Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci) 
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 8 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 42), September 1, 2010
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0808

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

1

Community Participation for Educational Planning and Development

 

 Abrisham Aref

Department of Social Science, Tehran Education, Ministry of Education, Iran

abrishamaref@yahoo.com

Abstract: This research set out to explore the roles communities in the development of education. The concept of community participation has been important around the world. In developed countries communities have important role in the processes of educational planning and development. But in third world countries there are some important barriers in face of community participation in education activities. This paper looks at the barriers of community participation in educational activities as well as role of community participation in educational planning. This research draws from my scientific experience in a variety of disciplines namely; anthropology and education. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.01

Keywords: participation, development, education

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2

Micropropagation of Spilanthes acmella Murr. – An Important Medicinal Plant

 

Kuldeep Yadav* and Narender Singh

 Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

*Email: kuldeep0608@gmail.com

 Abstract: A rapid and efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Spilanthes acmella Murr.-an endangered medicinal plant has been developed. Multiple shoots induced on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various auxins and cytokinins individually and in various combinations. MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/l BAP was found to be effective individually. The medium with 3.0 mg/l BAP + 1.0 mg/l IAA responded better as compared to other combinations. The in vitro raised shoots were excised and implanted on MS half strength medium fortified with NAA and IBA (0.5-3.0 mg/l) in an attempt to produce roots. The half strength medium supplemented with IBA (0.5-3.0 mg/l) developed roots after 15 days of implantation. The maximum frequency of roots obtained on 1.0 mg/l of IBA fortified medium. Most of the roots were long and healthy. The regenerated plantlets were successfully transferred to pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (3:1) and acclimatized with 70% survival rate in the field conditions. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):5-11]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.02

Key words: Multiple shoots, Nodal segments, Spilanthes acmella

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3

Antitumor and Synthesis of Furochromenly Pyrazoles, and Thiosemicarbazide Derivatives

 

Asmaa A. Magd-El-Din*1, Amira S. Abd-El-All1, A. H. Abdel-Rhaman2, Mashalla M.S. El-Baroudy1.

 1Chemistry of Natural Products and Microbial Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. 2Chemistry Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

*E-mail: asmaaaly2003@yahoo.com

Abstract: 4,9-Dimethoxy-5-oxo-5H-furo[3,2-g]benzopyran-6-carboxaldehyde III react with diethylmalonate in pyridine to give furochromen ethylacrylate IV, which in turn react with Hydrazines to form furochromen pyrazole derivatives (Va,b and VIIIa,b) by refulex in absolute ethanol, and on the other hand gave 3- hydrazinyl ethyl acrylate derivatives (VIIa,b), by stirring at room temperature. Pyrazole-3-hydrazaid (Va) react with Isothiocyanate derivatives upon heating in chloroform in presence of catalytic amount of Triethylamine to give thiosemicarbazide derivatives (VIa-d). Also 3- Hydrazinyl ethyl acrylate react with aromatic aldehydes by stirring at room temperature in absolute ethanol to give arylidene derivatives IXa-c. The work was further extended to react IV with hydroxylaminehydrochloried in absolute ethanol lead to the formation of furochromen isoxazole derivative X. Then IV react with both malonitrile and cyanoactamaide in ethanol in presence of catalytic amount of pipredine, lead to the formation of 3- cyano- 6- pyridone derivative (XI) and 3- cyano -2- pyridone derivative (XII) respectively. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):12-22]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.03

Key Words: Furochromen ethylacrylate, Thiosemicarbazide, Pyrazole, Arylidene , Oxazole, Pyridine and Antitumor

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4

Effect of Metformin Therapy on Serum Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-18 Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

 

Sherif F. ELMekkawi 1 ,MD, Amr S. ELHosseiny1MD, Ghada M. Mansour,MD, 1 Amal A Abbas ,MD 2Ashraf M Asaad1 MD, Khadiga S Ali1

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 gmansour@hotmail.com

Abstract: Objective: to compare the level of plasma interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 in patients with (PCOS) before and after treatment with metformin. Subjects and method: Forty patients with PCOS were recruited. Venous blood sample was drawn for measurement of serum IL-18 and IL-6 by Elisa at the start of the study and after three months of the treatment with metformin (850mg/d). Results: Treatment with metformin for three months showed significant effect on reducing body weight,BMI, serum IL-6 and IL-18 levels in patients with PCO.Conclusion:There is a beneficial impact of metformin on the inflammatory process related to PCOS. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):23-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.04

Keywords: Metformin; Therapy; Serum; Interleukin-6; Interleukin-18; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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5

Analysis and Homology Modeling of Proteins Derived from NKX2.5 Non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Involved in Congenital Heart Disease

 

Dinesh S. M1, Prashantha Karunakar2, C. Amruthavalli3and Nallur B Ramachandra1

 1. Genomics Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006, Karnataka, India, dineshmgowda1@gmail.com, nallurbr@gmail.com

2. Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta, Shivamogga - 577451, Karnataka, India, prashantha.karunakar@gmail.com

3. Bioinformatics Division, Centre for Information Science and Technology, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006, Karnataka, India, dramrutha_2002@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth defect, affecting 1% of all live births and is the leading noninfectious cause of death in the first year of life. With the progress in molecular genetics and developmental biology, many genes associated with heart development have been identified. NKX 2.5 is an important transcription factor for heart development and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NKX 2.5 are associated with various CHD phenotypes. Bioinformatics analysis may help to discriminate between synonymous SNPs and non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), located in coding regions and resulting in amino acid variation in the protein products of genes. We made an attempt to analyse the nsSNPs of NKX2.5 which are involved in CHD by using bioinformatics tools to predict protein structural changes. 61 nsSNPs of NKX2.5, which are involved in CHD were analysed. We edited nsSNPs into the control sequence manually and made all 61 sequences with nsSNPs. Translated these sequences into amino acid polymorphisms and were subjected for protein secondary structure prediction. We analysed the 3-D structure of all the mutated proteins of the NKX2.5 nsSNPs. This investigation revealed the side chain differences of the amino acids in the 3-D structure of the protein. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):27-38]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.05

Key words: Congenital heart disease; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; NKX 2.5

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6

Rotary Tiller Design Proportional to a Power Tiller using Specific Work Method (SWM)

 

Hemad Zareiforoush1,*, Mohammad Hasan Komarizadeh1, Mohammad Reza Alizadeh2

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia, P.O. Box 165, Urmia 57135, Iran

2. Research Institute of Iran (RRII), P.O. Box 1658, Rasht 41235, Iran

hemad.zareiforoush@yahoo.com

Abstract: The present research has dealt with rotary tiller design for the power tiller model Mitsubishi VST SHAKTI 130DI that is made for using in primary and secondary tillage. In this design, the rotary tiller work width determined 70 cm appropriate to the power tiller, by estimating the total specific work, which is equal to the sum of static and dynamic specific work of tiller. It was revealed that the tiller model Mitsubishi VST SHAKTI 130DI is only able to pull the rotary tiller with 70 cm width and 15 cm depth, at gear I. For selecting work width of tiller, maximum benefit power of the power tiller was considered, which it could be decreased by increasing work speed. In designing the rotary tiller shaft, it was revealed that in addition to the torsional moment, the flexural moment was also effective on the system safely design. It was also recognized that in designing a rotary tiller, blades are most subjected to be fractured by incoming stresses. The optimal value of rotor’s diameter considering the values of maximum tangent force was determined about 3.94 cm. This paper presents a theoretical method for rotary tillers design. The results of this study should be verified by further tests on rotary tillers according to the results offered in this paper. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):39-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.06

Key words: Rotary tiller, Garden tractor, Design, specific work

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7

Aneuploidy in In-vitro Matured Buffalo Oocytes with or without Cumulus Cells

 Karima Gh. M. Mahmoud 1*, Youssra M. A. Mohamed2, Amer M. A. 2, Magda M. Noshy2, Nawito M. F. 1

 1Dept. Anim. Reprod. & A. I., National Research Center, Dokki, Tahrir Street, 12622 Giza

 2Dep Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

*Corresponding author: Tel.: 002 0101827716; Fax: 002 02 33370931

E.mail address: karima_mahmoud@hotmail.com (K.Mahmoud)

Abstract: Proper oocytes selection in the laboratory is crucial for successful embryo production in vitro. Presence of an intact complement of cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte and a homogenous appearing ooplasm have been the best indicators of an immature oocyte ability to undergo maturation and embryonic development. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of cumulus cells on the in vitro maturation and aneuploidy rate of buffalo oocytes. Ovaries were collected from slaughtered buffaloes. The follicular contents were collected from 2 to 5 mm diameter ovarian follicles by aspiration. Oocytes with homogenous cytoplasm (450) were selected for in vitro maturation. Oocytes with or without cumulus cells were cultured for 24-26 h in TCM-199 supplemented with 10 % fetal calf serum and 50 mg/ml gentamycin sulfate. Matured Oocytes were fixed and stained for nuclear evaluation. The meiotic stages and rate of aneuploidy were determined. Maturation rate represented by the percentage of oocytes reaching Telophase I and Metaphase II stages was higher (p <0.005) in oocytes with cumulus cells than without cumulus cells. Aneuploidy percentage represented by hypoploids and hyperploids MII were nearly identical for both types of oocytes (overall average 4.6 0.8 % for oocytes with cumulus and 5.6 1.1 % for denuded oocytes). The total abnormalities represented by aneuploid and diploid MII also were similar for oocytes with and without cumulus. In conclusion, the maturation rate was improved by the presence of cumulus cells, but aneuploidy percentage was not affected. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):46-51]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.07

Key words: Buffalo oocytes, cumulus cells, meiotic maturation, aneuploidy

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8

In Vitro Antibacterial Potentials and Synergistic Effect of South-Western Nigerian Plant Parts Used in Folklore Remedy for Salmonella typhi infection

 

1Oluduro Anthonia and 2Omoboye Olumide

 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 220005, Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ado-Ekiti, PMB 5363, Nigeria.

aoluduro@oauife.edu.ng

Abstract: In the present study, antibacterial potency and synergistic effect of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of nine plant parts against multi-drug resistant S. typhi were investigated and compared. Salmonella typhi isolated from patients suffering from typhoid fever in University of Ado-Ekiti Teaching Hospital, Nigeria was tested against nine plant parts: unripe Carica papaya fruit, Citrus aurantifoliia, Anana sativus, Citrus paradisi, Cymbopogon citratus, Cocos nucifera chaffs, brown leaves of Carica papaya, leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla and Gossypium spp. The antibacterial activities of the extracts, individually and in combination were determined using agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) carried out by agar dilution technique. Both the aqueous and methanol extracts of each plant material and mixture showed appreciable antimicrobial activities on S. typhi. Antimicrobial activity increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. Synergistic activity of crude aqueous and crude methanolic extracts of the plant parts, in various combinations of two to nine against the test organism ranged from 10-33mm zone of growth inhibition. The antibacterial efficacy of the mixture of extracts from plant parts increased considerably compared to the low activities recorded with the extract of individual plant parts (P>0.05). Methanolic extracts of each plant material and mixture produced greater antimicrobial activity than the aqueous extracts at all concentrations. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the individual plant parts ranged between 0.1 and 1.0mg/ml in aqueous extracts and 0.01 and 0.1mg/ml in methanol extracts while the MICs of the combined extracts ranged between 0.1 and 0.01mg/ml in aqueous extracts and 0.01 and 0.0001mg/ml in methanolic extracts. The combined or synergistic activity of the plant parts compared favorably with the standard antibiotics of choice for salmonella-infections therapy, and contained two or more phytochemicals responsible for their antimicrobial activities. The plant materials possessed antimicrobial activity with greater efficacy when used synergistically on the test organism. There is the need therefore to develop effective combination of antimicrobial agents in purified form from higher plants and their parts for clinical trials. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):52-59]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.08

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract, methanolic extract, Salmonella typhi, typhoid fever, phytochemicals

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9

Biocompatibility of Intravenous Nano Hydroxyapatite in Male Rats

 

Eman I. Abdel-Gawad1 and Sameh A. Awwad2

 1Radioisotops Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt 2Egyptian Army Forces, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the potential impact of nano hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) intravenous injection with different concentrations on survival rates and the reaction affecting heart, liver and thyroid functions as well as the level of circulating nitric oxide. An inorganic-organic complexion route was selected for the synthesis of nano-HAp which was characterized by fourier transform infrared, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The synthesized nano HAp was thermally sterilized and prepared with different concentrations (150, 300, 600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 mg/kg b.w.) to be injected intravenously into different groups of male rats. Mortality percentage was recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected at time intervals of 1/2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The present results revealed that intravenous injection of nano- HAp at a dose of 2400 mg/kg b. w. was determined as lethal dose, where all the animals in this group died within ten minutes after injection. On the other hand, the amount of 150 mg/kg b.w. nano-HAp did not affect on the investigated parameters but the amount of 300 mg/kg b.w. appeared slightly variable changes in CKMB, LDH, AST and T3 recovered after 24 hours. The animals injected with 600, 1200 1800 mg/kg b.w. appeared significant increase in serum CKMB, LDH, AST and thyroxin returned to approximate the normal level after 48 h. This experiment was repeated for two years under the same environmental conditions as well as the animals strain and the results were almost the same. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):60-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.09

KeyWords: Nano hydroxyapatite, Intravenous injection, thyroxin, cardiac enzymes, liver enzyme, NO

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10

Immobilized-microalga Scenedesmus sp. for Biological Desalination of Red Sea Water: I. Effect on growth metabolites

 

El-Sayed, A. B; El-Fouly, M.M and Abou El-Nour, E. A.A.

 Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: The green alga Scenedesmus sp. was grown hetero-tropically during indoor stage to evaluate their growth potential under both recommended and drastic salinity conditions. Recommended growth was performed with the routine nutritional regime of NPK, while growth under four different stress regimes was operated. The given ratios of fresh and saline water were ranged from 0.0 to 100% of sea water (Red Sea, Ismailia Governorate) on three sequences batches. Saline media were supported by N and P under free K conditions to allow the completely consumption of Na on the expense of K. The evaluated growth measurements were dry weight and pigments. Growth containers of 10L from rough polyethylene bottles were used for immobilization purposes. Growth was developed with all treatments due to the high initial biomass used. Dry weight was enhanced by the first treatment of 25% sea water and no chlorophyll decomposition was observed. Increasing of salinity levels led to chlorophyll decomposition with carotenoids accumulation. The rate of decomposition was markedly decreased by the extended batches. Chlorophyll /carotenoids ratio was decreased by the salinity treatments within the sole batch; however, it was increased among the three batches. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):69-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.10

 

Key words: Red Sea Water; Immobilized; Desalination

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11

Antitumor Potential of Total Alkaloid Extract from Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. Leaves on MOLT-4 Cells In Vitro

 

Mani Sathiya1, Krishnaswamy Muthuchelian1*

 1. Department of Bioenergy, School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources,

 Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, Tamil Nadu, India

Sathiyamarch84@gmail.com, drchelian1960@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Currently there is considerable scientific and commercial interest in the continuing discovery of new anticancer agents from plants. Here the in vitro antitumor potential of the total alkaloid extract from Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. leaves was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) based cytotoxicity test using the human leukemic cells (MOLT-4) and the genotoxic potential of the extract was also tested using cytokinesis block in vitro micronucleus assay. Simultaneously, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the extract were compared with mitogen stimulated T-lymphocyte cultures derived from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The MTT test revealed that the extract exhibited comparatively higher toxicity towards the cancer cells than the normal cells and the GI50 values at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure were found to be 46.95, 36.05, and 25.75 g/ml/1106 cells against cancer cells. The micronucleus assay showed that in both cultures the number of micronuclei obtained even at the highest exposure concentration tested was very low than that of the positive control mitomycin-C. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that the alkaloid extract from Tabebuia rosea leaves is preferentially cytotoxic to human T-cell leukemia (MOLT-4) cells in a dose and time dependent manner with the absence of genotoxicity. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):77-85]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.11

Key words: Tabebuia rosea; total alkaloid extract; MOLT-4 cells; MTT test; micronucleus assay

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12

A Convenient Synthesis of Some New Pyrazolo-Pyrimidine Derivatives with Potential Biological Activity

 

Saleh A. Bashwan1, Ahmed A. Fayed2 and Atef A. Amer* 3

 1Parmacology Department, Faculty of Health Science, Taibah University, Madina Munowara,

Saudi Arabia, 2National Research Center, Photochemistry Department, Cairo, Dokki, Egypt, 3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

*E-mail:amer_1eg@yahoo.com

Abstract: A series of pyrazolopyrimidines and their derivatives were synthesized using 2-[(N-methyl indolyl) methyl]-6-hydroxy-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine as a starting material. Nineteen new heterocyclic containing a pyrimidine ring were thus prepared. The biological screening showed that many of these compounds have good antibacterial and antifungal activities. The structure assignments of the new compounds based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data and biological properties are reported. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):86-91]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.12

Key words: Imidazole, pyrazole, pyrimidine, triazole, triazine, antibacterial activity

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13

EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM

 

Ganiyu K. Latinwo*1, David S. Aribike2, Layioye O. Oyekunle2, Akpoveta A. Susu3,, Semiu A. Kareem4

 1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

2. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

3. Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Lagos, Nigeria.

4. Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa, Nigeria.

kayodelatinwo@yahoo.com

Abstract: Effects of calcium carbonate of different compositions (0 – 40 wt%) and particle size distributions (0.06, 0.5, 3.5, 10, 20, and 841m) on the mechanical properties of flexible polyurethane foam were investigated in this study. The experiments were conducted in a foaming plant (ISOBLOCK IB 150/4F-SS) and the mechanical properties determined such Indentation Force Deflection, Tensile strength, and Elongation at break were measured with the aid of a Hampden testing machine. The finely divided filler material increased the hardness characteristics of the foam to compositions of up to 35wt%, while coarse filler did not show any appreciable improvement in the property. For all particle sizes, the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased while increasing the load of the filler weight percentages. However, the tendency with which the coarse filler reduce the properties is not as much as for the fine fillers. Scanning Electron Microphotography of the foam samples shows how the filler affect the foam cellular structure and cell size distributions. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):92-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.13

Keywords: Flexible polyurethane foam, calcium carbonate, Indentation Force Deflection, Tensile strength, Elongation-at-break

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14

Comparative Study of Biodiesels Produced from Unrefined Vegetable Oils

 

Ganiyu K. Latinwo1, David S. Aribike2 and Semiu A. Kareem3

 1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

2. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

3. Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa, Nigeria.

kayodelatinwo@yahoo.com

Abstract: Biodiesels were prepared according to standard methods from unrefined oils of cashew nut and palm kernel cultivars and compared for differences in physical properties important for fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity and density were measured from 100 to 15 oC, and differences in these physical properties occurred more frequently at lower temperatures when comparing the different cultivars. It was observed that their was no meaningful correlation among the biodiesels fatty acid profiles and either fuel viscosity or density as opposed to what was obtained for data of oil feedstocks. The cultivars data were also compared to biodiesel from soy. Biodiesel produced from cashew nut cultivar gives the best performance for use in diesel engines. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):102-106]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.14

 

Keywords: Cashew nut; palm kernel; viscosity; biodiesel

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15

Therapeutic Effect of BerenilR in Experimental Murine Trypanosomiasis using Stocks Isolated from Apparently Healthy Captive - Reared Grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus).

 

Opara, M.N. and Fagbemi, B.O. +

Tropical Animal Health and Production Research Group, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria

Email: oparamax@yahoo.com

 + Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria.
 

ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of a trypanocide (Berenil R) on Swiss albino mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax stocks isolated from apparently healthy captive - reared grasscutters. The two trypanosome organisms elicited severe parasitaemia and anaemia in the mice after a pre- patent period of 6 to 10 days and 4 to 7 days for T. congolense and T. vivax respectively. T. vivax produced a more severe anaemia than T. congolense. At 10 days post infection, the red blood cell (RBC) indices, packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were significantly (p< 0.01) lower in mice infected with T. vivax than those infected with T. congolense. Curative treatment of the infected rodents using 1mg / kg Diminazene aceturate (Berenil R) given on the 10th day of infection resulted in complete recovery of the animals from the parasitaemia and anaemia. It appears that the grasscutter is trypano- tolerant and this is note- worthy for possible vaccine development in the future. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):106-110]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.15

Key words: Berenil, Murine, Trypanosomiasis, Apparently, Healthy, Wild, Grasscutters

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16

The Effects of Steeping with Chemicals (Trona and Alum) on the Functional Properties and Proximate Composition of Asparagus Bean (Vigna sesquipedalis)

 

Nwosu Justina Nne

Department of Science of Food and Technology Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526 Owerri Imo State Nigeria

ifytina19972003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) was steeped in alum and trona of different concentrations for 24h and 48h, changing the steep solution at 6h intervals. The steeped beans were dehulled, dried and milled into flour. Proximate composition and functional properties of the bean flour were determined for each sample. The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed that samples steeped in trona had an increase in the ash, fibre and carbohydrate contents and a decrease in the moisture, protein and fat content of the beans as concentration and time increased. This was also applicable to samples steeped in alum, but with slight variations. Both alum and trona effected an increase in wettability and water absorption capacities of the flour samples and a decrease in the oil absorption capacities. Opposite effect was observed in the case of bulk density, swelling index, gelling point temperature, foam capacity, boiling point temperature, pH and viscosity. The result from this study are indicative that good manipulation of the steeping time, steeping solution and steeping solution concentration can be used to modify the functionality of Asparagus bean and as such could be used in different food formulations, like ice cream, sausages. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):111-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.16

 

Key words: functional properties, steeping, dehulling.

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17

A theory of the lifecycle of bacteria

 

Yuri Heymann

Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, Environnementale, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Present address : 3 rue de Chandieu, 1202 GenevaSwitzerland

 

Abstract: The principal objective of this study was to investigate viability kinetics in aerobic AS (Activated Sludge). A kinetic model was developed in order to predict viable cells, non-degraded dead cells and inert VSS (Volatile Suspended Solids) in a biological reactor – usually conventional models only predict active biomass and inert VSS. The following processes were considered in the derivation of the model: the death rate of viable cells, and the hydrolysis rate of dead cells. Equations development led to a decay coefficient (b) – previously considered constant – function of death rate, hydrolysis rate and solid retention time. Cell growth on soluble COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) resulting from lysis/hydrolysis has been introduced in the model. Simulation methods of viability in AS, and OUR (Oxygen Uptake Rate) tests of AS in batch under starvation were developed in order to validate the approach, and to estimate model parameters. The OUR test results have been refined introducing the lysis process. The results from the herein study indicate that the proposed models have good explanatory power of experimental data, and provide strong evidence of regulatory processes controlling bacterial death and lysis. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):121-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.17

 

Key words: activated sludge; cryptic growth; death; hydrolysis; lysis; viability. 

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18

Differential inhibitory effects of medicinal plant extracts on proline uptake in clinically isolated three Candida spp.

Ch. Tanushree Das 1, Ritarani Das 2 & R.C. Mohanty 2

1. P.G. Department of Applied and Industrial Microbiology, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar- 751004, Orissa, India.

2. Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar- 751004, Orissa, India.

tanushree_das2005@yahoo.co.in, das.ritarani@yahoo.com, rc_mohanty@sify.com

 

Abstract: Estimation of proline, a stress amino acid with help of antifungal plant extracts. Proline was estimated with Bate’s acid ninhydrin method. The selected ten test plants like Allium cepa, Aegle marmelos, Allium sativm, Aloe vera, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eugenia caryophyllus, Moringa oleifera, Mentha viridis, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, were collected for the experiment. Candida species are reported to germinate in high proline medium and the Candida spp. change from yeast phase to mycelial phase, the virulence phase. With the addition of plant extracts to the medium along with maximum utilizable concentration of proline, growth of all the three Candida spp. was inhibited .After 48hrs incubation at 37C , the findings presented that Allium sativum strongly inhibited the growth as Candida albicans with biomass 0.232 0.01 g / 50 mL , Candida parapsilosis with biomass 0.265 0.01 g / 50 mL and Candida tropicalis with biomass 0.206 0.01 g / 50 mL in comparision to control ( 2.077 0.08 g / 50 mL in C.albicans, 0.943 0.01 g / 50 mL in C.parapsilosis and 1.192 0.08 g / 50 mL in C.tropicalis ). On extraction of proline from respective broth cultures of three Candida spp. it was found that the enzyme proline-permease which helps in the uptake of proline into the Candidal cell may be inhibited. So proline cannot be utilized by the Candida spp. Bioactive compounds from plants in purified form, can replace synthetic drugs and used efficiently against dreadful diseases. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):132-139]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.18

 

Key words: Candida spp.; proline uptake; selected plant extracts; inhibitory effects

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HYDROCHEMISTRY AND PLANKTON DYNAMICS OF EUTROPHIC TROPICAL LAGOON

 

1Paul. Chuks. Onuoha, and 2Vyverman, Wim.

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria. E-mail- hydro_vision@yahoo.com

2Protistology and Aquatic Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Ghent, Belgium

 

Abstract: The hydrochemistry and plankton dynamics of the Ologe lagoon was investigated between February, 2002 and January, 2004. Whereas the lagoon remained freshwater (S%o < 0.5%o) and acidic to alkaline conditions (pH 5.8-8.1), all through the sampling period, the dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) values (0-28mg/l) indicated stress. Although nutrient levels at the lagoon were high (NO3-N >1.02mg/L; PO4-P < 1.5mg/L), heavy metal values were low (Fe < 0.99 mg/L, Cu < 0.06 mg/L, Zinc < 0.03 ). The occurrence of Melosira granulata, Nitzschia palea, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Gomphonema parvulum, Pinnularia major , P. ambigua (diatoms), Euglena viridis, Lepocinclis sp, Phacus accuminatus (euglenoids), Microcystis aeruginosa, M. flos-aquae (cyanobacteria), Brachionus angularis, B. calicyflous, B. urceolaris (rotifers) in high numbers may highlight pollution stress in the lagoon. The proliferation of the cyanophyta and other plankton species encountered were controlled by the nutrient level. The physico-chemical characteristics, Margalef, Shannon and Wiener and Equitability indices indicated pollutions stress and dominance by a few species. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):140-149]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.19

 

Keywords: hydrochemistry; plankton dynamics; Ologe; physico-chemical characteristics

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An Assessment of Distributed Generation Impacts on Distribution Networks using Global Performance Index

 

Hussein. A. Attia, Zeinab H. Osman, M. El-Shibini, and Ahmed A. Moftah

Electrical Power and Machine Dept. Cairo University, Egypt.

ah_mof_1977@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: High levels of penetration of distributed generation (DG) are a new challenge for traditional electric power systems. Power injections from DGs change network power flows, modifying energy losses and voltage profile of the system. Proper locations of DGs in power systems are extremely important in order to obtain maximum potential benefits. This paper presents a global performance index (GPI) considering a wide range of technical issues for distribution networks with distributed generation. Many indices related to involvement of (DG) units in distribution system can be considered individually, but a global performance index (GPI) has to be obtained to give a complete comprehensive concept of the whole system. Distributed generations are extensively located and sized within a test system, where in the global performance index is computed for each configuration in order to assign the best locations of the DGs. The encouraging results are presented and discussed. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):150-158]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.20

 

Key Words: Distributed Generation (DG), Distribution Networks, Global Performance Index

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Evaluation and Modelling of the Dynamics of Filled Flexible Polyurethane Foam

 

Ganiyu Kayode Latinwo*1, David Stan Aribike2, Layioye Oyekunle2 and Alfred Akpoveta Susu3

1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, 210001, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Lagos Nigeria.

kayodelatinwo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Models for flexible polyurethane foaming process containing filler have been developed to predict the dynamics of the foam formation system. Kinetic parameters of the polymerization and blowing reaction for the co-generation of carbon dioxide were determined as necessary precursors for evaluation of the thermal model, assuming the foam reaction kinetics to be controlled by the rate of generation of carbon dioxide. The dynamics of the foam process evaluated in terms of the temperatures predicted agree well with the measured exotherm of the foam growth process during initial foam growth, but with reaction at gel point, the predicted temperatures were higher than experimentally determined. Mechanical properties of foam and hence its quality have been related to the dynamics of the foam formation system. High temperatures that favour formation of the chemical species – biuret and allophanate promotes foam of improved quality in hardness. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):159-167]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.21

 

Keywords: flexible polyurethane foam, indentation hardness, temperatures, kinetics, calcium carbonate

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Phytic Acid Ameliorates Acrylamide-Induced Genotoxicity and Biochemical Disturbance in Mice

Ayman A. Farghaly1, Mona A. Abo-Zeid1*, Asmaa S. Salman1, Naglaa E. Mohamed2

1. Genetics and Cytology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Center, El-Behooth St. 31, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt.

2. Biological Applications Department, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo, Egypt.

* monaabozeid@yahoo.com

Abstract: Acrylamide (AA) has sparked renewed interest in assessing human health hazards in addition to the long-term risk associated with exposure to vinyl compounds. For this reason, this study aims to evaluate the chemo- protective efficacy of Phytic Acid (PA) against AA- induced genotoxicity and biochemical disturbance in mice in vivo. PA is found in wheat and rice bran, legumes and virtually every kind of mammalian cell. It plays an important role in regulating vital cellular functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation. For genotoxicity, using of different cytogenetic endpoints such as Micronucleus test (MN) and chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells as well as sperm abnormalities were evaluated in the tested mice. The biochemical assays included ALT, AST, AlP, cholesterol, triglycerides, TBARS, GSH and testosterone. Male Swiss mice were treated orally with AA and/or PA at doses 10 and/or 30mg/ kg b. wt/ day for 1, 7 and 14 days respectively. The percentages of MNPCE and chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells were increased significantly with the duration of time after treatment with AA. Consecutive administration of PA with AA for 1, 7 and 14 days reduced these percentages statistically in high significance. AA also induced a significant increase in the percentage of sperm shape abnormalities. This percentage was reduced with animals administered PA. For the biochemical analysis, AA induced elevation in ALT, AST, ALP, total cholesterol, triglycerides and TBARS. Also, significant decrease in GSH content and testosterone were recorded after 14 days from treatments with AA. Administration of PA with AA regulated the biochemical disturbance induced by AA. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the protective role of PA against the genotoxicity and biochemical disturbance of AA. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):168-177]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.22

 

Key words: Acrylamide, Phytic acid, Micronuclei, Chromosome aberrations, Sperm abnormalities, Oxidative stress, Liver function.

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Microbiological Characteristics of Ghanaian Traditional Fermented Milk Product, Nunu

 

F. Akabanda1, *, J. Owusu-Kwarteng1, R. L. K.Glover1, K. Tano-Debrah2

1Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University for Development Studies, P. O. Box 24, Navrongo Campus, Ghana

2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 134, Legon, Ghana

fakabanda@yahoo.com, jowusukwarteng@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Nunu is a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like milk product consumed as a staple food commodity in parts of the Saharan West Africa. Its production and consumption derives much food security and economic benefits to the rural people in the region. However, the process characteristics result in products which are not appealing to many people, have very short shelf-life and could have food safety concerns. In a framework of research to improve the product quality and increase consumption, a study was conducted to determine the process characteristics and elucidate the predominant microflora associate with the production of the product. A survey was done on the technology of nunu production in three major towns of the Upper East region, during which fermenting nunu were taken from 15 processors for laboratory analysis. pH, and titratable acidity were determined, as well as isolation and identification of the predominant microorganisms. Processing of nunu in northern Ghana takes place at ambient conditions in calabashes or plastic containers, and spontaneously. No pre-fermentation heating of the milk is done. The duration of fermentation is 24 to 48 hours. Several microorganisms were isolated from the fermenting samples, including LAB classified as lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus; yeasts classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Candida kefyr, Yarrowia lipolytica, Candida stellata, Kluyveromyce maxianus, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. The enterobacteriaceae, which were associated with the early stages of fermentation but eliminated as fermentation progressed were identified as Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus vulgaris, and Shigella. The fermentation of nunu is spontaneous. Potential pathogens may be present in the milk fermented, but are eliminated as the fermentation progresses to 48 hours, increasing the safety of the product. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):178-187]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.23

 

Keywords: Nunu, fermented milk, spontaneous fermentation, lactic acid bacteria.

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Comparative efficiencies of the degradation of C.I. Mordant Orange 1 using UV/H2O2, Fenton, and photo-Fenton processes

 

A.M. Gamal

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The kinetics of the photo degradation of C.I. Mordant Orange 1 imparted by UV/H2O2, Fenton and photo- Fenton process were investigated. Negligible effects were observed in the presence of either UV light or H2O2 alone. As expected the Fenton-mediated degradation occurred much faster than the photolytic process. Photo Fenton showed higher in treatment efficiency than that of Fenton process. The effects of dye concentrations, H2O2 concentration, pH values and the presence of Fe2+ concentration on the degradation rate constant were also studied. The rate constant of dye degradation that occurred in both the phtolytic as well as in the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes was found to pseudo first-order kinetics. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):188-195]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.24

 

Keywords: C.I. Mordant Orange 1, Degradation, Kinetic, UV/H2O2, Fenton, photo-Fenton processes.

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Effect of Seminal Plasma Centrifugation for Viscosity Elimination on Cryopreservation of Dromedary Camel Semen

El-Bahrawy, K. A.

Animal and Poultry Physiology Department, Desert Research Center (DRC), Cairo, Egypt

bhrawi@yahoo.com

Abstract: Dromedary camel semen is characterized by bad freezability and low post-thaw motility. The highly viscous nature of camel semen is one of the major constrains facing semen packing and freezing process. A primary experiment was conducted on fresh semen obtained from five dromedary bulls (n=5) to compare two methods of semen cryopreservation (pellets vs. 0.5 ml French straws). The results showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in post thaw motility of pellets (20.8%) compared to straws (43.3%). Meanwhile, the sperm survival rates were 68.7 and 33.1% for both French straws and pellet post cryopreservation respectively. Centrifugation of viscous seminal plasma and re-suspension of sperm rich fraction in a Tris-Lactose extender under two glycerol levels (3 and 6%) was carried out in end experiment. High glycerol level (6 %) had a significant deleterious effect (P<0.05) on semen freezability and showed low post-thaw motility (19.2%) for the un-centrifuged semen compared to the centrifuged semen (38.3%). However, no significant effect was observed using the 3% glycerol level for neither the un-centrifuged (40.3%) nor the centrifuged (43.3%) raw samples. The survival rates of the centrifuged samples were 62.2 and 72.2 % compared to the un-centrifuged samples 39.7 and 68.8%, for both 6 and 3% glycerol levels, respectively. Percentage of intact acrosome decreased significantly (P<0.05) for the centrifuged semen samples regardless of glycerol level. In conclusion, French straws technique is preerable for camel semen cryopreservation than pellets technique. In addition, using Tris-Lactose extender of 3% glycerol level after eliminating seminal plasma viscosity by centrifugation is an efficient method to overcome constraints of dromedary camel semen freezability. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):196-202]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.25

Key Words: Camel; Semen; Cryopreservation; Straws; Pellets; Glycerol

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Artificial insemination and ovulation induction in dromedary she-camel

 E. E. El-Hassanein1 , K. A. El-Bahrawy2**, A. A. Zagloul2

Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center1, Maryout Research Station2

bhrawi@yahoo.com

 Abstract: Dromedary female camels are known as induced ovulators, which need different treatments for induction of ovulation. In this study, 24 adult female dromedary camels were randomly allocated into four equal groups. Animals of group (1) were introduced to the male for natural mating for two subsequent estrous cycles without any hormonal treatments. The second and third groups of animals were synchronized for ovulation using GnRH, and then animals of the second group were mated naturally while those in the third were artificially inseminated using frozen-thawed semen. In the forth group, estrous females were inseminated artificially after deposition of camel seminal plasma in the uterus for induction of ovulation. In the absence of an ultrasound device in this study, blind artificial insemination depended mainly on rectal palpation of the ovaries. Pregnancy rate was used as an indicator for successful induction of ovulation and fertilization. Raw semen samples (n=30) had 13.45 1.7 ml. volume, 296.3 41.7 X 106/ml. sperm concentration, 64.16 4.3 mass motility, 23.04 2.3 % progressive forward motility, 96.6 0.57% intact acrosomes, 5.08 0.4 % primary abnormalities and 8.08 1.7 % secondary abnormalities. Raw semen samples (n=30) were collected from 6 adult males of 12 years old twice a week, pooled and processed for cryopreservation in 0.5 French straws, using Tris-lactose glycerolated extender with concentration of 75 x 106 sperm/ml. Post-thawing progressive motility of 46.6 9.2% using slow thawing procedure. The results indicated that during the breeding season, 6 (100%) animals conceived by using natural mating during two subsequent estrous cycles. On the other hand, estrus synchronization and ovulation induction protocols decreased conception rate to 5(83.3%) animals conceived when using natural mating and 3 animals conceived when using cryopreserved semen for insemination. No pregnancies were achieved after intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma for induction of ovulation in estrous females by using cryopreserved semen for insemination. In conclusion: to achieve high pregnancy rates using artificial insemination in camels, a good understanding of the mechanism of induced ovulation and hormonal treatments for ovulation induction must be employed accompanied by using high quality cryopreserved semen. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):203-208]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.26

Key words: artificial insemination/ ovulation/ camel/ semen/ cryopreservation

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Carotenoids Accumulation in the Green Alga Scenedesmus sp. Incubated with Industrial Citrate Waste and Different Inductions Stress

 

El-Sayed, A.B

 Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

bokhair@msn.com

 

Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted in the algae-station of the Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt with the green alga Scenedesmus sp. to study the effect of citrate waste in the nutrient solution on vegetative growth and pigments accumulation. The alga was incubated in 2000 ml culture with 10 ml citric acid waste characterized by high CNPK contents. After maximum growth rate was achieved induction was performed (by the day ten) and separate addition of NaCl, FeSO4 and chelated FeSO4 was performed and citrate volume was raised to be 50ml.l-1. Growth measurements were dry weight, total chlorophyll and carotenoids. Results showed that maximum vegetative growth was reached after approximately 10 days of incubation. The maximum growth rate during this period was 0.29 and 0.26d-1, while average growth rate was 0.14 and 0.16d-1for dry weight and total chlorophyll, respectively. Except of cultures received chelated FeSO4, all other treated cultures (control, metal FeSO4 and NaCl) resulted in complete degradation of chlorophyll and carotenoids massive accumulation. The cultures were completely greenish yellow and yellow colored. Maximum chlorophyll ratio was found in control cultures which received citrate only (50ml.l-1), however maximum carotenoids ratio was detected in the algae supplied with metal FeSO4, followed by 2% NaCl. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):209-215]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.27

Key words: Citrate wastes; Green algae; Vegetative growth; Caroteno

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Establishment of an in vitro propagation protocol for Taxodiumdistichum and Taxodium distichum var. ‘distichum’

 

1Abou Dahab, A.M., 1Habib, A.M., 2El-Bahr, M.K., and 2Gabr, A.M.M.

 1Department of Ornamental Plant, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

2Department of Plant Biotechnology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: This study was carried out in cooperation between Plant Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt, and the Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, during the period from 2004 to 2008. The aim of the study is investigating the factors affecting rooting and acclimatization, and establishing an effective protocol for propagation of Taxodium distichum and Taxodium distichum var. ‘distichum’, using tissue culture techniques. Nodal explants from young branches were sterilized by using different concentration of Clorox and mercuric chloride (MC), and then cultured on different concentrations of Benzyl adenine (BA) and different types of media. The recorded data showed that the best results in sterilization of nodal explants were recorded with using 20% Clorox for 5 min., followed by 0.2% MC for 5 min. Half strength B5 medium supplemented with 0.4 mg BA/l gave better shoot lets multiplication, as compared with half strength MS medium. The longest shoot lets were recorded with woody plant medium (WPM) at full salt strength. Half strength WPM medium + 1.0 g activated charcoal (AC)/l + 0.5 mg IBA/l was the best medium for in vitro rooting percentage and root number/shoot let. The maximum percentage of acclimatized plantlets survival (86.5%) was recorded with the mixture of sand and peat (1:1, v/v). [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):216-227]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.28

Keywords: acclimatization; propagation; Taxodium distichum; Taxodium distichum; tissue culture

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Study on Fish pathogenic fungi and its periodicity in Tunga river of Karnataka (South India)

Prasad D and Rajanaika

Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Applied Botany, School of Biological Science, Kuvempu University, Jnana Sahyadri, Shankaraghatta-577 451, Shimoga Dist, Karnataka State, India

prasad.bhujanga@gmail.com, rajump.nayak@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A riverine ecosystem consists of a wide range of diversified flora and fauna. The microflora in the riverine ecosystem is dominated by Algae, Bacteria and fungi. Fungi in the riverine ecosystem play an important role, they vitally link the food web primarily as saprophytes and secondarily as pathogens. Tunga river ecosystem consists a diversified flora of aquatic phycomycetes, in which majority of them are Chytrids and Oomycetes. These fungi are zoosporic in nature and some of them mainly predate on Ichthyofauna and other riverine fauna. Aquatic phycomycetes are the primitive fungi and they are at the bottom of evolutionary series and they have their significance as pathogens, combating them in the riverine ecosystem has become a mammoth’s task. During monsoon and winter the fisher mans face severe loss in fish productivity majority of them are due to fungal infections on fishes and on their eggs. Tunga river traverse a distance of 147 Km in Shimoga where the major fishing points are located in the right bank of some important Taluks viz., Thirthahalli, Mandagadde, Gajanur and Shimoga. In monsoon, these fishing docks face a considerable decline in Fish catch. Hence, sustainability and economical criteria of fish production in Tunga river adverse the fisher mans lively hood. In this scenario a detailed investigation was undertaken to identify the occurrence, periodicity and disease incidence of the phycomycetes fungi in the riverine ecosystem. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):228-231]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.29

Key words: Aquatic phycomycetes, Fish pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, Fish mycosis

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30

Growth and yield response of chick pea (Cicer arietinum) to seed inoculation with Rhizobium sp.

 

Giri, Nishita1 and Joshi, N.C.2*

1. Forest Ecology and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, University, Dehradun, India.

2. Deptt. of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, India.

Nishi28n@yahoo.com, ncjoshi83@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of seed inoculation by using Rhizobium sp. as a biofertilizer on nodule formation and growth of chick-pea plant and to study the efficiency of seed inoculation for nitrogen fixation. Rhizobium effect was studied using Cicer arietinum and controlled condition. Soil analysis was done for all physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. Rhizobium sp. was isolated from root nodules of cicer arietinum, sterilized, prepared serial dilutions, incubated then applied on Cicer arietinum seeds and also on controlled seeds, pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of bacterized seeds and controlled seeds. The results obtained from the study using observation and data reveals that, the bacterized seeds showed, 14.06% in total length over control, Increase of 10.83% in total weight over control and an increase of 9.0% on germination over control in pot experiment. The results indicate that Rhizobium inoculation is a promising fertilizer because it is cheap, easy to handle and improves plant growth and seed quality. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):232-236]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.30

Keywords: seed inoculation; bacterized seeds; nitrogen fixation; fertilizer

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31

Land Capability Classification and growing period for Guila Abena Watershed in Sassie Tseda Emba District in Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

 

Amir Seid Ahmed1, Fassil Kebede*, 2 and Mitiku Haile2

1- World Vision Ethiopia, Atsibi ADP, 2, Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Ethiopia

fyimamu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Land capability classification and defining the growing period are important tools to assess the natural resources for sustainable land management and land use planning. This study was conducted to identify the land capability classes and describe the growing period of Guila Abena watershed, at Sassie Tseda Emba district, in Eastern Tigray. In this study, 13 land units were identified, with an area of 269 ha. The LCC study revealed that land units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 & 10 were categorized in the range of land classes II to IV with an area of 146 ha (54.3 %). These land units are mainly used for crop and livestock production. Land units 5 with an area of 18 ha (6.7 %) was grouped under IIes class and subclass having limitation of slightly erosion and surface stoniness. Land units 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10 were found as IIIs good for cultivated crops and accounts for 28.6 % (77ha). Land units 1 and 2 were categorized as IVs, with an area of 51 ha. These land units are best suited for grazing land and the actual farmers practice go with the result. On the other hand, land units 6, 11, 12 and 13 were rated as class VIIs, with a total area of 123 ha (45.7 %). Moreover, this study divulged that the length of growing period in the area is 102 days where the growing period begins on June 18 and ends on September 28. Besides, rain ends in the study area around September 5. The humid period begins and ends on June 29 and August 26, respectively, which the humid period extends for about 58 days. Hence the study concludes that 54.3% the study area is suitable for agricultural purposes. Early maturing varieties are recommended to grow so that their crop cycle fits in the short growing period. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):237-243]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.31

Keywords: Land, capability classification, growing period

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32

De novo Shoot Organogenesis from Cultured Root Explants of Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham.ex Wall: An Endangered Medicinal Plant.

 

Manu Pant*, Prabha Bisht* and Manju P. Gusain**

* Tissue Culture Discipline, Botany Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248006, India.

** Zoo.-Biotech Deptt. HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.

himaniab@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In vitro regeneration of plants from root cultures of Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall was obtained. Root explants from axenic shoot cultures were used for shoot induction. Optimal shoot regeneration without any callus intervention was observed on 1/2 MS (Murashige and Skoog’s medium, 1962) + 4.44 M 6, benzylaminopurine (BAP) +1.07 M α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA).Regenerated shoots were further multiplied on full strength MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. Maximum shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium fortified with 4.44 M BAP + 2.85 M indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) + 271.45 M adenine sulphate (Ads). Best results of rooting were observed on 1/2 strength MS medium containing 4.90 M IBA. Plants with well-developed shoots and roots were successfully hardened with over 80% survivability. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):244-252]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.32

Keywords: Swertia chirata, root culture, de novo organogenesis, in vitro plant regeneration

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33

Chemical Constituent, Inorganic Elements and Properties of Cordyceps sinensis - a Review

 

(Cordyceps sinensis - a Review)

Arvind Kumar Bhandari*1, J.S. Negi 1, V.K. Bisht1, C.S. Rana1, M.K. Bharti1 and Narayan Singh2

1Herbal Research and Development Institute, Mandal-Gopeshwar (Chamoli), Pin-246401,

Uttarakhand (India)

2National Mission on Medicinal Plant, Mandal-Gopeshwar (Chamoli), Pin-246401, Uttarakhand (India)

Author for corresponding: Arvind Kumar Bhandari, Project Scientist, Herbal Research and Development Institute, Mandal-Gopeshwar (Chamoli), Pin-246401, Uttarakhand (India)

arvindbhandari2001@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT: This review looks in depth at the history and medicinal value of the Cordyceps species, especially C. sinensis. In Uttarakhand Himalayan region Cordyceps genus of Ascomycete fungi is represented by Cordyceps sinensis (Keera jari). The Latin etymology describes cord as club, ceps as head, and sinensis as Chinese. Cordyceps sinensis, known as caterpillar fungus in English commonly and considered as medicinal mushroom in oriental medicines, such as Traditional Chinese Medicines and Traditional Tibetan medicine. When a Cordyceps fungus attacks a host, the mycelium invades and eventually replaces the host tissue, while the elongated fruiting body (stroma) may be cylindrical, branched, or of complex shape. The stroma bears many small, flask-shaped perithecia that contain the asci. These in turn contain the thread-like ascospores, which usually break into fragments and are presumably infective. The best known of the cordyceps family of fungi is Cordyceps sinensis, known in English commonly as caterpillar fungus as it is known to grow inside caterpillars and take them over. While cordyceps sinensis may be the species of cordycepes that is most well known throughout the world, there are many other species of cordyceps in which modern science has found valuable medicinal properties in as well. A few studies have shown cordyceps feeding to increase the ratio of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the liver. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):253-256]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.33

Key words: Cordyceps sinensis, clavicipitales, herbal Viagra, caterpillar, fungus

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Immunodiagnostic Potential of Mucin (MUC2) and Thomsen-Friedenreich(TF) Antigen in Egyptian Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Ibrahim H. El-Sayed1and Mahmoud Moawad2

1Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Sadat City, Minufiya, Egypt.

2 Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Email: ibrahimelsayed@yahoo.com

Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is more common in developed countries and is the third most common cancer among both men and women. CRC provides an attractive model of tumour biology with normal mucosa to adenoma to carcinoma sequence. The TF-antigen (Thomsen-Friedenreich) can be identified by galactose oxidase-Schiff’s (GOS) reaction either on tissues or on rectal mucus samples from patients with CRC. TF antigen is expressed in the neoplastic mucosa and not expressed in colonic mucosa of normal subjects. Apomucins play important role in cell signalling and their specific pattern of expression during the different steps of tumor progression toward adenocarcinoma suggests that they play significant roles in tumorigenesis. The family of secreted mucins including MUC2 is contributing in mucus formation to protect underlying epithelia against diverse injuries. The current study was investigated the expression of MUC2 and TF antigen in patients with adenoma and CRC. MUC2 and TF antigen expressions were detected immunohistochemically in CRC biopsies using specific monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, the TF antigen was invesigated using GOS reaction. The results showed that in normal colonic specimens, MUC2 expression was detected in 20% , while TF antigen was completely negative in 100% of samples as dected by GOS and immunohistochemistry using anti-TF monoclone. Expressions of MUC2, and TF antigen as detected by GOS and anti-TF monoclone were positive in 96%, 80%, and 60% respectively in cases with adenoma. On the other hand, in cases with adenocarcinoma, the expression of MUC2 was seen in 92% of cases, while TF antigen was detected in 84% and 60% of cases as detected by GOS and immunohistochemically respectively. Thus, it is concluded that the expression of MUC2 and TF antigens are altered during CRC carcinogenesis. Furthermore, MUC2 and TF antigens may have a diagnostic and or prognostic potential in CRC. [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):257-264]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.34

Key Words: CRC, immunohistochemistry, MUC2, TF antigen, Expression

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35

Effect of Volatile and Non-volatile compounds from Trichoderma spp. against Colletotrichum capsici incitant ofAnthracnose on Bell peppers.

 

AJITH.P.S and LAKSHMIDEVI.N*

 DOS In Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka State, India, Pin-570006.

lakshmi_devi64@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Volatile and non-volatile compounds produced from Trichoderma sps., Viz., Trichoderma saturnisporum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma reesei were studied by poisoned food technique against Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in Bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence). The results showed that all the selected Trichoderma sps has potential to inhibit the mycelial growth of C.capsici. The volatile compounds produced form all the selected Trichoderma species showed 30 to 67% inhibition of C.capsici, However non-volatile compounds or culture filtrate from Trichoderma viride at 3%-4% concentration shows complete mycelial inhibition of the test fungi. Trichoderma harzianum, T.saturnisporum and T. reesei also have the ability to control growth of C.capsici by 21 to 68% at a concentration of 50% culture filtrate. From the results it is clear that all the isolates taken were effective in controlling the pathogen in-vitro. . [Nature and Science 2010;8(9):265-269]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.35

 

Key words: Volatiles, Non-Volatiles, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum cpasici, Bell peppers, Anthracnose, Fruit rot

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36

Effect of Different Plant Locations and Sowing Dates on Some Jew's mallow Ecotypes (Corchorus olitorius L.)

Sameh. A. M. Abd- Allah , Amal Z. Hegazi and Mohammed H. Tolba

Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

samehabdullah81@yahoo.com; amalhegazi2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out during the two successive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 at three locations in Egypt, i.e.; a) farm of Sabahia, Alexandria governorate, Horticultural Research Station; b) farm of Kaha, Kalyiobia governorate, Horticulture Research Station; and c) farm of Baramoun, Mansoura, Dakahlya governorate, Horticultural Research Station. Sowing was done on three different dates, i.e., a) mid of April, b) mid of May, and c) mid of June. The genetic materials used in this study included six ecotypes of jew's mallow, which were collected from different regions of Egypt in addition to Eskandarany cultivar. This work was designed to study plant response to different sowing dates in different locations to detect the proper one that achieve maximum yield of seed and fresh foliage of the seven Jew’s mallow genotypes. It was found that sowing Eskandarany cultivar in Kaha and Mansoura on mid of May gave the highest total fresh leafy yield. Meanwhile, the best seed yield of Eskandarany cultivar was obtained by sowing in Mansoura on mid of May or mid of June and in Alexandria on mid of April. Sowing balady el-esma'aellyia ecotype in Alexandria on mid of June gave the highest fresh leafy yield and seed yield. However, the highest fresh leafy yield of balady bani sweef ecotype was obtained by sowing in Mansoura district on mid of May. But the best seed yield was obtained by sowing in Alexandria on mid of May or mid of June. Sowing balady Sohag ecotype in Kalyiobia on mid of May or mid of June and in Mansoura on mid of May gave the highest total fresh leafy yield. However, the maximum seed yield was obtained by sowing in Alexandria on mid of April or mid of May and in Mansoura on any sowing date. The maximum total fresh leafy yield for siwi and balady sharkeia ecotypes was obtained by sowing in Alexandria on mid of June. The best seed yield values were obtained by sowing both ecotypes in Alexandria and Kalyiobia on any sowing date. Finally, the highest total fresh leafy yield and seed yield of minia ecotype were obtained by sowing in Mansoura on mid of May and mid of April, respectively. [Nature and Science 2010;8 (9):270-283]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj080910.36

 

Key words: Jew's mallow (Molokhia) cultivars, sowing date, different location

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