Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 9 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 49), April 25, 2011
 
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

The Potential Effect of Flaxseed on Female Postmenopausal Rats

 

*Hala F. Osman, Samia K. Yousef Ayad and Amal Abdel-Aziz El-Mahdy

 Radioisotopes Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

*hala1fawzy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Phytoestrogens are plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Phytoestrogen intake plays a role in preventing the development of some chronic diseases attributed to ovarian hormone deficiency. Flaxseed is a dietary source of phytoestrogen which contain lignans. The current work is conducted to study the effects of supplementation of flaxseed mixed with basal daily diet (B.D.) on protection of cardiovascular system and alleviation of osteoporosis in female postmenopausal rats. Fifty female postmenopausal rats were classified to 5 groups (n=10); one group served as control without addition of flaxseed, three groups were assigned to consume 3 different doses of flaxseed mixed with B.D. ( 10,15 & 20g/kg.b.wt.) and last group was orally received ovestin beside B.D. for 3months. Serum lipid profile, alkaline phosphatase (Alp), Ca++ and phosphorous (P) were assessment. Estradiol level and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured. The obtained results showed significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol with an elevation in HDL-cholesterol particularly at 10 and 15 g flaxseed/kg.b.wt. Elevation effect was seen in total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol with reduction in LDL-cholesterol when ovestin was administrated to postmenopausal female rats. An improvement in bone-turnover as a result of mixed flaxseed to B.D. indicated by elevation in Alp and reduction in urinary excretion of ca and p particularly when 10g flaxseed added to normal diet. Very slightly beneficial effect found in BMD of femur different parts when flaxseed was mixed with B.D. Conclusion; 10-15g flaxseed/kg b.wt may be an effective alternative therapy to alleviate postmenopausal symptoms and may protect cardiovascular system by altering lipid profile favorably, also may improve bone-turnover with reduction in bone-fracture risk. Supplementation of flaxseed for more than three months may improve BMD.

[Hala F. Osman, Samia K. Yousef Ayad and Amal Abdel-Aziz El-Mahdy. The Potential Effect of Flaxseed on Female Postmenopausal Rats. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.01

Key words: Osteoporosis, Hormonal replacement therapy, cardiovascular diseases, Phytoestrogen, Flaxseed, Lignans.

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2

Estimation and Determination Correction for the Area Effect of the Sound Absorber Material

 

M.G. El-Shaarawy1, Mohamed Abd-elbasseer2, Abd-elfattah A. Mahmoud*2, and Rabab. S. youssif2

 

1Faculty of Science -Benha University -Department of Physics- Benha - Egypt

2National Institute for Standards (NIS)-Department of Acoustics-Cairo-Egypt

*yy_abd_elfattah@yahoo.co

 

Abstract: A method of predicting the area effect of absorbent surface with finite dimensions is introduced using least square fitting method. The measured value of sound absorption coefficient for any area of the absorbing material can be corrected to be like that of the absorption of standardized area. This is obtained from the estimated equations at each frequency. In order to obtain these corrections, some experiments are carried out in a reverberation room using different absorber materials with different areas such as carpet, sponge, foam and polyisoprene.

[M.G. El-Shaarawy, Mohamed Abd-elbasseer, Abd-elfattah A. Mahmoud, and Rabab. S. youssif. Estimation and Determination Correction for the Area Effect of the Sound Absorber Material. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):9-14]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.02

 

Keywords: Estimation; Determination; Correction; Area Effect; Sound Absorber Material

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3

The Effect of Climatic Factors on the Production and Quality of Castor Oil

 

Abolfazl Alirezalu1 *, Nasrin Farhadi1, Habib Shirzad2, Saeid hazarti3

1- Department of Horticulture, Agricultural faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran1

2- Department of Horticulture, Agricultural faculty, Urmia University, Iran2

3- Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran3

a.alirezalu@gmail.com, saeid.hazrati@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The versatile application of castor oil in different pharmaceutical, chemical, sanitary, cosmetic, biodiesel, and recently in food industry because of its unique physicochemical properties has led castor oil to be the focus of abundant research projects. In this research, the impact of 10 different climatic conditions in Iran on the castor oil production by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) from the standpoints of the quality, oil content and physicochemical properties of castor oil was investigated. With the analyzed oil samples, oil content, moisture content, refractive index, chlorophyll content, saponification value, iodine value, acid value, and peroxide value were respectively determined as 35%-56%, 0.3%-1.2%, 1.404-1.430, 0.02-0.4 mg Phenophytin/ kg Oil, 164-179 mg KOH/g Oil, 75-86 g I2/100 g Oil, 0.2-0.9 mg NaOH/g Oil, 0-0.5 meq O2/Kg Oil. Castor oils from various regions were significantly (p<0.05) different from the viewpoint of oil content, moisture content, chlorophyll content, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, and iodine value, but indicated no considerable difference (p>0.05) in their refractive indices.  The plants grown under climatic conditions of Nur Abad region were of the highest level of oil content (56%) indicating the most favorable meteorological and soil physicochemical conditions in the area. From the standpoint of oil stability and quality, the oil from Marand, Urmia and Nazarlu were of proper conditions. The present research is the first report on the quality, oil content, and physicochemical properties of castor oil extracted from castor beans harvested in different regions in Iran.

[Abolfazl Alirezalu, Nasrin Farhadi, Habib Shirzad, Saeid hazarti. The Effect of Climatic Factors on the Production and Quality of Castor Oil Nature and Science 2011;9(4):15-19]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.03

 Key Words: Climatic Factors, Castor bean, Oil, Production, Ricinus communis

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4

Nebulization And Inhalation Therapy Versus Conventional Medication Of Feline Asthma

 

Wael, M. Kelany1 And Haithem, A. M. , Farghali2

 1Dept. of internal medicine, faculty of Vet. Med., Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Dept. of surgery, anesthesiology and radiology, faculty of Vet. Med., Cairo University Giza, Egypt

*wael6kelany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Feline asthma syndrome is a life threatening clinical condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the small passageways of the lungs. Although allergens are the prime suspect in the cause of feline asthma, the actual cause is unproven and the condition is believed to be a result of type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction to inhaled allergens. Twenty two diseased and five apparently healthy cats were thoroughly investigated in the present study. The most common clinical presentation was recurrent bouts of coughing (n=13), Cyanosed mucous membranes (n= 7), open-mouth breath (n=7), Squatting with shoulder hunched, neck extended and rapid breathing or gasping for breath (n=11), gagging up foamy mucous (n=3) and exercise intolerance (n=17). Seventeen cats underwent chest radiography. Six cases showed no patterns neither bronchial nor interstitial, nine cases showed bronchial pattern, one case suffer from severe interstitial pattern and one case showed pneumothorax in addition to bronchial pattern. A predominant esinophilic sample was collected from only 4 cats by transtracheal lavage. There were minimal changes in differential white cell counts, except significant esinophilia. Therapeutic plan was directed initially to control asthmatic attack either by conventional medication by injection or nebulization by bronchodilators. Then the pet maintained on oral form of conventional medication or spacer, respectively. The building stone in the present study was avoidance of putative aeroallergens. On the basis of the data of the present cases, it would appear that the diagnosis of feline asthma depends largely on the clinical presentation and radiographic findings. The present study concluded that nebulization and inhalation therapy were more effective and rapid therapy than conventional medication. (n=number).

[Wael, M. Kelany And Haithem, A. M., Farghali. Nebulization And Inhalation Therapy Versus Conventional Medication Of Feline Asthma. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):20-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.   

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.04

Keywords: Nebulization, inhalation, conventional, radiography, feline, asthma.

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Effect of Cadmium Pollution on Neuromorphology and Function of brain in Mice Offspring

 

*1Hussein A. Kaoud and 2Mohey M. Mekawy

 1Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

 2 Department of Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

*ka-oud@link.net 

 

Abstract: Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was given to Swiss-Webster pregnant female mice at the concentrations of (50mg/L) and (100mg/L) (w/v) respectively, in their drinking water. Treatment started few days before pregnancy and it continued until delivery and weaning the offspring. After the weaning period (22 days), all male offspring were isolated and subjected to “Standard Opponent” test at the age of 25 days. The results of this test showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the non-social behavior, such results showed a significant decline in the social behavior including naso-genital and naso-nasal contact, number of fights, rear, wall rear and displacement activities of the Cd exposed groups. Brain impairments due to the neurotoxic effect of Cd treated groups were indicated by histopathological investigation and neurochemichal analysis. The present prenatal Cd effects in the male offspring are possibly via in utero exposure and/or via mother’s milk.

[Hussein A. Kaoud and Mohey M. Mekawy. Effect of Cadmium Pollution on Neuromorphology and Function of brain in Mice Offspring. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):28-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.05

Key Words:  Cadmium; Prenatal exposure; Brain impairment; Mice offspring; Behaviour.

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Nature and Science 2011;9(4):36-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.06

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7

Rain water harvesting and Artificial Recharge in Africa: Review

Mupenzi Jean de la paix1, 2a, Li lanhai1b, Tafadzwa Lorraine Muzilikazi2c, Liu Yanfeng2d, Ge Jiwen2e

 1Xinjiang institute of ecology and geography, Chinese academy of sciences, Key laboratory of oasis ecology and desert environment, 818 Beijing Road, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830011, China

2 School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China

a johnmupenzi@gmail.com; blilh@ms.xjb.ac.cn,c lorrainetafadzwa@yahoo.com; dliuyf@cug.edu.cn, ejiwenge2002@yaoo.com.cn

 

Abstract:  The report tries to highlight the growing popularity of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge in Africa in relation to increasing demands and exploration of groundwater. Several techniques are identified as methods for water harvesting and recharge but those associated with collection devices, catchment areas and conveyance systems are given more attention for example check dams and recharge pits. Scarcity of groundwater data and lack of awareness of groundwater phenomenon is still a hindrance to intensive artificial recharge projects.

[Mupenzi, J.P., Lahai, L., Tafadzwa, L. M., Lie, Y. and Jiwen G. Rain water harvesting and Artificial Recharge in Africa, Nature and Science 2011;9(4):41-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.07

Key word: Groundwater, Rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge

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A review of theoretical and experimental factors affecting rural women's economic participation and employment


Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: Macroeconomic view of employment of different aspects such as creating income, production and entrepreneurship, science and technology development, etc. is important, and gives the dignity, status and social position and a sense of confidence from the social viewpoint of man. Working and use of inherent forces, skills and knowledge and personal management to begin to work and to accomplish the activity, are not specific to particular groups. Around the world and in Iran, female employment, especially in rural area (which is a manifestation of participation) is not raised the issue of unemployment. Matter is the work with no reward. Because all the unpaid work is done that by women at home such as cleaning, laundry, nursery and social affairs, agriculture and livestock work and.... has come to account as non-economic work. While the visible part of economic can't continue to exist without goods and services of this invisible section of the economy.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. A review of theoretical and experimental factors affecting rural women's economic participation and employment. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):46-50]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.08

Keywords: Employment, rural women, economic participation

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9

Improving water availability through Watershed Management in Africa:

A review

 

Tafadzwa Lorraine Muzilikazi1a, Liu Yanfeng1c*, Mupenzi Jean de la paix1, 2b, Li Lanhai2d

 

1 School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China

2Xinjiang institute of ecology and geography, Chinese academy of sciences, Key laboratory of oasis ecology and desert environment, 818 Beijing Road, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830011, China

alorrainetafadzwa@yahoo.com; b johnmupenzi@gmail.com; c liuyf@cug.edu.cn, dlilh@ms.xjb.ac.cn

                                                     

Abstract:  Water scarcity and how it can be availed for general purposes is highlighted in this paper in relation to watershed management. An overview of different African countries is done and the major problems identified to be causing water scarcity were land degradation, population and mismanagement of resources. Researches carried out in different countries however highlights that land management, water management and participation of locals as components of watershed management can be used in water productivity. In most parts of Africa rain water harvesting in conjunction with good conservation methods has gain popularity as a way to avail water for different purposes.

[Tafadzwa, L.M., Liu Y., Mupenzi, J.P. and Lanhai, L. Improving water availability through Watershed Management in Africa Nature and Science 2011;9(4):51-56]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.09

Key word: Watershed Management, Water Productivity, Land and Water Management and Human Participation

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10

Use of dielectric properties in quality measurement of agricultural products

 

Mahmoud Soltani1*, Reza Alimardaniand1, Mahmoud Omid1

1.          Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

mahmoodsoltani39@yahoo.com

Abstract: A number of applications for capacitive sensor in agriculture have been used by different researchers over the past years. They measured the dielectric constant and loss factor of material which correlates well with certain quality factors of the products such as moisture content and ripeness. This paper presents an overview of various utilizations of dielectric properties in precision agriculture.

[Mahmoud Soltani, Reza Alimardaniand, Mahmoud Omid. Use of dielectric properties in quality measurement of agricultural products. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):57-61]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.10

Keywords: Dielectric properties, Quality, Frequency.

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The Influence of Soil Moisture Stress on Growth, Water Relation and Fruit Quality of Hibisicus sabdariffa L. Grown Within Different Soil Types.

1Soha E. khalil  and 2Atef A.S. Abdel-Kader

1Department of Water Relation and Field Irrigation, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Research, Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Cairo, Egypt

 Corresponding author: soha_khalil2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two pot experiments were carried out during two successive seasons 2008 and 2009. The experiments aimed to study the effect of different soil moisture stress levels (70%, 50% and 30% depletion of the available soil water) on vegetative growth, Yield, essential oil, N, P, K, protein and anthocyanins contents of Hibiscus subdariffa L. grown within three soil types (clay, sandy and sandy clay loam soils). All growth and yield attributes ,as well as, oil % were significantly increased under the moderate soil moisture level combined with sandy soil. Increasing soil moisture level caused an increase in RWC %, N, P, K, protein % and anthocyanins content, combined with mixed soil in case of RWC%, N, P, K, and protein % and combined with sandy soil in case of anthocyanins content. While opposite trend obtained for osmotic pressure.

[Soha E. khalil  and Atef A.S. Abdel-Kader. The Influence of Soil Moisture Stress on Growth, Water Relation and Fruit Quality of Hibisicus sabdariffa L. Grown Within Different Soil Types. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):62-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.  

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.11

Key words: Water relation, Hibiscus subdariffa L., Different soil types, Growth, Yield, Seed quality

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Some social factors Related to level of Environmental health Awareness in Rural Egypt


Ayman Ibrahim Elkhfif 

Department of Agricultural Economics - National Research Center

 
Abstract:
The research aimed to identify the impact of some social factors in age, educational level, family size, the degree of cultural openness- communication, and economic level to the level of environmental health awareness of the respondents. In addition to identifying the most important programs from which to create a clean environment conducive to increase productivity and per capita income, and then the advancement of society economically, and the achievement of social welfare for members of the rural community. The results showed that the mean scores for level of environmental health awareness by the respondents is estimated at 78.4 degrees of kidney estimated 1593 degrees, which reflects the low level of health behavior and health practices that can maintain the health of the individual and the environment. As it turns out; there is a significant correlation between the age Category, educational level, family size, level of education - communication (independent variables) and level of Environmental health awareness (dependent variable). Also found that about 62.7% of the respondents engaged in basic agriculture as a profession, while 37.3% engaged in work other than farming as a career major going about them at the side to work as an agricultural high school. The study recommended the need to work to raise the economic level and living standards of rural households, and interest in environmental health and dissemination of health education and environmental awareness among the population of the rural sector, as well as concern for the individual and the family environment and provide the necessary health to protect them from the face of dangers and diseases.

[Ayman Ibrahim Elkhfif, Some social factors Related to level of Environmental health Awareness in Rural Egypt. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):75-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.12

Key words: health awareness, cultural openness - communication, Education standard, health Education, mass Information

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Influence of Sewage Water Reuse Application on Soil and the Distribution of Heavy Metals

 

 Ahmed A. Afifi, Kh. M. Abd Elraheem and Refat A. Yossef

 Soils and Water Use Dept., Agricultural and Biological Research Division National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

a.afifinrc@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study aims to investigate the effect of the sewage water reuse in soil and plant. The use of treated sewage water on soil has an advantage of improving soil texture in terms of organic enrichment, macro- and micronutrient elements. Remarkable increase in the level of heavy metals was observed as indicated by increasing the micronutrients available content in soil (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu). The available content of heavy metal in soil was under the permissible levels. The longer term of irrigation is the higher accumulation of metals particularly on the top soil. While, the level of heavy metals decreases as soil depth increases. Nevertheless, accumulation of metals on the soil was still far behind the risky level. This is mainly due to the fact that the level of metals in sewage irrigation water was within the permissible level according to WHO. To eliminate the accumulation of metals on the soil, it is, therefore, recommended to use an additional treatment process such as addition of dried plant leaves or lime to decrease the level of metals in the sewage irrigation water. The use of drainage water in irrigation had the highest value of basic infiltration rate. Using sewage water or drainage water in irrigation of sugar beet led to increase the N, P and K of soils after harvesting. In addition to the dry matter content.

[Ahmed A. Afifi, Kh. M. Abd Elraheem and Refat A. Yossef. Influence of Sewage Water Reuse Application on Soil and the Distribution of Heavy Metals. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):82-88]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.13

Key words: wastewater reuse, heavy metals, soil and plant characteristics.

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A New Approach to Special Relativity and its Consequences 

 

Dr. Wolfgang Gaudig

 

Address: Schwarzwaldstrasse 102, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany

E-Mail: wolfgang.gaudig@yahoo.de

 

Abstract: The theory of special relativity by Albert Einstein is extended by the requirement that not only the coordinate points co-moving with the moving inertial frame shall fulfil the transformation formulae, but also the coordinate points resting with the rest frame. It turns out that the present new theory, although derived by strictly employing Einstein’s original light beam procedure, confirms the ad hoc generalized Galilean transformation: The clock paradox is inherently avoided, without having to invoke Einstein’s general theory of relativity. However, there are severe consequences: (i) the velocity of the rest frame as observed in the moving frame is not equal to the velocity of the moving frame as observed in the rest frame; (ii) furthermore, the one-way light signal speed is not a universal constant any more, but has to be assumed different in the moving frame. This leads to the definition of the rest frame to be a preferred frame, where the assumption of an isotropic light signal speed still holds. The light signal speed in the moving frame is then anisotropic and dependent on the frame velocity. Several applications are discussed in comparison to Einstein’s original theory of special relativity: Light aberration effect, length contraction, time dilation, Maxwell’s equations, the electric Lorentz force, the relativistic law of motion, the electromagnetic wave equation, and the relativistic Doppler frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation. It is pointed out that, in the moving frame, it must be distinguished between the light signal speed (ray velocity) and the phase velocity of light. Another issue is the fact that the interpretation of Maxwell’s equations in the moving frame is not unequivocal. - However, despite of reasonable and interesting results, the final judgement of the theory will only be possible when reliable evaluations of one-way light signal speed measurements are available.

[Wolfgang Gaudig. A New Approach to Special Relativity and its Consequences. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):89-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.14

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Using of Distance Education in adult education

 

1 Mojtaba Sadighi, 2 Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 3 Mohammadreza Ghaffari

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education courses vary greatly in scope, level, and length. Some have a few assignments and require only a few months to complete, while others have a hundred or more lesson assignments requiring three or four years of conscientious study. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is physically separated from the teacher and the institution sponsoring the instruction. It may be used on its own, or in conjunction with other forms of education, including face-to-face instruction. In any distance education process there must be a teacher, one or more students, and a course or curriculum that the teacher is capable of teaching and the student is trying to learn. The contract between teacher and learner, whether in a traditional classroom or distance education, requires that the student be taught, assessed, given guidance and, where appropriate, prepared for examinations that may or may not be conducted by the institution. This must be accomplished by two-way communication.

[Mojtaba Sadighi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and  Mohammadreza Ghaffari. Using of Distance Education in adult education. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):112-117]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.15

 

Keywords: Distance Education, adult education

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Different techniques in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

 

Mojtaba Sadighi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mohammadreza Ghaffari

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: RRA is a social science approach that emerged in the late 1970s. The basic idea of RRA is to rather quickly collect, analyse and evaluate information on rural conditions and local knowledge. This information is generated in close co-operation with the local population in rural areas. Therefore, the research methods had to be adjusted to local conditions, i.e. they had to meet the communication needs of illiterate people or people who are not used to communicating in scientific terms. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) as a method falls under the qualitative and participatory group of research methods. PRA is intended to enable local communities to conduct their own analysis and to plan and take action . PRA involves project staff learning together with villagers about the village. The aim of PRA is to help strengthen the capacity of villagers to plan, make decisions, and to take action towards improving their own situation. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is considered one of the popular and effective approaches to gather information in rural areas. This approach was developed in early 1990s with considerable shift in paradigm from top-down to bottom-up approach, and from blueprint to the learning process.

[Mojtaba Sadighi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and  Mohammadreza Ghaffari. Different techniques in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Nature and Science 2011;9(4):118-124]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.16

 

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

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Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA): Complementary methods in rural research

 

Mehdi Nazarpour, Mojtaba Sadighi and, Mehran Bozorgmanesh

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

Abstract: Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review. Changes in personal behavior and attitudes, and in organizational cultures, are implied. PRA parallels and resonates with paradigm shifts in the social and natural sciences, business management, and development thinking, supporting decentralization, local diversity, and personal responsibility. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) as a method falls under the qualitative and participatory group of research methods. PRA evolved from Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA). In recognition of the fact that the community to which development projects are supposed to serve is not involved in the process and the subsequent flaws implicit in designing and implementing such projects, development practitioners and thinkers started to investigate ways for effective community participation in the overall process. This led to a series of information collection techniques used to collect and analyze data in rural areas,  nown as Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), which was developed in the 1970s and 1980s.

[Mehdi Nazarpour, Mojtaba Sadighi and  Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA): Complementary methods in rural research. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):125-129]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.17

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), rural research

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Rural development through information and communication technologies (ICT)

 

Hamidreza Hossein, Alireza Talkhabi and, Bibisadat Miresmaiili

Department of Communication, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: hossein@damavandiau.ac.ir

Abstract: The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that. This paper uncovers a whole plethora of ICT emergence as a technology of the new millennium. Against the backdrop of the ongoing ICT boom, this paper makes an attempt towards studying its applications and usage planning process and policy making for the rural communities focusing on how it helps in aligning the key factors and reduce the problems of alienation, fragmentation and dislocation of knowledge. Review of literature shows that intervention of information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural development initiatives are capable of development, but are not successful. Lack of community participation, absence of an integrated approach and non-inclusion of traditional knowledge systems (TKS) in the project designs are the major impediments. We therefore suggest a systems-based approach in the design of e-Governance projects, and brief some future directions. Sustained development using rural informatics is possible, only if ICT interventions are able to respond to the local needs and re-adjust as per the prevailing knowledge (Traditional Knowledge Systems- TKS) of the rural areas.

[Hamidreza Hossein, Alireza Talkhabi and Bibisadat Miresmaiili. Rural development through information and communication technologies (ICT). Nature and Science 2011;9(4):130-133]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.18

Keywords: information and communication technologies (ICT), rural development

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Comparative Study Between Low Dose Bupivacaine With Fentanyl & Bupivacaine Alone For Cesarean Section. 

 

Farouk G. 1, El- Sokkary M. *2 

 

1 Department of anesthesia – Al- Azhar University

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology – Ain Shams University

mageleel2000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of reducing the bupivacaine dose with addition of fentanyl in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was done during a period started from January 2008 to Decemeber 2009.  It was conducted on 40 patients in the age group of 20-35 years.  They were divided randomly into two groups having 20 patients in each, group B received 2ml intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacain 0.5% (10mg) & group BF received 1.5ml (7.5mg) hyperbaric bupivacain 0.5% plus 25 g fentanyl.  The efficacy of anesthesia, patient satisfaction and neonatal affection were assessed. Results: Adequate sensory blockade (T6 or higher) was obtained in 75% of all cases.  Two cases need general anesthesia & were excluded from the research.  Two patients in groups BF need IV nalbuphine supplementation after delivery of the baby.  Hypotension occurs in 80% of patients in group B & in 40% of patients in group BF.  This difference in incidence of hypotension is significant.  Number of ephedrine treatment & total dose of ephedrine were all significantly lower in group BF but the difference was not significant.  There were no significant differences in quality of anesthesia between the tow groups. Conclusion: lowering bubivacaine dose to 1.5 ml instead of 2.0 ml (usual dose for cesarean section) and adding 25ug fentanyl is associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of hypotension and the number and total dose of ephedrine used.

[Farouk G., El- Sokkary M. Comparative Study Between Low Dose Bupivacaine With Fentanyl & Bupivacaine Alone For Cesarean Section. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):134-137]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.19

 

Key Wards; Bupivacaine - Fentanyl - Cesarean Section

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Autocrine growth regulation of keloid and normal human dermal fibroblasts

 

Abd-Al-Aziz H. Abd-Al-Aziz1, El sayed M.E. Mahdy2, Hanaa A. Amer3, Wafaa G. Shoshah 2 and Omyma M. EL Shishtawy 2

 

1. Ain Shams University, Plastic Surgery Department, Egypt.

2. Helwan University, Chemistry Department, Egypt.

3. Ain Shams University, Clinical Pathology Department, Egypt.

ahanafy57@yahoo.com, elsayedmahdy@ymail.com, hanaahmedamer@yahoo.com, wafaashousha@yahoo.com, omyma_mohamed_sayed@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Dermal fibroblasts were examined for autocrine control. Four experiments were done on each keloid and normal human dermal fibroblasts to study the effects of fibroblasts conditioned medium at 25% & 50% concentration on passage two (P2) cultured fibroblast. In each experiment, growth was quantitated by cell count, protein and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) assays. The conditioned medium in our experimental models resulted in increase in the cell yields in the conditioned medium groups. There was definite increase in the cell population with the 25% and 50% conditioned medium over the experimental time period with both normal skin and keloid fibroblasts. The amount of protein & DNA per million cells is increased in cultured keloid fibroblasts and decreased with cultured normal dermal fibroblasts. The study showed that the autoscreation of culture keloid fibroblasts contain both mitogenic and metabolic signals that increase the cell count, protein and DNA content per million cells.

[Abd-Al-Aziz H. Abd-Al-Aziz, El sayed M.E. Mahdy, Hanaa A. Amer, Wafaa G. Shoshah and Omyma M. EL Shishtawy. Autocrine growth regulation of keloid and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):138-143]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.  

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.20

 

Key words: autocrine control; keloid fibroblasts; normal human dermal fibroblasts; cell count; protein assays; DNA assays

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A study of Some Social Factors Affecting the Societal Belonging to the Rural Youth

 

Ayman Ibrahim light1 and Ashraf Mohammed Yunis Ahmad2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Economics - National Research Center - Dokki - Egypt

2 center Agribusiness Management, Research and Training - Higher Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture - Shubra - Cairo – Egypt

 

Abstract: the research aimed are to determine the degree of affiliation of respondents from upscale youth of their community, as well as determine the relationship between the degree of affiliation of respondents to their community and all of the social factors under study. Also, determine the contribution of independent factors of the subject of study combined in the interpretation of the overall contrast between the subjects in the degree of belonging to their community. The research was conducted on a sample of rural youth, located in the age (20-35 years), an estimated 200 persons from the Sahel Aljawabr village, alshouhda Markz (district), Monofia Governorate. Data was collected through personal interviews with the subjects by questionnaire designed for this purpose. The researcher has been used in the tabulation and analysis of data tables exclusively numerical, percentages, and simple correlation coefficient of Pearson to determine the significant relationship between the factors independent of the subject of study and the affiliation of respondents to their community. Moreover the use of "T" and "F" tests to identify the significant differences between some of the independent factors and belonging to the local community also used relational analysis of the multi-model (progressive) Step Wise to determine the contribution of these factors in the interpretation of the overall contrast between the subjects in the degree of this association. The main results are: (1) Rural Youth has a somewhat high degree of belonging to a combined local and stand with it, and has the desire for advancement and development subject to the availability of appropriate conditions for it. (2) Significant relationship between the level of affiliation to the community and the following independent variables: the profession of the respondents, exposure to mass communication, family size, type of family, family cohesion, the state of housing, and the problems experienced by rural youth. (3) Proved to be a not significant relationship between the level of affiliation to the community and the following independent variables: age, type and level of education, marital status of respondents, the presence of children of respondents, and the social situation of young rural families of the subjects. (4) Some of the independent factors contribute to the interpretation of the overall contrast between the respondents in terms of their belonging to their community by 48.1%, and the most important of these factors, exposure to mass communication, and family size, and family cohesion.

[Ayman Ibrahim light and Ashraf Mohammed Yunis Ahmad. A study of Some Social Factors Affecting the Societal Belonging to the Rural Youth. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):144-155]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.21

 

Keywords: Social Factors Societal Belonging, Rural Youth

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Using degree- day unit accumulation to predict potato tubeworm incidence under climate change conditions in Egypt

 

Abolmaaty S.M1*; Khalil. A.A1; and Amna M. H. Maklad 2

 

1The Central laboratory for Agriculture Climate, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 Plant Protection Research Institute, ARC, Ministry of Agric., Dokki, Egypt

*maaty2020@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The potato tuber worm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, is a serious pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in subtropical and tropical production systems around the world. Knowledge of the temperature-dependent population growth potential is crucial for understanding population dynamics and implementing pest control strategies in different agro-ecological zones. Potato tuber moth is considered among the most important potato insect pests in Egypt. The aim of this study was to predict degree day’s unit and annual generation peaks for tuber worm under current and expected future climate by using the relationship between the accumulated thermal heat units expressed as degree-days unit (DDU) and the population fluctuations. It is evaluated how temperature influences the annual generation in two distinct locations in Egypt using the climate change data output from the HadCM3 model for A1 scenario proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results indicated that population of the tuber worm at Ismailia gave the highest number of generations as compared with EL Beheira location under current climate. Generation numbers of tuber worm under climate change conditions increased especially in Ismailia location. However, the expected generation numbers of the tuber worm in 2050 and 2100 are expected to be 9-11 and 10-12 generations per year, respectively.

[Abolmaaty S.M; Khalil. A.A; and Amna M. H. Maklad. Using degree- day unit accumulation to predict potato tubeworm incidence under climate change conditions in Egypt. Nature and Science 2011;9(4):156-160]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090411.22

 

Keywords: Potato tuber worm, Climate change, Degree day unit, Generations, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, threshold temperature

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 9, 2011
 
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