Science Journal


Nature and Science
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 8 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 35), February 1, 2010
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All in one file

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Titles / Authors

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Optimization of Asparaginase Production by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Using Experimental Methods


R. Manikandan1, CN Pratheeba2, Pankaj Sah3 and Fathimunnisa Begum4

1 Department of Biotechnology, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, TN, India

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Kalasalingam University, TN, India

3&4 Department of Applied Sciences, Higher College of Technology, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman,


Abstract: Evaluation of fermentation process parameter interactions for the production of l-asparaginase by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Box-Behnken design of experimentation was adopted to optimize nutritional sources, physiological (incubation period) and microbial (inoculum level).The experimental results and software predicted enzyme production values were comparable. Incubation period, inoculum level and nutritional source (soybean) were major influential parameters at their individual level. Interaction data of the selected fermentation parameters could be classified as least and most significant at individual and interactive levels. All selected factors showed impact on l-asparaginase enzyme production by this isolated microbial strain either at the individual or interactive level. Incubation temperature, inoculums concentration, and nutritional source (soybean) had impact at individual level. Significant improvement in enzyme production by this microbial isolate was noted under optimized environment. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(2):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: box-Behnken; pseudomonas aeruginosa; L- asparaginase; response surface

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Stability Analysis of Seed Germination and Field Emergence Performance of Tropical Rain-fed Sesame Genotypes


Adebisi, Moruf Ayodele

Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Technology, University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Tel.: +2348035842319. Email:


Abstract: The work was carried out to determine the stability of two seed quality traits (seed germination and field emergence) in 14 sesame genotypes that were grown in three plant population environments in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria in each of two seasons. Seeds harvested from each environment were tested for these quality traits. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance of Finlay-Wilkinson regressions and stability analysis. Each genotype was defined by three stability parameters: (1) mean seed germination and field emergence over all environments, (2) the linear regression (b values) of genotype mean seed germination and field emergence in each environment, (3) the mean square deviation from the regression for each genotype (S2d value). The genotypes varied considerably in the two seed quality traits and genotype x environment (GxE) interactions were significant. Regression coefficients ranged from 0.19 to 1.70 for seed germination and 0.14 to 3.01 for field emergence. Genotype 530-6-1 with a regression coefficient close to unit (b=1.03), smaller S2d value and a relatively high seed germination of 79% had general adaptability and somehow averagely stable. The highest field emerging genotypes proved less stable and selection solely for high emergence could result in discarding many genotypes that were relatively better adapted to environmental changes. Genotypes 530-6-1, 73A-11 and C-K-2 were identified as desirable for seed production in all the three plant population environments. Genotypes 69B-88Z, Domu and 73A-97 were identified as desirable genotypes for cultivation in 133,333 plants ha–1 environment, C-K-2 in 166,667 plants ha–1 environment and 93A-97, 73A-11, 69B-88Z and C-K-2 in 266,667 plants ha–1 environment to obtain seed of high and stable germination and emergence. These genotypes were superior in seed quality and therefore deserve a place in commercial seed production and future seed improvement strategies. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):7-14]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: environment, interaction, plant population, seed quality

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Turritopsis nutricula


Hongbao Ma, Yan Yang

Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA,


Abstract: Turritopsis nutricula is a hydrozoan that can revert to the sexually immature (polyp stage) after becoming sexually mature. It is the only known metazoan capable of reverting completely to a sexually immature, colonial stage after having reached sexual maturity as a solitary stage. It does this through the cell development process of transdifferentiation. This cycle can repeat indefinitely tha offers it biologically immortal. It is not clear if stem cells are involved in this immortality or not. Upto now, there is little academic report in the Turristopsis nutricula studies. To study the mechanism of the biological immortality of Turritopsis nutricula possibly supplies the way finding the biological immortality for human. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):15-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: immortal; immortality; sexual maturity; stem cell; transdifferentiation; Turritopsis nutricula

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Oral Vaccination of Nile Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) Against Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia


Noor El Deen Ahmed Ismail(1), Nagwa Sad. Atta I (2 and Abd E Aziz ,Mohamed .Ahmed(3)

1) Dept. of Hydrobiology , National Research Centre(, N.R.C).

(2) Dept. of Microbiology, N.R.C.

3) Dept. of Fish Diseases, Fac.of Vet Med. Cairo.


Abstract: The present study was planned for preparation of formalin inactivated wet-packed whole cells Aeromonas hydrophila bacterin for oral vaccination. The humeral antibody response of vaccinated Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus (O. niloticus) was determined by micro-agglutination test. Moreover efficacy of the prepared bacterin against infection with Aeromonas hydrophila was detection and calculated as a relative level of protection. Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) immunized orally with formalin-inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila .wet-packed while cells had low level of antibody titer reached 2 and 3 by log2 at first and fourth week post-immunization respectively while Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) fed on minced meat without vaccine had antibody titer reached 1 by log 2 throughout the experimental period . The relative level of protection among Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) immunized orally were 86.8. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):21-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila - bacterin -vaccination- humeral antibody- Nile tilapia

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Forest community structure and composition along an elevational gradient of Parshuram Kund area in Lohit District of Arunachal Pradesh, India


C.S. Rana and Sumeet Gairola

Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal- 246 174, Uttarakhand, India,


Abstract: The present study was conducted in natural Himalayan forests of Parsuram Kund area in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh to understand the effect of altitudinal variation on structure and composition of the vegetation. Three altitudinal zones viz., upper zone (U) = 550-850 m asl, middle zone (M) = 500-700 m asl and lower zone (L) = 350-450 m asl were selected for the study. Tree Species richness (SR) was recorded to be highest (26) on the middle altitude followed by lower (21) and upper altitude (13). Species diversity (richness) and dominance (Simpson Concentration of dominance index) were found to be inversely related to each other. Shrub and herb species richness were also recorded to be higher on middle altitude followed by lower and upper altitudes. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):27-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Phytosociology, species richness, diversity indices, altitude

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Effects of some Artificial diets on the Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Biomass of the fry of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792)


Md. Jobaer Alam, Md. Ghulam Mustafa, Md. Mominul Islam

Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.



Abstract: An experiment on culture of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) in cemented tanks using different protein level diets was conducted to find the appropriate feeding diets and their effects on the growth, survival and biomass of 15-days old fry of Anabas testudineus in intensive culture . The experiment was carried out for duration of 60 days with 4 treatments in 8 cemented tanks each of size 12󬝭.5 feet. The initial length and weight were 14.5 0.4 mm and 0.95 0.05 g respectively. The feeds were applied twice a day at the rate of 10 %( initially) to 5% (later on) of the body weight of the fry/day. The results showed that the growth of fry varied significantly (P<0.05) with different diets. The highest growth, survival rate and biomass were found in the trial where fishes were fed on Sabinco feed containing 50.92% protein (on dry matter basis), followed by Feed-3 containing 30% protein. The poorest growth rate was shown by Feed- 1 (prepared by rice bran, wheat bran, fish meal and soybean meal) containing 20% protein. There was no significant difference in survival rates among the fry fed with Sabinco and prepared diets. The experiment suggests that Feed-2 (Sabinco Feed) can be recommended for the intensive culture of climbing perch. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(2):36-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Climbing perch, Artificial diets, Survival rate, Growth Performances and Biomass

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Diminution Of Aflatoxicosis In Tilipia Zilli Fish By Dietary Supplementation With Fix In Toxin And Nigella Sativa Oil


Mona S. Zaki(1) ; Olfat M. Fawzi(2); Suzan Omar(2); medhat khafagy(3); mostafa fawzy(1); Isiz Awad (2)

1Department of Aquaculture, Vet. Division National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

3National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.


Abstract: Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of fungal origin, they are produced by certain strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, these fungi grow on certain foods and feeds, resulting in the production of aflatoxins, which can enter into the human food chain directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains), indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk, eggs); however their continuous intake even in microdoses can result in their accumulation. Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic and immunotoxic and cause growth retardation in animals and exposed human populations.Fix in Toxin is a kind of pentonite (clay) consists of (sodium calcium aluminosilicate), a non toxic agent and absorbent for a wide variety of toxic agents. It acts as an enterosorbant that rapidly binds aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in decreased aflatoxin uptake and bioavailability. Nigella sativa is a spicy potent belonging to ranunculacea seeds oil showed antibacterial, fungicidal effects.This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of Fix in Toxin 0.2 % and Nigella sativa oil 1% to diminish the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis in Tilapia Zilli fish, and based on this evidence, it's hypothesized that clay based entersorption of Aflatoxin may be a useful strategy for prevention of Aflatoxicosis in human population.60 Tilapia Zilli fish were divided into three groups, 20 fish for each group: Group 1 served as control and will be fed on commercial fish diet. Group 2 were be supplied by Aflatoxin contaminated ration with corn 80 ug toxin /kg ration. Group 3 were be supplied by aflatoxin contaminated ration with corn 80 ug toxin/kg ration and treated with 0.2 % Fix in Toxin and 1 % Nigella sativa oil injected daily I/P. Analysis of hematological parameters, clinical chemistry revealed significant differences between the control groups and the aflatoxicotic groups. administration of Fix in Toxin 0.2% and Nigella sativa oil injection 1% of body weight reduced the aflatoxicosis in liver and kidney by improving all liver and kidney enzymes.The dietary HSCAS clay remedy is novel, inexpensive and easily disseminated and proves its efficacy in diminishing the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis in fish, where it acts as an alfatoxin enterosorbant that tightly and selectively binds the poison in the gastrointestinal tract of the fish, decreasing their bioavailability and associated toxicities. In addition the Nigella sativa oil has a synergistic effect with Fix in Toxin in diminishing aflatoxicosis in fish. These findings support their use for dietary intervention studies in human populations at high risks for aflatoxicosis, specially in Egypt, where studies have shown that concurrent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) during aflatoxin exposure increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):43-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Aflatoxicosis, Tilapia Zilli fish, Fix in Toxin effect, Nigella sativa oil effect, Hematological parameters, Clinical chemistry dynamic simulation; model; composting; domestic solid waste

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Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and NPK Fertilizer on Performance of Tomato in Derived Savannah Transition Zone of Southwest Nigeria


1Ayeni L.S, .2Omole T.O, 2Adeleye, .E.O. and 3Ojeniyi, S.O.

1University of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Land Mgt, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2Adeyemi College of Education, Department of Agricultural Science, Ondo, Nigeria.

3 Federal University of technology Department of Crop Pest And Soil Management Akure, Nigeria

1Corresponding author:


Abstract: Field experiments were conducted in two locations at Owo in early and late crop seasons (2007) to compare the effects of poultry manure at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 t ha-1 and 300 kg ha-1 NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on nutrient uptake and yield of tomato. The sites were located within the forest savannah transition zone of southwest Nigeria. The experiments were replicated three times in randomized complete block design. The test soil was slightly acidic, low in OM, N and P. Application of poultry manure and 300kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer significantly (P<0.05) increased plant N, P and K. Poultry manure at 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1 and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer significantly (P<0.05) increased plant leaf, area height, number of leaves, branches fruits and fruit yield. Application of 10 t ha-1 poultry manure gave similar values of plant N, P and K and yield components compared with 300 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer. The cumulative yield for the two seasons at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 t ha-1 and 300kg/ha NPK were 9.6, 12.0, 18.1, 19.3, 14.4 and 13.5 t ha-1 respectively. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(2):50-54]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: early crop, late crop, nutrient concentration, yield

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Antigenotoxic Efficacy of Some Vitamins against the Mutagenicity Induced by Ifosfamide in Mice


Souria M. Donya , Fawzia A. Aly, Mona A. M. Abo-Zeid

Genetics and Cytology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division,

National Research Center, El-Behooth St. 31, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: Ifosfamide (Holoxan, IFO) is an oxazaphosphorine alkylating agent with a broad spectrum of antineoplastic activity. IFO can damage DNA during any phase of the cell cycle and therefore, is not phase-specific. Thus the objective of this investigation is to measure the potential cytotoxicity of IFO alone and in combination with vitamins (FA, VB12 and VC) The genotoxic potential of IFO was evaluated in vivo using different mutagenic end points. Male Swiss mice were injected with different doses of IFO intraperitoneally to investigate the genotoxicity in somatic and germ cells. The doses were 8, 16 and 24mg IFO/kg body wt. as single doses, and 8mg IFO/kg body wt. as a repeated dose for three consecutive days. Samples were collected after 24h, 7 and 14 days after treatments. IFO induced chromosomal aberrations (in somatic and germ cells), SCEs and sperm shape abnormalities, which were highly significant in a dose dependent manner 24h after treatments. Chromosomal aberrations were declined with increasing the time of recovery. However, the tetraploid cells in mouse bone marrow were increased. IFO increased the percentage of DNA fragmentation in mouse spleen cells as measured by diphenylamine (DPA) assay, and confirmed by agarose gel-electrophoresis. Oral administration of folic acid (10 mg/kg body wt.), vitamin B12 (0.3 mg/kg) and vitamin C (50 mg/kg body wt.) declined the chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells 24h after concurrent treatment with IFO. The used doses of vitamins reduced the percentage of DNA fragmentation induced by 24mg IFO/kg body wt. with DPA assay. In conclusion, the study indicates that the anticancer drug IFO is a mutagenic agent in mouse somatic and germ cells. Vitamins (FA, VB12 and VC) play a beneficial role against the mutagenicity of this drug. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):55-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: IFO, FA, VB12, VC, cytogenetic parameters, DNA damage

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Use of InfoWork RS in modeling the impact of urbanisation on sediment yield in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia


Mohd Ekhwan Toriman1, Othman A. Karim2, Mazlin Mokhtar3, Muhammad Barzani Gazim4, Md. Pauzi Abdullah4

1. School of Social, Development & Environmental Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

2. Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Malaysia.

3. Institute of Environment and Development (LESTARI) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

4. School of environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, National University of Malaysia.


Abstract: Hydrodynamic model and sediment transport model were investigated in the Sg Telom and Sg Bertam, Cameron Highlands as a result of rapid urbanization and agriculture activities over the past 30 years. This article, from the point of view of the river catchment as a whole system, presents an integrated approach by combining the hydraulic and hydrology simulations with numerical model of sediment transport and change in river bed level before and after the Ringlet reservoir. To accomplish this purpose, InfoWork RS, a well developed numerical model for sediment transport and river bed variations were used. The application shows that it can properly simulate change of river bed variation over 10 months simulation period. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):67-73]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: dynamic simulation; model; composting; urbanization; sediment

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Assessing Environmental Flow Modeling For Water Resources Management: A Case of Sg. (River) Pelus, Malaysia


Mohd Ekhwan Toriman

School of Social Development and Environmental Study, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 43600. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Selangor Malaysia.


Abstract: In Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment (DEIA), modeling of environmental flows is one of the main studies that need to be delivered in the final DEIA report. The model is important to the project proponent to engage suitable designs that can be suited to environmental needs, particularly on future water resources management. In this respect, Environmental Flow Assessment (EFA) is used to estimate the quantity and timing of flows to sustain the ecosystem values. The proposed of hydropower projects in Sg Pelus, Perak was studied aimed to evaluate existing river flow characteristics and to model EFA due to river diversion of Sg Pelus. Daily river flow (m3/s) recorded at Sg Pelus (Station No. 6035) and Sg. Yum (Station No. 6044) gauging stations were used to design the flow duration curve. The low flow then calculated using the 7Q10 equation to estimate the lowest 7-day average flow that occurred on average once every 10 years. The results indicate that the average daily flows for both stations (6035 and 6044) are 5.080 m3/s and 11.391 m3/s, respectively. The flow duration curve shows that 50 percent of 4 m3/s of discharge will be exceeded/ equaled in Station 6044 while 8.2 m3/s of discharge will be exceeded or equaled in Station 6035. The requirement environmental flows for both parameters are 0.613 and 0.426 m3/s for Environmental Flow Assessment, respectively. The results obtained in this model are important to managing the river at least in Class II after river diversion project. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):74-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Environmental Flow Assessment; Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment; Low flow; Flow duration curve

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Growth inhibitory effect on microorganisms by a D-galactose-binding lectin purified from the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) eggs: An in vitro study


Sarkar M. A. Kawsar1*, Sarkar M. A. Mamun2, Md Shafiqur Rahman3, Hidetaro Yasumitsu1, Yasuhiro Ozeki1*

5. Department of Genome System Science, Graduate School of Nano Biosciences, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-Ku, Yokohama 236-0027, Japan

6. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh

7. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh;


Abstract: A D-galactose specific lectin purified from the eggs of sea hare, Aplysia kurodai (AKL) by lactosyl-agarose affinity chromatography has been evaluated for screening of antimicrobial activities. AKL was disulfide bonded dimeric lectin consisted of two 32 kDa polypeptides. This lectin has significant hemagglutinting activity against trypsinized rabbit and human erythrocytes and it was inhibited by galactose and galacturonic acid. AKL has been screened for in vitro both antibacterial activity against eleven human pathogenic bacteria and antifungal activity against six phytopathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial evaluation of standard antibiotics, ampicillin and nystatin were used as comparative study. AKL significantly inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm) and Bacillus megaterium (11 mm) were exhibited the highest zone of inhibition by the addition of the lectin (250 礸/disc). However, AKL did not inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria as Escherichia coli. On the other hand, AKL (100 礸/mL) has also inhibited the mycelial growth of Curvularia lunata (21.53%). These antimicrobial activities by the lectin will provide an effective defense ability of the sea hare eggs against invading microbes. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):82-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Aplysia kurodai, lectin, organisms, mycelial growth, SDS-popyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

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Urban land use classification and functional zoning of Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia

Gantulga Gombodorj and Chinbat Badamdorj

Faculty of Earth Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ikh surguulliin gudamj 2 -NUM building 6, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia.


Abstract: As Mongolia moves to a market economy and begins to encourage land ownership and the creation of private land and housing markets, it will need to revise its approach to the spatial planning and control of land uses and development by individuals and businesses. Designed for a regime of exclusive state ownership of land, the existing “target use” restrictions for individual parcels as shown in the detailed Master Plans hinders the exercise of market-driven choices by individuals and businesses wishing to put land and infrastructure to their most productive uses. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):90-97]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Urban land use classification, land use zoning and regulation, functional zones

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 Studies On Susceptibility Of Methicillin –Resistent Staphylococcus aureus To Some Nigerian Honey


(1)Yenda, E. N. *(2)De, N. (2)Lynn, M and (2)Aliyu, T B

(1) Health Services Management Board, P.M.B. 1082, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria, e-mail:

(2) Department of Microbiology, Federal university of Technology, Yola, e-mail:

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed


Abstract: This study was aimed at determining the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates to some Nigerian honey. Sixty isolates of S. aureus were obtained from patients attending State Hospital, Jimeta Yola, Adamawa State. Twenty out of the sixty isolates were MRSA which were assessed for susceptibility or resistance to three (one processed and two crude) local honey samples in different concentrations and two commonly used antibiotics namely ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin using disk diffusion assay. All the twenty MRSA were susceptible to undiluted Sardauna plateau honey and its different concentrations of 50%, 25% and 13% (with growth inhibition zone ranging from 13 to 33 mm) but 25% of the isolates were resistant at concentrations of 6%. Against the MRSA isolates, undiluted Hong honey recorded 85% antibacterial activity, followed by 65%, 55%, and 5% respectively for its lower dilutions of 50%, 25% and 13% (with growth inhibition zone 12 or less than 12 mm). The undiluted Abuja honey sample recorded 85% antibacterial activity, followed by 35% and 15% respectively for its lower dilutions of 50% and 25%. Eighty five percent (85%) of the isolates were resistant to ofloxacin and 80% of the isolates were resistant to cipfrofloxacin ( growth inhibition zone 20 mm or less for ciprofloxacin and 15 mm or less for ofloxacin, respectively). Values of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of S.P. honey were in the range of 0.4%-0.5% and 0.8 - 1% respectively whereas the values for H. honey and A. honey were in the range of 0.9-0.1% and 1.9-2.0% and 3.5-4.0% respectively. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):98-108]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: MRSA, honey, methicillin, MIC, MBC

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 The relationship between serum adiponectin and steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype-4


Esmat Ashour, PhD, Nervana Samy, MD, Magda Sayed, PhD and Azza Imam*, MD.

Biochemistry Department -National Research Center- Cairo

* Internal Medicine Department - Faculty of medicine - Ain Shams University.


Abstract: The mechanisms underlying steatosis during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are complex and multifactorial. The aim of our study was to assess whether host metabolic factors influence the degree of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 by investigating the role of adiponectin, leptin and insulin resistance. Methods: Adiponectin and leptin levels, HCV genotypes, HCV-RNA, IR (HOMA-IR), body mass index and liver steatosis and fibrosis were assessed in 74 chronic patients with HCV genotype 4. Results: Chronic HCV patients with steatosis showed lower serum adiponectin levels and higher levels of leptin, HOMA, alanine aminotransferase, γ glutamiltransferase and fibrosis scores. Low adiponectin levels were independently associated with grades of steatosis and HOMA-IR. Adiponectin levels showed significant inverse correlation between adiponectin and steatosis grade, BMI, HOMA and fibrosis stage. The multivariate analysis of factors showed that steatosis was significantly associated with low adiponectin concentration while, leptin, Insulin, HOMA, ALT, g-GT and cholesterol were positively associated with steatosis. Conclusion: This study stated that Egyptian patients with HCV genotype-4 suffering from steatosis had lower adiponectin level that is inversely correlated with insulin resistance. These data support a role for adiponectin in protection against liver injury and that hypoadiponectinemia may contribute to hepatic steatosis progression. Further molecular and genetic studies with larger numbers of patients are required to confirm these results. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):109-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Adiponectin, steatosis, hepatitis C, leptin

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Comparative studies on the impact of Humic acid and formalin on ectoparasitic infestation in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus


Noor El- Deen, A.E. 1, Mona M.Ismaiel2, Mohamed A. E3. and Omima A.A.El-Ghany3

1. Hydroiology Dept. National Research Center Dokki, Egypt

2. Fish diseases and management Dept .Fac.of Vet .Med. Seuz Canal Univ.

3. Fish disease Dept. Animal Health Research institute Dokki Egypt.


Abstract: Naturally infested Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) were collected and examined for external parasites (Trichodina and Cichlidogyrus). The aim of present study was to investigate the efficacy and difference in treatment of formalin as a chemical and Humic acid as a natural product in treatment of ectoparasitic infestation of O.niloticus. The prevalence of isolated parasites showed high infestation rate of Trichodina (100%) and Cichlidogyrus (65%). The main clinical sings of infested fish were slimy dark skin with signs of asphyxia, rapid opericular movement, aggregation of fish on the water surface with gulping the atmospheric air. Flashing of fish, detached scales with frayed fins with presence of hemorrhagic lesions on the skin, fins, gills with congested gills, sluggish movement, finally off food and loss of escape reflex. Hematological parameters of infested fish showed significant decrease in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Total WBCs showed non significant difference. Serum total protein and cholesterol were significantly decreased, while, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, urea sodium and potassium were significantly increased. Chemical treatment using formalin 20 ppm for 24h. As a long bath and natural treatment using Humic acid 3 ppm for 24h. As along bath showed complete eradication of Trichodina and Cichlidogyrus. [Nature and Science 2010;8(2):121-125]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Oreochromis niloticus- Trichodina Cichlidogyrus- Humic acid and formalin

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