Science Journal


Nature and Science
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 8 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 38), May 1, 2010
Cover (obline), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All in one file

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Titles / Authors

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Histopathologic study of the Antiestrogenic Nolvadex Induced Liver Damage in Rats and Vitamins Ameliorative Effect


Fatma A. Morsy, Amina Gamal el Din, Nermeen M. Shaffie and Manal A. Badawi

 Department of Pathology, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, 12622, Egypt

ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of antiestrogenic Nolvadex (used for breast cancer treatment) on rat liver and the possible protective effects of vitamin C and/ or E. Material and methods: A total of 140 adult female albino rats were used; divided into seven groups; each containing 20 rats: First group: as control. Second group: orally daily dosed with Nolvadex 20 mg/kg b. w. for three weeks. Third group: orally given vitamin C (0.02 g/100 g b wt), 15 min before daily Nolvadex administration. Fourth group: given vitamin E (120 mg/Kg b.w), 15 min prior to daily Nolvadex administration. The fifth group was given combination of the two vitamins C & E (0.02 g/100 g b.w.) and (120 mg/kg b.w.) respectively, 15 min before daily Nolvadex administration. Each of the remaining two groups was daily given vitamin C (0.02 g/100 g b.w.) and/or E (120 mg/kg b.w.) for two weeks. Paraffin sections were used for histopathological, quantitative image analysis DNA ploidy and histochemical studies .Electron microscopy was performed. Results: Histopathological degenerative effects in the form of vacuolar degeneration, fatty changes and hydropic degeneration were noticed in Nolvadex treated rat liver. Karyolysis and karyorrhexis were also seen.Dysplasia and chromatin clumping were observed in scattered hepatocytes together with a decrease in DNA content (hypoploidy) and marked diminution of protein and mucopolysaccharides content. Histopathological, histochemical and ultra structural changes were diminished in rats treated with vitamins C and/ or E prior to Nolvadex. Conclusion: The treatment of rats with vitamins C and/or E prior to Nolvadex resulted in amelioration of the histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural changes of liver. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):1-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Histopathology – antiestrogenic - Nolvadex – liver – rat – Vitamins

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The effects of farmyard manure on the dry matter components of two cucumber varieties


Eifediyi, E. K ; S. U. Remison and V. B. Okaka

Dept. of Crop Science, Ambrose Alli University P. M.B. 14, Ekpoma, Nigeria

Email: keveifediyi@


Abstract: The effects of farmyard manure on the dry matter content of two cucumber varieties (Ashley and Palmetto) was evaluated at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria Lat 6o 451 N and Long 6o 081E..The farmyard manure was applied at the rates of 0, 5 and 10t/ha. The layout was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme with three replicates. The result of the study showed that increasing the farmyard rates led to an increase in the dry matter weights of the two varieties of cucumber. Farmyard manure at 10t/ha increased the dry matter content of cucumber. Palmetto was however more responsive to FYM application, with the rate of 10t/ha out yielding the control by 60% in contrast to Ashley, in which 10t/ha of FYM out yielded the control by only 30 %. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):16-22]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Farmyard manure, two cucumber varieties, dry matter accumulation and yield

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Study effect drought stress and different levels potassium fertilizer on K+ accumulation in corn


Shirin Dastbandan Nejad1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Shahram Lack3

1- Master graduate of science and Research University, Khuzestan Branch

2-Assistant professor Department of agronomy & physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch

3-Assistant professor Department of agronomy, science and Research University, Khuzestan Branch

*Corresponding Arthur


Abstract: the necessity of exertion of irrigation regimes proportional to absorb process of nutritious element of potassium appear necessary duo to famine periods, saltines problem, and the shortage of drainage irrigation net in agricultural lands of Khuzestan province(southwest of Iran). This research is performed in the form of split plot test in accidentally complete bloke plan (main treatment: various levels in irrigation I. = 7, I1 =12, I2 = 17, I3 = 22 day and secondary treatment: potassium fertilizer various levels K1 =50, K2= 100, and K3=150(kg/ h) with 3 repetition. Plant date of first half of 2008 August is done in Shahid Salami irrigation institute farm in Ahvaz County. According to variance breakdown results the effect of irrigation cycles, different potassium and their interaction at level %5 effects on biological performance, seed function, harvest index and potassium assembling process were meaningful. But in case of the row number of maize, the effect of different levels of potassium fertilizer and reciprocal effect of water tension and different levels caused reduction of biological performance, seed function, harvest index, and row number of maize, seed number of row and weight of thousand seed. Treatment with seed yield of 15/5 ton in hectare has dedicated highest function to itself. And I3 with 10/33 ton in hectare has lowest function which regarding to ware shortage and famine phenomena, it is under consideration. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):23-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key Words: corn, drought stress, potassium

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Cytogenetic and Biochemical Studies On the Protective Role of Rhodotorula glutinis And its Autoploidy Against the Toxic Effect of Aflatoxin B1 in Mic


Inas S.Ghaly 1, M.M. Hassanane1, E.S.Ahmed1, W.M. Haggag2 S., A. Nada3 and I. M. Farag1.

 1- Cell Biology Department National Research Center, Egypt.

 2-Plant pathology Department National Research Center, Egypt.

 3- Pharmacology Department National Research Center, Egypt.

 Tel 0020111614069

Tel.: +20109420440. Email:


Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Rhodotorula glutinis and its autoploidy on cytogenetic and biochemical analyses and to evaluate the protective role of these yeasts against aflatoxin B1- in mice. Eight groups of male mice were used. Three of them were treated with three strains (wild type G1 and two autoploidy (G2 and G3) of Rhodotorula glutinis. In addition, one group was treated the suspension of growth medium of yeasts (served as control),three groups were treated with the G1, G2 and G3 after an hour of injection with the aflatoxin. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that the treatment with the wild type of yeast (R.g, G1) and its two mutants (G2 and G3) had improved the genetic materials in normal somatic and germinal animal cells by decreasing chromosome aberrations and increasing the mitotic and meiotic indices compared to control group. On the other hand, the chromosomal aberrations were more frequent of mitotic and meiotic indices were depressed in the animals treated with aflatoxin alone. In contrast, the frequencies of the chromosome aberrations were significantly decreased and mitotic and meiotic indices were increased in animals treated with the wild type (G1) and its two autoploidy (G2 and G3) plus aflatoxin B1. Biochemical results showed that the treatment with yeast strains especially the treatment with two autoploidy G2 and G3 did not induce changes in liver and kidney functions in normal animals. The treatment with the three strains wild type G1 and two autoploidy G2 and G3 had enhanced the TP compared to control group. The treatment with aflatoxin B1 significantly increased the liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST), kidney function markers(uric acid and creatinine) and significantly decreased the TP compared to control group. In contrast, the treatment with yeast strains plus aflatoxin B1 succeeded in diminishing the elevated value of liver enzymes and kidney functions and normalized TP level. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):28-38]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Aflatoxin,Rhodotorula glutinis,autoploidy,chromosome aberrations,biochemistry.

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Practical Aspects and Immune response of Probiotics Preparations Supplemented to Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Diets


H.M.Ali1; A.A. Ghazalah1; E.A. Gehad2; Y.A. Hammouda1 and H.A. Abo-State1

1- Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2- Animal Production Department, Fac. of Agric., Cairo University, Cairo Egypt


Abstract: This study was carried out for 7 months at fish Laboratory of Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt. The experiment aimed to investigate the effect of two commercial probiotics (Premalac and Biogen) each at 1,2 and 3 g/Kg diet on growth performance and immune response of Nile tilapia fingerlings. Premalac is a dried fermented product of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aspergillus oryzae extract, Bifedobacterium bifedum, Streptococcus faecium, Torula yeast, Skim milk, Vegetable oil and CaCo3. Biogen is a dried natural product composed of Allicin, high unit hydrolytic enzymes, Bacillus subtilis and Ginseng extract. A total of 420 fingerlings with a uniform size and weight (1 gram) were used of which 60 fingerlings represent the control group. The rest (360 fingerlings) distributed randomly into two blocks (probiotics), each block included three treatments (probiotic levels). Each treatment in addition to the control one were represented in three replicates (aquaria) in which 20 fingerlings were kept in each aquarium. The best results of growth and feed utilization of tilapia were obtained by fish diet supplemented with Biogen followed by those having Premalac, each at 2g/Kg diet. However, fish fed on Biogen-supplemented diets exhibited significantly higher values of nutrients digestibility. On the other hand, fingerlings fed either Premalac or Biogen at 2g/Kg had significantly higher total leucocytes count than the control which indicating highs immune response of tilapia fingerlings. In conclusion, it is suggested that the tested probiotics preparations are suitable for mixing with tilapia diets to improve their performance and immunity. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):39-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Oreochromis Niloticus, Immune response, Probiotics Preparations.

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Effect of Probiotics on performance and nutrients digestibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Low Protein Diets


A.A. Ghazalah1; H.M. Ali2; E.A. Gehad1; Y.A.Hammouda2 and H. A. Abo-State2

1- Animal Production Department, Fac. of Agric. Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2- Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Abstract: This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki,Egypt using two commercial probiotics (Premalac and Biogen) to study their effects on growth the performance of Nile Tilapia fed diets with slightly lower levels of crude protein. Premalac is a dried fermented product of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aspergillus oryzae extract, Bifedobacterium bifedum, Streptococcus faecium, Torula yeast, skim milk, vegetable oil and CaCo3. Biogen is a dried natural product composed of Allicin, high unit hydrolytic enzymes, Bacillus subtilis and Ginseng extract. The basal diets were formulated to contain 30, 27.5 and 25.0% crude protein (CP), each was either supplemented or not with either Premalac or Biogen at 2g /kg diet. The experiment was conducted in 3x3 factorial design and included nine treatments each in three replicates (aquaria) in which 20 fingerlings mono sex Nile tilapia of the same size and weight (1 gram) were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials durated for four months. Results indicated that the lowest CP level (25%) in tilapia diets without or with the tested probiotics recorded the worst values of growth performance parameters and nutrients digestibility. The use of either Premalac or Biogen at 2g/kg diet in diets with 27.5% crude protein was more efficiently than those containing 30% CP,. in addition, it gave best values of economic efficiency. However, Biogen was more superior than Premalc. In other words, these probiotics spared nearly 2.5% CP of the recommended level for tilapia. This result would be effective from the economical point of view, since protein is the most expensive feed nutrient in all live stock feeding, particularly fish. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):46-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Probiotics; Oreochromis niloticus; nutrients digestibility.

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Ovarian activity, biochemical changes and histological status of the dromedary she-camel as affected by different seasons of the year

M.A. El-Harairy1, A.E.B. Zeidan2, A.A. Afify2, H.A. Amer3, and A.M. Amer1

1. Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt.

2. Animal Production Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

3. Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.


Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different seasons of the year on body thermoregulation (rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate), blood hematology (hemoglobin, packed-cell volume, red blood cells and white blood cells counts), blood components (total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate-aminotransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, total phosphorus, testosterone and oestradiol-17β hormone concentrations of the dromedary she–camel. Histological changes of the right and left ovaries were also recorded. The obtained results showed that, rectal temperature and respiration rate in the dromedary she-camels increased significantly (P<0.05) during summer as compared to the other seasons. However, pulse rate showed significantly (P<0.05) lower during winter than other seasons. The highest (P<0.05) values of hemoglobin, packed-cell volume and red blood cells count were recorded during summer, while the lowest (P<0.05) value of the white blood cell's was recorded during autumn season. Total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations (mg/dI) were increased insignificantly during summer season as compared to other seasons. Aspartate-aminotransferase, alanine-aminotrasferase enzymes, sodium and calcium concentrations of the dromedary she–camels increased significantly (P<0.05) during summer, while potassium and total phosphorus concentrations (mg/dl) increased significantly (P<0.05) during spring as compared to other seasons. The lowest (P<0.05) value of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase enzymes were recorded during winter season. Testosterone, oesterdiol-17β hormone and cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher during winter than other seasons of the year. The histological examination of the left and right ovaries in different seasons of the year revealed higher activity in spring and winter than summer and autumn seasons. The left ovary showed more growing and mature follicles and higher activity than the right one. In conclusion, the female dromedary camels display ovarian activity during the non-breeding season. So, the environmental temperature, relative humidity and daylight length seemed to play the major role in the regulation of seasonal ovarian activity in the female dromedary camels. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):54-65]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Seasons, She-camel-ovaries, testosterone, oesterdiol-17β, cholesterol

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Ethnomedicinal Plant Diversity in Kumaun Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India


K. K. Gangwar*, Deepali** and R. S. Gangwar***

* Punjab ENVIS Centre, Punjab State Council for Science and Technology, Chandigarh-160019, India, ** Punjab State Council for Science and Technology, Chandigarh-160019, ndia

*** Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Faculty of life Sciences

Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar-249 404, India,


Abstract: Kumaun Himalaya of Uttarakhand State is characterized by a rich diversity of ethnomedicinal plants as well as a rich heritage of traditional medicine system. The present study reveals the status of ethno-medicinal flora and their importance preserved by the local population in Kumaun region. During the study it was observed that 102 species of ethno-medicinal plants belonging to 48 families are being used in the folk-medicine system by the indigenous people of this region. For the present study, an intensive and extensive survey was made for four selected districts of Uttarakhand, viz. Almora, Champawat, Bageshwar and Pithoragarh. The neighboring villages of the study areas were also visited for identification of plant species and to explore the traditional knowledge about the use of indigenous medicinal plants. Therefore, the ethnobiological knowledge of people and listing of plants of particular region are important tools that may help in understanding human environment interactions. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):66-78]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: ethno-botany; folk medicines; Kumaun region; local communities

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Bahija E. Al-Behbehani* & Hussain M. A. Ebrahim

*Science Department, College of Basic Education, PAAET, Kuwait

2-College of Health Sciences, PAAET, Kuwait


Abstract: This work deals with monitoring mudskippers in their natural environment (intertidal zone) along the Kuwait Bay muddy shores in the State of Kuwait. This is to provide information is concerning the environmental factors effecting mudskipper diversity in Kuwait Bay. Kuwait Bay is a large mud-flat with a fascinating associated fauna of mud-skippers and crabs provide rewarding feeding-grounds for many birds. A number of fifty mudskipper samples are collected during the hot summer season (July and August) of the year 2009 and examined for parasites and to evaluate the different environmental factors controlling the biodiversity in this marine environment. The results of the present study indicate the abundance of the mudskippers allover the intertidal mud flat of the Bay and the total absence of either external and/or internal parasites in the mudskipper tissues and organs. Mudskippers are found to be completely amphibious fish that are adapted to live in the intertidal environment. Mudskippers are very active when they are outside the water, feeding and interacting with one another. The mud in the Kuwait Bay environment is very good for burrowing in, since the particles are very sticky, unlike sand. Often, the mudskipper form mixed colonies with digging crabs (Fiddler crabs-Caidae). Specific physiological and behavioural changes in bioindicators are used to detect changes in environmental health, so Mudskippers can be considered as bioindicators of marine pollution in Kuwait Bay, this needs further studies. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):79-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Mudskippers, Intertidal Zone, Kuwait Bay

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Genetic Variation Between Horse Breeds Using RAPD Markers

Karima F. Mahrous*, Sally S. Alam and Aziza M. Hassan

Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Genetic diversity is the basis for present day diversified living systems and future genetic improvement needs. Within the framework of breed conservation, genetic characterization is important in guarding breeds and is a prerequisite for managing genetic resources. The objective of the present study is to estimate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Egyptian horse breeds (Native and Arabian) and an exotic breed (Thoroughbred) using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD) technique. Initially, 25 primers were screened among all the breeds of which 14 primers amplified the genomic DNA. Four primers generated reproducible and distinct RAPD profiles and were used for further analysis. A total of 40 loci were amplified, of which 37 were found polymorphic (92.5%), useful for genetic variation study between breeds. The genetic diversity had the highest value (0.2048) in Arabian and the lowest value (0.0116) in Native breed. The genetic distance was found highest between Arabian and Thoroughbred (D=0.5442) and lowest between Native and Arabian (D=0.3280). However, genetic identity was highest (I=0.7204) between Native and Arabian and lowest (I=0.5803) between Arabian and Thoroughbred. UPGMA dendrogram based on Neis genetic distance grouped the investigated horse breeds genotypes into two clusters. The first cluster includes Egyptian breeds (Native and Arabian) where as the second cluster include Thoroughbred which appeared to be most distant from the other breeds. In conclusion, these results indicated the effectiveness of RAPD in detecting polymorphism between horse populations and their applicability in population studies and establishing genetic relationships among the horse populations. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):90-99]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


KeyWords: Genetic diversity, Horse breeds, RAPD-PCR.

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The Role of Hyperthermia in Potentiation of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Mice Bearing Solid Tumor


Amal I. Hassan

Radioisotopes Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.


Abstract: Hyperthermia is procedure in which body tissue is exposed to a high temperature up to 41C and is an effective tool in cancer treatment. Hyperthermia also is a therapy applied together with other modalities in the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if there was a change in immunological and biochemical parameters after using each of hyperthermia, radiotherapy or chemotherapy separately and the combined treatments in mice bearing solid tumor. Seventy females Albino mice weighing (20-25g) were used in the current study. The animals were divided into five groups. Group I: served as a control animals. Group II: animals were cancered by solid tumor and were untreated. Group III: animals exposed to WBH alone. Group IV: animals administered doxorubicin (Dox) 3mg/kg body weight i.p. once a week. Group V: animals were exposed to fractionated whole body gamma rays (WB-γ) at a dose level of 0.5 Gy once a week. Group VI: animals were exposed to WBH and administered doxorubicin (Dox) 3mg/kg body weight (i.p.) once a week. Group VII: animals were exposed to WBH then fractionated whole body gamma rays (WB-γ) at a dose level of 0.5 Gy once a week. After four weeks (the end of treatments), blood samples were collected from orbital venous plexus in heparinized tubes from all animal groups. The results of the present study indicated that WBH with or without radio- and chemotherapy induced significant increase in TNF-α, IL-2 and HSP70 values as compared to cancered group. As well as WBH with or without radio- and chemotherapy induce significant increases of phagocytosis and killing cells percent as compared to untreated cancered group. On the other hand WBH alone or with radiotherapy and (Dox) induced significant decrease of -FP as compared to cancered group. Also, the results revealed that WBH with or without radio- or chemotherapy induced apoptosis for cancer cells. It could be concluded that, WBH enhances the response of tumor cells to radiation and chemotherapy and it has an important role in potentiation of radio- and chemotherapy in solid tumor treatment. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):100-108]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key Words: Hyperthermia, mice bearing solid tumors, doxorubicin, whole body gamma irradiation, apoptosis, immune responses.

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Effect of Calcium and Some Antioxidants treatments on Storability of Le Conte Pear Fruits and its Volatile Components


Omaima, M. Hafez1; H. A. Hamouda 2; and Magda A. Abd- El- Mageed 3

1Pomology Research Dept., 2 Fertilizer Technology Dept., and 3Chemistry of Flavour and Aroma Dept., National Research Center- Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: The possibility of calcium nitrate and / or some antioxidants i.e. citric acid and ascorbic acid as preharvest treatment alone or in combination to control decay and its role in improvement the quality of Le Conte pear fruits as well as volatile components under cold storage condition and marketing period during to successive seasons 2007 and 2008.Le Conte pear trees were foliar spraying twice with calcium nitrate at concentration of ( 0.0 and 1700 ppm), citric acid at concentration of (0.0, 50 and 100 ppm) and ascorbic acid at concentration of (0.0, 50 and 100 ppm), ten treatments were used including control. All treated and untreated pear fruit were stored at 0 1C and 85 – 90% relative humidity (RH) for 75 days and additional one week at room temperature (20-25C) as stimulated marketing period. Fruit quality assessments i.e. weight loss and decay percentage, fruit firmness, total soluble solids %, total acidity %, total sugars, fruit calcium content and volatile components were evaluated. Results showed that treated and control fruits withstand free from chilling injury and pathogenic rot up to 45 days of cold storage. While, almost treatments prevented chilling injury symptoms and fruit deterioration up to 60 days of cold storage. Moreover, all treatments alone or in combination decreased the weight loss (%), total acidity % and fruit softening, while increasing fruits content of TSS %, total sugars and calcium (%) as a good keeping fruit conditions for along time. Furthermore, the same trend was observed during marketing period. Therefore, it can be concluded that prolonging storage period of the Le Conte pear fruits by using the considered treatments. However, the combined treatments with calcium nitrate + citric acid, calcium nitrate + ascorbic acid or /and the single treatment of calcium nitrate could be recommended because its gave the best results for keeping fruits and their volatile components under cold storage and marketing period extinction. The headspace volatiles of fresh and stored Le Conte Pear were collected and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. 27 volatile components were identified: 15 esters, 8 alcohols, 3 aldehydes and one terpene. Volatile components varied considerably both quantitatively and qualitatively between fresh and stored samples. The best treated samples at fresh were (Ca + CA1) and (Ca + CA2) compared to the control treatments. Although all samples retain a good quality during storage period, Ca(NO3)2, AsA1, (Ca + CA1), (Ca + CA2), and (Ca + AsA1) treated samples were the best compared to the control samples because of the highest content of esters which exhibit it more fruity aroma and cause it more acceptable for consumer. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):109-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Le Conte pear, Calcium, Citric Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Volatile Components, Storage, Quality Assessments

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A comparative Study On Different Carbon Source Concentrations And Gelling A Gent On In Vitro Proliferation Of Pineapple (Ananas colossus)


Abd El Gawad. N.M.A *Zaied. N.S *. and. M.A Saleh.

* Pomology Res. Dept., National Res. Center, Dokki, Egypt.

** Hort. Res. Inst. Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: The shoots regenerated from shoot tip of Pineapple Ananas Comosus Cv. Smooth cayenne ) plantlets from the establishment stage were cultured individually on Ms medium supplemented with 200 mg/L 6- benzylamin opurine (BAP). Sucrose, fructose and mannitole with concentrations ( 20, 30 and 40 gl/L) were tested. Various kinds of gelling agent i.e. Agar and Gerlited were tested. Data indicated that all sucrose treatment (20, 30 and 40 g/L) enhanced the proliferation percentage and shoot number compared with other treatment and control except treatment of mannitol at 40g/L improved the shoot length only. Moreover, agarasa gelling agent was better than Gelrite at proliferation stage. The best shoot length, shoot number and growth percentage were obtained when 2.0 mgL Gelrite was added to the medium. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):127-130]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Carbon Source-gelling-pineapple

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Relation between Glycoprotein and EA4 – Time Mechanism in Secamia creatica


N.B. Aref(1) and H.A. Ahmed(2)

National research Center, (1) Plant protect. Dept. (2) Biochemistry Dept.

El- Tahrir st. Dokky, Cairo.


Abstract: ATPase (EA4) seems to measure time- interval as a diapause – duration timer in the seasonal cycle of the Sesamia cretica. A peptide named peptidyl – inhibitory needle (PIN) seems to regulate the time measurement of EA4. We characterize the EA4 in the first step to analyse its interaction with PIN. Matrix – assisted laser desorption/ ionization – time of flight- mass spectrometry shows EA4 of an equimolar complex with PIN. The binding affinity of EA4 for PIN is about 460nM, measured by surface plasmon resonance. Western blot analysis of EA4 with a variety of biotynylated lectins suggest that EA4 is a glycoprotein containing N- linked oligosaccharide. By enzymatic cleavage of the glycosyl chain the carbohydrate is revealed to be essential for the regulation of EA4- time measurement through the interaction with PIN. PIN holds the timer by binding to EA4, and the dissociation of the complex could constitute the cue for the time measurement. [Nature and Science. 2010;8(5):131-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Timer protein, Glycoprotein, Time – EA4, ATPase

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Flavone-5-O-Glycosides from Cheilanthes dalhousiae (Hook)


1Rachana Mishra and D. L. Verma2

1Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, DSB Campus, Naini Tal-263001, (Uttarakhand) India.

2Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, SSJ Campus, Almora-263601, (Uttarakhand) India.


Abstract: Fern fronds (about 500gm) of Cheilanthes dalhousiae Hook. Vouch. Sp. No. 21 was collected from Pindari glacier routes (2200-2800m above sea level) of Almora district of Uttarakhand state. It was extracted with acetone-water (1:1, V/V) and extract was concentrated under reduced pressure until H2O layer (up to 50ml) remained. The H2O layer was partitioned with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and BuOH Successively. The CH2Cl2 fraction gave antibacterial tests against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli by the standard method of disc-diffusion using DMSO-d6 solution of CH2Cl2 residue impregnated on Whatman No. 3, paper disc (6 nm) and base plates containing 10ml MH agar. Antibacterial activity was expressed as the ratio of the inhibition zone produced by CH2Cl2 extract and the inhibition zone caused by the reference, neomycin (2μg). No antibacterial activity was observed in ethyl-acetate and n-butanol fractions. EtOAc fraction was evaporated to dryness and residue obtained was dissolved in MeOH. The MeOH soluble of EtOAc fraction was fractionated on Whatman No. 3 chromatographic papers using BAW (n- BuOH-AcOH-H2O, 4:1:5, V/V, upper layer) as an eluent. Two blue UV fluorescent flavone-5-O-glycosides: Quercetin-3-methyl ether-5-O-glycoside and Kaempferol-5-O-(6”-O-malonyl)-glycoside were isolated by RPPC from EtOAc fraction of acetone-H2O (1:1) extract of fern fronds of Cheilanthes dalhousiae. The structural elucidation of the compounds was carried out by UV, 1HNMR and MS spectral studies. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):139-143]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Kumaun Himalaya, Cheilanthes dalhousiae (Hook), Medicinal plants

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Physiological Studies on the Risk Factors Responsible for Atherosclerosis in Rats


*Ahmed M Shehata and **Olfat M Yousef

* Physiology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Giza 12553 – Egypt

** College for Women, Arts, Sciences and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt,


Abstract: Despite the well established correlation between hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease (CAD), a substantial body of evidence challenge this relationship. The study aimed to examine whether hyperlipidemia per se constitutes the principal risk factor for atherosclerosis or just a coordinator to other critical mediators. Hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding rats with high-fat diet for two months. The occurrence of hyperlipidemia was determined by measuring lipid profile. The hyperlipidemic rats were subdivided into two groups i) hyperlipidemic rats ii) hyperlipidemic rats injected with single dose of Escherichia coli (E. Coli) (and kept for two weeks to develop bacteremia and its subsequent effects. Result showed that hyperlipidemia significantly increased total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and homocysteine levels, whereas decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels. Moreover, hyperlipidemia induced mild oxidative stress in terms of elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood. In addition, hyperlipidemic rats exhibited high plasma viscosity, altered hematological indices and caused histological abnormalities manifested as perivascular hemorrhage, vacuolation of the tunica media and minor thickening in aorta wall. Bacteremia provoked inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine and caused noticeable considerable thickening of media-intema layer suggesting the commencement of atherosclerosis. Hyperlipidemic-bacteremic rats showed an additive effect. The study indicated that although hyperlipidemia is an apparent risk factor, homocysteinmia, the inflammatory component and the oxidative stress emerge to be the underlying mechanisms of atherosclerosis pathogenesis. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):144-151]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Hyperlipidemia- Bacteremia- inflammation- Atherosclerosis

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Comparative study of endo-parasitic infestation in Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) collected from Hatchery and Sewage lagoon


Md. Jobaer Alam1, Md. Rakibuzzaman1, Mehedi Mahmudul Hasan2

1Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

2Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali-3802, Bangladesh



Abstract: The study was conducted to collect and identify endoparasites of Channa punctatus (Bloch,1793) from different water bodies of varying water quality in Bangladesh and to determine the prevalence and intensity of infestation brought about by the endoparasites in the hosts. The host fishes were collected from polluted water at sewage treatment lagoon in Narayangong and fresh water at Tongi Hatchery in Gazipur, Bangladesh. The prevalence of endoparasites in the host fish Channa punctatus was 91.30% in female and 88.88% in male fishes, among them in polluted water fishes the prevalence was 85.71% in female and 86.66% in male and in fresh water fishes the prevalence was 100% in both the male and female fishes. The intensities of infestation in Channa punctatus was 6.78 in female and 6.55 in male fish collected from hatchery; and in sewage water fishes the intensity was 3.50 in females and 1.15 in males respectively. Six parasite species were found from polluted water fishes and seven species of parasites were recorded from fresh water fishes. The parasite groups were trematodes (Genarchopsis bangladensis, Allogomtiotrema attu, Phyllodistomum sp., Neopecoelina saharanpuriensis), nematodes (Ascaridia sp., Procamallanus sp.) and Acanthocephalan (Pallisentis nandai). Acanthocephalans were found in the fishes collected from sewage lagoon. Liver, stomach, intestine and body cavity of the host fishes were examined for parasites. Females were more infected than the males. The intensity and the prevalence were higher in host fishes collected from hatchery than the sewage water host fishes. The hosts of intermediate length and weight group were found to be more infected than smaller and larger length groups. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):152-156]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Endoparasite, Channa punctatu, Hatchery, Sewage Lagoon

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Comparison of digesting capacity of nitric acid and nitric acid-perchloric acid mixture and the effect of lanthanum chloride on potassium measurement


Molla Rahman Shaibur1, Abul Hasnat Md. Shamim2, 3, SM Imamul Huq4 and Shigenao Kawai5

 1Department of Environmental Science & Health Management, Jessore Science & Technology University, Bangladesh

2School of Agriculture & Rural Development, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705, Bangladesh

3Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka, 3-Chome, Okayama700-8530, Japan

4Department of Soil, Water & Environment, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

5The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550, Japan


Abstract: Nitric acid-perchloric acid mixture is the renowned digesting reagent in the scientific world of plant nutrition. Beside this, some other inorganic acids can be used as the digester of plant samples. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to find out if there is any difference between the digesting capacity of nitric acid (HNO3) and nitric acid-perchloric acid mixture (HNO3-HClO4) or not. The hydroponic experiments were conducted with barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Minorimugi) and rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Akihikari) seedlings. At suitable stage, the plant samples were collected, washed with deionized water, separated into shoot and root, dried, grinded and then divided into two groups for shoot and root individually for two types of seedlings. One group was for only HNO3 acid and the other group was for HNO3-HClO4 acid mixture. Phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were measured after digesting the samples. There was no significant difference between the digesting capacity of HNO3 acid and HNO3-HClO4 acid mixture. Potassium was measured by diluting the samples (200-600 times) containing lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) or without LaCl3. Lanthanum chloride did not have any significant effect on K measurement in this dilution system. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):157-162]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Concentration, Lanthanum chloride, Nitric acid and nitric acid-perchloric acid mixture

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Study on Seed Germination and Growth Behavior of Brinjal Solanum melongena var.BR 112 in Admiration to Effect of C.M.L. (Country Made Liquor)


Sanjeev Sharma1 and Kapil Sharma2

School of Biosciences

1. Lecturer, Biotechnology, School of Biosciences, IMS Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201009, INDIA.

2. Research Scholar, School of Biosciences, IMS Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201009, INDIA.

For correspondence:


Abstract: In India a leading News paper Times of India published an unconfirmed report citing the use of Country made Liquor by the farmers in the National Capital Region Gurgaon for the cultivation of Brinjal crop. It was reported that use of CML increased the production of Brinjal by 06to 08 times. The brinjal thus produced were reported to be of good quality and appearance. An experiment was conducted to study the seed germination and growth behavior of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with country made liquor under environmental conditions. Seeds of Solanum melongena L. var. BR 112, were sown at the depth of 2.5 cm. with different treatments i.e. S1 (Control- Without Country made liquor 36 %V/V), S2 (Soil + 10% solution Spray of Country made liquor at intervals of 03 days with original Concentration 36% V/V ). 1000 replicates of each treatment were used for the study. Total numbers of germinated plants were counted from each set of all treatments, at the interval period of 5 days after sowing, and reported as emergence count. For growth study plant height, number of leaves, length and width of leaves and root length were measured from all the treatments. Result revealed that CML treated batch showed maximum germination% i.e. 700 plantlets from 1000 seeds then control i.e. 500 plantlets. After 20 days of Growth plantlets also showed maximum plant height (7.1 cm.), number of leaves (4.5) length of leaves (2.5 cm.), width of leaves (2.6 cm.) and root length (4.3 cm.) in S2 treatment then control S1 plant height(6.5 cm), number of leaves(3.8), length of leaves (2.0 cm), width of leaves(1.0 cm ), root length(4.7 cm). [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):163-166]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key Words: Solanum melongena BR 112, Country Made Liquor, Tharra

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On the realization of floating inductors  



Electronics and Communications Engineering Department, Cairo University, Egypt



Abstract: Floating inductor circuits using minimum number of passive elements namely two resistors and one capacitor is reviewed in this paper. All the circuits considered in this paper are floating. Previously reported non-floating circuits are modified to be floating and new floating circuits are introduced as well. The active elements used in this paper are floating conveyor building blocks as well as pairs of non-floating conveyor blocks acting as a floating pair. Simulation results of second order lowpass filters realized using different types of floating inductors are included. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):167-180]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Floating inductors, current conveyors, gyrator, DVCC, FDVCC

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Functional-Food Supplementation and Health of Broilers

Hussein A. Kaoud

Dept. of Veterinary Hygiene, Environmental Pollution and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Postal Code: 1221, Fax: 202-5725240



Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a probiotic mixture and chromium as food supplementation on broiler chicks’ performance. The experiment was conducted, to determine the effect of a probiotic mixture (BiovetYC) and chromium chloride supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and immune response against Avian Influenza virus from 0- to 42-d-old broiler chicks as well as to determine the anti-stress effect of the dietary probiotic mixture and chromium chloride supplementation on broiler chicks (0-42 days old) when subjected to high stocking density (15 birds/m2 in open-system) as a stress factor. Growth performance, carcass traits and Avian Influenza immune response were recorded. At 42-d of age, 50 birds were randomly selected from each group for blood samples collection and slaughtered for carcass traits. Stress indicators in blood (cortisol and L/H ratio) were measured. The current results revealed: (1) The activation effect of the probiotic mixture on growth performance (2) Chromium chloride supplementation improves growth performance, carcass traits, and immune response and had a strong anti-stress effect. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):181-189]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Functional food; Performance; Immune response

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Epidemiology of Brucellosis Among Farm Animals


H.A. Kaoud1, Manal.M. Zaki1, A.R. El-Dahshan1, Shaaima1, A. Nasr1

Department of Veterinary Hygiene, Environmental Pollution and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 11221, Egypt

*:Correspondence to: Dr. H. A. Kaoud, Dept. of Veterinary Hygiene, Environmental Pollution and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Postal Code: 1221, Fax: 202-5725240, Email:


Abstract: : In this article we studied the epidemiology and the role of risk factors of Brucella infection in ruminants, besides the methods concerning the evaluation of biosecurity measures which are taken against the disease in farms. A cross sectional study was carried out on different Governorates representing allover Egypt to evaluate the potential major risk factors, mal- biosecurity practices and their role in the maintenance of the disease among farm animals. Serum samples (1670) were collected from 126 Herds / Flocks of sheep, goats and cattle and analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate test and iELISA test. A structured questionnaire was designed to identify and evaluate the role of risk factors for Brucellosis. .The results pointed out that, prevalence of brucellosis among herds/flocks of sheep, goats and cattle were; 26.66%, 18.88% and 17.22% respectively. And the seropositive percentages in blood samples were 21.20%, 14.5 % and 2.16% respectively. Major risk factors play a very important role in the prevention and maintenance of the disease among farm animals. The role and magnitude of risk factors varied but the presence of good sanitary measures in farms are considered as a protective factor, where R.R was less than 1 and the attributable risk was -0.01. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):190-197]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Seroprevalence, Questionnaires, role and magnitude of risk factors, Relative and Attributable risk, Brucellosis. Abbreviations: R.R: Relative risk A.R: Attributable risk: Omega

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Physico-Chemical Evaluations And Trace Metals Distribution in Water-Surficial Sediment of Ismailia Canal, Egypt


M. H. Abdo1, S. M. El-Nasharty2

1National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries and water research center.

2National Water Research Center


Abstract: Ismailia Canal is considered as one of the most important irrigation and drinking water resources. During drought period the water level decreased and the concentrations of the most physico-chemical parameters were increased. Physical parameters include (air and water temperatures EC, TS, TDS and TSS). Chemical parameters (pH, DO, BOD, COD, CO3--, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4--, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NO2-, NO3-, NH3, PO43-, TP and SiO2-). In addition to some trace metals (Fe, Mn, Zn. Cu, Pb, Cd, Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Mo) in water and surficial sediment of Ismailia Canal during drought period were studied. [Nature and Science 2010;8(5):198-206]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Chemical evaluation, trace metals, water, sediment, Ismailia Canal

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