应用(4. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):49-63]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.09.

 

Keywords(关键词):量子眼镜  视觉信息 量子编码 激光全息 贝里洞

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Phytochemical Analysis and Effect of Methanolic Root/Leaf Extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli on some Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rat

 

Udeme Jude Ogoloma1, Mathew Wegu2 and Bennie N. Abbey 3

 

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology,

Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

2&3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

demyjay13@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was to determine the phytochemical composition of dried leaves and roots of Thaumatococcus danielli and their effect on some biochemical parameters in Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening revealed that flavonoid, saponin and tannin were present with trace amounts of alkaloid and cardiac glycosides. Phytochemical quantification using GC-FID revealed that kaempferol was higher in leaf (18.75ug/g) than root (9.55ug/g). Tannin was higher in root (10.39ug/g) than leaf (8.93ug/g), while phenol was higher in leaf (6.66ug/g) than root (3.96ug/g). Saponin, rutin, phytate and catechin contents were within same range in both leaf and root. A total of 226 albino rats of weight between 180 to 220g were used for toxicity testing for 4 weeks. The LD50 for leaf and root was 330mg/kg body weight (bw) and 250mg/kg bw respectively, upon intraperitoneal administration. Biochemical analysis of the serum showed significant increase (P<0.05) in ALT level in week 2 treatment for both extracts across all groups when compared to the control. AST level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in albino rat groups treated with16.5mg/kg of leaf extract; 6.25mg/kg and 12.5mg/kg of root extract in week 2, while ALP activity was significantly decreased across all groups treated with both extract only in weeks 2 and 3. Albumin was significantly (P<0.05) increased in week 2 treatment with leaf extract at doses of 16.5mg/kg and 33mg/kg and in week 3 at all doses of the root extract administered. Thus, continuous administration of leaf and root extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli especially at medium and high doses may cause mild injury to the liver.

[Ogoloma, U.J., Wegu, M. and B. N. Abbey. Phytochemical Analysis and Effect of Methanolic Root/Leaf Extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli on some Biochemical Parameters in Wister Rat. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):64-74]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.10.

 

Keywords: Phytochemical, Thaumatococcus danielli, biochemical, Wistar rats, serum, liver

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Choice Of Food In Relation To The Blood Group

 

1Syed Bushra Muzamil & 2 Irshad Ahmad Wani

 

1Microbiologist, National Rural Drinking Water Mission, (G.O.I)

2Skill Counsellor, Skill Development Centre, Central University of Kashmir

 

Abstract: Food choices depend on a wide spectrum of factors, which affect human behaviour in different ways, resulting alternatively in the choice of some specific products and in the rejection of others. Generally speaking, food choice is a complex human behaviour and consequently is influenced by many interrelating factors ranging from the biological mechanism and genetic profiles to social and cultural factors. The sample subjects include 66 post-graduate students were drawn randomly from the population of 660 students pursuing their studies in Central University of Kashmir. Out of 66 sample subject 33 were male and 33 were female. A self constructed Questionnaire was used to collect the data on choice of food in relation to blood group. The findings inferred that majority of the subjects of blood group A were having Rh+ve with an average Hb value of 10.57mg followed by the respondents of blood group ‘B & O’ with Hb value10.45mg & 9.0mg respectively. It was also revealed that the rice is the most preferred cereal of the respondents of blood group A followed by rajma daal as the main source of protein.

[ Syed Bushra Muzamil & Irshad Ahmad Wani. Choice Of Food In Relation To The Blood Group. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):75-82]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.11.

 

Key Words: Choice of food, Blood group, Nutritious food and Hb Value

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A Comparative Study Of The Concept Of Waiting For A Redeemer In Nagiub Mahfouz's Three Novels

 

Awlād al –Ǧibilawī, Riḥlat Ibn Faṭṭūma and Malḥamat al-Ḥarāfīš

 

Jahad Daneshgahi institute of Higher education.

Arabic Language and Literature, Tarbiat Modares University

taebehamiriyan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Waiting for a righteous redeemer to rescue people from injustice and oppression is one of the most significant themes in Naguib Mahfouz's three novels namely Awlād al–Ǧibilawī (أولاد جبلاوی أو أولاد حارتنا), Riḥlat Ibn Faṭṭūma (رحلة ابن فطوّمة), and Malḥamat al-Ḥarāfīš(ملحمة الحرافیش) containing forms of waiting for a promised savior. In these novels, Mahfouz focuses on the savior's features, and illustrates man's condition and the process of waiting for a redeemer. Mahfouz attempts to show that waiting is a kind of tranquilizer keeping men hopeful about the future, and preventing them from disillusionment and senselessness in a promised land like “Utopian thought” and at the best time. But at the end as a consequence by an analytical and descriptive approach in order to locate instances of this expectation for savior in three novels, it would be said that Nagiub Mahfouz in his works continuous, focus on the perpetual moment of redeemer's coming by mixing the absurdist literature concepts and existential movements. The significance of article lies in the fact that Mahfouz distinguishes that humanity is equipped for unbelievable ability for the social evil but first from themselves.

[Awlād al –Ǧibilawī, Riḥlat Ibn Faṭṭūma and Malḥamat al-Ḥarāfīš. A Comparative Study Of The Concept Of Waiting For A Redeemer In Nagiub Mahfouz's Three Novels. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):83-93]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.12.

 

Keywords: Awlād al-Ǧibilawī; Riḥlat Ibn Faṭṭūma; Malḥamat al-Ḥarāfīš; Justice; Nagiub Mahfouz; Savior; Religion.

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Modeling and Application of PV Systems Interconnection to Grid through the DC Link of UPQC

 

F. Gharedaghi, M. Deysi, H. Jamali, A khalili

 

Dashtestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borazjan, Iran

Fariba.gharedaghi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper presents a simulation model of the electric part of a grid connected photovoltaic generator. The proposed system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter, and some photovoltaic arrays connected in the dc link through the DC-DC converter. A numerical formulation of the proposed control schemes, which are based on the instantaneous power theory, is presented. The proposed system is able to inject the active power to grid in addition to its ability in improvement of power quality in point of common coupling. Also it can provide a part of sensitive load power during voltage interruption. The results of simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK software show that the mentioned system operates correctly.

[F. Gharedaghi, M. Deysi, H. Jamali, A khalili. Modeling and Application of PV Systems Interconnection to Grid through the DC Link of UPQC. Academ Arena 2017;9(6):94-102]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 13. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090617.13.

 

Keywords: Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), Photovoltaic array (PV), Interconnected mode, Islanding mode, Maximum power point tracking (MPPT)

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 5, 2017. 

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