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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 9 - Number 8 (Cumulated No. 98), August 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from August 13, 2017. All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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No.

1

新黑洞理论之9

==作者提出了宇宙诞生时产生「原初暴涨」的新机理及其证明==

==本文摘录改编自拙作《黑洞宇宙学概论[4] ==

 

张洞生 (Zhang Dongsheng)

17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, USA, zhangds12@hotmail.com, zds@outlook.com

 

Abstract: 作者在本文中,用「新黑洞理论」,证明了我们宇宙诞生于无数“最小黑洞Mbm=mp普朗克粒子”合并的原理,它们都有确定的参数值;因此,作者就能对宇宙诞生时「原初暴涨」的机理、过程和终结提出了最新最简单的解释和计算。认为宇宙诞生时「原初暴涨」终结的时间to1,就是在‘宇宙(黑洞)包Muo’内,将我们宇宙总质能Mu=Mub =8.81055gNbu Mbm=最小黑洞,连成一个整体的、而造成宇宙黑洞短暂的「超光速空间暴涨」=「原初暴涨」的结束时间t01。因为许许多多Nbu层层叠叠挤在一起的最高密度最高温度的最小黑洞Mbm的合并必定造成宇宙黑洞「超光速空间暴涨」=「原初暴涨」。早在1981 年,史丹福大學的阿蘭.古斯(Alan Guth),只能根据宇宙中的「平直性疑難」和「視界疑難」的结论,提出了宇宙的「原初暴涨」理论,因为他也认为宇宙起源于‘奇点’和‘奇点大爆炸’,而‘奇点’是无任何物理参数值的量。

[张洞生. 新黑洞理论之9==作者提出了宇宙诞生时产生「原初暴涨」的新机理及其证明====本文摘录改编自拙作《黑洞宇宙学概论[4] ==. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):1-5]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.01.

 

Keywords: <关键词>宇宙诞生时的「原初暴涨」的新机理;「原初暴涨」=宇宙整体的「超光速的空间膨胀」=层层叠叠最小黑洞Mbm瞬时的合并暴涨;许多小黑洞正常合并的光速C膨涨:我们宇宙诞生时Mub的‘原初暴涨’的结束时间t o1

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2

Evaluation Of The Growth Performance Of Lands Snail Achatina achatina Fed With Different Plant Materials In Sangere, Girei Local Government Of Adamawa State, Nigeria

 

1Kwaga, B. T. 1Martha, E.M., 1Ali, A. and 2Khobe, D.

 

1Department of Forestry, Modobbo Adama University of Technology, Yola

2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi

2Correspondence: amanoyang@gmail.com

 

Abstract: There is no adequate and reliable information on the plant materials that could contribute significantly to the growth of land snail in the study area. A total of sixty (60) snails were divided into three groups (A, B and C) and fed with three different plant material (paw-paw fruit, orange chaff and combination the two, i.e. paw-paw + orange chaff) for a period of eight weeks. Data obtained were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and descriptive statistics. The results obtained indicated that snail group fed with combination of paw-paw plus orange chaff recorded the highest weight (9.68kg) as against those fed with orange chaff (7.29kg) and paw-paw fruit (6.62kg) respectively. The result of cumulative length gained were 5.58cm, 4.67cm and 4.65cm for combination of paw-paw and orange chaff, orange chaff alone and paw-paw fruit alone respectively. There was significant difference (P<0.05) between the snails fed with combination of the feds (orange chaff and paw-paw fruit) and the single feeds. There was positive correlation between weight and length of snails fed with the three plant materials. Rearing of Achatina achatina fed with the combination of paw-paw fruit and orange chaff as better plant material is recommended.

[ Kwaga, B. T.  Martha, E.M.,  Ali, A. and  Khobe, D. Evaluation Of The Growth Performance Of Lands Snail Achatina achatina Fed With Different Plant Materials In Sangere, Girei Local Government Of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):6-11]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.02.

 

Key words: snail, length, weight, plant material, performance

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3

Prevalence of bovine coccidiosis and ostertagiosis in & around kombolcha district of south wollo, ethiopia

 

 Enyiew Alemnew 1, Faris Delil2, Habtamu Addis3

 

Debre birhan agricultural research center, livestock research directorate

 Email: alemnnewenyiew@gmial.com

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 up to April 2015 in and around Kombolcha district with the objective of determining the comparative prevalence of bovine coccidiosis and ostertagiosis infection in calves, and the associated risk factors in different production systems. Fecal samples were randomly collected from a total of 384 calves with the age of 1 month to 1 year old. After collection, the samples were transported to Kombolcha regional veterinary laboratory and examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. oocyst and Strongyle type eggs by flotation techniques and fecal culture for further identification to the genus level (Ostertagia). In this study, out of 384 calves whose fecal samples were ex, amined, to investigate the two genera, Ostertagia spp. occurred in 202 calves (52.6%), and the Eimeria spp. occurred in 112 calves (29.2%). In 80 (20.8%) of all animals in the current study co-infection has been identified. In the present study there were statistically significant differences (P< 0.05) in the prevalence of Eimeria spp. and Ostertagia spp. infection, and co-infection in relation to body condition, age and management systems. However, there was no significant association between sex of calves investigated in relation neither with Eimeria spp., Ostertagia spp. infection nor with mixed infections (P>0.05). The present findings demonstrated that Eimeria spp. and Ostertagia spp. to be important pathogens in calves in the study area. Hence, further investigations should be conducted in order to render more detail information about bovine ostertagiosis and coccidiosis in the study area, so as to put appropriate control and prevention measures in place.

 [Enyiew Alemnew  Faris Delil, Habtamu Addis. Prevalence of bovine coccidiosis and ostertagiosis in & around kombolcha district of south wollo, ethiopia. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):12-26]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.03.

 

Keywords: Calves, Coccidiosis, Kombolcha, Ostertagiosis, Prevalence

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4

Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Locally Processed Dairy Products in Ekiti State, Nigeria

 

1Olawale, Adetunji Kola, 1Abosede, Temitope Favour, 1Isitua, Chinwe Cristy. 1Oyinloye, Mofoluwaso Adedeji, and 2Anibijuwon, Ibikunle Ibitayo. 3Osuntoyinbo, Richard Tope, 4Oje, Opeyemi James.

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology unit, Afe-Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti. Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515. Ilorin. Nigeria.

3Department of Microbiology, Waterford Regional Hospital, Waterford, Ireland

4Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

olawaleadetunji@abuad.edu.ng

 

Abstract : Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium belongs to the group of pathogens causing non-typhoidal infections. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in raw milk and its products have been reported to be a major threat to human health. This study therefore, aimed at determining the antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurim isolates from locally processed dairy products. One hundred and twenty (120) dairy product samples (“wara” and “nono”) from major towns in Ekiti State were examined for Salmonella contamination. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion methods. A total of 81(67.50%) of the samples were found contaminated with Salmonella, of which 38 (46.90%) were identified to be Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium. Ado had the highest number of contaminated samples with (53.09%), while Ido had the least contaminated samples with (25.49%). The result reveals high percentage of antibiotic resistance (34.21%) against Streptomycin, while ciprofloxacin had the highest susceptibility frequency (89%). Results of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates from different towns revealed that S. Typhimurim isolates of Ado origin had the highest resistance pattern with (55.64%). Multiple antibiotic resistance result indicates that 2 (11.11%) of isolates from Ado resisted all (10) antibiotics tested. The highest multiple antibiotic resistance recorded for Ikere isolates was 5, while Ido isolates shown the least resistance to 4 antibiotics. There was high occurrence of antibiotic resistance S. Typhimurim in ready-to-eat foods sold in the study areas which can poses a great health risk for the consumers. Hence, there is need to educate and monitor the food handlers to comply with good hygiene practices.

[Olawale, Adetunji Kola,  Abosede, Temitope Favour,  Isitua, Chinwe Cristy.  Oyinloye, Mofoluwaso Adedeji, and  Anibijuwon, Ibikunle Ibitayo. Osuntoyinbo, Richard Tope,  Oje, Opeyemi James.. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Locally Processed Dairy Products in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):27-33]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.04.

 

Key words: Salmonella enterica, Typhimurim, antibiotic resistance, dairy products, hygiene practice.

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5

The Most Important Factors In Increasing The Competitiveness Of Iranian Small And Medium Sized Enterprises
 

Amir Abbas Rahmati Alaei

 

Master Student, Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch, Semnan, Iran

E-mail: AA. Rahmati@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the young Iranian free market economy, small and medium sized enterprises are recognized as a major source of innovation, flexibility and growth. On the other hand, they proved to be more vulnerable than big companies, being threatened by scarce resources and by fierce competition that increases even more now. Under these circumstances, governmental support in this field is an imperative. The numerous failures that SMEs encounter in the first five years should represent a major concern for authorities. In this respect, we consider that studying and important factors for entrepreneurial success is of great interest for entrepreneurs, policy makers, academics involved in researching and teaching Entrepreneurship. In our research, we focused on two categories of success factors: those directly related to the entrepreneur on the one hand, and those related to the external environment in which SMEs operate, on the other.

[Amir Abbas Rahmati Alaei. The Most Important Factors In Increasing The Competitiveness Of Iranian Small And Medium Sized Enterprises. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):34-37]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.05.

 

Keywords: competitiveness, entrepreneurship, small and medium sized enterprises, success factors

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6

 王右木江油长歌的动地诗

 

王德奎 (Wang Dekui)

 

绵阳日报社

y-tx@163.com

 

Abstract (摘要)本文是以中国共产党诞辰九十周年前夕,中央档案馆同意公开发表的《四川省重庆共产主义组织的报告》为基础,补充完善王右木烈士的事迹,对“重庆学”作的探索。笔者的探索是业余,前提仍应以今后官方公开的真实事实为准。

[王德奎 (Wang Dekui). 王右木江油长歌的动地诗. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):38-57]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.06.

 

Keywords (关键词):王右木; 上海学; 重庆学

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7

Kierkegaard and the Ashʻarite on Reason and Theology

 

Naʻimeh Pur Mohammadi

 

Ph.D student, Department of Philosophy and Theology, the Science and Research Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

naemepoormohammadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: What is the contribution of the reason to Kierkegaard’s and the Ashʻarite theology? This is the question dealt with in this article. Neither Kierkegaard’s nor the Ashʻarite systems of theology is anti-rational, for Kierkegaard regards the contradiction present in the object of faith as absolute rather than logical, suggesting thereby the existential dialectics for understanding this contradiction instead of resolving it. The Ashʻarite also hold that one can understand the existence of God through the absolute reason which is not commanded by sharʻ (religion), yet such understanding leads to no practical outcome. The anti-rationalism option is thus rejected. The other two options here are: supra-rationalism and rationalism. Kierkegaard’s theology is supra-rationalism while that of the Ashʻarite is rationalism. Faith, Kierkegaard says, is not rational because it will be undecided by abeyance and postponement of the philosophical reasoning, by the approximation of the historical evidences, and due to the lack of confidence in the Bible; however, it is not irrational because the contradiction presents in the understanding of faith rather than in the existence, then it is supra-rational. For the Ahʻarite, however, faith can be made rational and justified through the command and guidance of sharʻ to find some sound reasoning. Reason has no contribution in Kierkegaard’s theology neither as a sine qua non nor as a sufficient condition. For the Ashʻarite, nonetheless, reason is a merely sine qua non but not a sufficient condition and it is in need of sharʻ. Reason in Ashʻarite both fails to penetrate into all of the premises of the argument and falls short of binding man to accept its knowledge. It is sharʻ which comes into play to help reason both to improve its objection and to compensate the binding and obligation.

[Naʻimeh Pur Mohammadi. Kierkegaard and the Ashʻarite on Reason and Theology . Academ Arena 2017;9(8):58-66]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.07.

 

Keywords: reason, theology, Kierkegaard, the Ashʻarite, faith.

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The comparison of 8th grade Iranian high, medium and low family’s income performance in student’s psychological factors

 

Maryam Sahranavard 1, Siti Aishah Hassan1, Habibah Elias 1, Maria Chong1, Ali Reza Kiamanesh2

 

1. Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

2. Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

sahra1102004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to find out the comparison of high, medium and low families’ income students’ performance in student’s psychological factors; general self-concept, science self-concept, self-efficacy, science self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, and science anxiety among guidance school students. The participants in the study were 680 guidance school students, (317 male and 363 female, in the age 14 years old) at Tehran and Shahriar City, the province of Tehran, Iran. Five valid and reliable instruments were used to assess general self-concept, science self-concept, self-efficacy, science self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, and science anxiety. Descriptive statistics and MANOVA were used to analyze the data. The result has demonstrated that there is significant differences between groups in science anxiety, self-esteem and self-efficacy (p<0.01).

[Maryam Sahranavard, Siti Aishah Hassan, Habibah Elias, Maria Chong, Ali Reza Kiamanesh . The comparison of 8th grade Iranian high, medium and low family’s income performance in student’s psychological factors . Academ Arena 2017;9(8):67-73]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.08.

 

Keywords: self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, socioeconomic status

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9

Iranian Soft Power in Military Aspect

 

Afsane Reshad

 

Department of International Relation, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

afsanereshad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Given to the impacts of the Iran-Iraq war and strategic importance and geographical situation of Hormoz strait, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy has adopted the asymmetric defense pattern. In accordance, Iranian Naval force has deployed this naval policy with defensive aims and deterrent purpose against the enemy, through taking advantage of geographical situation and strategic importance of the region as well as focusing on Shiite-inspired concepts like martyrdom. This pattern concentrates on using the advanced technologies and modern weaponry in situation unexpected for the enemy. In other word, in this defense pattern, speed, ambiguity, spread and dispersion by the usage of armed speedboats, extensive mining and missile attacks from submarines and sites situated in the Persian Gulf shores and islands beside the combined and simultaneous air attack are considered key factors. Given to these issues, the article aims to evaluate principles of Iran’s naval defense pattern.

[Afsane Reshad . Iranian Soft Power in Military Aspect. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):74-79]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 09. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.09.

 

Keywords: asymmetric defense, martyrdom, naval force, passive defense, decentralization, destabilizing.

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Comparison of Boredom Proneness, Loneliness, and Depression of Professional and Non-professional Athlete Iranian Students of Islamic Azad University Ahvaz Branch

 

Atousa Ghaseminezhad Dehkordi M.Sc1, Seyedesmaeil Hashemi Sheykhshabani, Ph.D.2

 

1.  Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

2.  Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

ghaseminezhad_sport@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to compare professional and non-professional athletes' students regarding boredom proneness, loneliness, and depression. Participants were 100 professional and 100 non-professional Iranian athletes' students of Islamic Azad University (Ahvaz Branch) from different sport areas who were completed boredom proneness, loneliness, and depression scales. Both multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and separated ANOVAs revealed that there were significant differences between professional and non–professional groups regarding boredom proneness and depression. In other words, the scores means of boredom proneness and depression were higher in professional than non-professional athletes' students. No difference between two groups regarding loneliness was found. Finally, results based on psychological theories and sport advantages were discussed.

[Atousa Ghaseminezhad Dehkordi, Seyedesmaeil Hashemi Sheykhshabani. Comparison of Boredom Proneness, Loneliness, and Depression of Professional and Non-professional Athlete Iranian Students of Islamic Azad University Ahvaz Branch. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):80-84]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.10.

 

Keywords: Boredom Proneness, Loneliness, Depression

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11

The Effects of Gender and Ideology in text selection

 

Fatemeh Pashaei

 

Department of Language, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

Pashaei.fatemeh7@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research wants to classify all books translated by Iranian male and female translators after Islamic revolution and finds the answers to this question if gender awareness and ideology as cultural factors are effective in text selection trends by Iranian male and female translators after Islamic revolution? The main questions of this research are aroused to be answered. The answers of these questions will be discussed through the study: (1) Are gender and ideology effective in text selection trends by Iranian male /female translators after Islamic Revolution? (2) Is gender awareness effective in text selection trends by Iranian female translators after Islamic Revolution? (3) What is the predominant scope in translation for female/male translators after Islamic Revolution?

[Fatemeh Pashaei. The Effects of Gender and Ideology in text selection. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):85-93]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.11.

 

Keyword: male, female, Iran, gender

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12

Energy strategy of Barak Obama

 

Ghasem toraby

 

Department of International Relation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

ghasemtoraby@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Providing energy in a clean method not creating environmental problems for human being was always one of the important concerns of the countries in 21th century. America by importing about 20million oil barrel per day is very dependent on Middle East as a region with about 60% of the oil in the world. This dependence on Middle East oil encountered USA with an extensive political and safety issues during the previous decades. Here Barak Obama administration in its strategy emphasized more on some policies such as “Diversification”, “reserve” of fuel resources, increasing “energy efficiency” and investing on new energies to reduce USA dependency on Middle East oil by decreasing oil consumption. Besides, oil consumption reduction by increasing efficiency and using alternative energies decrease concerns especially in USA about environmental issues, the concern that was especially being emphasized in Obama presidential campaign.

[Ghasem toraby. Energy strategy of Barak Obama. Academ Arena 2017;9(8):94-102]. ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj090817.12.

 

Keywords: Middle East; diversification; energy efficiency

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from August 13, 2017. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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