Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci) 
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 8 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 45), December 1, 2010
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0812
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Current Situation of Edible Vegetable Oils and Some Propositions to Curb the Oil Gap in Egypt

 

Monia Bahaa El-Din Hassan and Fatma Ahmeed Sahfique

 Department of Agricultural Economy, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Egypt's total production of oil crops has been declining, which resulted in lower self-sufficiency rates thus higher imports of edible vegetable oils during the study period 1990-2007. The study aims to explore the possibilities of curbing the food gap in edible oils and identify the efficiency of operation capacities in public and private oil extraction plants. Findings revealed shrinks in the areas of oil crops under study (cottonseeds, sunflower, and soybeans), which represent one of the main reasons for the lower volume of oil crops thus oil production. The study indicated that the main reasons influencing consumption of vegetable oils include vegetable oils imports volume, average per capita consumption of vegetable oils, and the value of domestic support to vegetable oils. The study concludes that public and private sectors' plants have idle capacities estimated at 50% and 19%, respectively. Finally, the study recommends expanding the areas under oil crops to boost the domestic production of vegetable oils, and to cut the volume and value of oil imports in order to reduce the deficit in Egypt's commodity balance of vegetable oils. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):1-7] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.01

 

Keywords: Oil crops – cottonseed – soybeans – sunflower – vegetable oils consumption – vegetable oils imports – vegetable oils production – vegetable oils gap

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2

A new report of the species Balanophora dioica in Koubru Hill Range of Manipur, India.

 

Lunminlal Kipgen, Khuraijam Jibankumar Singh

 

Research and Development Division, North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Sagolband Tera Sapam Leirak, Imphal – 795 001, Manipur, India

Email: neceer.imp@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Balanophora dioica is here reported as a new report of Balanophora (Balanophoraceae) from the Koubru Hill Range of Senapati District in the Indian state of Manipur. The botanical description of this species and a key to the North East Indian species of the genus are provided. Balanophora dioica is the rarest among the species of the genus in North East India and special attention should be given for its in-situ and ex-situ conservation. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):8-] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.02

 

Key words: Balanophora dioica, root parasite, endangered species, shifting cultivation, Koubru Hill Range, Manipur

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3

Consumer Perceptions, Knowledge and Preferences for Aromatic Rice Types in Ghana

Diako, C. 2, *, Sakyi-Dawson, E.1, Bediako-Amoa, B.1, Saalia, F.K.1 and Manful, J.T.2

1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, P.O. Box LG34, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

2CSIR-Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana

*Corresponding author’s email: cdiako@fri.csir.org.gh, cdiako@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Even though rice forms a major part of the Ghanaian diet, locally produced rice is not patronized as it should. A survey of 390 rice consumers was conducted in Accra, Ghana to ascertain consumer perceptions, knowledge and preferences for aromatic rice as a basis for quality improvement of local rice. Results showed that most consumers (94.9%) were more familiar with imported rice and this was reflected in their patronage patterns. The reasons why consumers did not patronize locally cultivated rice are poor post harvest handling, non-availability, and the generally perceived poor quality. The few (29%) who consume local rice do so out of the perception that it is inexpensive and has better nutritional quality. Both cooked and raw attributes of rice influence consumer preference. Whilst the appearance of raw rice (Friedman rank mean = 2.86) was critical to consumers’ choice, taste and aroma determined consumer preference for cooked rice; being ranked 4.96 and 4.46 respectively. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):12-19] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.03

 

Key words: rice; preferences; perceptions; consumer knowledge; aromatic

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4

Some growth metabolites of two cyanobacteria species as affected by mineral nutrition

 

*1El-Sayed, A.B; 1El Fouly, M.M; 2Ghazy, S.M; 2El Semary, N.A and 1Hassoub, M.A

1 Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo-Dokki, Egypt

2Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt

bokhair@msn.com

Abstract: Two blue green algae species belonging to Cyanophyta (Anabaena flos-aquae and Calothrix sp.) were exposed to different nutrient concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous and iron to claim the biologically effect of such nutrients on pigmentation, peptide nitrogen and carbohydrates. Growth media of BG-II was used for vegetative control growth, while experimental growth was performed under different concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous and iron. The applied concentrations were 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold of the original BG-II growth medium. Growth parameters were peptide nitrogen, total sugars and pigments fraction including chlorophyll-a, total carotenes and phycobiliproteins. Nutritional regime affected the evaluated parameters and seems to be algal dependent, Peptide nitrogen was linearly stimulated due to the elevated nutrient, however the increment were found towards Fe, P, N. Total sugars were more affected, however both algae mostly represented different manner especially with nitrogen and iron treatment. On the other hand, phosphorous cultures represented the same for both algae. Chlorophyll-a and phycobiliproteins were found in relative to the rise of all nutrient used, although carotenes exhibited a variable response under different nutrient used or their concentration. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):20-28] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.04

 

Key words: Anabaena, Calothrix, Mineral Nutrition, Pigments, Carbohydrates, Protein

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5

Genetic Variability Assessed by Competitive Ability and ISSR Markers in the Members of the Nasuta-albomicans Complex of Drosophila

Thongatabam Bijaya & Nallur B Ramachandra*

Unit on Evolution and Genetics, Drosophila Stock Centre, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka, India. Tel: (0821) 2419781; Fax: (0821) 2419363; E-mail: nallurbr@gmail.com

Abstract: The nasuta-albomicans complex (NAC) of Drosophila is an assemblage comprising of two morphologically indistinguishable members of the nasuta subgroup of the immigrans species group namely, Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans and 16 cytoraces, which have been evolved through a long range hybridization between D. n. nasuta and D. n. albomicans. This complex is an artificial hybrid zone of Drosophila with “allo-sympatric” populations, which exhibits differences in their cytogenetic differentiation, incipient sexual isolation, body size and fitness. The objectives of our study were to (a) assess the competitive ability of four laboratory evolved races - cytorace 1, cytorace 2, cytorace 3, cytorace 4 along with their parents, D. n .nasuta and D. n. albomicans (b) examine the DNA polymorphism among these hybrid races and their respective parents based on ISSR markers and (c) bring out the correlation, if any, between the above two. Among the six races, overall competitive ability was higher in D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans and cytorace 1 than other races. Cytorace 1, cytorace 2 and cytorace 4 are with 20-23% of DNA polymorphism while cytorace 3 is with 10.7% of DNA polymorphism with reference to four ISSR profiles. Thus, one can surmise that cytorace 1, cytorace 2 and cytorace 4 with increased genetic variability exhibited better fitness while cytorace 3 with the least DNA polymorphism showed reduced competitive ability. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):29-42] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.05

 

Key words: Nasuta-albomicans Complex; Competitive ability, ISSR, Polymorphism

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6

Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Psidium guajava Linn. Leaf

 

1*Egharevba, Henry Omoregie; 1Iliya, Ibrahim; 2Ibekwe Nneka; 3Abdullahi, Makailu Sabo; 4Okwute, Simon Koma; 1Okogun, Joseph Ibumeh

1Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine

National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research & Development (NIPRD), Idu Industrial Layout, Idu, P.M.B. 21 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, NIPRD

3National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

4Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Phone number: +234 8036453033; E-mail: omoregieegharevba@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Psidium guajava Linn. leaf was extracted successively with hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. Another crude extract of aqueous methanol was also carried out. The extracts were tested in vitro for activity against standard strains microbes and clinical isolates. The zones of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. The in vitro antimicrobial screening revealed that the extract exhibited varying activity against different microbes with zones of inhibition ranging from 14-35mm, MIC ranging from 1.25 - 10mg/ml, and MBC/MFC of 2.5-20mg/ml for the sensitive organisms at the tested concentrations. The highest activity was an MIC of 1.25 mg/ml and MBC of 2.5mg/ml. None of the extract exhibited activity against fungi isolates except the standard strains of Candida albicans. The activities observed could be due to the presence of some of the secondary metabolites like, Tannins, saponins, terpenes and flavonoids which were detected and have previously been reported in the plant. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):43-50] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.06

 

Key words: Psidium guajava, extracts, phytoconstituents, antimicrobial, MIC, MBC, MFC

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7

Market Balance of the most Important Egyptian Agricultural Commodities under the Economic Reform Policy

 

Nayera Y. S., Soheir M. M. and Hamdia M. M.

National Research Center - Dept. of Agricultural Economics - Cairo- Egypt

 

Abstract: The implementation of economic reform policy has negative effects on market balance. Balance has been achieved in various commodities during the period of study by 4.2%. The comparison of the supplied quantity to the actual consumed quantity shows hat balance does not actually exist. The study has shown the surplus of certain supplied commodities such as rice, sugar cane, sugar, beef, white poultry meat and fish. It has shown as well deficit of certain supplied commodities such as wheat, maize, lentil, sugar beet, cotton oil and sunflower oil. The comparison of the balance quantity to the consumed one, whenever the balance rate is equal to the actual rate, shows the imbalance except to the case of sunflower. Therefore, the most important recommendations of the study are represented in the necessity of government interference to amend the implemented agricultural policies in order to achieve market balance of agricultural commodities being studied through providing different-form subsidy for farmers. This will help increase production size particularly for the deficit-supplied quantity commodities. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):51-60] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.07

 

Key words: Market balance- agricultural commodities- Egyptian economic reform

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8

Scaly Scalp in Different Dermatological Diseases: A Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopical study.

 

Amr A. Rateb1, Wafaa E. Abdel-Aal2, Nermeen M. Shaffie2, Rehab M. Sobhi1 and Faisal N. Mohammed3

1- Dermatology Department, Kasr El-Einy, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

2- Pathology Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3- Dermatology Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo, 12622, Egypt. nermshaf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination of the scales in different scaly scalp disorders reveal the importance of alteration in the stratum corneum in the diagnosis of these disorders. Each disease has its own characteristic scale features that are distinguished from other scaly disorders. Specimens from 20 patients with different scaly scalp conditions were randomly taken and examined by both SEM and TEM. Each scaly scalp disorder expressed its characteristic SEM and TEM findings. These findings may pave the way for further understanding of the differences between scaly scalp disorders that may look alike or slightly different in their clinical presentation. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):61-69] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.08

 

Keywords: scanning EM – transmission EM – epidermis – corneum – psoriasis – seborrheic dermatitis – tinea capitis – dandruff – pityriasis rubra pylaris

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8

9

Performance of Yam as an Alternative to Frozen Potato French Fries

*Quansah Joycelyn K.1, jkquansah@gmail.com, (+233)243802861

Firibu K. Saalia1, fsaalia@ug.edu.gh, (+233)243125566

Lawrence Abbey2, abbeyld@yahoo.com, (+233)244768944

George A. Annor1, gannor@ug.edu.gh, (+233)243509215

1. Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon- Accra, Ghana.

2. Food Research Institute, Accra, Ghana.

 

Abstract: Yam is produced in large quantities in Ghana. Although a highly perishable commodity, it has not been processed to any significant extent commercially like potato. Yam tubers were processed into frozen yam chips that can be used like frozen potato chips in baked or fried products. The effects of yam variety (Dioscorea rotundata poir (puna) and Dioscorea rotundata (white yam)), Blanching time (0, 2.5 and 5 minutes) and Blanching temperature (70C, 80C, 90C) on the sensory and physicochemical properties of frozen yam chips were studied using a 2X3X3 full factorial design. Yam variety, blanching time and temperature affected moisture content, oil absorption, hardness, chewiness and gumminess of the fried yam chips. Blanching at 90C for 2.5 minutes gave products which were more preferred by sensory panelists than commercial potato chips. The commercial success of this product will reduce the huge postharvest losses of yams and provide income to the farmers. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):70-78] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.09

 

Key words: Yam; French fries; blanching; texture; fat content; peroxidase activity

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10

Assessing possible Different routes of HCV transmission

 

Mosa TE1, *, Abd Elmaksoud MD1 Hawas M2; Abo-Zeid MM2.

1. Biochemistry Department .National Research Centre, Egypt

2. Gasteroentrology Center, Faculty of medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

Tamermosa2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide public health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3% (nearly 170 million people) of the world’s population are chronically infected with HCV and that it accounts for around 20% of cases of acute hepatitis and 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis. This work aimed to detect possible other routes of HCV transmission. This is because body fluids other than blood might be potential sources of HCV infection. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 25 meningitis patients infected with HCV, serum and cord samples from 25 pregnant women infected with HCV in addition, serum and urine samples of 25 patients infected with HCV were included in this study. Also serum, CSF, cord and urine samples were collected from 30 healthy volunteers as negative controls. HCV antigen was detected in these body fluids using ELISA and western blotting techniques. Western blot analysis showing a single immunoreactive band in cord, CSF, urine and serum of HCV infected patients at 27-kDa. ELISA showed high degrees of sensitivity (92%) and specificity (93.3%). The antigen detection method showed high predictive values of positive (97.2%) and negative (82.4%). [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):79-84] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.10

 

Key words: HCV; transmission; body fluids

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11

IR Spectroscopic Analysis of Polymorphism in Diphenyl Carbazide

 

F. El-Kabbany, S. Taha* and M. Hafez

*Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Fayoum University. Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Cairo University. *E-mail: profdrsthassan@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: IR analysis is used here to investigate the changes in N-N, N-H, C=O …modes of thermally treated diphenyl carbazide (DPC) during the variation of temperature from room temperature up to ≈ 160oC.

Polymorphism in DPC compound has been studied here by detecting the changes in some IR spectroscopic parameters (e.g., mode shift, band contour…) during the elevation of temperature. Also, DSC, X-ray, NMR and atomic mass spectra are used as confirming tools for what is obtained by IR. All of the vibrations of DPC were found to be due to ionic fundamentals 3311 cm-1, 3097 cm-1, 3052 cm-1, 1677 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1492 cm-1, 1306 cm-1, 1252 cm-1, 887 cm-1 and 755 cm-1. The results revealed for the first time that the thermally treated DPC traverse four different phase transformations at 50oC, 90oC, 125oC and 140oC. The crystal structure was found to be amorphous, monoclinic, tetragonal, orthorhombic and amorphous within a temperature range (30oC-160 oC). X-ray diffraction patterns support the results obtained by IR and DSC. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):85-95] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.11

 

Keywords: Diphenyl carbazide; FT-IR, Phase transformation

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12

A Study on Fish Marketing System in Swarighat, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 

Md. Jobaer Alam, Rumana Yasmin, Arifa Rahman, Nazmun Nahar, Nadia Islam Pinky, Monzurul Hasan

 

Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

Email: malam3@my.keller.edu,

 

Abstract: The study was conducted at fish marketing system in Swarighat, Dhaka, attempts to study of existing marketing system, economic features of marketing activities and inefficiencies. This paper attempts to identify infrastructure facilities, present market structure, nature of costs, profit margins and the factor influence the marketing system. In Swarighat, almost all fish traded internally move through the privet sector where a large number of people are dealing with fish distribution and marketing system. The market chain from producers to retailers goes onward through a number of intermediaries: traders, broker, aratdar, wholesalers, mahajans, and dadondars. On the basis of a sample of 20 traders from the market, the usual amount of the daily turnover of fish in this market is between Tk 2.5 and 3 million and the volume varies relying on the variation in catches during peak or off-season. Virtually most of the fish (Near about 60%) is locally supplied, near about 40% brings in from all over the country including Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Chittagong, Mohangang, Chandpur, Barisal, Kuliarchar, Jessor and Satkhira, Khulna, Bicrompur, Mymensingh. The marine fish supply and freshwater fish supply amount is near about 20% and 80% respectively. It is estimated that near about 15% of fish supplied in markets is Indian major carps, 10% exotic carps, 5% other carps, 25% hilsa, 10% catfish, 5% snake-heads, 3%live-fish, 5% small indigenous fish, 7% prawn and shrimp, 5% tilapia and 10% others including small chingri and marine fishes. Market structure, species quality, size and weight have an influence on the price of fish and it was obtained from the survey that the price of fish increases per kilogram with size and species wise. A great amount of profit is made by all traders in the market in a successful manner. [Nature and Science 2010;8(12):96-103] (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.12

 

Keywords: Fish marketing, marketing channel, profit margin, Swarighat, Bangladesh

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13

Climate Warming Studies in Alpine Habitats of Indian Himalaya, using Lichen based Passive Temperature-enhancing System

 

Himanshu Rai 1, 3 *, Pramod Nag 2, D.K. Upreti 1, Rajan K Gupta3

1. Lichenology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh-226001, India

2. Department of Botany, Mahendra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepalgunj, Banke-21900, Nepal

3. Department of Botany, Pt.L.M.S Govt. P.G College, Rishikesh, Dehradun, Uttarakhand-249201, India

*himanshurai08@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Increase in the average annual temperature of the planet is posing an intimate threat to global biodiversity. Though high altitude alpine habitats, due to their physic-chemical constrains are some of the extremely fragile habitats, they harbor unique diversity of life forms. Indian Himalayan habitats are abode of a diverse lichen community, and have evolved into various growth forms. Lichens inhabit nearly all the terrestrial and boreal domains of the region. Lichens are more sensitive to changes in environmental conditions than all other plant forms. Passive temperature enhancing systems (PTES) such as open top chambers (OTC) are most appropriate devices to experimentally simulating the global temperature alleviation as they use trapped solar energy to enhance the ambient temperature of experimental area. PTES experimental setups utilizing lichens can be a very efficient method for studying effect of temperature alleviation on plants.

[Himanshu Rai, Pramod Nag, D.K. Upreti, Rajan K Gupta. Climate Warming Studies in Alpine Habitats of Indian Himalaya, using Lichen based Passive Temperature-enhancing System. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):104-106]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.13

 

Keywords: biodiversity; alpine; physic-chemical constrain; Himalayan; Passive temperature enhancing systems (PTES); open top chambers (OTC)

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Inhibitory interactions of glutathione derivatives, coumarins and quercetins with dominant onion bulb glutathione S-transferases: a structural analysis

 

M. M. Rohman1, M. D. Hossain2 and Masayuki Fujita3

1Molecular Breeding Laboratory, Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Farm Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh

3Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan

motiar_1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The dominant onion bulb glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) (named as GSTc, GSTd and GSTe) were separated by DEAE cellulose column chromatography, and the inhibitory interactions of glutathione (GSH) derivatives (S-methyl GSH, S-propyl GSH, S-butyl GSH, and S-hexyl GSH), four coumarins (coumarin, 7-hydroxy coumarin, esculetin and scopoletin) were tested with theses GSTs. The activities of GSTs were found to be inhibited differently by different compounds. The longer alkyl chained GSH derivatives viz. S-hexyl GSH (IC50 25 μM) followed by S-butyl GSH (IC50 28 μM) showed stronger inhibitory effect on the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) conjugated activity of GSTe than shorter ones (S-propyl and S-methyl GSH). Among the coumarins tested, only esculetin had very strong inhibitory effects on GSTc and GSTd with IC50 values of 25 and 28 μM, respectively, but the activity of GSTe was poorly inhibited by this compound. Among the quercetins, quercetin-4′-clucoside showed strongest inhibitory effect on the activities of GSTc and GSTd with IC50s of 8.6 and 7.1 m, respectively. The IC50s of quercetin, quercetin-3βD-glucoside and quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside were 21.1, 76.3, 76 m on GSTc, respectively and 20.4, 69.3, 67.7 m on GSTd, respectively. The structure-activity relationships suggested that hydroxyl groups at C6 and C7 positions of the coumarin skeleton played an important role in the expression of GST inhibitory activity. On the other hand, addition of glucoside at C4′ position of quercetin increased inhibitory activities on GSTc and GSTd.

[Rohman MM, Hossain MD, Fujita M. Inhibitory interactions of glutathione derivatives, coumarins and quercetins with dominant onion bulb glutathione S-transferases: a structural analysis. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):107-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.14

 

Keywords: Glutathione derivatives; coumarins, quercetins; onion GSTs; interaction; structural relation

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Monitoring Land-Cover in the New Reclaimed Area: A Case Study in EL-Nubaria, Egypt

 

*Abou-Hadid A. F., M.A. A. Abdrabbo, A.A. Khalil and M. K. Hassanein

The Central laboratory for Agricultural Climate, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza- Egypt

*abouhadid@arc.sci.eg

 

Abstract: Agricultural production in Egypt is limited by urban encroachment and soil salinity. On the other hand, continuous reclamation efforts in the desert and coastal regions succeeded in establishing new agricultural communities and increased the area of cultivated land and the amount of final product in the last decade. In the present study a suitable methodology is developed for monitoring land cover in the new reclaimed area EL-Nubaria region by integrating remote sensing and GIS based on land survey approach. Area frame surveys are common approaches together land cover data. In contrast to mapping approaches, area frame sampling is a statistical method. Based on the visual observation of sample geo-referenced points, area estimates are computed and used as a valid generalization without studying the entire area under investigation. The approach has also the important advantage of not involving/disturbing the land owners and the farmers. Digital topographic maps 1:50000, SPOT5, 2,5m resolution satellite images and Ortho-rectified Digital Topographic Maps (DTM) were used. The total area for EL-Nubaria is 5670 km; most of land cover areas are permanent crops 1899 km, cropland 985 km and desert 845 km. Most of crop area decreased between 1999 and 2009 except the sugar beet and potatoes increased by 6191 and 16245 feddan. The present study proved that integration between remote sensing and GIS is a powerful tool for sustainable land use planning.

[Abou-Hadid A. F., M.A. A. Abdrabbo, A.A. Khalil and M. K. Hassanein. Monitoring Land-Cover in the New Reclaimed Area: A Case Study in EL-Nubaria, Egypt. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):115-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.15

 

Keywords: Remote sensing, GIS, EL-Nubaria, Land cover

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Microsatellite allele size profiling to determine varietal identity and genetic diversity among groundnut varieties in Bangladesh

 

MR Molla1*, MN Islam2, MM Rohman3 and L Rahman4

1Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Department of Biotechnology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka

3Molecular Breeding Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

4Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymenisingh

rezwanbt@gmail.com, motiar_1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop for oil and protein source in Bangladesh. A number of varieties have so far been released or registered for cultivation in the country. These have been distinguished only through morphological traits. Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be an excellent tool for the identification of the plant varieties and determining genetic relationship between the varieties of a crop species. A set of three SSR markers namely, PM36, PM50 and PM238 were used to identify ten cultivated groundnut varieties (Dhaka-1, Bashanti, Tridana, Zhinga badam, BARI badam 5,6,7; BINA Cheenabadam 1,2,3) available in Bangladesh. All the cultivars were successfully discriminated by these three SSR primers. The primer PM50 alone was able to distinguish four varieties (Dhaka-1, Bashanti, Tridana and Zhinga Badam). Six variety- specific alleles were identified, these are, PM36/227, PM50/110, PM50/116, PM50/118, PM50/137, PM238/200. The three primers produced a total of 13 alleles with size ranging from 109bp to 241bp. The PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) value for the primer PM36, PM50 and PM238 was found 0.81, 0.76 and 0.82 respectively. This approach will be useful for developing a set of limited number of SSR loci for the identification of commercially important groundnut varieties for purpose of obtaining plant variety protection (PVP) in Bangladesh.

[Molla MR, Islam MN, Rohman MM, Rahman L. Microsatellite Allele Size Profiling to Determine Varietal Identity and Genetic Diversity among Groundnut Varieties in Bangladesh. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):123-129]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.16

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Correlation between Academic Cheating Behavior and Achievement Motivation

 

ADEBAYO Sulaiman Olanrewaju

Department of Psychology, University of Ado- Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti-State, 234, NIGERIA

lanryadd@yahoo.com, sadebayo@unad.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Attempt was made to investigate the relationship between achievement motivation (n-Ach) and academic cheating behavior. 150 undergraduates drawn from the 200 and 300 levels of the social and management sciences faculty of a Nigeria university were asked to respond to Cheating Behavior Questionnaire (Newstead et al, 1996) and the adapted version of Herman’s Questionnaire Measure of Achievement Motivation (Eyo, 1986). Using Pearson’s correlation method, findings revealed that academic cheating behavior index significantly had negative relationships with global score of n- Arch and six of its nine components, namely, achievement behavior, aspiration level, persistence task tension, time perspective and recognition behavior. Findings were discussed in light of the literature on relationship between n- Arch and cheating behavior. Implications of findings were discussed.

[ADEBAYO Sulaiman Olanrewaju. Correlation between Academic Cheating Behavior and Achievement Motivation. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):130-134]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.17

 

Keywords: achievement motivation, academic cheating, correlation, Nigeria

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Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems for Dynamic Qualitative Modeling of Process

 

Tharwat O. S. Hanafy

Al_Azhar University, Faculty of Engineering, Systems and Computers Department

s_ewiss@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Qualitative modeling is one promising approach to the solution of difficult tasks automation if qualitative process models are not available. This contribution presents a new concept of qualitative dynamic process modeling using so called Dynamic Adaptive Neuro fuzzy Systems. In contrast to common approaches of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy modeling [1], the dynamic system is completely described in the neuro fuzzy domain: the neuro fuzzy information about the previous state is directly applied to compute the system’s current state, i.e. the delayed neuro fuzzy output is feedback to the input without defuzzification. Knowledge processing in such dynamic neuro fuzzy systems requires a new inference method, the inference with interpolating rules. This yields the framework of a new systems theory the essentials of which are given in further section of the paper. First, an identification method is presented, using a combination of linguistic knowledge. Next, a stability definition for dynamic neuro fuzzy systems as well as methods for stability analysis is given. Finally, a neuro fuzzy model-based neuro fuzzy controller design method is developed. The identification of real problems and neuro fuzzy controller design for inverted pendulum system demonstrate the significance of the new systems theory.

[Tharwat O. S. Hanafy. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems for Dynamic Qualitative Modeling of Process. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):135-143]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.18

 

Keywords: Neuro; Fuzzy; Inference; Dynamic Qualitative; Modeling; Process

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Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Rhizosphere Soil of Cyperus conglomeratus, an Egyptian Wild Desert Plant

 

Ali Diab* and Maram Sandouka

Faculty of Biotechnology, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), Egypt.

*alidiab.maramsan@live.com

 

Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology for the clean-up of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soil, especially in the developing countries. In the present study, the rhizosphere soil of Cyperus conglomeratus (a wild Egyptian desert plan) was collected and studied for the removal of PAH compounds from the polluted desert soil. The rhizosphere soil of this plant was rich in total bacteria and oil-degraders. The rhizosphere soil was able after 180 days to reduce total PAHs from 2329.0 to 576.3 mgkg-1 soil (i.e. 75.2% loss), this is in contrast to 45.2% reduction value for the non-rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere soil significantly enhanced the biodegradation of the 16 PAH individuals (48.4-98.5%) as compared to the non-rhizosphere soil (23.1-94.4). The 2-ringed and the 3-ringed PAHs were highly degraded in the rhizosphere soil (98% and 93.1% respectively) as compared to the other PAH groups. Eight carcinogenic PAHs were resolved among the 16 PAH individuals. The sum of the 8 PAHs decreased in the rhizosphere soil from 1204.5 to 390.9 mgk-1 soil, i.e. a reduction of 67.7%, while in the non-rhizosphere soil the reduction value was 41.0%. Collectively, the 5-ringed carcinogenic PAHs were more degraded in the rhizosphere soil (87.8%) than the 4-ringed carcinogenic PAHs (59.2%). Both groups were weakly degraded in the non-rhizosphere soil (34.7% and 30.6% respectively). A particular notable distinction of the rhizosphere soil of Cyperus conglomeratus plant is the greater efficiency to degrade the carcinogenic PAHs especially benzo(a)pyrene, (90.3%), chrysene (86.9%), benzo(a)flouranthene (84.1%) and indeno (1,2,3-c,d) pyrene (82.2%). The present study clearly demonstrates at the first time in Egypt, a successful bioremediation strategy of PAH-contaminated soil by using the rhizosphere effect of the native desert plant Cyperus conglomeratus.

[Ali Diab and Maram Sandouka. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Rhizosphere Soil of Cyperus conglomeratus, an Egyptian Wild Desert Plant. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):144-153]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.19

 

Key Words: Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, Bioremediation, Biodegreadation, Rhizosphere soil, Phytoremediation

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Can Irritable Bowel Syndrome Hide An Organic Disease?

 

Abd el Fatah, A, Abd El Fatah, Engy Yousry ElSayed, Amal shawky Mohamed, Enas M Foda, khald AH Mohamed and Gamal M Naga*

Internal Medicine and Pathology* Departments

Faculty Of Medicine, Ain Shams University, cairo, Egypt. Ashorengy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Consensus diagnostic Rome criteria based on symptoms have been established to aid irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosis. Many items in the Rome criteria are also seen in celiac patients. Furthermore, tests for celiac disease are not routinely performed on patients believed to have IBS, thus patients with celiac disease may easily be misdiagnosed as IBS. Objective of this work: was to assess the association of celiac disease with IBS. Subjects and methods: The current study included 60 IBS patients and 40 healthy subjects. All subjects were investigated for celiac disease by analysis of serum anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG). Patients with positive antibody results were offered duodenal biopsy to confirm the possibility of celiac disease. Results: The proportion of celiac disease in IBS cases was (5/60→8.3%) while was (0/40→0%) in controls. Six patients with IBS (10%) had positive antibody results of whom five cases were confirmed to have celiac disease by biopsy and the last one refused endoscopy. While, none of the controls diagnosed as celiac disease. Conclusion: Celiac disease seems to be un-recognized and under-investigated in IBS patients, so it is recommended to add Anti- tTG antibody as a screening test for celiac disease to the diagnostic Rome criteria for IBS to offer better prognosis to those patients simply by gluten free diet.

[Abd el Fatah, A, Abd El Fatah, Engy Yousry ElSayed, Amal shawky Mohamed, Enas M Foda, khald AH Mohamed and Gamal M Naga. Can Irritable Bowel Syndrome Hide An Organic Disease? Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):154-157]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.20

 

Key Words: Celiac disease • gluten-free diet • irritable bowel syndrome

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Osteodystrophy in Hepatitis C virus Related Cirrhosis

 

Khaled Z. El Karmouty, Marcel W. Keddeas, Engy Y. ElSayed

Internal Medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

ashorengy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepatic osteodystrophy is still an underestimated complication of viral liver cirrhosis in spite of the high prevalence of chronic hepatitis C in Egypt. Aim: To evaluate bone mineral density & to study possible disturbance of vitamin D-Parathyroid hormone- Calcium Axis in a group of HCV cirrhotic patients. Patients and methods: Bone Mineral density at dorsal & lumbar spine was evaluated using DEXA machine, liver function tests, serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone and 25 (OH) vitamin D were measured in fifty HCV cirrhotic patients and twenty age and sex matched adults as a control group. Results: 90% of patients had decreased bone density (40% in form of osteoprosis & 50% in form of osteopenia). Bone mineral density(BMD) was lower with advancement of cirrhosis (Child- pugh class B and C). BMD was negatively correlated with serum bilirubin and INR and positively correlated with serum albumin and platelet number, however no correlation to Ca, Po4, PTH or 25(OH) vit. D level was found. Conclusion: Osteoprosis had raised prevalence in patients with HCV related cirrhosis and was correlated to disease severity but disturbance in Calcium- PTH- VitD axis did not seem to play a major role in pathogenesis.

[Khaled Z. El Karmouty, Marcel W. Keddeas , Engy Y. ElSayed. Osteodystrophy in Hepatitis C virus Related Cirrhosis. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):158-163]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.21

 

Key words: cirrhosis, HCV, osteodystrophy, VitD. PTH

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The Protective Role of Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin C on The Mutagenicity of The Anticancer Drug Ifosfamide

 

Souria M. Donya, Fawzia A. Aly, Mona A. M. Abo-Zeid

Genetics and Cytology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Center, El-Behooth St. 31, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt.

monaabozeid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ifosfamide (Holoxan, IFO) is an oxazaphosphorine alkylating agent with a broad spectrum of antineoplastic activity. IFO can damage DNA during any phase of the cell cycle and therefore, is not phase-specific. Thus the objective of this investigation is to measure the potential cytotoxicity of IFO alone and in combination with vitamins (FA, VB12 and VC) The genotoxic potential of IFO was evaluated in vivo using different mutagenic end points. Male Swiss mice were injected with different doses of IFO intraperitoneally to investigate the genotoxicity in somatic and germ cells. The doses were 8, 16 and 24mg IFO/kg body wt. as single doses, and 8mg IFO/kg body wt. as a repeated dose for three consecutive days. Samples were collected after 24h, 7 and 14 days after treatments. IFO induced chromosomal aberrations (in somatic and germ cells), SCEs and sperm shape abnormalities, which were highly significant in a dose dependent manner 24h after treatments. Chromosomal aberrations were declined with increasing the time of recovery. However, the tetraploid cells in mouse bone marrow were increased. IFO increased the percentage of DNA fragmentation in mouse spleen cells as measured by diphenylamine (DPA) assay, and confirmed by agarose gel-electrophoresis. Oral administration of folic acid (10 mg/kg body wt.), vitamin B12 (0.3 mg/kg) and vitamin C (50 mg/kg body wt.) declined the chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells 24h after concurrent treatment with IFO. The used doses of vitamins reduced the percentage of DNA fragmentation induced by 24mg IFO/kg body wt. with DPA assay. In conclusion, the study indicates that the anticancer drug IFO is a mutagenic agent in mouse somatic and germ cells. Vitamins (FA, VB12 and VC) play a beneficial role against the mutagenicity of this drug.

[Souria M. Donya, Fawzia A. Aly, Mona A. M. Abo-Zeid. The Protective Role of Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin C on The Mutagenicity of The Anticancer Drug Ifosfamide. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):164-174]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.22

 

Key words: IFO, FA, VB12, VC, cytogenetic parameters, DNA damage

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Diminution Of Aflatoxicosis In Tilipia Zilli Fish By Dietary Supplementation With Fix In Toxin And Nigella Sativa Oil

 

Mona S. Zaki(1) ; Olfat M. Fawzi(2); Suzan Omar(2); medhat khafagy(3); mostafa fawzy(1) and Isis M. Awad(2)

1Department of Aquaculture, Vet. Division National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

3National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of fungal origin, they are produced by certain strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, these fungi grow on certain foods and feeds, resulting in the production of aflatoxins, which can enter into the human food chain directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains), indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk, eggs); however their continuous intake even in microdoses can result in their accumulation. Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic and immunotoxic and cause growth retardation in animals and exposed human populations.Fix in Toxin is a kind of pentonite (clay) consists of (sodium calcium aluminosilicate), a non toxic agent and absorbent for a wide variety of toxic agents. It acts as an enterosorbant that rapidly binds aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in decreased aflatoxin uptake and bioavailability. Nigella sativa is a spicy potent belonging to ranunculacea seeds oil showed antibacterial, fungicidal effects.This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of Fix in Toxin 0.2 % and Nigella sativa oil 1% to diminish the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis in Tilapia Zilli fish, and based on this evidence, it's hypothesized that clay based entersorption of Aflatoxin may be a useful strategy for prevention of Aflatoxicosis in human population.60 Tilapia Zilli fish were divided into three groups, 20 fish for each group: Group 1 served as control and will be fed on commercial fish diet. Group 2 were be supplied by Aflatoxin contaminated ration with corn 80 ug toxin /kg ration. Group 3 were be supplied by aflatoxin contaminated ration with corn 80 ug toxin/kg ration and treated with 0.2 % Fix in Toxin and 1% Nigella sativa oil injected daily I/P. Analysis of hematological parameters, clinical chemistry revealed significant differences between the control groups and the aflatoxicotic groups. administration of Fix in Toxin 0.2% and Nigella sativa oil injection 1% of body weight reduced the aflatoxicosis in liver and kidney by improving all liver and kidney enzymes.The dietary HSCAS clay remedy is novel, inexpensive and easily disseminated and proves its efficacy in diminishing the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis in fish, where it acts as an alfatoxin enterosorbant that tightly and selectively binds the poison in the gastrointestinal tract of the fish, decreasing their bioavailability and associated toxicities. In addition the Nigella sativa oil has a synergistic effect with Fix in Toxin in diminishing aflatoxicosis in fish. These findings support their use for dietary intervention studies in human populations at high risks for aflatoxicosis, specially in Egypt, where studies have shown that concurrent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) during aflatoxin exposure increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

[Mona S. Zaki; Olfat M. Fawzi; Suzan Omar; medhat khafagy; mostafa fawzy and Isis M. Awad. Diminution Of Aflatoxicosis In Tilipia Zilli Fish By Dietary Supplementation With Fix In Toxin And Nigella Sativa Oil. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):175-180]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.23

 

Key words: Aflatoxicosis, Tilapia Zilli fish, Fix in Toxin effect, Nigella sativa oil effect, Hematological parameters, Clinical chemistry dynamic simulation; model; composting; domestic solid waste

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Effect of salt stress on some defense mechanisms of transgenic and wild potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in vitro

 

Amal A. Mohamed*1, Mohamed A. Matter2 and Mahmoud M. Saker2

1Plant Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Plant Biotechnology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*Corresponding author: amin_amal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Genetically modified plants (GMPs) proved to be a promising solution for many of biotic and abiotic stresses which affect food production. Great attention was given to the evaluation of growth, nutritional quality and safety of GMPs before release and commercialization. In this study, we targeted physiological and biochemical evaluation of transgenic potato plantlets under salt stress conditions. In vitro evaluation of salinity effects on transformed and non-transformed clones was investigated with four NaCI (0, 30, 60 and 90 mM). On exposure to NaCl for one month, the shoots height, fresh and dry weight of transformed clone showed significant decrease than those of non-transformed clone. Different biochemical parameters such as proline accumulation, lipid peroxidation, pigments content, ascorbate, and glutathione contents were tested in order to put forward the relative tolerance of both clones to salinity. Constitutive levels of these parameters were almost not similar between both clones. Additionally, electrophoretic analysis of total soluble protein (SDS-PAGE) and some isoenzymes such as acid phosphatase and esterase have revealed that plant subjected to NaCl showed induction in the synthesis of new polypeptides and isoformes. Our finding suggest that, the response of potato plantlets to salt stress may be accomplished by increasing the capacity of antioxidative system and the synthesis of new protein and isoenzymes which could be in turn contribute to select a salt resistant in potato.

[Amal A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Matter and Mahmoud M. Saker. Effect of salt stress on some defense mechanisms of transgenic and wild potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in vitro. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):181-193]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.24

 

Keywords: Ascorbate, glutathione, isoenzymes, proline, NaCl stress, tissue culture, transgenic potato

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The Role Of Natural Mineral Dead Sea Waters Therapy In Various Rheumatic Diseases

 

Sanaa Arab1, Asia Alshikh2

1.Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdulaziz University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jeddah.2.Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, Jizan University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational.Jizan.

Ziadahmed1020@hotmail.com

Abstract: The modern era treating skin diseases psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis using the properties of natural mineral and thermal waters at the Dead Sea and effective results have also been observed with other skin problems. The determination of mineral elements concentration in the dead sea water were analyzed using Electrochemical methods, differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) performed on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). Also, chemical parameters were studied using Spectrophotometer.

[Sanaa Arab, Asia Alshikh. The Role Of Natural Mineral Dead Sea Waters Therapy In Various Rheumatic Diseases. Nature and Science 2010; 8(12):194-197]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.25

 

Keywords: dead sea waters; electrochemical; spectrophotometer; mineral elements

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Feeding Potential of Seven Spotted Ladybeetle, Coccinella septumpunctata (Linnaeus) on Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover)

 

*Pushpendra K. Sharma and Prakash C. Joshi

*Department of Zoology, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001 (U.K.), India

Department of Zoology and Environment Science, Gurukul Kangri University, Hardwar 249404, U.K., India

*Corresponding author. Email <pushp_phd@yahoo.com> Phone- +919410164962, 91-135-2743555

 

Abstract: Feeding potential of seven spotted ladybeetle, Coccinella septumpunctata (Linn) was studied under laboratory conditions on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover). C. septumpunctata showed high feeding performance on mustard aphids L. erysimi than A. gossypii. The fourth instar larvae of C. septumpunctata consumed the highest number of aphids of L. erysimi and the hourly consumption was 6.500.80, 6.100.73 and 6.400.96 for first, second and third hours, respectively in unstarved condition, while in starved condition the hourly consumption was 11.200.91, 8.300.94 and 8.001.05 for first, second and third hours, respectively. The hourly consumption of fourth instar larvae C. septumpunctata on aphid, A. gossypii was 2.600.69, 2.200.78 and 2.000.66 for first, second and third hours, respectively in unstarved condition, while in starved condition, the hourly consumption was 3.300.67, 2.700.67 and 2.300.67 for first, second and third hours, respectively.

[Pushpendra K. Sharma and Prakash C. Joshi. Feeding Potential of Seven Spotted Ladybeetle, Coccinella septumpunctata (Linnaeus) on Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover). Nature and Science 2010;8(12):198-202]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.26

 

Keywords: Ladybeetle, aphid, feeding potential, biological control

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An Economic Study on the Red Meat in Arab Republic of Egypt

 

Yehia Mohamed Metaly, Karima Awad Mohamed and Haitham B. A. Hassan

Department of Agricultural Economics - National Research Centre

 

Abstract: The red meat Represents a cornerstone in the style of food protein for human in Egypt, as the average capita consumption or the rate of calories given to the person in a year is one of the criteria’s development and a measure of difference between progress and backwardness. The lack of availability of these criterions to the extent equivalent of the calories to the standard requests, it is a burden and population pressure. The problem of the study in Egypt difficult for the individual on the animal protein needed for good health because of the high prices of meat in general and in particular, the high prices of red meat and its substitutes and low awareness of food, with a lack of niche markets for red meat animals. The study aims to achieve a sustainable development of fleshy red production on standard methods with the study of the reasons for the low production of red meat, and stand on the most important economic and social factors affecting the natural production of red meat, and also factors influencing the consumption and marketing of red meat. The study relied on published and unpublished data. The achievement of the objectives of the study was based on methods of descriptive analysis and quantitative analysis of the data (using statistical methods and economic analysis), the simple regression and stepwise regression, where the main analysis was used. The study in the first part of the annual increase in the production of red meat during the study period (1995-2009) was estimated at 19.62 thousand tons, while the annual growth rate in the Egyptian consumption of red meat at about 39.04 thousand tons, thus achieving an annual rate of the increase of the gap meat to 19.4 thousand tons and the rate of the increase in the import of red meat at 12.5 thousand tons. While, the second part shows that, most influential factor on the production of red meat of Egypt, is the amount of alfalfa sustained ton (x2), the amount of straw (x3) and the amount of dry feed (x4), as an increase in each factor separately by the Unit. This leads to change the production of red meat increased by 0.0076, 0.064, 0.0063 tons). Nevertheless, the third part was among the most important influential factor on the consumption of red meat is the average per capita income (x2), and the price of poultry (x4), and the price of fish (x5), as an increase in each factor separately by 1%, this can lead to change consumption of red meat by the Republic of 0.444%, 0.914%, 0.453%, while the price of red meat, 1% would lead to lack of quantity consumed by 0.357%, and this function is statistically significant at the level (0.01) and consistent with economic logic. However, the fourth part has made it clear that the rate of the annual increase for the price of the product and a wholesaler and retailer was about 4.49, 1.59, 1.7 pounds / kg during the study period. While, addressing the fifth port of the study the distribution of pounds spent during the period (1995-2009), where indicated a low efficiency marketing decline in the share pounds of consumer product where low to less than half years 1998.1999, 2008, while the rest of the half-year exceeds the time series for the period (1995-2009), but it is not beyond the 61.99% in 2003.

[Yehia Mohamed Metaly, Karima Awad Mohamed and Haitham B. A. Hassan. An Economic Study on the Red Meat in Arab Republic of Egypt. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):203-209]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.27 

 

Keywords: Economic; Red Meat; Egypt; food; protein

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Bio-removal of nitrogen from wastewaters—A review

 

Gaber Z Breisha*

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia, Egypt

gaberbresha@yahoo.com; Telefon: 002 03 5776848 : Fax: 002 086 2362182

Josef Winter Institut fr Ingenieurbiologie und Biotechnologie des Abwasser, Universitt Karlsruhe, Germany

Josef.Winter@iba.uka.de

Telefon: +49 (0) 721 608 2297; Telefax: +49 (0) 721 608 7704

Abstract: If the present large volumes of nitrogen-containing wastewater of domestic and industrial origin are discharged into the environment without proper treatment, they lead to extensive soil and water pollution. Proper elimination of pollutants from these effluents is essential in industrialized countries and is becoming increasingly important from an environmental and human health point of view in developing and emerging countries. Beside the conventional nitrogen removal process (lithoautotrophic nitrification and denitrification), novel and cost-effective biological nitrogen elimination processes have been developed, including simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), and its combined system (completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite, Canon). This review summarizes the recent studies dealing with agricultural, domestic and industrial wastewaters regarding their nitrogen content. Traditional and novel biological nitrogen elimination technologies are reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies dealing with temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrate concentration, salinity, pH or the free ammonia concentration as factors affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency have also been incorporated.

[Gaber Z Breisha. Bio-removal of nitrogen from wastewaters—A review. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):210-228]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.28

 

Keywords: wastewaters, nitrogen removal, salinity, free ammonia, temperature, dissolved oxygen

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The effect of heat, direct sunlight and UV-rays on the stability of some chlropyrifos formulations and their content of sulfotep.

 

Ola.M.Y. Emara and Shereen , A.Abd-El-Aziz

Pesticides Analysis Res. Div., Central Agric.

Pesticides Lab., Agric Res. Center. Dokki, Giza Egypt.

 

Abstract: Sulfotep is a toxic impurity in formulations of chloropyrifos (Teragard, Bestban and Dursban) were determined by GLC, also the effect of exposure to different temperatures (30, 35, 45 and 50C), direct sunlight and UV-rays on the stability of chlorpyrifos a.i and sulfotep content of the formulated products was studied. The results show that Teragard formulation was the lowest in its content of sulfotep than both Dursban and Bestban formulations, also results show that chlorpyrifos a.i. in all tested formulations was unstable when exposure to high degrees of temperature (45 and 50C) and direct sunlight while its relatively stable when exposure to UV-rays. On the other hand, sulfotep is relatively stable when exposure to heat, direct sunlight and UV- rays compared with chloropyrifos a.i. in their formulations.

[Ola.M.Y.Emara and Shereen , A. Abd-El-Aziz. The effect of heat, direct sunlight and UV-rays on the stability of some chlropyrifos formulations and their content of sulfotep. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):229-233]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.29

 

Keywords: heat; sunlight; UV-rays; stability; chlropyrifos; formulation; sulfotep

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Physiochemical properties of industrial effluents in Ibadan, Nigeria.

 

Segun Akanmu Adebisi1 and Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo1*

1Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, P.M.B. 4494, Osogbo, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: kehindefayemiwo@yahoo.com, +2348067726800

 

Abstract: Industrial activities are mostly responsible for waste discharged into the environment, and these waste contained toxic and hazardous substances, most of which are detrimental to human health. In this study, the physicochemical properties of industrial effluents of eight (8) food processing plants and receiving water in Ibadan was carried out to determine the extent of industrial effluents pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria. There were marked variations in the electrical conductivity, hardness, turbidity, total and dissolved solids of effluents from the various industries. Dissolved oxygen was significantly higher in effluents from oil processing industries. Significant decreases were obtained in the electrical conductivity, hardness, turbidity, total solids, dissolved solids and BODs of receiving water around some of the food processing industries following effluent discharge. COD increased with effluent discharge into receiving water. The result shows that the discharges of untreated effluents by industries contaminate the groundwater of the surrounding environments.

[Segun Akanmu Adebisi and Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo. Physiochemical properties of industrial effluents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):234-238]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.30 

 

Key words: Industrial effluents, pollution, physicochemical properties

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Acylated Flavonol Glycosides From The Flowers Of Aconitum Violaceum staph.

 

Suman Yadav* and D. L. Verma

Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena campus, Almora, Uttarakhand (India)-263 601.

E-mail : akyadava_09@rediffmail.com; akyadava09@gmail.com

Mobile nos. +91-094129 66520; +91-094113 67240

 

Abstract: Aconitum violaceum staph (fam. Ranunculaceae ), an alpine herbal constituent of Central Himalaya, has been used as a traditional medicine by tribal inhabitants of the region. Various ethnic groups, Bhotias, Darmese and Martolias use the plant for curing number of ailments, cough, asthma, neuro-disorders, inflammatory and heart related diseases. It is a small perennial herb with 1-1.5m in height, bearing dense spike of many dark or pale blue flowers. Aerial parts of A. violaceum was collected from alpine pastures of Sunderdhunga glaciers (4,000 m above msl) of Kumaun Himalaya in the month of July, 2008 and its authentification has been made from BSI, Dehradun and finally by Prof. Y. S. Pangati, Prof. Emeritus, Department of Botany at DSB campus, Nainital. A voucher specimen No. 46 of flower and leaves has been deposited in the Chemistry Department of Kumaun University at Almora campus. Aqueous-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts (500 gms) of A. violaceum was partitioned with CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH. The BuOH fraction gave antioxidative activity against the DPPH solution in UV-VS spectrophotometer at 715nm. It was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure and residue was chromatographed on cellulose (Merck) CC and eluted with 40% HOAc. Two broad violet fluorescent bands were observed on CC and each was eluted and collected separately by monitoring with UV light. An eluate of faster moving band, representing FRAC-01 and a chromatographically identified catechol grouping flavonol glycosides, gave two flavonoids (1) and (2) after RPPC of the fraction on Whatman No. 3 PC using BAW as a developing solvent system, The compounds, (1) and (2), a faster (Rf 42) and slower (Rf 39) moving components on PC in BAW solvent were identified as quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl(1→2)(6″-O-transcaffeoyl)-β–D-gluco-pyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl(1→2)(6″-O-transcaffeoyl)-β–D-gluco-pyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. On comparing the antioxidative activity of compound, (1) and (2) with reference compound, quercetin, the activity profile was found in the order: quercetin > compound (2) > compound (1).

[Suman Yadav and D. L. Verma. Acylated Flavonol Glycosides From The Flowers Of Aconitum Violaceum staph. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):239-243]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.31

 

Keywords: Aconitum violaceum, flavonol, glycosides

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Bioefficacy of vapour effect of essential oil formulation from Syzygium aromaticum against Callosbruchus maculates

 

Awojide, Shola H.1 and Fayemiwo, Kehinde A.1*

1Departrment of Chemical Sciences, Osun-State University, P.M.B. 4494, Osogbo, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: kehindefayemiwo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted to determine the efficacy of vapour effect of essential oil of clove bud Syzygium aromaticum using different formulations of solid carriers (silica gel, alumina and kaolin) on Bean weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus). The bioactivity of essential oil extracted by hydro distillation was assessed. Different masses of clove oil were measured and mixed with 1g of solid carrier; insect mortality of the vapour effect of the different formulation was evaluated. Eugenol was found to have highest percentage of composition in clove bud (95.75%). All treatments with the essential oil formulations showed significant level of toxicity to insects. The highest level of mortality in insect was recorded when 0.5g of the essential oil was mixed with 1g of solid carriers, and the result for each carriers was not significantly different.

[Awojide, Shola H. and Fayemiwo, Kehinde A. Bioefficacy of vapour effect of essential oil formulation from Syzygium aromaticum against Callosbruchus maculates. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):244-249]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.32

 

Key words: Callosbruchus maculatus,vapour, essential oil composition, Syzygium aromaticum, formulation

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[Nature and Science 2010;8(12):250-261]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 33

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.33

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Financial and Economic Analysis For Agricultural Projects (West Delta Irrigation Project Case)

 

Mahmoud A. Abd El Aziz; Karima Awad Mohamed; Alaa El Deien.M. Safaan and Haitham .B.Aly

 

National Research Centre; Agricultural Research Centre

 

Abstract: The project aimed to increase the water productivity and efficiency. Therefore, the main objective of the current study is to evaluate both the financial and economic viability of installing irrigation water connections and facilities through RC pipelines. The results indicated That the project will need to inject capital till year 4, in that it will be financially sustainable beginning from year 5 of operation. In spite of the fact that the project is not financially viable where IRR (8%) < WACC (10%), it is sustainable in that it is capable of covering cost of operation and is also economically viable (17%). However, it is advised to adopt alternative one where ERR (25%) much exceeds ERR of alternative two (17%) and where IRR (16%) would attract capital investment.

[Mahmoud A. Abd El Aziz; Karima Awad Mohamed; Alaa El Deien.M. Safaan and Haitham .B.Aly. Financial and Economic Analysis For Agricultural Projects. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):262-272]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.34

 

Keywords: West Delta Project,. Financial Analysis, Economic Analysis, Internal Rate of Return, Agricultural Projects

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Effect of organic and biofertilizers and magnesium sulphate on growth yield, chemical composition and fruit quality of "Le-Conte" pear trees.

 

M.I.F. Fawzi1, .F.M. Shahin* 1, Elham, A. Daood1 and E. A. Kandil2

1. Pomology Department, National, Research centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2. Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Giza; Egypt. Greenzone5@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out during 2008 and 2009 seasons on 12 - year - old trees of "Le – Conte" pear grown in sandy soil in a private orchard at CairoIsmailia desert road, Egypt. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of organic farmyard manure (FYM) 50 kg/tree, Nile compost (COM) 45kg/tree, biofertilizes (Bio) as combination between (phosphorene and nitrobeine), 20 g/tree and sprays of magnesium sulphate 1.5% single or combination with them. Beside the fertilization program adopted in the farm was used as control. The results showed that, the application of different of different aforementioned treatments increased significantly vegetative growth (shoot length and leaf area), leaf minerals Content (N, P, K and Mg), pigments Content (Ch1. A & B), yield as well as physical and chemical properties of the fruits compared to untreated trees. From the economic point of view, the best results with regard to nutritional stalus of the trees, yield and fruit quality were obtained when "Le- Conte" Pear trees treated with (COM) 45kg/tree + (Bio) 20g/tree + (Mg SO4) 1.5%.

[Fawzi, F.M. Shahin, Elham, A. Daood and E.A. Kandil. Effect of organic and biofertilizers and magnesium sulphate on growth yield, chemical composition and fruit quality of "Le-Conte" pear trees. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):273-280]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.35

 

Keywords: organic; biofertilizer; magnesium sulphate; growth yield; chemical composition; fruit

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Effect of pruning, defoliation and nitrogen fertilization on growth, fruit set and quality of Abdel-Razik Annona cultivar

 

Mohamed F.M. Shahein , Elham Zinboum Abd El-Motty, and M. I. F. Fawzi

 

Research Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Greenzone5@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The investigation was carried out during two successive seasons of 2008 and 2009 on Abdel-Razik cultivar Annona. The trees were 8 years old grown in a private orchard at El-Sadat district, Menofiya Governorate. The study aimed to show the effect of some pruning levels, defoliation and nitrogen fertilization on growth, fruit set and quality. Results revealed that, N fertilization combined with pruning regimes gave the greatest values. Such treatments led to increase the lateral shoots number of leaves per shoot. The effective treatment was heading back by removing 20cm from shoot top plus N fertilization. All pruning treatments including defoliation either with or without N fertilization advanced flowering date while flowering period was not affected. The investigation showed that pruning regimes and pruning combined with N fertilization treatment increased number of flower per shoot, fruit set percentage and yield. The effective treatment, in this respect, was heading back by removing 10cm of shoot top +N fertilization. Such treatment had the highest value of fruit weight. No significant differences between different treatments and control concerning the fruit height, diameter and H/D, ratios were found. Treatments with N fertilization decreased the presence of TSS while total acidity was increased, this led to decrease in TSS/acid ratio, Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf content of N and P while leaf content of K was not affected. Results revealed that, N fertilization supported with pruning improved growth, fruit set and fruit quality.

[Mohamed F.M. Shahein, Elham Zinboum Abd El-Motty, and M. I. F. Fawzi. Effect of pruning, defoliation and nitrogen fertilization on growth, fruit set and quality of Abdel-Razik Annona cultivar. Nature and Science 2010;8(12):281-287]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081210.36

 

Key words: Annona, Pruning, defoliation, N fertilization, fruit set. Fruit quality, thinning

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting July 18, 2010
 
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