Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 8 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 39), June 1, 2010
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All in one file
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Titles / Authors

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Department of Botany, Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus Almora. Uttaranchal. India


ABSTRACT: Some peculiar structures at the petiolar region of Bergenia species are described. Presence of hood like structure at petiole region is one of the chief diagnostic characters in all the three species of Bergenia i.e., Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., B. ligulata (Wall.) Engl. L., B. stracheyi (Hook. F. & Thoms) Engl. found in Western Himalaya. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: petiolar region; Bergenia species; Bergenia ciliate; Himalaya

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Studies on Sources of Bee-forage for Rock Bee (Apis dorsata F.) from Garhwal Himalaya, India: A Melissopalynologaical Approach

Prabhawati Tiwari1, Jay Krishan Tiwari1, Radha Ballabha1

1 Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand 246 174, India

Authors E-mail:,,


Abstract: Rock bee, Apis dorsata F. is the best honey gatherer and important pollinator among the Indian honey bees. While other bees stop their work during night, rock bees are the only bees that work during full moon night to collect nectar and pollen. Seeing the role of rock bees in meeting the honey demand in the country; it was aimed to study the forage of this group of bees on the basis of Melissopalynologaical analysis. The study was conducted in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Pollen analysis of 21 samples of rock bee honey was made to work out the rock bee flora on the basis of pollen morphology, composition and percentage of pollen present in honey. Methodology suggested by International Commission for Bee Botany (Louveaux et al., 1978) was followed. The pollen analysis revealed the members of family Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Betulaceae, Myrtaceae, Rosaceae and Rubiaceae as pre-dominant and Acanthaceae, Balsaminaceae, Lamiaceae, Onagraceae, Ericaceae, Polygonaceae and Hippocastanaceae as secondary source of pollen. The species of Echinops, Scurulla, Dipsacus, Sedum, Citrus, Juglans, Bombax, Geranium and Plectranthus have emerged as important minor pollen types. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):5-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Garhwal Himalaya, Bee forage plants, Apis dorsata, Melissopalynology

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An Assessment of Fluid Inclusions Composition Using the Raman Spectroscopy at Daleishan Goldfield, Dawu County, Hubei Province, P.R. China


Diarra Karim 1, Hanlie Hong 2

1. China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China

2. Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (Hubei province), China


Abstract: The purpose was to assess fluid inclusions composition in the Goldfield, Hubei province, China. The laser Raman spectroscopy was used as an analytical tool. The results show that water and carbon dioxide (70 %), and quartz (10 %) are the primary and secondary compositions of most of the inclusions, respectively. A number of three phase inclusions were low and inclusion size varies from 1 to 27µm. The density of CO2 fluid inclusions measured in quartz mineral varied from 0.61 to 0.96 g/cm3. No traces of other gases such as hydrogen (H2), ethylene (C2H2), ethene (C2H4), benzene (C6H6), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed, confirming epithermal origin of the deposit (quartz ± calcite± adularia ± illite assemblage). In Daleishan goldfield, according to inclusion composition, vapor and liquid may be main agent transports for gold in epithermal systems as well as for silver. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):16-22]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Auriferous veins, Raman spectroscopy, inclusions fluids, Daleishan Goldfield, quartz

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Effects of Different Filler Treatments on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Flexible Polyurethane Foam Composites


Ganiyu Kayode Latinwo*1, David Stan Aribike 2, Alfred Akpoveta Susu2, Semiu Adebayo Kareem3

1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, 210001, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.,


Abstract: A discontinuous foaming process has been employed to investigate the effects of two types of fillers – calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) on the morphological and mechanical properties of flexible polyurethane foam. The particle sizes of the fillers: 6 nm, 3.5µm, and 0.84 mm vary from composition ranges of 0 – 40 wt%. Indentation hardness, Tensile strength, and Elongation at break of the polyurethane composites were examined as a function of the filler content in the polyurethane matrix. It was found that the influence of the fillers on the Indentation hardness of polyurethane composite depend strongly on the content and particle size of the fillers. The addition of filler of upto 20 – 35wt% and of nanosizes improves the Indentation hardness of the foam much more than the micro- and macro-scaled fillers. The tensile strength and elongation at break were however, reduced with an increasing amount of filler in the polyurethane matrix for all particle sizes. Morphological examination of the foam revealed that the cell geometry characteristics exert a significant influence on the observed mechanical characteristics. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):23-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Polyurethane; calcite; dolomite; Indentation hardness; tensile strength; elongation at break

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The value of transdermal Glyceryl Trinitrate in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis in comparison to Octreotide and Diclofenac injection.


Ehab Nashaat,MD,Hoda Al-Tayeb Naser,MD, Magdy Galal,MD Noha El-Nakeeb, MD.

Internal Medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo.


Abstract: Background: Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A universally applicable, inexpensive, effective and safe intervention that ameliorates this complication has not yet been identified. Various forms of pharmacologic prophylaxis have demonstrated modest reduction in PEP in some randomized controlled trials. Glyceryl trinitrate is an inexpensive and easily administered agent. Octreotide have shown encouraging results. Aim of the study: To study the effect of Glyceryl trinitrate in the prevention of PEP in comparison to Octreotide and Diclofenac I.M injection. Also, we aimed to detect the risk factors associated with PEP. Patients and methods: The study included 160 patients who were candidates for ERCP and divided into four groups: Group I: 40 patients who did not receive any prophylactic drug. Group II: 40 patients received transdermal Glyceryl trinitrate75 mg. Group III: 40 patients received Dilofenac75 mg by I.M injection. Group IV: 40 patients received Octreotide 0.1 mg S.C. injection. ERCP was performed for all patients by two endoscopists under propofol. Both baseline serum amylase and lipase were measured. Also, they were measured 24 hours and 72 hours after ERCP. Results: The incidence of PEP in our patients was 12.5%. No statistically significant difference between the study groups as regards this incidence. Although, there was significant difference between the groups regarding the cannulation time, duration of the procedure and difficulty of cannulation, the difference was not significant on comparing GTN group to the control group regarding the cannulation technical parameters. Univariate analysis revealed five risk factors for PEP: non-dilated CBD, long cannulation time, lengthy procedure, pancreatic duct visualization and poor drainage of dye. Conclusion: The used drugs in the study were not effective in the prophylaxis against PEP. Glyceryl trinitrate may have facilitatory effect on the cannulation technical parameters but did not reach statistical significance. Large scale trials are still needed. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):27-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: transdermal Glyceryl Trinitrate, post ERCP pancreatitis, octeriotide, diclofenac

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The Effect of Body weight, Percentage Body fat and Body Mass Index on Adolescent Academic Performance.


Oyebamiji Oyedele Oketayo1 *, Joshua Olufemi Ojo2, Ephriam Peter Inyang1, Raphael Adewale Adenodi1, Francis Omowonuola Akinluyi1 and Rufus Temidayo Akinnubi1

1. Department of Physics, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, 35100, Nigeria.

2. Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 220002, Nigeria.


Abstract: Studies have been made to evaluate the nutritional status of 110 Nigerian higher institution Physics students and compare it with their performances over a period of one year. Students’ weight, Percentage Body Fat (% BF) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured using Bioimpedance technique while their performances were determined by finding the Cumulative Grade Point average (CGPA) for all the courses offered. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation at both 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance for all the subjects (generally) and on the basis of Body Mass Index. While a significant positive correlation was found between the body fat and weight with academic performance (r = 0.921, r = 0.885 ) for overweight subjects, a negative significant relationship was obtained between the adolescent academic performance and body fat ( r = - 0.920) as well as body weight (r = - 0.954) for the obese . The results show that the academic performance of the obese adolescents can strongly be influenced by their body fat and weight after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. The finding indicates that adolescent obesity may have adverse academic consequences. Thus targeting obesity reduction policies may not only improve health outcomes but also have a positive impact on improving their academic performance and human capital accumulation. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):36-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: percentage body fat ; body mass index ; adolescent academic performance

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Non-Endoscopic Predictors of Esophageal Varices and Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy


Ehab H. Nashaat, Hossam Abd-Elaziz & Manal Sabry

Internal Medicine Departement,Ain Shams University


Abstract: Liver cirrhosis has been associated with portal hypertension as a common complication with subsequent development of esophageal varices (OV) and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). Screening endoscopy repeated at certain intervals had been suggested for early detection and evaluation of progression of OV and PHG in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension .However that approach had its limitations being an invasive technique and its cost- effectiveness was graded. Our study was undertaken to identify and evaluate non –invasive parameters as predictors of OV and PHG in cirrhotic patients. Methods: Fifty patients was in rolled in this study diagnosed as cases of liver cirrhosis with no past history of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleeding, all patients had complete blood count, liver profile (Alanine transferase (ALT), Aspartate Transferase (AST), s.Albumin and s. Bilirubin), Abdominal ultrasound[ for portal vein diameter (PVD)., splenic bipolar diameter, and Ascites),Platelet count/Splenic diameter ratio and upper Gastrointestinal tract (GIT )endoscopy for evaluation of the presence and grade of OV and PHG . Results: The study showed that OV grade had a significant inverse correlation (P<0.05) with WBCs count, Platelets count as well as Platelet count/Splenic diameter ratio and a positive significant correlation (P<0.05) with Mean splenic bipolar diameter(MSBD), PVD,and Child Pugh's classification grade. Conclusion: Platelet count, MSBD, PVD, and Platelet count/ Splenic diameter ratio can be used as non-invasive predictors of OV in patients with liver cirrhosis. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):43-50]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



KEY WORDS: esophageal varices, portal gastropathy,platelet/spleen ratio, PVD

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Assessment of Water Quality of Bennithora River in Karnataka through Multivariate Analysis


Sukarma Thareja1*, Priyanka Trivedi1

1Department of Chemistry, Christ Church College, CSJM Kanpur University, UP, India

*E-mail address:


Abstract: The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The objective was to identify physico-chemical parameters that are less important in assessing annual variations of river water quality. Eight physico-chemical parameters were used for monitoring river water quality from June (2005) to May (2006) for Bennithora River (Krishna Basin) near Gulbarga city of Karnataka state in India and they were selected for the purpose of the study. Significant variations among the parameters and interesting correlations were observed throughout the period of study. Multivariate technique, Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to evaluate the annual correlation of water quality parameters. Results show that 5 physico-chemical parameters are identified as less important in explaining the annual variance of the data set, and therefore could be the non-principal parameters (Water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, Cl2, NH4_N). This study suggests that PCA technique is useful tool for identification of non-principal water quality physico-chemical parameters. The outcome of this study also shows that there is a potential for improving the efficiency and economy of the monitoring network in the Bennithora River by reducing the number of physico-chemical parameters from 8 to 3. This reduction may result in significant cost saving without sacrificing important water quality data. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):51-56]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: pollution, Monitoring River water quality, Principal Component analysis

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Traditional uses of medicinal plants of Pauri Garhwal, Uttrakhand


Nazir A. Pala, A. K. Negi, N. P. Todaria

Nazir A. Pala, Research Scholar. Department of Forestry, Post Box -59, HNB Garhwal University, Srinager Garhwal-246174, Uttrakhand,

A. K. Negi, Associate Professor, Department of Forestry, Post Box -59 HNB Garhwal University, Srinager Garhwal-246174, Uttrakhand,

N. P. Todaria, Professor and Head, Department of Forestry, Post Box -59, HNB Garhwal University, Srinager-246174, Garhwal Uttrakhand,


Abstract: The present study was carried out in some interior areas of Pauri district of Uttrakhand to collect the information of traditionally used medicinal plants by the communities. A total of 61 medicinal plants belonging to 28 families were used by local people to cure different diseases. . Out of 61 medicinal plant species 13 plant species were having roots and rhizomes as medicinal parts, 7 species containing fruits and flowers as medicinal value, Whereas 28 plant species were having leaves as their medicinal plant parts. Almost all these medicinal plants identified were used to cure human diseases and in which 10 plant species were also used to cure diseases of cattle of the local communities. Local communities, especially, older age class, including women heavily use these traditionally available medicinal plants for health and believe that these are easily available, less expensive, and have no side effects. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):57-61]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words- Traditional knowledge, disease, local communities, traditional practices

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Notes on Indicators of Environmental Status in Inshore and Offshore Waters of South -Western Nigeria


Nwankwo, Dike Ikegwu* and Adesalu, Taofikat Abosede**

 *Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria.

 **Department of Botany, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria.


Abstract: This compilation is based on several years of personal and collaborative work on inshore and offshore waters of South West Nigeria. The relevance of algae, polychaetes, juvenile stages, as well as water chemistry in determining environmental status was documented. Nutrient level, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand level and thermocline development are important abiotic factors. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):62-65]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: pollution indicators, inshore, offshore, phytoplankton, environment

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Performance Evaluation of a 15.5 cm Screw Conveyor during Handling Process of Rough Rice (Oriza Sativa L.) Grains

Hemad Zareiforoush1*, Mohammad Hasan Komarizadeh1, Mohammad Reza Alizadeh2

 Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia, P.O. Box 165, Urmia 57135, Iran

1. Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), P.O. Box 1658, Rasht 41235, Iran


Abstract: In the current research, some experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of screw diametric clearance and screw rotational speed on the performance characteristics of a screw conveyor, during handling process of rough rice grains. The performance specifications were evaluated in terms of conveyor actual volumetric capacity, volumetric efficiency, specific power and net power requirements. A screw conveyor with the housing diameter of 15.5 cm, screw diameter of 13 cm and screw shaft diameter 3.5 cm having the length of 150 cm was constructed for conducting the experiments. The results revealed that the specific power requirement of the conveyor increased significantly (P<0.01) with increasing the screw diametric clearance and screw rotational speed. The net power requirement of the conveyor increased significantly (P>0.01) with increasing the screw rotational speed; whilst the value found to be decreased with increasing the screw clearance (P<0.01). As the rotational speed of the screw conveyor increased, the actual volumetric capacity increased up to a maximum value and further increases in speed caused a decrease in capacity. The volumetric efficiency of the screw conveyor decreased significantly (P<0.01) with increasing the screw diametric clearance and screw rotational speed. Considering the widely utilization of screw conveyors in agricultural grains handling processes, the information obtained in this study could be very useful in proper design and adjustments of this type of implements with respect to conveying materials characteristics. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):66-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Screw conveyor, Power, Clearance, Rotational speed, Volumetric efficiency, Capacity

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Comparative study of endo-parasitic infestation in Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) collected from Hatchery and Sewage lagoon


Md. Jobaer Alam1, Md. Rakibuzzaman1, Mehedi Mahmudul Hasan2

1Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

2Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali-3802, Bangladesh



Abstract: The study was conducted to collect and identify endoparasites of Channa punctatus (Bloch,1793) from different water bodies of varying water quality in Bangladesh and to determine the prevalence and intensity of infestation brought about by the endoparasites in the hosts. The host fishes were collected from polluted water at sewage treatment lagoon in Narayangong and fresh water at Tongi Hatchery in Gazipur, Bangladesh. The prevalence of endoparasites in the host fish Channa punctatus was 91.30% in female and 88.88% in male fishes, among them in polluted water fishes the prevalence was 85.71% in female and 86.66% in male and in fresh water fishes the prevalence was 100% in both the male and female fishes. The intensities of infestation in Channa punctatus was 6.78 in female and 6.55 in male fish collected from hatchery; and in sewage water fishes the intensity was 3.50 in females and 1.15 in males respectively. Six parasite species were found from polluted water fishes and seven species of parasites were recorded from fresh water fishes. The parasite groups were trematodes (Genarchopsis bangladensis, Allogomtiotrema attu, Phyllodistomum sp., Neopecoelina saharanpuriensis), nematodes (Ascaridia sp., Procamallanus sp.) and Acanthocephalan (Pallisentis nandai). Acanthocephalans were found in the fishes collected from sewage lagoon. Liver, stomach, intestine and body cavity of the host fishes were examined for parasites. Females were more infected than the males. The intensity and the prevalence were higher in host fishes collected from hatchery than the sewage water host fishes. The hosts of intermediate length and weight group were found to be more infected than smaller and larger length groups. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):75-79]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Endoparasite, Channa punctatu, Hatchery, Sewage Lagoon

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Protective effect of Nigella sativia seeds against dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB) induced liver carcinogenesis


H. A. Mohamed1, I. H. El-Sayed2 and M. Moawad3


1Plant Pathology Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt, 2Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute, Minufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt, and 3Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.


ABSTRACT: Liver cancer is one of the most common solid tumors worldwide. Extensive research was carried out to document the powerful properties of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) as an anti-tumor, bactericide, anticestode, antinematode, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic and diuretic with many other uses. Little is known about the Nigella sativa anti-tumor property in liver cancers, thus our current study was performed to investigate the protective role of Nigella sativa in DAB induced liver carcinogenesis. 140 male albino mice weighing 40-50 gm divided into four groups. Group one was normal control group without treatment of any type. Group two was Nigella sativa treated control group. Group three was treated with DAB carcinogen. Group four was treated with both Nigella sativa and DAB. Biochemical investigations, flow cytometric analysis, and histopathological examination of the liver tissue were performed for all groups. The results showed that there was a significant change in the DNA content, histomorphology, and antioxidant enzymes in the liver tissues of the DAB treated group. These changes were restored to approximately the normal counterpart with Nigella sativa treatment. In addition, treatment with Nigella sativa only showed comparable results with control untreated groups on different levels. Collectively, these results give clear evidence that Nigella sativa lonely induce no harmful effects on the liver. Moreover, it exerts hepatoprotective effect against liver carcinogens. Antioxidant property is mediated its actions and investigating other underlying mechanisms merits further studies. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):80-87]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Niglla sativa, Dimethylaminoazobenzene, Liver, antioxidant, Carcinogenesis

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Physico-Chemical Analysis of Ash of Some Medicinal Plants Growing in Uttarakhand, India


Archa Vermani1, Navneet1, Prabhat1 and Avnish Chauhan2

1. Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar-Uttarakhand, India

2. Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pardesh, India


Abstract: Physio-chemical analysis of ash of Quercus infectoria, Cassia fistula, Tinospora cordifolia, Butea monosperma and Cedrela toona trees parts were carried out for present study. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used for quantitative estimation while chemical methods applied for qualitative estimation of minerals in plants ash. It is found that C. fistula, T. cordifolia, Q. infectoria and C. toona showed maximum concentration of potassium while, B. monosperma showed maximum results with magnesium. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):88-91]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Mineral analysis, medicinal plants, plant ash, AAS

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HIV Infection Among Male Prison Inmates In Abuja, Nigeria. HIV Infection Among Prison Inmates


*Muhammad T1, 1Auwal Usman, Dr MM Baba2 And IB Thilza3

1Department Of Microbiology, National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria.

2Department Of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University Of Maiduguri.

3Department Of Veterinary Medicine, University Of Maiduguri.


ABSTRACT: The Prison population is at risk of HIV infection even though they are most often neglected risk group in the area of prevention and management. The seroprevalence of Human Immunodefiency Virus [HIV] infection among male inmates in Kuje prison, Abuja- Nigeria was determined. Two hundred sera specimens from the prison inmates were tested using 3 different test kits. Of 200 samples tested 12 [6%] had HIV-1 antibodies. The highest prevalence of HIV antibodies was found in the age group of 10-20 years [7.1%]. This was followed by the age group of 21-30 years [6.8%] while the least [4.0%] was observed among those aged 41-50 years. HIV among inmates particularly the young was high. Preventive and management measures should always be extended to inmates of Nigerian prisons. Prisoners should continuously be educated about HIV pandemic and methods of prevention. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):92-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: HIV, Prevalence, Inmates, Abuja, Nigeria

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Health hazards among a sample of workers exposed to a combination of noise and organic solvents in a fermentation factory in Egypt


Sanaa A. Rizk*, Nevin E. Sharaf*

*Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: Background: Exposure to noise can induce hearing impairment among industrial workers. Studying the impact of combined exposure to both industrial pollutants such as noise and organic solvents on hearing was scarcely pointed. The aim was to study the risk of hearing loss among a sample of fermentation plant workers in Egypt exposed to both noise and a mixture of organic solvents. Materials and Methods: The exposed group consisted of 110 workers in a fermentation plantdivided into two groups. Group A (50 workers,) exposed to noise only, group B (60 workers) exposed to noise and mixture of organic solvents, The control group (group C;30 workers) were matched to the exposed group in age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking habit and systolic blood pressure but were neither exposed to noise nor organic solvents. All studied sample were subjected to complete medical examination and audiometric examination using pure tone Audiometer (GS.Model 1703). The characteristic V-notch in the audiogram was used as early sign of hearing loss. Noise level at work place was carried out using a calibrated Precision sound level meter type 2232. Results: Noise level was comparable in groups A&B but significantly higher than in control work places. Thirty six percent of exposed workers suffered from hearing loss versus 3.3 percent in the control group (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was significantly higher among group B (24%) than group A (18%) (p< 0.05). Results showed that both exposed groups had higher hearing loss than normal control. Workers exposed to both noise and organic solvents suffered from the highest proportion of hearing loss compared to those exposed to noise alone, therefore we concluded that solvents may interact synergistically with noise. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):95-99]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Key words: Noise- organic solvents- hearing loss

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Some Peculiar Structures in Bergenia Species Growing In Western Himalaya


Sanyukta Chowdhary1* and K. R. Verma1

1Department of Botany Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus Almora-263601. Uttarakhand. India


Abstract: Some peculiar structures at the petiolar region of Bergenia species are described. Presence of hood like structure at petiole region is one of the chief diagnostic characters in all the three species of Bergenia i.e., Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., B. ligulata (Wall.) Engl. L., B. stracheyi (Hook.f.&Thoms.) Engl. found in Western Himalaya. [Nature and Science 2010;8(6):100-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: Bergenia ciliate, B. stracheyi, Western Himalaya, Peculiar structures

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting April 10, 2010. 
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