Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 8 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 37), April 1, 2010
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All in one file

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

1

Plant growth pattern, tiller dynamics and dry matter accumulation of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by application of different manures

 

Mirza Hasanuzzaman1*, K. U. Ahamed2, K. Nahar2 ­and N. Akhter2

1Department of Agronomy, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh

2Department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh

mhzsauag@yahoo.com, kuahamed@yahoo.com, knahar84@gmail.com

 

Abstract: To observe the comparative performance of different organic manures with inorganic fertilizers on the growth rate, tillering and dry matter accumulation of rice an experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during June to November, 2008. The 10 treatments comprised viz. T1 (Control), T2 (Green manure @ 15 t ha-1), T3 (Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e.50% NPK), T4 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1), T5 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK), T6 (Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1), T7 (Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK), T8 (Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1), T9 (Vermiconpost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK) and T10 (N80P12K72S10 i.e.100% NPK). Plant height, number of tillers hill-1, total dry weight of plants, crop growth rate and relative growth rate were significantly influenced by different treatments. Except plant height and total tiller per hill all the parameters were found to be the highest with the treatment T5 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK). The dry matter production showed a significant relationship with grain yield of rice. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):1-10]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.01

Key words: Rice, Organic manures, CGR, RGR, Dry matter partitioning, Yield

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2

Comparative Study of Seasonal Variation in Physico - Chemical Characteristics in Drinking Water Quality of Kanpur, India With Reference To 200 MLD Filteration Plant and Ground Water

 

Priyanka Trivedi1,* , Amita Bajpai2 , Sukarma Thareja1,

1. Department of Chemistry, Christ Church College, CSJM Kanpur University, UP, India

2. CWA Kanpur Jalsansthan Benajhawar Kanpur. 1E-mail: priyankas03@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: In the present work various physico chemical parameters i.e. Turbidity, temperature, pH, total hardness , Iron, Chlorides, Dissolved Solids, Calcium, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride, Chromium, total alkalinity are analyzed for various seasons; Summer, Monsoon, Autumn,Winter, Spring for the period (April-December-2008 and (January- March-2009) in the surface water, ground water and filtration plant treated water of Kanpur city. Significant variation of physico - chemical parameters of surface water were observed; various physico-chemical parameters for the water samples were within highest desirable limit (HDL) prescribed by WHO for drinking purposes for all seasons except for pH in summer, Total alkalinity and Fe contents in spring, autumn and winter; Total dissolved solids in winter, Turbidity in all seasons. The observations imply that Ganga water in monsoon is better than winter seasons, where as the ground water was found better in winter compared to that of summer season. The results suggest that the quality of surface water improved after treatment in filtration plant as compared to ground water. [Nature and Science. 2010:8(4):11-17] (ISSN: 1545-0740)

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.02

Keywords: Physico-chemical Parameters, Ganga water,Canal Ganga Water, Treated water, Ground water.

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3

Response of vermi-compost on Growth and Yield of Pea (pisum sativum L.) cv. Arkel

 

Hakim Singh Chauhan*, Sunil Chandra Joshi1 and D.K. Rana2

GBPUAT Hill Campus Ranichauri- 249199 (Uttrakhand) India

1 Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 India

2Department of Horticulture, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar- 246174 (Uttrakhand) India. hakim_ag2007@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation “Response of vermi-compost on growth and yield of pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Arkel’’ comprised of seven treatments consisting of three level of vermi-compost, three level of vermi-compost with NPK, and one level of FYM + NPK. During the experimentation, growth character and yield characters were recorded. The germination of pea cv. Arkel, Seeds became faster with T4 (vermi-compost-10 t/ha+NPK) treatment but there after the germination occurred at slower rate and days taken for completion of germination increased progressively. The T4 (vermi-compost-10 t/ha + NPK) treatment exhibited the maximum nodule formation and yield. A comparative study of the present findings led to the conclusion that sowing of pea with the application of vermi-compost @ 10 t/ha and NPK @ 25:60:50 kg/ha was found most effective to best growth of pea crop under Srinagar valley condition of Garhwal region of Uttrakhand state. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):18-21].ISSN:1545- 0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.03

Keywords: Pisum sativum, vermi-compost, FYM, NPK

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4

In vitro antioxidative acitivity of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach Leaves by DPPH scavenging assay

 

Gayatri Nahak1 and Rajani Kanta Sahu1

1Department of Botany, B.J.B. Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar751014, Orissa, India

gayatri_bioteq@yahoo.co.in; sahurajani@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Medicinal plants are a major source of raw material for the traditional system like Ayurveda, Siddha & Unani. Even the modern system of medicine has more than 25 percent of drugs in use, which are either plant based or plant derived. Although several tree posses various medicinal properties, it has been ignored by indigenous & modern system of medicine. Among them Azadirachta indica & Melia azedarach belonging to family Meliaceae play a vital role in day to day usage of different indigenous communities due to its sacred and medicinal value. Recently there has been an upsurge of interest in the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as antioxidants. In the course of finding potential antioxidant from plant source, two medicinal tree species belonging to family Meliaceae has been selected. Leaves were dried and extracted with different solvent systems namely water, ethanol & methanol. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay of six extracts from two genus of the family Meliaceae is reported & a comparison of the free radical scavenging ability of the extracts is emphasized. The result of the present study showed that the extract of Melia azedarach., which contains highest amount of phenolic compounds exhibited the greatest anti-oxidant activity in comparison to Azadirachta indica. The high scavenging property of may be due to hydroxyl groups existing in the phenolic compounds chemical structure that can provide the necessary components as a radical scavenger. [Nature and Science 2010; 8(4):22-28]. (ISSN: 1545-0740].

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.04

Key words: Antioxidant activity, Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach.

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5

Effect of Chromium on Mucor species and optimization of growth conditions

 

Bijay Kumar Sethi1, Satyajit Kanungo1,*, Jyoti Ranjan Rout1, Prativa kumari Nanda2, Santi Lata Sahoo1

1 Microbiology Laboratory, P.G Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Pin-751004, Orissa, India.

2 Saila Bala Women’s College, Cuttack, Orissa, India. satya_9bt@yahoo.com, santi_bot_uu@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Czapek Dox broth medium is frequently used for the culture of fungal species like Mucor. The influences of incubation period, pH, Cr (VI) concentration, temperature on the concentration of biomass were also evaluated. At pH 5.5, the fungi Mucor species yields maximum biomass and the fungus can be able to degrade chromium to a particular concentration but at higher concentration growth reduces. From a practical viewpoint, this abundant and inexpensive fungal biomass has potential application in the conversion of toxic Cr (VI) into less toxic or nontoxic Cr (III). Maximum biomass weight was observed which is about 0.33±0.01mg/20ml at a constant temperature of 350C with an incubation period of 8 days. The protein content of the fungus was estimated and it was found that maximum yield of protein was recorded in the presence of 0.005 mM of chromium. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):29-32]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.05

Key words: Biomass; Mucor species; Czapek Dox medium; incubation period.

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6

Biochemical and neurological effects of obesity on primary school girls

Hanaa H. Ahmed1; Abla G. Khalifa2; Emad F. Eskander1; Alaa H. Sayed1 and Ismail M. Abdel-Nabi3

 

1 Hormones Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2 Child Health Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3 Zoology Dept., Fac. Of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. alaasc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The number of obese children worldwide has increased noticeably. As with adults, obesity in childhood is strongly related to hypertension, dyslipidemia, type II diabetes, and insulin resistance. Also, obese children are at increased risk of becoming obese adults. Therefore, obese children tend to develop serious medical and psychosocial complications, and have a greater risk of adult morbidity and mortality. The principal goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on the levels of some biomarkers and their relation to the cognitive function in elementary school obese girls. The current study was conducted on 45 obese girls (mean age 10.53 ± 1.29 years; mean BMI 28.43 ± 4.62 kg/m2) and 45 normal age-matched girls (mean age 10.36 ± 1.53 years; mean BMI 19.07 ± 3.47 kg/m2). Estimation of serum adrenomedullin (AM) and substance P (SP), and plasma noradrenaline (NA) and acetylcholine (ACh) were carried out. Cognitive function tests (auditory vigilance, digit span, coding and visual memory) were done for all subjects. The levels of serum AM and SP as well as plasma NA were significantly increased (P<0.01) in the obese group as compared with the control group. Total wrong response to auditory vigilance test (TW) showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the obese group as compared with the control group. Digit span and visual memory classification showed a significant decrease (P<0.01) while coding showed a significant increase (P<0.05). Our study showed that obesity, to some extent, has an adverse effect on cognitive function in primary school girls. The lack of effect of obesity on some cognitive tests may be due to different factors which may include increased levels of SP which has memory-promoting and reinforcing effects and higher levels of NA and the normal level of ACh, which also have important roles in memory processing. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):33-43]. (ISSN: 1545-0740)]

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.06

Key words: obesity- adrenomedullin -substance P - noradrenaline - acetylcholine – cognition – girls

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7

NEAREST NEIGHBOUR PATTERN OF SPATIAL VARIATION IN EXPERIMENTAL FIELDS.

 

Dauda, T.O.

Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, PMB 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria. taofik_biomet@fastmail.net

 

Abstract: Evaluations of the nearest neighbour analysis in the study of spatial variation in experimental plot have been attempted for kenaf using a split plot experiment distributed in a complete randomized design. The experiment was carried out between June and September 2006 at Ilora and Ikenne outstation of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan to evaluate nearest neighbourhood in experimental plots. The results of the cluster analyses of the stem girth at Ilora showed that 80% of the pairing plots were isotropic in nature while all other plot pairs are anisotropic in nature because their euclidean distances are not equal. For stem girth at Ikenne, isotropic property was exhibited between only x 4,1 vs x 3,1 and x 5,3 vs x 2,3 (0.032). All other plots pairs are anisotropic in nature. For plant height at both Ilora and Ikenne, none of the pairing plots exhibited isotropic property but anisotropic property. Also, the nearest neighbour indices are 0.00197 (for stem girth at Ilora), 0.00734 (for stem girth at Ikenne), 0.1831 (for plant height at Ilora) and 0.2456 (for plant height at Ikenne). From the study, the variogram is found to be related to the variance covariance using the model,  (where = variogram, C(0) is the variance at the plot xi and C(h) is the covariance at both plot xi and xj ). Finally, low but positive nearest neighbour index obtained in this work implied that the neighbourhood pattern falls between cluster and randomness thereby reflecting patchiness of neighbourhood pattern. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):44-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740)]

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.07

Keywords: Nearest neighbour, Euclidean distance, Clusters, initial soil nutrient deposition ((ISND).

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8

QUANTITATIVE SPECIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY TOXIC METALS IN EXPIRED CANNED TOMATOES FOUND IN VILLAGE MARKETS

 

1 Itodo U. Adams and 2 Itodo U. Happiness

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi. itodoson2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Varieties of expired canned tomatoes were pre-treated using standard digestion methods and were analysed for heavy metals. Cr, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Mg, Cu, AI and Mn were determined using Atomic absorption spectroscopy and photometry techniques. Mg, Mn, Co and Pb presented higher concentration values ranging from 32.18± 9.25; 4.35 ±1.60; 2.62 ±1.76 and 2.82 ±0.53 µgg-1 respectively. Unlike the Cd contents, Cr and Pb concentration were above the threshold limit values (TLV) of 2.0µgg-1. The levels of metals for some of the canned foods exceed that of their corresponding uncanned products reported in literatures. Physicochemical variables of the brands were also estimated as 76.4 ±3.85 and 3.20± 1.09 % for moisture and ash contents respectively. The arrays of health implications of heavy metals computed in this work will at a glance access the roles of excessive and prolonged intake of such foods. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):54-59]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.08

Key words: canned tomato, toxic metals, AAS, Photometry.

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9

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF GINGER ON THE QUALITY OF SMOKED DRIED CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus)

 

Idris, Garba Libata*, Omojowo, Funso Samuel.;* Omojasola Patricia Folake**, Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun***, and Ngwu Emmanuel onyebuchi*

*NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR FRESHWATER FISHERIES RESEARCH, (NIFFR) P.M.B. 6006, NEW-BUSSA, NIGER STATE. NIGERIA.

** DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, NIGERIA.

***NIGERIAN STORED PRODUCTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA.

idrisgarbalibata@yahoo.com; jowosam@yahoo.com; folakejasola@yahoo.co.uk, charliguitar@yahoo.com and ngwuemma@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fresh live catfish (Clarias gariepinus) obtained from Private pond in NIFFR, New-Bussa. The samples were divided into five groups. Four groups were dressed and dipped in a solution of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of Ginger respectively for thirty (30) minutes and smoked dried. The fifth group acts as control. They were examined microbiologically, chemically and organoleptically. The Ginger reduced the free fatty acid (FFA) values, trimethylamine (TMA) values, and the fungi load of the processed fish. Ten percent of ginger had the best result in terms of reduction in fungi load, FFA and TMA values and followed by 7.5 and 5%. However, from the organoleptic results of overall acceptability, taste, colour and texture of the products, 5% ginger concentration had the best acceptance and significantly different (P<0.05) when compared to the non treated control after 8 weeks of storage. [Nature and Science. 2010; 8(4):59-63] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.09

Key words: Catfish, Ginger, smoked, storage and Fungi load.

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10

Diagnostic Role Of Resistin In Nonalchoholic Fatty Liver Disease

 

Engy Yousry Elsayed, Amal Shawky Mohamed, Hala Abd Elal* and Eman Hamed**

Internal Medicine, Clinical Pathology* and Pathology** Departments

Faculty Of Medicine, Ain Shams University, cairo, Egypt.

ashorengy@yahoo.com, amalshawky-mb@hotmail.com, hala_abdelal@yahoo.com, imihewedi99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Insulin resistance is believed to be a key factor in the development of fatty liver. Moreover, insulin resistance states characterized by elevated expression and production of several cytokines; of particular adiponectin, leptin, resistin. Leptin and adiponectin have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD but direct evidence of the role of resistin in NAFLD is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the circulating resistin level in patients affected by NAFLD and to correlate resistin level with insulin sensitivity, liver function and histologic feature. Subjects and methods: This study included 100 subjects divided in to: Forty patients with NAFLD, forty obese person with BMI >30 with normal transaminases and normal liver ultrasound and twenty controls with BMI <20, for all subjects serum resistin was measured, Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated and liver profile was assessed. Liver biopsy was done in NAFLD patients. Results: Serum resistin was higher in patients with NAFLD (16.2 ± 4) compared to obese and control groups (6.8 ± 4.1 and 3.4 ± 1.1) respectively (p <0.01), serum resistin was higher in advanced cases of NAFLD compared to mild cases (19.2±3.6 vs. 13.5±2.7) respectively (P < 0.01). Moreover serum resistin was positively correlated to BMI, HOMA , highly sensitive CRP, AST and ALT. Conclusion and recommendation: Resistin has a role in pathogenesis of NAFLD, resistin level is a predictive of histology in NAFLD, so the use of serum resistin assay as a simple diagnostic biomarker for NAFLD is recommended. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):64-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.10

Key word: NAFLD, NASH, Obesity and Resistin.

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11

Assessing Environmental Flow Modeling For Water Resources Management: A Case of Sg. (River) Pelus, Malaysia

 

Mohd Ekhwan Toriman

School of Social Development and Environmental Study, FSSK. 43600. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Selangor Malaysia. ikhwan@ukm.my

 

Abstract: In Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment (DEIA), modeling of environmental flows is one of the main studies that need to be delivered in the final DEIA report. The model is important to the project proponent to engage suitable designs that can be suited to environmental needs, particularly on future water resources management. In this respect, Environmental Flow Assessment (EFA) is used to estimate the quantity and timing of flows to sustain the ecosystem values. The proposed of hydropower projects in Sg Pelus, Perak was studied aimed to evaluate existing river flow characteristics and to model EFA due to river diversion of Sg Pelus. Daily river flow (m3/s) recorded at Sg Pelus (Station No. 6035) and Sg. Yum (Station No. 6044) gauging stations were used to design the flow duration curve. The low flow then calculated using the 7Q10 equation to estimate the lowest 7-day average flow that occurred on average once every 10 years. The results indicate that the average daily flows for both stations (6035 and 6044) are 5.080 m3/s and 11.391 m3/s, respectively. The flow duration curve shows that 50 percent of 4 m3/s of discharge will be exceeded/ equaled in Station 6044 while 8.2 m3/s of discharge will be exceeded or equaled in Station 6035. The requirement environmental flows for both parameters are 0.613 and 0.426 m3/s for Environmental Flow Assessment, respectively. The results obtained in this model are important to managing the river at least in Class II after river diversion project. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):69-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.11

Keywords: Environmental Flow Assessment; Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment; Low flow; Flow duration curve.

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12

Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of some plant extracts in Drosophilla melanogaster

 

Ahmed, E.S.1 ;Twaty,N.H2; Fakiha K.G2. and Bibars M.A.1

1-Department of Cell Biology National Research Center Egypt.

2-Department of Biology,Faculty of Science, King Abdelaziz University,Jeddah

 

Abstract. This study was designed to investigate the mutagenic potential of the anticancer drug vincristine and some plant extracts (fennel and parsley) on Drosophilla melanogaster using two test systems: the sex linked recessive lethal (SLRL) and the estimation of the activity of cholinesterase enzyme (ChE) in F1 and F2 bar eye females and F2 wild type males. A wild type strain Oregon-R (or-R) male flies of D.melanogaster were treated on a medium containing a concentration of only one of the three agents, followed by a combined treatment in an alternative way of fennel extract or parsley extract followed by vincristin, then vincristin followed by fennel extract or parsley extract and finally the three agents together. The results obtained, showed non significant increase in the percentage of the S.L.R.L in all stages of spermatogenesis in all treatments. Meanwhile, vincristine as a single treatment or combined with fennel or parsley extracts showed genotoxic effects in the three categories of the two generations of S.L.R.L: F1 females heterozygous F2 bar eye females and F2 wild type males on the genetic background of ChE in all treatments. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):77-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740].

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.12

Keywords: Drosophilla melanogaster - cholinesterase enzyme – vincristin – fennel – parsley.

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13

Evaluation of Proximate and Phytochemical Compositions of Fermented Raw and Fermented Napoleona Imperialis Seed and Their Feeding Values on Finisher Broilers

 

Martin Chukwudi Uchegbu, Cynthia Okere, Ifeanyi Princewill Ogbuewu*, Ifeanyi Charles Okoli, Chibuzor Hope Nwaodu, Chike Timothy Ezeokeke, George Akalefu Anyanwu

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Princiano2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The high cost of feed in poultry enterprise is well established. This is blamed on limited availability of conventional feedstuff which is also in competition with man’s dietary needs. This has necessitated the search for alternative protein sources such as Napoleona imperialis seed. Ripe N. imperialis seeds (NISs) were harvested in and around the Federal University of Technology, Owerri with the pods opened, the seeds extracted, and sun dried for 7 days. A portion of the sundried NIS was milled using hammer mill to produce the raw N. imperialis seed meal (NISM) while, the remaining portion was soaked in water for 4 days and sundried before milling to produce soaked NISM. Samples of raw and soaked NISMs were taken to the laboratory to determine its proximate and phytochemical compositions. Phytate, tannins, HCN, alkaloids, saponins and metabolisable energy value of the raw NISs were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the treatment. Birds on control diet performed significantly (p<0.05) better than those on 10% soaked NISM diet in terms of average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio but similar (p>0.05) to those on 5% raw and 5% soaked NISMs. The average daily weight gain of birds on 5% raw and 10% soaked NISMs was significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control group. It is concluded that soaking for 4 days in water do not reduce the anti-nutritional content of N. imperialis seeds to a tolerable level for broilers. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):83-88]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.13

Keywords: novel seeds, proximate composition, phytochemistry, performance, broilers.

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14

Plasmid Associated Anthracene Degradation by Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Filling Station Site

 

Gulshan Kumar1, Rajesh Singla2, Rakesh Kumar1*

Biotechnology Department; 2. Microbiology Department, Dolphin PG College of Life Sciences, Chunni-Kalan-140307, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, INDIA. rakesh_panchal1@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Bacterial strains were isolated from oil contaminated soil of 5 different filling stations of Himachal Pradesh, India and screened for their anthracene degradation ability. Enriched media was used to isolate the anthracene degrading bacteria with 0.5% peptone and 0.1% w/v anthracene in Basal Salt Mineral medium and during successive enrichment the peptone concentration was decreased to 0.25 g, 0.1 g and to 0.0 g. After one month of enrichment 5 strains were found to be potent anthracene degrader out of total 76 strains screened. These 5 strains were further subcultured for 10 days and on the basis of percent anthracene degradation strain E was found to degrade 74.8% anthracene supplemented in BSM medium at 0.1% as sole source of carbon and energy and identified as Pseudomonas sp. As evident by antibiotic sensitivity test, Pseudomonas sp. showed resistance against Cefadroxil and Ampicillin among tested 7 antibiotics. Acridine orange induced plasmid curing of isolate lead to complete loss of plasmid and anthracene degradation activity. The study suggests that the plasmid could have a role in anthracene degradation activity. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):89-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.14

Key words: anthracene, Pseudomomas sp., plasmid curing, acridine orange, marker antibiotic

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15

Anthelmintic comparative study of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill extracts in mice naturally infected with aspiculuris tetraptera.

 

Borba, H .R. 1 ,Freire, R. B. 1, Albuquerque, A. C. 3, Cardoso, M.E.O. 3 , Braga, I.G. 3, Almeida, S. T. P. 3, Ferreira, M. J. C. 3, Fernandes, G. L. T 3, Camacho, A. C. L. F. 3, Lima, R. C. 3, Almeida, A. C. C. 3, Mattos, D. M. M. 3, Duarte, R. M.3, Nascimento, S. F. 3, Framil R. A.3, Diré, G. F. 1,2,3,4

1Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Laboratório de Atividade Anti-helmíntica de Plantas. Br 465; Km 7-Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 23890.000, Brazil. Fax: +552126821763/ +552126821763.

2Centro Universitário da Zona Oeste- UEZO, Avenida Manuel Caldeira de Alvarenga, 1203. Campo Grande, RJ 23070-200, Brazil. Telefone/Fax: 2415-8392; e-mail: gdire@hotmail.com

3Universidade Estácio de Sá. Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

4Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Gratitude: We thanks to Thiago de Azevedo Amorim, technician of herbarium of the Botanical Department of Rural Federal University from Rio de Janeiro, by the identification of the studied species. borba@ufrrj.br

 

Abstract: This study intends to add new data on the helminthes parasites of laboratory mice. It has been investigated the antihelmintic activity of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) extracts against Aspiculuris tetraptera in mice naturally infected. The extracts were applied for oral saw (intragastric), into the volume of 0.04mL/g , with the employing of a dead and bend probe during three consecutive days. The fecal material, collected 24 hours after each application, performing a total of four fecal collection, have been softened previously, transferred about to sieve of network of 125 micrometers and tested under microscope stereoscope, with the objective of behave the identification and counting from the worms eliminated of the second to the fifth day of the experimental. Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test was applied to compare the results. This approach intends to add new data on the helminthes parasites of laboratory mice. According to the analysis of the results it was observed that there were differences (p<0.001) in the %of elimination between 20%TM and 20% 20%UR (from 2.24 ± 3.33 to 2.92 ± 3.33), 20%TM and Nit (from 2.24 ± 3.33 to 64.0 ± 2.89), 20%TM and Meb (from 2.24 ± 3.33 to 100.0 ± 3.16 ), 20%UR and Nit (from 2.92 ± 3.16 to 64.0 ± 2.89) and (p<0.01) 20%UR and C (from 2.92 ± 3.16 to 1.56 ± 3.16). It was published that medicinal plants which were reported as useful in the treatment of diabetes the S. lycocarpum was the sixth most frequently mentioned. According to the results obtained in the present study, we can speculate that the anthelmintic effect of Solanum lycocarpum was noticed due to the concentration of steroidal alkaloid oligoglycosides and short-chain fatty acids. [Nature and Science 2010;8(4):95-100]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.15

Key words: Solanum lycocarpum ; helminthes, mice; Aspiculuris tetraptera l;antihelmintic; medicinal plants

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16

A Review on the Future of Ecotourism in the Valley of Flowers National Park: A Case Study of Garhwal Himalaya, India

 

GBG Shashi. K Tiwari1, GBG Pananjay K. Tiwari2 and S.C Tiwari3

1Department of Tourism, Amity University, Noida, India.

2Department of Natural Resource Management, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia

3Department of Botany, Ecology and Environment Laboratory, HNB Garhwal University, India

pananjay_gbg@rediffmail.com; tiwariji_gbg@rediffmail.com; prof_sctiwari@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper reports the future of Ecotourism in the Valley of Flowers national park in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. The valley has an unusually rich flora of over 600 species with many rarities. Animals found are nationally rare or endangered. 13 species of mammals are recorded for the Park and its vicinity although only 9 species have been sighted directly. Other factors that are contributing to ecotourism are beautiful landscapes, peaks, lakes and tarns etc. But now-a-days the problem of Solid waste is increasing at an alarming rate because of the heavy influx of tourists and improper management practices. This paper reviews the various ecotourism resources of the area and their future prospects. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):101-106]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.16

Keywords: Fauna Flora, Glaciers, Tarns

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Diabetogenic Effect of Pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) Rats: Potential use as Experimental Model of Human Gestational Diabetes

 

Idowu Adewunmi Taiwo1*, Olusoji Olurotimi Adewumi1, Albert Kolawole Odunlade2, Liasu Adebayo Ogunkanmi1, Peter Godwin Chikwenye Odeigah1
1
Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Lagos 101017. Nigeria.

2Department of Biological Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos. Nigeria

tai_dex@yahoo.com sojiadewumi@yahoo.com

Abstract: The effect of pregnancy on the pattern of oral glucose tolerance was investigated using Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats. Adult virgin, timed-pregnant and non-pregnant rats were subjected to brief ether anaesthesia after 18-hour overnight fasting period to allow for oro-gastric administration of glucose load at 3.0g/kg body weight (b. wt.) as 30% solution. Glucose concentration determined from the tail blood shows that the starting glucose concentration of the pregnant rats was 6.9+0.4 mmol/l, a significantly higher (P<0.05) value than 5.8 mmol/l, the starting blood glucose concentration of the non-pregnant animals (Controls). The peak blood glucose level attained at the 60th minute was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the pregnant rats (13.5+0.3 mmol/l) as compared to that of the non-pregnant rats (8.5+0.3 mmol/l). After 120minutes, the blood glucose level of the non-pregnant rats dropped to a near starting level while the corresponding value in the pregnant rats remained comparatively higher (P<0.05). Assessment of the rate of appearance and disappearance of glucose in the blood and the determination of glucose response and glucose tolerance indexes (GRI and GTI) respectively showed that pregnancy caused poor glucose utilization in the rats. The results of this short-term study suggest that pregnancy is largely diabetogenic in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats. The diabetogenic effect of pregnancy did not necessitate administration of any other diabetogenic agent such as streptozotocin or fructose. Thus, pregnancy induced diabetes in this strain of rats may have potential value as model of gestational diabetes in human. [Nature and Science 2010; 8(4):107-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.17


Keywords: Gestational diabetes; glucose response index; glucose tolerance index; insulin resistance

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Studies on growth, nutritional and microbiological status of citrus seedlings infested with root-rot disease

 

1Elham Z. Abd El-Motty; 2 Selim, El-Metwally; 2 Youssef, Rifaat Abou and 3 Sahab, Ahmed Farahat.1 Pomology Dept., National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

2 Soils and Water Use Dept., National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

3 Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt. ahmedsahab2002@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This research aims to evaluate the suppressive effects of compost fortified with Trichoderma harzianum and Top.Zn formulations on citrus root-rot and plant growth. Pathogenicity test proved that isolate no.1 of Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina were the most frequently causing infection of all orange plants with 87.5 and 93.75% disease severity respectively. Soil infested with F. solani or M. phaseolinea decreased plant growth and N, P and K contents in the orange leaf tissues compared to the control. Meanwhile, application of Top.Zn compound alone raised up N, P and K contents (%) in leaves of orange and mandarin survived in soil infested with F. solani and M. phaseolina. Use of compost with T. harzianum and Top.Zn simultaneously with a pathogen inoculation caused a significant increase in plant growth, chlorophyll a and b, macronutrients (N, P and K) content, micronutrient (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) contents orange and mandarin seedlings. The total fungal and bacterial counts in the orange and mandarin rhizosphere were increased progressively as the plant grew up reaching their maximum at the last count which was taken after 90 days (seedlings were 1-year old). In soil infested with F. solani and M. phaseolina, treatment with compost fortified with T. harzianum increased the total fungal count 3.34 and 28.98 times, respectively in orange and 2.60 and 21.99 times, respectively in mandarin compared with non-treated control. In soil infested with F. solani and M. phaseolina, the treatment with compost fortified with T. harzianum in combination with Top.Zn decreased the average number of total bacterial counts in the rhizosphere of orange 85.04 and 78.92% respectively and 59.32 and 92.74 % respectively in the rhizosphere of mandarin. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):112-121]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.18

Key words: Citrus root rot, rhizosphere, compost, Trichoderma harzianum, Top.Zn formulation.

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Scanning Electron Microcopy Studies on Mango Malformation

Wafaa Haggag M 1 *, Hazza M, 3, Sehab A1, Abd El-Wahab M 1

1-Department of Plant Pathology National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2-Science Faculty, Botany Department, Banha University, Egypt. Wafaa_haggag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mango malformation disease (MMD) is an economically important disease of Mangifera indica globally. Fusarium subglutinans has been associated with mango floral and vegetative malformation although confusion still remains regarding the etiology of the disease. In order to determine the Fusarium subglutinans penetration site, artificial inoculation of mango seedlings variety Alfonso were conducted. When soil was infested with F. subglutinans, the malformation was detected in the buds, three months post inoculation. Symptoms of the disease include loss of the apical dominance and swelling of vegetative buds, proliferation of leaves and flowers, phyllody and hypertrophy of panicle axes. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM), symptoms of vegetative and floral malformation appeared where mycelium of Fusarium subglutinans were present in the tissue at high concentrations compared to that of the untreated controls. Studies also revealed the presence of, pin-sized to large holes, disorganised cells and fungal mycelial infection at the base of the malformed buds during bud-inception stages. Moreover, Fusarium isolate colonized seedling root systems and became systemic, spreading to above-ground plant tissues include apical and lateral buds. Fusarium subglutinans proved to be the dominant fungus. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):122-127]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.19

 Key words: Egypt, F. subglutinans, Mango Malformation, Mangifera indica.

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Epidemiology and the Association of the Fusarium Species with the Mango Malformation Disease in Egypt

Wafaa Haggag M 1 *, Hazza M, 3, Sehab A1, Abd El-Wahab M 1

1-Department of Plant Pathology National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2-Science Faculty, Botany Department, Banha University, Egypt. Wafaa_haggag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mango malformation disease (MMD) is an economically important disease of Mangifera indica globally. This disease is caused by a complex of fungal pathogens, of which various Fusarium spp. dominate. This study was conducted to assess the epidemiology and its pathogenesis of mango malformation disease in Egypt. In three main Governorates of mango production, El Giza, Esamalîa and El-Bohera, disease incidence reached up to 80%. Maximum infection of traditional cultivars was observed in Hindi Sennara, Alfonso, Timour and Zebda. Exotic Tomy , Keet and Kent cultivars appeared to be moderate infection . Nine additional taxa have been isolated, i.e., F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum, F. culmorum, F. nygamai, F. pseudonygamai, F. nelsonii and F. verticilioides from Egypt. Fusarium subglutinans proved to have the high frequency in all mango cultivars in tested area, while, F. oxysporum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum frequently were less. To date, Koch’s postulates have been applied with Fusarium for their pathogenic potential on mango cultivars seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Apparently, not all isolates of this Fusarium species are equally virulent on mango seedlings. Fusarium subglutinans proved to be the dominant fungus in all varieties. At the same time, F. oxysporum , F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum, displayed also moderate virulence. Moreover, isolates colonized seedling root systems and became systemic, spreading to above-ground plant tissues include apical and lateral buds. Fusarium subglutinans proved to be the dominant fungus. Complex Strains of F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. sterilihyphosum and F. proliferatum induced typical malformation symptoms on mango seedlings and trees in Egypt [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):128-135]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.20

Key words: Egypt, F. subglutinans, F.oxysporum , Fusarium sterilihyphosum and F. proliferatu, Mango Malformation, Mangifera indica.

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Biochemical evaluation of the effect of Rhazya stricta aqueous leaves extract in liver and kidney functions in Rats

 

Nabih A. Baeshen ¹; Sahira A. Lari ²; Huda A. Aldoghaither ¹ and Ayman I. Elkady 1,3

¹Department of Biological sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah

²Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah

3permenant address: Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Nabih_Baeshen@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) is an important medicinal species used in indigenous medicinal herbal drugs to cure various diseases in South Asia and Middle East Countries. Over 100 alkaloids have been isolated, from R. stricta leaves, stems, roots and legumes and mixtures of aerial parts. The aim of this study was evaluatation of the beneficial effects of oral administration of extracts of the R. stricta leaves on serum lipid profile concentrations, the activity of liver enzymes and the kidney functions, using doses comparable to those applied by humans in the folkloric medicine. To achieve this goal, fifty five male Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: group 1 (control, n= 10) received a daily single oral dose of 0.5 ml of distilled water, groups 2, 3 and 4 (each of 15), each animal received a daily single oral dose of 0.5 ml of distilled water containing 0.1 gm/ml (group 2), 0.125 gm/ml (group 3) and 0.150 gm/ml (group 4) of the Rhazya leaf aqueous extract, for 18 weeks. Blood samples were collected, after an overnight fast, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 18 weeks post-treatment. The aqueous extract of the R. stricta leaves significantly decreased concentrations of TGs, LDL-c, cholesterol, uric acid and creatinin, but increased concentration of HDL-c. It triggered all these activities without affecting liver enzyme activities or kidney functions. These findings may have a positive impact on the cardiovascular patients and may provide a new therapeutic strategy to reduce hypertriglyceridemia. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):136-142]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.21

Key words: Rhazya stricta; lipid profile; liver enzymes; aqueous extracts; uric acid

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Some biochemical Studies on Friesian Suffering from Subclinical Mastitis

 

Mona S. Zaki1 and Nabila El-Battrawy2 & Susan, O. Mostafa3, Olfat M. Fawzi3 Iziz Awad3

1 Department of Hydrobiology - National Research Center.

2 Department of Hydrobiology - animal Institute of Reproduction, El-Haram, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Biochemistry National Research Center. dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis on clinicopathological changes in Mastitic friesian. A total of 400 individual milk samples from clinically normal udder quarters of 100 diary friesians were examined microbiologically as well as by using California mastitis test (C.M.T.) for detection of subclinical mastitis and designing rapid diagnostic tests for other infection. Blood samples were analysed for hemogram, cortisol, alanine aminotransferase, asparate aminotransferase, total protein, inorganic phosphorous and calcium. Also L.DH in milk was detected. The results indicated that there is a significant elevation of cortisol, Sgot, p.cv, L.DH activity in milk while a notable decrease in total protein, serum calcium and Hemogram. was observed. However; Serum phosphorous level did not exhibit obvious changes. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):143-146]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.22

Key words: Microbiology of mastitis, Pathology of mastitis, Enzymes in mastitis, changes in blood

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23

Bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations of the heavy metals in Oreochromis niloticus fish

 

H.A. Kaoud* and A.R. El-Dahshan

Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. ka-oud@link.net

 

Abstract: Copper, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were recorded in water and tissues of Oreochromis niloticus from Egyptian fish farms in 2007-2009. Histopathological alterations in fish tissues were also studied. Bioconcentration factors of copper, lead, mercury and cadmium in liver and muscle tissue were (3.93 & 3.87), (8.10 & 7.60), (0.79 & 50.0) & (38.25 & 30.25), respectively. Mercury was the most bioaccumulated and biomagnified metal in the muscles, while Cu was the least. The concentration of cadmium, lead and copper were highest in liver and lowest in kidney tissue, while mercury (Hg) concentrations were highest in muscles, lowest in kidney tissue. Several histopathological changes were noted in muscles, liver, gills, kidney and intestine tissue attributable to heavy metals exposure. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(4):147-156]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.23

Key words: Bioconcentration, copper, lead, cadmium, mercury, Tilapia, Pollution, histopathology

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Bioaccumulation of cadmium in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

 

H.A. Kaoud* and A. Rezk

Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. ka-oud@link.net

 

Abstract: The effects of Cd on mortality, resistance and bioaccumulation in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Egypt were studied. Survival of prawns exposed to cadmium doses over 60 µg /l–1 were sig­nificantly lower than of those exposed to lower doses. After 96 hours prawns ex­posed to >40 µg /l–1of cadmium had a greater reduction in total haemocyte count and phagocytic activity than those exposed to lower concentrations. Bioaccumulation of Cd in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscleswas variable. Cadmium accumulated in gills and hepatopancreas, but muscles had a moderately significant Cd level increase. Macrobrachium rosenbergii manifested histopathological alterations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles when exposed to different concentrations of cadmium. [Nature and Science 2010; 8(4):157-168]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080410.24

Keywords: toxicity, survival, haemocyte count

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This issue online peer-review was from February 16, 2010. 

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