Science Journal


Nature and Science
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 8 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 36), March 1, 2010
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All in one file

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Titles / Authors

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Effect of Metal Pickling and Electroplating Industrial Sludge-Borne Heavy Metals on Wheat (Triticum aesativum) Seedling Growth


1Sudarshana Sharma, 2Parmanand Sharma, 3Sazada Siddiqui 2A. K. Bhattacharyya

1Department of Biochemistry, Bundelkahnd University Jhansi, India

2 School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

3 Department of Botany, Bundelkahnd University Jhansi, India


Abstract: A pot culture study has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of rolling and pickling industrial sludge amendments on growth response and bioaccumulation of heavy metal in wheat seedlings. Processed acidic waste was first treated with three doses of lime (0, 0.5 and 1%) and then mixed with two soils in different ratios (0, 10 and 20%). Samples were filled in earthen pots (2Kg/pot) one week before planting and seven days old wheat seedlings (3 per pot) were transplanted in these pots and pots were kept in glass house. Temperature of glass house was maintained at 2220C and moisture contained at 50% of water holding capacity. DTPA extractable heavy metals and metals in seedlings increased with increasing doses of industrial sludge amendments. Biomass and growth has been also found to increase with increasing rate of sludge. Lime enhanced the biomass and reduced the heavy metal concentrations. Although 20% treatments in both soils showed a significant enhancement in shoot length but metals like Pb was found beyond permissible limit. The heavy metal in wheat seedlings follow the trend Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd. Lime has a negative correlation with availability and uptake of heavy metals. Results showed that application of lime treated industrial sludge to soil could be useful in order to increase crop growth in the glass house. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: pot culture, industrial waste, bioaccumulation, DTPA extractable metals.

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Rocks for crops: Assessment of the Quality of Adigudom Gypsum for crop production in the northern highlands of Ethiopia


Fassil Kebede

Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University; P.O.B-231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; E-mail:


Abstract: Significant proportions of the landmasses of Ethiopia are covered by massive and continuous Rocky Mountains of different geological origin and composition, which can be useful even for organic farming. In the last decade, in fight against the recurrent drought in the north Ethiopian State of Tigray more than 46 dams have been constructed with a cumulative storage capacity and irrigable area of 49.91 million m3 and 3115 ha, respectively. However, in the irrigated fields of these dams, salt minerals like thenardite (Na2SO4), halite (NaCl), zincobloedite (Na2Zn(SO4)2.4H2O), and anorthoclase (Na,K)(Si3Al)O8 have been observed recently, which can cause sodicity thereby crop productivity can be impaired gradually. A list of management options should be tabled urgently before the problem is aggravated. Large gypsum deposit was found in the localities of the irrigated fields. Thus, this study attempted to evaluate the quality of these minerals whether they can be useful for agricultural purposes. Analysis revealed that up to 150 cm of the profile depth of the rock was mainly composed of gypsum (95%) with the predominance of oxides of S (43.5-46.6% SO3-2) and Ca (32.1-33.5% CaO). The oxides in the sampled rock followed the order of: SO3-2> CaO>SiO2>Al2O3>Fe2O3>MgO>Na2O>K2O>TiO2>MnO>P2O5 with the finest particle size (81.7-90%) dominating over other sizes. This study has come to the conclusion that Adigudom gypsum deposit can be used as rock for crops through enhancing sodicity management and sulphur nutrition. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):9-14]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keyword: Adigudom gypsum, agromineral, microdams, sodic soils, sulphur nutrition

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Morphology, Fecundity and diet of Galeoides decadactylus (Pisces: Polynemidae) (Bloch, 1795) off Nigerian coast



Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.


Abstract: Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch) is one of the three species of the family polynemidae commonly called the threadfins, found in warm tropical surface water of the Atlantic on the continental shelf of West Africa. They are important in the trawl fisheries of Nigeria. The specimens used for this study were collected off Nigerian coast from Lagos to Calabar between December, 2003 and November, 2004. In this study the length-frequency distribution, length - weight relationship, condition factor, sex ratio, fecundity, food and feeding habits of Galeoides decadactylus were examined. Measurements recorded for each fish were standard length (SL) and total length (TL) to the nearest 1mm and weight to the nearest 0.1g. Sexes of fish were determined by visual and microscopic examination of the gonads. Fecundity was estimated from the ripe ovaries (stage v) by the gravimetric method. The Gonadotropic Index (GI) and the Condition Factor (K) were calculated. Food items were quantified by two methods, the numerical and frequency of occurrence methods. The total length of 259 specimens examined ranged between 12.0cm and 28.3cm (standard length 9.9cm to 20.8cm). Specimens exhibited negative allometric growth. The condition factor increased with individual size. Females had a slightly higher condition factor than males. The sex ratio was 1:0.46 (male:female). The number of eggs per female ranged between 58 001 and 279 279. There was a negative correlation between log-fecundity and log-weight than between log-fecundity and log length. The major food items were crustaceans, molluscs, pisces and annelids. There were no distinctions in the feeding habits of the species in relation to size. The fish was euryphagus species and highly fecund. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):15-23]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Galeoides decadactylus, fecundity, allometric growth, condition factor, euryphagus.

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Elemental Analysis of Satluj River Water Using EDXRF


Prem Singh* and J.P. Saharan$

*Dept. of Physics, S.D. College (Lahore) Ambala Cantt.,

$Dept. of Chemistry, S.D. College (Lahore) Ambala Cantt.

Corresponding author: *


Abstract: A systematic study was carried out to explore the concentration of different low-Z elements present in the water samples of Satluj River in Himachal Pradesh, India. Water samples from four different locations were collected and analyzed for elemental analysis. In this study, energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been employed. The degree of elemental pollution and the suitability of the river water for drinking purpose were assessed. A close look at the elemental concentration in water samples of different locations shows variation in concentrations but elements are within the safe limits as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration of Ca and Fe is little higher. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(3): 24-28]. (ISSN: 1545-0740)”.


Keywords: EDXRF, Water Quality, x-ray tube, Pollution, Elemental Analysis

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Ola, F. A. Talkhan**; Mervat E. I. Rdwan.*; Ali. M. A**

* Veterinary HospitalBenha University **Animal Health Research Institute, Shebin El-kom.


Abstract : Members of genus babesia are tick transmitted intra erythrocytes proto zoon parasites, many species are of considerable economic importance in live stock industry, additionally some species are zoonotic and affected on human health, so this investigation performed to differentiated between traditional and some modern methods for diagnosis of bovine babesiosis, a total of 100 animals from private farms located in different places in Kalubia aged from 1-3 years the samples were collected from clinically infected animals that suffered from fever (41 C) , Anorexia, depression, weakness, pale mucos membrane, emaciation, weight loss hemoglobin urea with accelerate heart and respiratory rates and animals appearan healthy in contact with this animals, laboratory examination two blood samples were collected from each animals from juglar vein samples with anticoagulant for blood film stain and PCR while second without anticoagulant for biochemical the result of our study revealed a great significant Increase in urea , creatinine, AST, Alt and globulin in clinical cases of babesia bigemina but non significant changes in sub clinical cases Also the result revealed significant increase in serum iron ,Total iron binding capacity transfferin total protein, However There are non significant increase in albumin and A/G ration. 2010;8(3):29-36]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Babesiosis, Cattle, Early diagnosis, Pathogenic Alteration.

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Awareness of Urban and Rural People Regarding Polythene Ban in Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh

1,2Abul Hasnat Md. Shamim, 2Md. Abu Taleb and 3Md. Anisur Rahman

1Department of Environmental Management Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Science

& Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan

2School of Agriculture & Rural Development, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705, Bangladesh

3School of Social Science, Humanities & Language, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705, Bangladesh


Abstract: The awareness of the urban and rural people regarding the ban on polythene bags was studied in Rajshahi division. Information was collected from urban and rural people to know their views after a period of 4 years of ban on polythene bags. The surveys included interview schedule, observations and discussions with the users. The largest part of the respondents were congratulated the decision of the government on ban of polythene bags. About 97.3 % of urban and 76 % of rural people was in favour of ban of polythene and a few of the respondents (2.7 %) were in disfavour in case of urban whereas in rural it was 24 %. Majority of the users were ignorant about the hazardous impacts of polythene bags on the health (urban 24 and rural 1.3 %). [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):37-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keyword: Awareness, polythene bags, ban and environment.

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Biochemical Studies on Nephroprotective Effect of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Growing in Egypt


Mahgoub M. Ahmed

Molecular Drug Evaluation Dep., National Organisation for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR). Egypt


ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species and free radicals are involved in the nephrotoxicity induced by the synthetic anticancer drug cisplatin. The nephroprotective effects of carob pods and leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was investigated using cisplatin (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) to induce oxidative renal damage in mice. The results showed that cisplatin administration caused abnormal renal functions in all studied mice. Serum urea and creatinine concentrations were significantly highered (P<0.5) in the cisplatin alone treated (control) group compared to the normal group. The concentrations of serum creatinine and urea in the carob pods (200 mg/kg body weight) treated group were reduced to 57.5% and 51.5%, respectively, with respect to the control group. Also, cisplatin induced decline of renal antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but the treatment of carob pods and leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Both pods and leaves of carob at 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and protected against the increase of cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation. In addition, treatment with cisplatin increased the activity of cathepsin D, RNase II, DNase II and acid phosphatase. The treatment of carob pods and leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) improved the activity of lysosomal enzymes nearly to the normal group. In conclusion, carob leaves and pods may be effective to protect from oxidative renal damage and the leaves are the better nephroprotective agent than pods. The protection may be mediated partially by preventing the decline of renal antioxidant statues. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):41-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: nephrotoxicity; carob; cisplatin; antioxidant enzymes; lysosomal enzymes

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Genotypic Variability for Agronomic and Yield Characters in Some Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)


D. O. Idahosa1 J. E. Alika2 and A. U. Omoregie1

1. Department of Crop Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

2. Department of Crop Science, University of Benin, Nigeria.



Abstract: Cultivated species of crops are usually variable because of artificial selection under diverse environments of which cowpea is not exception. Consequently, genotypic variability study was conducted with eight parent line cowpeas to evaluate some genetic parameters namely coefficient of variation, genetic variance and heritability estimates in the broad-sense. Per se mean performance was variable among the genotypes for all characters investigated which indicated the superiority of some parent lines. Highly significant heritability effects were observed for all characters except for 100-seed weight (42.2%) which expressed moderate heritability estimate. Days to 50% flowering, pod length, pod weight and grain yield characters showed that some levels of genetic variability existed. Consequently, progress could be made from selection and improvement for those characters. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):48-55]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Genotypic variability, genetic variance, coefficient of variation, heritability, cowpea.

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Effects Of Organic, Organomineral And NPK Fertilizer Treatments On The Quality Of Amaranthus Cruentus (L) On Two Soil Types In Lagos, Nigeria


*Makinde Esther. A., **O. Fagbola., **E. A. Akinrinde, and ***E.A. Makinde

*Department of Botany, Lagos State University, Ojo Lagos.Nigeria.

** Department ofAgronomy, Universityof Ibadan.Ibadan.Nigeria.

*** Federal College of Agriculture. Ibadan

ABSTRACT: Under tropical soils, the precise requirement of inorganic fertilizer and its possible substitute is yet to be validated for the production of Amaranthus cruentus L. The nutrient requirement of A. cruentus under two soil types and yield quality under field conditions. Field experiment was conducted at two locations in Lagos State: Ikorodu (Orthic Luvisol) and Lagos State (LASU) Ojo Campus (Dystric Fluvisol) to investigate the effects of organic and organomineral and NPK fertilizer treatments on the quality of Amaranthus cruentus L. Eight fertilizer treatments. (1) Control (no fertilizer), (2) Pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB) 100 %, (3) PGB + NPK (75:25), (4) PGB + NKP (50:50), (5) Kola Pod Husk (KPH) 100 %, (6) KPH + NPK (75:25), (7) KPH + NPK (50:50) and (8) NPK (100 %) were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were assessed in the second and third planting periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in four Replications. Parameters assessed include proximate analysis. Data were analysed using ANOVA. The KPH + NPK (75:25)resulted in significant (p<0.05) higher crude protein content (19.8 and 14.9 %), ether extract (8.5 and 8.2 %) while crude fibre (9.5 and 10.8 %) was lower than control at Ikorodu and LASU respectively. The KPH and PGB had high potential in A. cruentus production. At Ikorodu, KPH + NPK (75:25) was the best while at LASU, PGB + NPK (75:25) was optimum. KPH + NPK (75:25) gave highest crude protein content, ether extract and lowest crude fibre in A. cruentus. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):56-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Amaranthus cruentus, organomineral fertilizer, quality and soil type

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Analysis on the Parking demand of the Commercial Buildings Considering the Public Transport Accessibility

——Commercial Buildings in Beijing as an Example


Huanmei Qin 1, Qing Xiao 1, Hongzhi Guan 1, Xiaosong Pan 1

1. Beijing Key Laboratory of Traffic Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China


Abstract: Parking index is the fundamental basis for the buildings’ parking supply in city. Researches on the parking demand takes prepare for establishing the buildings’ parking index. Based on the parking survey of the commercial buildings in Beijing, this paper first analyzes the parking demand of the shopping centre and supermarkets. Further it analyzes the relationship between the parking demand of the commercial buildings and the public transport accessibility. The conclusion is that the parking demand rate of the shopping centre and supermarkets decreases with the increasing of the public transport accessibility. It also provides the parking demand rate under the different levels of the public transport accessibility and the parking demand model with the accessibility. The conclusions are valuable for the researches on the parking demand and the making of the parking index for the commercial buildings. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(3):63-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740)


Key words: commercial buildings; public transport accessibility; parking demand analysis; parking index

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Probiotic Activity of L. acidophilus against Major Food-borne Pathogens Isolated from Broiler Carcasses.


Sherein* I. Abd El-Moez1, Ahmed F.Y.2, Samy A.A. 1, Aisha R.Ali3

1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology - National Research Center Cairo Egypt.

2. Department of Animal Reproduction and A.I. - National Research Center Cairo Egypt.

3. Serology unit -Animal Health Institute Cairo Egypt



Abstract: C.jejuni E.coli and S. typhimurium are the principal food borne pathogens in poultry industry. The first experiment tested the effectiveness of different strains of Lactobacillus as in vitro as probiotic against C. jejuni E.coli O157 and S. typhimurium Result showed that L.acidophilus isolated from colostrums of mare and goat showed the widest inhibition zone against C. jejuni E.coli O157 and S. typhimurium strains compared to the use of L.acidophilus isolated from goat and cattle milk. The second experiment evaluate the efficiency of L. acidophilus isolated from mare colostrums showing highest in vitro inhibition activity against tested strains as in vivo probiotic against C. jejuni isolated from broiler carcasses. The result showed great inhibition of C. jejuni E.coli O157 and S. typhimurium strains by the use of L.acidophilus in comparing to the use of antibiotics. In the second experiment; four groups of adult albino rats were used; group (1) control negative, group (2) rats orally administrated by L. acidophilus only from the start of experiment till the 14th day, group (3) rats challenged only with C. jejuni and group (4) orally administrated by L. acidophilus from the start of experiment till the 14th day at the 7th day they were challenged with C. jejuni. Result showed that the third group showed the highest rate of reisolation of C.jejuni (0.800.16 from fecal swabs and 0.840.17 from the internal organs) as well as major pathological lesions in the tested organs in the form of granulomatus reaction in the lung tissue infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung tissue thickening of wall of blood vessels with alveolar emphysema. Congestion hemorrhages of renal blood capillaries and coagulative necrosis of the renal tissue as well as degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with proliferation of fibrous tissue. The forth group pretreated with L. acidophilus Showed lower rate of isolation of C.jejuni (0.080.02 from fecal swabs and 0.040.01 from internal organs. The pathological findings of the internal organs showed minor lesions in the form of interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory cellular infiltration in the lung Swelling and degeneration of renal epithelium and hepatocytic degeneration with infiltration of inflammatory cells. The second group which was only treated with L.acidophilus showed no reisolation of C.jejuni as well as no pathological lesions were detected except a minor lesion in the liver in the form of diffused vacuolar degeneration in hepatocytes. Results develop a safe method for competing food borne pathogens in edible animals and suggest the need for probiotics to hinder the spread of highly pathogenic zoonotic bacteria transmitted by animal food by products. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):69-78]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: C. jejuni; L. acidophilus; probiotics; in vivo, antibiotic sensitivity, rat.

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Tracking the Invasion Pathway: Assesment of α-Diversity and Invasiveness of Alien Ornamental Plants of Srinagar(Kashmir, J&K), India


Shabana Aslam1, *Khursheed Ahmad Ganaie2, AQ John3 and GH Dar1

1. Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J& K, India190006

2. Department of Botany, Islamia college of Science and Commerce, Srinagar, J& K, India 190006

3. Division of Floriculture, Medicinal and Aromatic plants, SKUAST- Kashmir, J& K, India 191121;

Abstract: The valley of Kashmir is famous for its marvellous landscape which attracts tourists from all along the globe. The landscaping of this heavenly abode predominantly involves alien ornamental plants. The present study puts on record the alien ornamental flora of Srinagar Kashmir, and thus, is a first compilation of alien ornamental flora of the region. The study enlists the occurrence of 271 exotic ornamental species distributed in 187 genera, belonging to 85 families, therefore piling up the total number of alien plant species in the Kashmir Himalayas to 704. The taxonomic composition analysis of alien ornamental flora of the region revealed that dicots are represented by 223 species (82%) belonging to 151 genera and 65 families while as monocots comprised of 39 species (15%) dispersed in 28 genera and 13 families. Gymnosperms are represented by 9 species (3%), 8 genera and 7 families. Asteraceae (11.07%), Rosaceae (9.59%), Oleaceae (4.79%) are the largest families of exotic ornamental plants introduced into the Kashmir Himalayas. Out of 85 families, 42 are represented by a single genus and single species. The highest number of alien ornamental species have come from the continent Asia (31%) followed by Europe (30%) and North America (20%). The study reports the occurrence of 133 alien ornamental species for the first time from Kashmir Himalayas. Our analysis of alien species establishment and invasion is not in consonance with Williamson’s tens rule and proposes that human assisted species selection, introduction and establishment change the entire dimensions of tens rule to maximum values in invasion biology. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):79-95]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Exotic, alien, ornamental flora, Kashmir, Himalayas, New records

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Influence of dietary commercial Beaker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisae on growth performance, survival and immunostimulation of Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.


H A M, Osman1, Taghreed, B Ibrahim1, W E, Soliman1 and Maather, M Monier2

1. Hydrobiology Dept. National Research Center Dokki, Egypt.

2. Fish diseases and management Dept.Fac.of Vet.Med.Seuz Canal Univ.Egypt.


Abstract: Eight weeks feeding trials were conducted to examine the effect of dietary commercial brewer's yeast, (Beaker's yeast), Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival and immunostimulation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Brewer's yeast supplemented at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 gm/kg diet A, B, C, D and E respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate group of O. niloticus with initial body weight at 77.39 5.33 g at 8 weeks feeding period. Control group fed non supplemented diet at total period of experiment. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF) were recorded, and the optimum growth performance were obtained with 3.0 g yeast/kg diet. Physiological and biochemical parameters (RBCs count, Hb concentration, HCT value, glucose and lipids of fish), cellular immune parameters (total leucocytic count, phagocytic activity) and hormonal immune parameters (Total protein, albumin, globulin and lysozyme concentration) were significantly elevated than the control group( fed on A diet) and improved in O. niloticus fed brewer's yeast up to 3.0 g/kg diet. After experimental period (8 weeks) fish from each group were challenged by pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila IP, kept under observation for 7 days, total fish mortality, clinical signs were recorded, and mortality percent decreased with the increase of yeast level in fish diets. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):96-103]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Oreochromis niloticus ; brewer's yeast ; growth performance ; immuno-stimulation ; condition factor ; immune promoters ; Aeromonas hydrophila.

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Quadratic Model for Predicting the Concentration of Dissolved Iron Relative to the Initial and Final Solution pH during Oxalic Acid Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore

Chukwuka I. Nwoye

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.


Abstract: Model for predicting the concentration of dissolved iron (relative to the initial and final solution pH) during leaching of iron oxide ore in oxalic acid solution has been derived. The model;

γ2 – βγ - 0.001N = 0



was found to calculate the concentration of dissolved iron being dependent on the values of the initial and final leaching solution pH measured during the leaching process. It was found that the validity of the model is rooted on the expressions D = 1000%Fe where both sides of each expression are correspondingly approximately almost equal. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted values of %Fe (dissolved) from the corresponding experimental values was found to be less than 28% which is quite within the acceptable range of deviation limit of experimental results. The value of the assumed coefficient of the dilution (N) was calculated to be 197.527. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):104-109]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


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Model for the Calculation of the Concentration of Sulphur Removed during Oxidation of Iron Oxide Ore by Powdered Potassium Chlorate


Chukwuka I. Nwoye

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.


Abstract: Model for the calculation of the concentration of sulphur removed (during oxidation of iron oxide ore by powdered potassium chlorate) has been derived. The model was found to predict the concentration of sulphur removed, very close to the corresponding %S values obtained from the actual experimental process. It was found that the model is dependent on the values of the weight input of the oxidant (KClO3) during the desulphurization process. The validity of the model is believed to be rooted in the expression [(α)β%S] = T/γkn where both sides of the expression are approximately equal to 2. The positive or negative deviation of each of the model-predicted values of %S from those of the corresponding experimental values was found to be less than 30% which is quite within the range of acceptable deviation limit of experimental results. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):110-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Model, Sulphur Removed, Iron Oxide Ore, Oxidation, Potassium Chlorate.

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Electrogastrograhy As A Diagnostic Tool For Overlapping Dyspepsia In Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients


Engy Yousry Elsayed1, Mohamed Omar2, Aml Ameen3 from 1Internal Medicine,2 Tropical medicine, 3Radiodiagnosis departement, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: Introduction: Distinguishing between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia can be challenging because of the variations in symptom patterns, which commonly overlap. Although the principles of electrogastrography (EGG) have been known for years, it is contrvesial whether alteration of gastric electrical activity (GEA) could be of clinical relevance in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Aim of the work was to assess the role of electrogastrography and gastric emptying in diagnosis of overlapping dyspepsia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Subjects and methods: 120 patients with IBS were compared with 60 healthy controls. EGG was performed before and after a standard meal. Furthermore, gastric emptying (GE) and symptom scores were assessed.

Results: Of 120 IBS patients, 52 (43.3%) had dyspeptic symptoms as well as delayed gastric emptying. IBS patients with overlapping dyspepsia showed significantly more bradygastria (26.9%) than controls (5.9%) (P < 0.01) , also they had statistically significant lower PR compared to non dyspeptic patients(2.11.3 vs. 2.91.6 respectively P<0.05), moreover gastric emptying time was delayed in IBS patients with overlapping dyspepsia (14.71.8) compared to those without dyspeptic complaints and controls (10 1.27 & 10.62.1 respectively) (P<0.01).

Conclusion and recommendation: IBS patients with overlapping dyspepsia frequently reveal impaired gastric emptying and increased bradygastria, lack of a postprandial increase in the EGG amplitude, which may have pathophysiological significance in these patients .Using both EGG and gastric emptying test can aid in the detection of functional disorders associating IBS and therefore achieve greater patient satisfaction with their treatment. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):115-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Electrogastrography, functional dyspepsia, gastric emptying, irritable bowel syndrome

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Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Diversity of Asteraceae in Uttarakhand


Vinod Kumar Bisht*1 &Vineet Purohit1

1Herbal Research & Development Institute, Gopeshwar - 246 401, Uttarakhand, India.



Abstract: Geographically Uttarakhand represents six eco-climatic regions from 300 m asl to 7817 m asl, and abode to a variety of medicinal and aromatic plants, and their products are being used by local communities from time immemorial. Asteraceae is the largest family of medicinal and aromatic plants in Uttarakhand. The species of the family are growing from low altitude of Tarai Bhabar to the alpine. There are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, under shrubs, shrubs. This paper includes the database on various aspects of medicinal plants of the family Asteraceae in the state. The database on various aspects includes species richness, genera richness, medicinal use and altitude for the different species of the family Asteraceae. Nature and Science. 2010;8(3):121-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key Words: asteraceae, diversity, medicinal and aromatic plants

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An issue of improvement in Annual land use planning


Bolormaa Batsuuri

Faculty of Earth Sciences of National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 14201, Mongolia.


Abstract: The part where the mathematic modeling and GIS modeling are being established and formulated is the major system of decision supporting system, and taking into account the criterions of making the GIS modeling, \in this thesis\ it will be easily established using all types of relevant information. Models that base on relevant information and criterions are most likely to effectively serve the decision makers and the users of the modeling. In order to follow the world standard and freely transfer geographic information in an international environment, the process of reforming meta data standard of GIS in Mongolia is basing on researches of international meta data standard of GIS (ISO 19115). Therefore the meta data standard have been processed adapting into certain conditions of Mongolia. The territory of Ulaanbaatar city is selected as the research object and including the total territory, researches on today’s pressing issues of land administration, land legislation, land cadastre, and land planning have been made thoroughly and the objectives of this thesis have been put forward in resolving issues in urban land use planning. When processing the land use planning of the capital in 2009, taking into account the results from the 3.3.1 and using the GIS analyzing and GAP assessment tools, it is now possible to extend the serving area. Two types of construction standards those are observed in Mongolia used in order to set\establish serving area of commerce in Ulaanbaatar city. [Nature and Science 2010;8(3):129-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Annual land use planning, Geographic information system, assessment, land administration, meta data

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