Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 Volume 8 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 40), July 1, 2010
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0807 
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The effects of Agnucaston and Metformin on the chromosomes of pregnant females and their embryos


Hanaa M.Roshdy

Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Cairo

Abstract: Background:Agnucaston (chaste berry fruits) and Metformin are the most common medications in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hormonal imbalance. The safe use of Agnucaston and Metformin in the virgin females and in the pregnant females and their embryos has not been adequately studied. Aim of the study is to evaluate the cytogenetic effects of Agnucaston and Metformin before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study was female mice (Virgin and pregnant) divided into two groups control (did not administer any medication) and treated group (administered Agnucaston and Metformin orally) by doses of 0.3 and 1.3 mg/kg/day respectively for (15) consecutive days. After one day from the last treatment the females were sacrificed and cytogenetic analysis were conducted. Results: females treated with Agnucaston(Virgin and pregnant ) showed increase in frequencies of chromosomal aberrations significantly and also in their embryos but these increases were highly significant in pregnant females than virgin While, the females treated with Metformin there was a slight significant increase in the frequencies of the chromosomal aberrations in the pregnant females and embryos but there was no significant increase in the virgin females treated with Metformin before pregnancy. Conclusion: Our results indicate that Agnucaston has a mutagenic effects on the females (Virgin and pregnant) and on the embryos while Metformin has a slight mutagenic effects on the pregnant females and their embryos but does not have a mutagenic effects on the virgin females. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: (polycystic ovary syndrome), Agnucaston, Metformin, chromosomal aberrations, mice, embryos

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Effects of IBA on rooting performance of Citrus auriantifolia Swingle (Kagzi-lime) in different growing conditions



Bani Bhushan Bhatt1*, Yogendra Kumar Tomar2

1.        Department of Horticulture, GBP UA&T, College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, Hill campus Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal. 249 199, India

2.        Department of Horticulture, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand 246 174, India

Abstract: Considering the unavailability of information of the effect of rooting hormones in combination with modified growing conditions on the rooting characteristics of Citrus auriantifolia Swingle cuttings under valley conditions of Garhwal Himalaya, the experiment was undertaken at the HRC, Garhwal University Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India. The effect of different concentration of Indolebutyric acid (IBA) and different growing conditions have been examined for stimulatory effects adventitious root formation in stem cutting of Kagzi-lime. Properly prepared cuttings of about 22-24 cm length in the month of June were treated with different concentrations of IBA viz., 500, 1000, 1500 ppm for 5 second by concentrated solution dip method and planted in 3 different conditions namely open area, under partial shade and under low cost polyhouse. The cuttings treated with IBA 500 ppm, performed the best in all aspects, as root formation, length of root, thickening of root and leaf sprouting in shoot, whereas, the open area growing condition was found effective in increasing the success rate of the cuttings. All the rooting parameters performance was recorded highest under polyhouse condition. Overall treatment C1M3 (IBA 500ppm and polyhouse) combination was found best in all parameters taken. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):8-11]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Kagzi lime, cuttings, IBA, rooting, low-cost poly house, Garhwal Himalaya

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Anthropometric Measurements and Appetite Related Hormones in Obesity Patients


Hamdy A. Ahmed* and Mohamed I.Aref**

*Biochem., Dept., NRC. Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. **Clin., Pathology Dept., El Hussein Hosp., Fac., of Medicine, Al Azhar Uni. Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: Obesity and hyperlipidemia are two of the most highly distributed disorders that commonly associated with a cluster of progressive pathogenesis of many public health problems. This nutritional diseases increase the morbidity and the mortality of other diseases as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, hypertension, type2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancer. Thus the goal of the present study was to investigate the anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters in case of obese patients before and after dietary treatments as well as the obesity related hormones in obese and in comparison with their corresponding healthy subjects. Serum leptin concentration increased significantly in obese subjects associated with a significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration in obese group only. After dietary treatment serum leptin concentration decreased significantly in obese subjects while serum ghrelin increased significantly when compared with their values before treatments. There was a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin and insulin resistant (IR) value in obese subjects. While after dietetic treatment for obesity, there was a significant decrease in serum glucose, insulin and IR associated with a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels. In conclusion, the main features of obesity are leptin resistance and insulin resistance. Other hormonal influences are ghrelin and adiponectin which could be pathogenic factors for obesity. Hyperghrelinemia lead to hyperphagia and morbid obesity. While hypoadiponectinemia correlated to insulin resistance and diabetes type 2. So reducing body weight and controlling of hyperlipidemia enhancing insulin and leptin sensitivity through increase in adiponectin secretion, which has known as anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic hormone. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):12-19]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Obesity; hyperlipidemia; anti-diabetic; anti-inflammatory; anti-atherogenic; hormone

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Studies on some Benzopyran Derivatives with Expected Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activity



Hanaa.F.Roaiah a, Sally.S.El-Nakkady a, Weam.S.El-Serwy a, Mohamed.A.A.Ali b,A.H.Abd El-Rahman c, Zeinab El-Bazzad

a Natural Chemistry Products Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

b virology Department National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

c Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt

d Pharmaceutical Microbiological Lab, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: The naturally occurring furocoumarin (xanthotoxin) (1) yielded 3-(6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1-benzofuran-5-yl) acrylohydrazide (2) upon treatment with hydrazine hydrate. When 2 was treated with an equimolar amount of the appropriate isothiocyanates it gave the respective N-substituted – 2 - [3 - (6 – hydroxy – 7 – methoxy – 1 – benzofuran – 5 - yl) prop – 2 -enoyl] hydrazine carbothioamide (3a-c), which when heated with sodium hydroxide, yellow mercuric oxide and phosphorus oxychloride respectively were transformed into 5-[2-(4-substituted-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)vinyl]-7-methoxy-1-benzofuran-6-ol (4a-c), 5-{2-[5-(substituted amino)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl] vinyl}-7-methoxy-1-benzofuran-6-ol (5a-c), and 5-{2-[5-(substituted amino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl] vinyl}-7-methoxy-1-benzofuran-6-ol (6a-c) respectively. The reaction of 3a with ethyl bromoacetate gave N'-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene)-3-(6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1-benzofuran-5-yl)acrylo hydrazide (7). When 3a,b was heated with ethyl cyanoacetate it yielded N-substituted-2-[4-(6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1-benzofuran-5-yl)-2-imino-2H-pyran-6-yl]hydrazine-carbothioamide (8a,b) respectively. The prepared compounds were tested for their antimicrobial and antiviral activities. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):20-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Benzopyran; Antimicrobial; Antiviral Activity

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Effect of arginine on growth, nutrient composition, yield and nutritional value of mung bean plants grown under salinity stress


Amira M. S. Abdul Qados

Botany Department, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, P. O. Box 2508 Safaqes St. Granada Esq. Riyadh 13242 – 07229 K.S.A

Abstract: Salinity is a major limitation to legume production in many areas of the world. The salinity sensitivity of mung bean was studied to determine the effect of salinity on vegetative growth (plant dry weight and plant height), yield components (plant height, pods number, pods weight, seeds number/pod, seeds weight/plant and biological yield/plant), nutritional value of produced seeds (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, soluble carbohydrate, polysaccharides, total carbohydrate, proline, total amino acids and protein contents) and mineral contents in green shoot at harvest (N, P, K, and Na). Also, the role of arginine in alleviating the effect of salinity stress was studied. Mung bean seeds were planted in soils of different salinity levels. The concentration of the irrigation water used in this experiment were (0, 15000, 3000, 4500 and 6000 ppm). All growth parameters were significantly reduced with high salinity levels (4500 and 6000 ppm) while 1500 and 3000 ppm induced slight increase. Salinity stress also, induced significant increases in Na, Cl, Ca and Mg and decreased significantly N, P, and K contents. Salinity stress reduced most yield components and nutritional value of produced seeds. However, spraying plants with arginine could alleviate the harmful effect of salinity at all studied parameters. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):30-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Mung bean, Salinity, Arginine, growth, Yield, Mineral compositions

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Emerging trend of urban green space research and the implications for safeguarding biodiversity: a viewpoint


Gairola, S. and M. S. Noresah

School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia

11800, MINDEN, Penang, Malaysia,


Abstract: It is abundantly clear that rapid urbanization is greatly transforming the spatial pattern of urban land use worldwide. Consequently, the resulting losses of urban green space at local to global level are continuously altering urban ecosystems. Recent research on this aspect has stressed on the importance of urban green spaces as well as their losses due to rapid urban growth. The importance of ecosystem services provided by urban green spaces for human well-being is gaining recognition and has been highlighted by most of the recent studies. In this short communication, we discuss the emerging trend of urban green space research and its implications for safeguarding biodiversity in line with the declaration by the United Nations that 2010 to be the International Year of Biodiversity. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):43-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Urban Green Space, Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, Urban Dwellers, Sustainable Development

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Effect of location and growth season on the productivity and quality of some range plants in Wadi Halazien in the North Western Coast in Egypt


El-Zanaty, R. I. A.٭, A. A. Abdel-Hafez٭, k. I. Abdel-Gawad٭, M. H. M. El-Morsy**and H. M. A. Abusaief٭

٭Faculty Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

**Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: This study was conducted during spring and autumn seasons of 2007 and 2008 in wadi Halazien, at the North West Coast region of Matruh governorate in Egypt. The aim of this investigation was to survey and classify natural plants species and to study the effect of location and seasonal changes on range productivity and quality of pasture species. Seventy-two plant species belong to 29 families (41.67 % annuals, 1.39 % biennials and 56.94 % perennials) were found. Polygonum equisetiforme in top, Deverra tortuosa in ridge, Chiliadenus candicans in bed 1 and Carduncellus eriocephalus in bed 2 gave the highest abundance in spring 2007. Whereas, Gymnocarpos decandrus in top, Leopoldia comosa in ridge and Carduncellus eriocephalus in bed 1 and 2 gave the highest one in spring 2008. Total abundance in bed 2 significantly surpassed other sites in both years. Species richness and Simpson’s index of diversity in spring increased than in autumn in all sites of both years. Lycium shawii in top, Euphorbia dendroides in ridge, and Thymelaea hirsuta in bed 1 gave the highest importance value in spring 2007. Generally, plant species of family Caryophyllaceae in top, Euphorbiaceae in ridge, Thymelaeaceae in bed 1 and Apiaceae in bed 2 gave the highest fresh and dry yields in spring 2007, while, Thymelaeaceae in top, ridge and bed 2 and Cistaceae in bed 1 gave the highest ones in spring 2008. Gymnocarpos decandrus in top, Euphorbia dendroides in ridge, Thymelaea hirsuta in bed 1 and Atriplex nummularia in bed 2 gave the highest fresh and dry yields in spring 2007. While, Thymelaea hirsuta in top, Gymnocarpos decandrus in ridge, Fumana thymifolia in bed 1 and Carduncellus eriocephalus in bed 2 had the highest ones in spring 2008. Seasonal fresh and dry yields in bed 2 significantly exceeded other sites in both years. Fabaceae gave the highest CP % and DCP % at all sites, except in ridge Brassicaceae gave the highest ones in spring 2008. Erodium crassifolium in top, Achillea santolina in ridge, Lotus polyphyllus in bed 1 and 2 gave the highest CP % and DCP % in spring 2008. Crude protein % and DCP % in spring significantly exceeded it in autumn at all sites in both years. Abundance, fresh and dry yields had a positive correlation with precipitation, and a negative correlation with temperature. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):50-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: The productivity; Wadi Halazien; North Western Coast

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Morphological and Isozyme diversity in the accessions of two cultivated species of barnyard millet

Deepti prabha1, Y. K. Negi2, V. K. Khanna1
1. College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Ag. and Tech, U. S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), India;
2. SBS PG Institute of biomedical Sciences and Research, Balawala, Dehradun (Utarakhand), India;;


Abstract:Present study was conducted to access genetic diversity among 33 accessions of two cultivated species of barnyard millet i.e., Echinocloa crus-galli (15 accessions) and E. frumentacea (18 accessions). Though crop possesses great nutritional value, little attention has been paid for the improvement of this crop. Peroxidase and esterase analysis showed seven loci possessing 23 alleles in all 33 accessions. Esterase was found to be more useful to assess diversity with more polymorphism in comparison to peroxidase. Based on allozyme frequencies, all the accessions of both the species were grouped separately in to two different groups at a linkage distance of 6.2. The data would be important in detailing the level of variation and relationship within and between species to plan future domestication trials and to manage the wild species collection that is available in the gene banks. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):71-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Barnyard millet, genetic diversity, isozyme analysis, peroxidase, esterase

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Cyanobacteria of a Tropical Lagoon, Nigeria.


Adesalu, Taofikat Abosede 1, Nwankwo, Dike Ikegwu.2

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

2Department of Marine sciences, University of Lagos, Nigeria.


Abstract: Investigations for the first time into the blue green algae of Lekki lagoon were carried out for 24 months (June 2003- May 2005) at monthly intervals using standard plankton net of mesh size 55m. One hundred and seventy nine species belonging to thirty genera were observed. The filamentous blue green algae Oscillatoria formed the most abundant genus making up twenty three species followed by Phormidium eighteen species. Anabaena and Chroococcus recorded thirteen species each while the genera, Gleocapsa, Merismopedia and Microcystis recorded ten, eight and twelve species respectively. Only one genus each of Cyanosarcina, Calothrix and Scytonema were encountered. Bloom forming species identified were Microcystis aeruginosa, M. flos-aquae, M. wesenbergii and Anabaena flos-aquae. In this study, thirty-nine new species were recorded for Lagos lagoon complex in which Lekki lagoon is one of it while Cyanosarcina hueberliorum is new record for Nigeria. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):77-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Cyanophytes, tropical, bloom, Lagos lagoon complex

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Lipid profile among chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients and its levels pre and post treatment


Ehab H Nashaat, MD

Associated professor of internal medicine ,Faculty of medicine ,Ain Shams university.


Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C is a common infection in the Egyptian population, specially genotype 4 .It is well recognized in many studies that hepatitis C chronic infection is associated with hypolipidemia, so in our study we compare the lipid profile between 150 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 150 normal persons with comparable age, sex and body mass index (BMI). The fasting cholesterol ,low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL),and triglyceride were compared .Then 36 patients of them received treatment in the form of pegylated interferon and ribavirin and then the patients who achieved viral clearance was reevaluated as regard the lipid profile versus the patients who did not achieve viral clearance and the relpsers. In our study we found that patients with chronic hepatitis C had significant lower LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides than normal persons with comparable age, sex and BMI .The treated patients with sustained virological response showed increased LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides from baseline compared to patients without viral clearance and even 2of them had increased LDL more than 130 mg/dl and had increased in cholesterol level more than 200 which necessate treatment for dyslipidemia in order to prevent the risk of coronary heart disease. Conclusion : patients with chronic hepatitis C had high levels of LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides than non infected persons and after viral clearance a significant number of patients showed LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides rebound even to levels may be associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease, so lipids should be carefully followed up after successful clearance of hepatitis C infection . [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):83-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: HCV infection,lipids profile ,pre and post treatment

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Comparative studies on the Indian cultivated Pleurotus species by RAPD fingerprinting


Swarnendu Chandra, Kabita Ghosh and Krishnendu Acharya*

Molecular and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700 019, West Bengal, India.


Abstract: The oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus) are the second most important cultivated mushroom in the world. The genus consists of a number of species. The genetic divergent of eight Indian species of Pleurotus viz. P. florida – P1, P. membranaeceus – OE128, P. sajor-caju – PL1140, P. djamor – X375, P. cystidiosus – P19, P. flabelletus – PL50, P. sapidus – PL40 and P. ostreatus – PO1803 was determined based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) pattern. Result showed that all the species tested could be differentiated by RAPD data and even one individual primer (OPD-07) could also discriminate all tested species. Genetic similarity analysis and grouping derived from RAPD markers reveals a high level of genetic diversity. Therefore the RAPD technique can provide a powerful tool to discriminate the species and the molecular information are useful for the breeding system. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):90-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus species, RAPD

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Factors Affecting the distribution and abundance of Bottom Fauna in Lake Nasser, Egypt


Isaac A. Iskaros and M. El Dardir*

*National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Aswan, Egypt


Abstract: This study aim to determine which factors regulate the benthic invertebrates in the offshore area of Lake Nasser. The area investigated represents about 80% of the total lake and that is not well utilized. Seven stations along the main channel of the lake and three main khors out of 85 were selected. Transparency, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, hydrogen ion concentration, some characteristics of bottom sediments, the population density and biomass of bottom fauna were measured. Only 10 species belonging to oligochaetes (3 species), chironomid larve (4 species) and molluscs (3 species) were recorded. The former were the most common group. The highest standing stock of bottom fauna was noticed in the main channel, particularly during spring (avg. 5846 org./m2 and 29.6 g. f.w./m2) associated with clay and silt grains representing (40.5 – 54.5%) and (37.0 – 46.0%), respectively; and subsequently high content of organic matter (8.0 – 12.5%). The three khors sustained low densities of bottom fauna and sediments constituted mainly of sand with low organic matter. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):95-108]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Keywords: Lake Nasser, water quality, bottom sediments, bottom fauna, community structure

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Floristic Composition and Biological Spectrum of Vegetation in Alpine Meadows of Kedarnath: Garhwal Himalaya

Kusum Pharswan *, J. P. Mehta and Subodh

Department of Botany, Post Box-22, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), 246174, India

*, Research fellow

Abstract: The present paper gives an account of flora of Kedarnath which have very harsh climatic conditions. 80 species, belonging 36 families were estimated from the study area. Notes on phenological pattern, life form (biological spectrum), plant type and uses have also been studied. Asteraceae was the dominant family (11.25%) recorded under present investigation. The genus and species are arranged alphabetically with in a family with correct nomenclature. The major class of life form was found to be Chamaephytic. Besides Chamaephytes (36.25%), the other life forms enumerated were Therophytes (28.75%), Cryptophytes (18.75%), Hemicryptophytes (11.25%) and Phenerophytes (5%). Most of the plant species had flowering and fruiting in rainy season, followed by summer season and very few species in winter season. [Nature and Science 2010;8(7):109-115]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).


Key words: Kedarnath, life forms, biological spectrum, floristic list, altitude

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting May 10, 2010. 

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