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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

Supplement 2010

January 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

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Ecological, Social and Commercial Role of Lichens in India with Special Reference to Garhwal Himalayas

Balwant Kumar

Department of Botany, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital (India)-263001

drbalwantkumararya@gmail.com

 

[Balwant Kumar. Ecological, Social and Commercial Role of Lichens in India with Special Reference to Garhwal Himalayas. Academia Arena 2010;Supplement 0201:1-106]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

 

CONTENTS

Preface…………………………………………………………………………………3-4

Background…………………………………………………………………………….5-11

 

Chapter 1: Introduction……………………………………………………………….12-18

 

Chapter 2: Review of Liturature……………………………………………………..19-26

 

Chapter 3: Phytosociological Analysis Brown Oak Dominated Forest of Garhwal Himalaya, India…………………………………………………………….…27-32

 

Chapter 4: Assessment of Lichen Species in a Temperate Region of Garhwal Himalaya, India……………………………………………………………….33- 49

 

Chapter 5: Macrolichens Cover and Their Distribution Pattern on Two Common Phorophytes (Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhodondron arboretum) in a Temperate Forest of Rudraprayag District Garhwal (Uttarakhand), India…………….50-56

 

Chapter 6: Estimation of Dry Mass of Epiphytic Lichens in a Temperate Forest Of Garhwal Himalaya, India………………………….………………………………..57-63

 

Chapter 7: Seasonal Pattern of Lichen Fall from Trees in an Evergreen Quercus semecarpifolia forest of Garhwal Himalaya, India…………………………………..64-71

 

Chapter 8: An Account of Lichens on Fallen Twigs of Three Quercus Species in Chopta Forest of Garhwal Himalaya, India…………………………..……..72-80

 

Chapter 9: Quantitative Analysis of Lichen Vegetation in Eleven Forest Sites of a Quercus semecarpifolia Forest of Garhwal Himalaya, India………….81-86

 

Chapter 10: Lichen Resource Use Pattern and Its Socioeconomic Status in Temperate Region of Garhwal Himalaya, India…………………………..87-94

 

Chapter 11: Lichen-Moss Harvesting Practicies and Their Marketing Strategy in Uttarakhand, India…………………………………………………………………..95-106

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Stochastic Differential Equations in Finance

 

Katerina Loizou

Candidate No: 51046, School of Mathematics, University of Sussex, United Kingdom

kl202@sussex.ac.uk, 02 September 2010

Contents

1 Introduction 6

2 Probabilities & Random Variables 8

2.1 Random Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.2 Normal Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.3 Discrete Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4 Continuous Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 12

2.5 Expectation, Variance and High Moments . . . . . . . 19

3 Computational Simulations 24

3.1 Generation of Random Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.2 Monte Carlo Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4 Random Processes 27

4.1 Characterisation of Random Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.2 Gaussian Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4.3 Random Walk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.4 Wiener Process - Brownian Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5 Deterministic Differential Equations 36

5.1 Taylor Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

5.2 Euler Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.3 Higher Order Taylor Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.4 Error Bounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.5 Runge-Kutta Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.6 Multistep Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

5.7 Predictor-Corrector Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.8 Consistency, Convergence and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.9 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

5.10 Absolute Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

6 Stochastic Differential Equations 52

6.1 Introduction to Stochastic Differential Equations . . . . . . . . 52

6.2 Euler-Maruyama Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

6.3 Convergence of the Euler-Maruyama scheme . . . . . . . . . . 58

6.4 Milstein Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

6.5 Convergence of the Milstein Approximation . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.6 Euler and Milstein Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

7 Examples in finance 72

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Moon Doctor

 

Sun Chunwu

 

59 Xihuzheng, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225008, China

yzscw@163.com; http://yzscw.blog.163.com; 01186-514-8282-2538

 

Abstract: This article is discussing science by yhe modern science, as the reference of all the people.

[Sun Chunwu. Moon Doctor. Academia Arena, 2010; Supplement 0203:1-67]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net

 

孙纯武

江苏省扬州三力电器集团, 中国江苏省扬州市西湖镇59

电话: 0514 82822538 邮编225008, 电子信箱: yzscw@163.com, 博客: http://yzscw.blog.163.com

 

摘要: 本文是以当今世界最新科学知识来谈科学谈学术,可供高级干部和专业学术人士研究参考应用。

[Sun Chunwu. Moon Doctor. Academia Arena, 2010; Supplement 0201: 1-67]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

 

关键词:世界; 科学; 知识; 学术; 研究

 

(Contents)

月球医生…………………………………………………………… ……

解开八卦图…………………………………………………………

创立统一场论………………………………………………… …………

统一场论45篇系列之二:伟大宇宙母亲大分娩……………… …

地震起因和防治……………………………………………………… …

附录一:上帝造出又一胜绩…………………………………… ………

附录二[:我和美国布什总统的邮件往来…………………… ………

附录三:对奥运会不应用政治手法……………………………… …

附四:请求立即停止使用光疗化疗治癌病等………………………

附录三:为什么基因只能复制能量, …………………………………

附录四:关于唐僧三个徒弟姓名塑造…………………………………

附录五:南无阿弥陀佛之我见…………………………………

后记……………………………………………………………………

诗词十三首……………………………………………………………

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Dr. Moon

SUN Chun-wu
Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province Electric Power Group 3,
West Lake in Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China Town, 59,
Tel: 0514 1 82,822,538 Zip 225008, E-mail: yzscw@163.com
Blog: http://yzscw.blog.163.com

Abstract:
This paper is based on the latest scientific knowledge in the world today to talk about science and talk about academic, for high-ranking officials and professionals who study academic reference application.

[Sun Chunwu. Moon Doctor. Academia Arena, 2010; Supplement 0204: 1-123]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net


Keywords: world; science; knowledge; academic; Research

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作者简介:孙纯武(1948-),男(汉族) ,扬州市,主要从事研究自然科学等;

作者声明:我保证是此作品的著作权人,

单位名称、江苏省扬州三力电器集团 通信地址、中国江苏省扬州市西湖镇59

电话051482822538 邮编225008

电子信箱: yzscw@163.com 博客http://yzscw.blog.163.com

 

摘要:老子创立了道教,入世无为。孔子创立了儒教出世,有为。及具体地设出了阴阳金,,,,土五行来演化万物运动上升到哲学高度。可惜他们总体上一个从宏观,一个从微观上分析看待问题, 对伏羲画的八卦图没有真正理解,继没有找到道的来源,也没有解释出八卦图所表示出事物的意义,因此几千年来八卦的作用始终没有在科学技术上发挥巨大的作用.

[孙纯武. . Academia Arena 2010;Supplement0205:1-41]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

 

关键词:八卦图图解 来源 功能作用

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from January 1, 2010. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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