Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 9 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 50), May 25, 2011
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0905 
 
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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Traditional Knowledge and Utilization of Medicinal Plants of Himalayan Region

 

Beena Joshi1*, and Vidit Tyagi2

 1. Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital,263002, India

2. Department of Biosciences, DIBNS, Dehradun-248007, India

beena_dr@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Primitive human societies have been depending on plants and plant products for various remedies. In certain areas these folk medical prescriptions are endemic and have survived through ages from one generation to next generation verbally. They do not exist as written knowledge. Generally these systems of medicines depend on old people’s experiences. The person, prescribing these medicines has no so-called scientific knowledge about the disease. Indigenous systems of medicine are specially conditioned by heritage and myths.

[Beena Joshi, and Vidit Tyagi. Traditional Knowledge and Utilization of Medicinal Plants of Himalayan Region. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.01

Key words: Herbal drugs, indigenous knowledge, Vaidyas, medicinal plants

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2

The Petrography and Major Element Geochemistry of the Granite Gneiss of Arigidi area, S/W, Nigeria.

 

Adeyeye Olufemi *, Ademeso Odunyemi

 Department of Geology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria

tonyademeso@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The granite gneiss of Arigidi area, falls within the migmatite-gneiss-quartzite complex of the Nigerian basement and occurs in association with grey gneiss, granite, charnockitic rocks and pelitic gneiss lithologies. The outcrops of the rock were studied in the field, eight samples were analysed for petrographic and geochemical characteristics. In thin section, quartz, plagioclase, biotite and opaque minerals which are ubiquitous ranged from 16.3-42.2, 18.4-42.4, 11.3-28.6 and 6-10.7vol%, respectively while orthoclase, microcline, pyroxene and hornblende ranged from 0-11.1, 0-19.3, 0-12.4 and 0-16.3vol%, respectively showing that most of the samples are tonalitic in composition. Geochemically, the SiO2 content of the granite gneiss ranged from 63.42-74.30, Al2O3 ranged from 11.83-15.46 while Fe2O3 ranged from 1.33-3.22wt%. FeO ranged from 2.13-5.83, Na2O from 0.40-3.91, K2O from 0.05-3.42, CaO from 0.82-5.78 and MgO from 0.42-5.47wt%. MnO ranged from 0.03-2.11 while TiO2 ranged from 0.01-1.46wt%. Discrimination diagrams revealed a preference for igneous fields by the granite gneiss. It is therefore deduced that this tonalitic granite gneiss has an igneous origin.

[Adeyeye Olufemi, Ademeso Odunyemi. The Petrography and Major Element Geochemistry of the Granite Gneiss of Arigidi area, S/W, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):7-12]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.02

Key words: Arigidi, granite gneiss, discrimination, tonalite, igneous origin

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Pollutant Dynamics And Distribution In Sediments North Of Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem.

 

 Adeleye A. O.1, R. O. D., Shelle1, A. E., Akinnigbagbe2

 1 Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research [NIOMR]
2. Wilmot Point Road, Victoria Island, P.M.B. 12729, Lagos, Nigeria.
E-mail:
adedayoseun@gmail.com; Tel: +234 8030623808 

 

ABSTRACT: Thermal pollution was investigated in the sediment North of Lagos lagoon. The result revealed the heavy metal distribution in sediment to be Fe>>>Zn>Pb>Cu. The concentration level of Cd is generally below <0.002 mg/Kg in all the stations studied. The concentration levels of heavy metal gave evidence of pollution in sediment. The results obtained confirmed that over heated water and effluent discharge was the source of pollution in this part of the lagoon. The distribution of heavy metals in sediment and safety status is discussed.

[Adeleye A. O., R. O. D., Shelle, A. E., Akinnigbagbe. Pollutant Dynamics And Distribution In Sediments North Of Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):13-16]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.03

Keywords: Thermal pollution, Heavy metals, sediment, ecosystem, Nigeria

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4

Limonene dominates the Phytochemistry of Trigonella foenum-graceum in Nature

 

Kamal Kishore Pande 1, Lata Pande 2, Bharat Pande3, Atul Pujari 4 Pankaj Sah 5,6 and Stuti Sah7

 

1, 4 Department of Biotechnology, Government Post Graduate College Haldwani, District Nainital, Uttarakhand State (India)

2 Food and Nutrition Laboratory (Department of Home Science) DSB Campus, Kumaun University Nainital PIN- 263003, Uttarakhand State (India)

3 Department of Chemistry, Government Post Graduate College Haldwani, District Nainital, Uttarakhand State (India)

5 Department of Botany DSB Campus, Kumaun University Nainital PIN- 263003 Uttarakhand State (India)

6 Department of Applied Sciences (Applied Biology Section), Higher College of Technology, Al-Khuwair PO Box 74, PC 133 Muscat (Sultanate of Oman)

7 Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G B Pant University of Agriculture Science and Technology, Pant Nagar, Uttarakhand State (India)

kemscience@gmail.com, pankaj@hct.edu.om, drpankajsah1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Many plant families have some unique medicinal properties due to the presence of special chemical molecules in different parts of plants also known as “phytofoods.” Himalaya is one of the greatest mountain chains in the world which not only supports a vast variety of plants and animals but also the great diversity of traditional phytofoods. Many of these phytofoods are very vital to humans in different diseases also. In this paper, we have crucially analyzed some of the major volatile compounds and anti-microbial activities of Trigonella foenum-graceum. By the help of our gc-ms data, we are reporting the dominance of limonene (82.30%), d-carvone (12.97%) and n-caproaldehyde (1.87%) in this plant. [Kamal Kishore Pande, Lata Pande, Bharat Pande, Atul Pujari, Pankaj Sah and Stuti Sah. Limonene Dominates the Phytochemistry of Trigonella foenum-graceum. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):17-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.04

Keywords: Phytofoods, Herbal medicine, Himalaya, Limonene

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5

Some social factors Related to level of Environmental health Awareness in Rural Egypt

 

 Ayman Ibrahim Elkhfif

 Department of Agricultural Economics - National Research Center


Abstract:
The research aimed to identify the impact of some social factors in age, educational level, family size, the degree of cultural openness- communication, and economic level to the level of environmental health awareness of the respondents. In addition to identifying the most important programs from which to create a clean environment conducive to increase productivity and per capita income, and then the advancement of society economically, and the achievement of social welfare for members of the rural community. The results showed that the mean scores for level of environmental health awareness by the respondents is estimated at 78.4 degrees of kidney estimated 1593 degrees, which reflects the low level of health behavior and health practices that can maintain the health of the individual and the environment. As it turns out; there is a significant correlation between the age Category, educational level, family size, level of education - communication (independent variables) and level of Environmental health awareness (dependent variable). Also found that about 62.7% of the respondents engaged in basic agriculture as a profession, while 37.3% engaged in work other than farming as a career major going about them at the side to work as an agricultural high school. The study recommended the need to work to raise the economic level and living standards of rural households, and interest in environmental health and dissemination of health education and environmental awareness among the population of the rural sector, as well as concern for the individual and the family environment and provide the necessary health to protect them from the face of dangers and diseases.

[Ayman Ibrahim Elkhfif. Some social factors Related to level of Environmental health Awareness in Rural Egypt. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):21-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.05

Keywords: health awareness, cultural openness - communication, Education standard, health Education, mass Information.

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6

[Nature and Science 2011;9(5):28-33]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.06

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Significance of Serum HGF, Bcl-2 and Nitric Oxide in Primary Breast Cancer

 

Elsayed M. Mahdy1, Wafaa G. Shousha 1, Hanaa H. Ahmed 2, Fathyea M. Metwally2 and Shimaa Sh. Ramadan1

 1. Helwan University, Chemistry Department, Helwan, Egypt.

2. National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt; elsayedmahdy@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine serum concentrations of HGF, Bcl-2 and nitric oxide (NO) in 44 patients with primary breast cancer and 15 healthy individuals as a control group using an ELISA assay for HGF and Bcl-2 while nitric oxide was determined by using colorimetric technique. The measured parameters were correlated with clinicopathological parameters that may affect the outcome of disease. In addition, ROC curve analysis was done to each parameter. The results were as follows, the mean level of HGF was 1198.79 76.32 pg/ml compared with 884.67 66.88 pg/ml for control (p = 0.026). The HGF levels were significantly elevated in the patients with increasing the tumor stage (p = 0.036). In addition, HGF levels were higher in negative estrogen receptor (p = 0.039). The mean level of Bcl-2 in patients was 12.83 1.97 ng/ml compared with 5.09 0.40 ng/ml for control (p = 0.027). Levels of Bcl-2 were elevated but not statistically significant in patients with GI tumors, negative nodes, ER negative tumors and postmenopausal patients (p = 0.4, 0.8, 0.7 and 0.5, respectively). The patients mean level of the nitric oxide (NO) was 63.07 4.14 μmol/L compared with 43.99 4.21 μmol/L for control (p = 0.014). The levels of NO were elevated but also not statistically significant in patients with tumor size І, GI tumors, ER negative tumors, positive nodes, stage ІІ tumors and postmenopausal patients (p = 0.3, 0.6, 0.3, 0.7, 0.3 and 0.2 respectively). From the ROC curve analysis, it was observed that the area under curve for HGF, Bcl-2 and NO was 0.695, 0.842 and 0.711, respectively. This result indicates the good validity of the above markers especially Bcl-2 parameter to discriminate the positive from the negative samples. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the serum determination of HGF, Bcl-2 or NO may help in diagnosis of the breast cancer and may aid in disease prognosis. However, larger studies with more patients are required.

[Elsayed M. Mahdy, Wafaa G. Shousha, Hanaa H. Ahmed, Fathyea M. Metwally and Shimaa Sh. Ramadan. Significance of Serum HGF, Bcl-2 and Nitric Oxide in Primary Breast Cancer. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):34-41]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.07

Key words: HGF; Bcl-2; nitric oxide; breast cancer; diagnosis; prognosis.

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Phenological episodes of Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae); a highly invasive species in Kashmir Himalayan aquatic ecosystems.

 

Shahzada Arshid* and Aijaz A Wani**

 Cytogenetics and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar-190 006, India.

*shahzada194@gmail.com; **aijazbotku@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Phenological behaviour of Myriophyllum spicatum, a highly invasive species in Kashmir Himalayan aquatic ecosystems, was studied in different standing and running water populations for a period of 12 months to monitor the various developmental stages. The plant starts its life cycle with the sprouting of rhizomes and axillary buds in standing water populations, whereas in running waters rhizomes and nodal plantlets contribute to new recruitments. In standing waters flowering phase prolongs when compared to running water populations. In standing water populations a high seed set was observed, whereas in running waters seed formation does not take place. The knowledge of time period and formation of these vegetative and sexual propagules by this invasive species is very important for its effective management and control in these ecosystems.

[Shahzada Arshid and Aijaz A Wani. Phenological episodes of Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae); a highly invasive species in Kashmir Himalayan aquatic ecosystems. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):42-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.08

Keywords: Myriophyllum spicatum; phenology; Kashmir Himalaya; Propagules; management

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Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Enteric Bacterial Isolates from Dumpsite Utisols and Water Sources in a Rural Community in Cross River State, Southern Nigeria.

 

Ikpeme Emmanuel, Nfongeh Joseph, Eja Matthew Egbebor, Etim Lawrence and Enyi-Idoh Kingsley

 Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria.

Email: kingenyi4gold@yahoo.com mattheweja200@yahoo.com acadabuddy@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: A survey was conducted to establish the effects of bacterial contamination from dumpsite effluents on utisol and water and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the bacterial isolates. A total of 504 each of soil and water samples from different locations were sampled between the months of May and November, 2009. Proteus sp (70.24%), Pseudomonas sp(59.13%), Bacillus sp(58.33%), Escherichia coli (58.33%), Campylobacter sp(45.63%), Klebsiella sp(35.12%), Shigella sp(30.96%), Salmonella sp(27.98%), Aeromonas sp (27.98%) and Vibrio cholerae (10.91%) were isolated from polluted utisols, while Bacillus sp (86.51%), Pseudomonas sp (71.23%), Escherichia coli (60.71%), Aeromonas sp (52.58%), Salmonella sp (47.02%), Klebsiella (26.19%) and Vibrio cholerae (13.10%) were isolated from various water sources. The prevalence of the bacterial species in the two environmental sources differed significantly (P<0.05). All isolates were resistant to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol and Amikacin, while low resistance values were recorded in Erythromycin (25%) and Nalidixic acid (37.50%). Adequate treatment of dumpsite effluents and the use of Erythromycin and Nalidixic acid as therapeutic measures are recommended to reduce possible health hazards.

[Ikpeme Emmanuel, Nfongeh Joseph, Eja Matthew Egbebor, Etim Lawrence and Enyi-Idoh Kingsley. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Enteric Bacterial Isolates from Dumpsite Utisols and Water Sources in a Rural Community in Cross River State, Southern Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):46-50]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.09

Keywords: Dumpsite effluents, enteric bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, Southern Nigeria

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Characteristics of rural women in developing countries

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women’s productive activities has affective role to increase revenue, rural family welfare, and its consequents is: foods status improvement, health, preventing irregular migration, literacy enhancement and development of rural family social status. Despite clearness of affective women’s role at production, economy of village and country, they don’t enjoy proper social base and they were deprived of educational and welfare programs especially at rural and nomadic area. Thus women and their roles should be considered particularly in order that they would find that first they are important and efficient; second they have educational needs and many technical gaps; third they shouldn’t forget efforts for enabling themselves. As girls and women’s discussion and solving their historical lag and restoring their social right are important and necessary, it is sensitive and accurate equally, because dominant patriarchal cultures at rural societies, put women at lower status. So that at some societies, women’s duties are just upbringing and reproduction and maybe they are considered as workforce, and they are deprived of decision making and opining at family and society environment.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Characteristics of rural women in developing countries. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):51-55]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.10

Keywords: rural women, developing countries

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Interactions between insulin like growth factor 1, thyroid hormones and blood energy metabolites in cattle with postpartum inactive ovaries

 

Nahed Saleh1, Emad Mahmud, 2 Emad Waded 1

 1. Department of Clinical Pathology

2. Department of obstetrics, Fac. of Vet. Med., Menufiya Univ., El-Sadat Branch, Egypt

nahedsaleh2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The relationship among insulin-like growth factor-1, thyroid hormones, energy metabolites and ovarian activity was investigated in cattle with postpartum inactive ovaries. The study was conducted on two groups of cows. The first group consisted of 10 cows with postpartum inactive ovaries (non-cyclic cows) based on rectal and ultrasonographic examination. The second group consisted of 8 cows in estrus (cyclic cows). The evaluated parameters included serum concentrations of variables of energy metabolites such as glucose (GLU), total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH). Serum concentrations of total proteins (TP) were also measured. The hormones evaluated in this study included metabolic hormones such as insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) in addition to hormonal indicators of ovarian activity as progesterone (PRO) and estradiol (E2). The results revealed that serum levels of E2 was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the non-cyclic cows compared with the cyclic group. Serum GLU concentrations showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) while TL and TCH were significantly increased (P<0.05). Metabolic hormones profile demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05) in IGF-1, T4 and T3 in cows with inactive ovaries compared to the cyclic cows. Correlations between the monitored variables indicated that there was a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between GLU and E2 and a significant negative relationship between TL, TCH and E2 (P<0.05). We reported a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between IGF-1 and E2, GLU, T4 and T3. T4 was positively correlated (P<0.05) with E2, GLU, IGF-1 and T3, while a significant negative relationship between T4 and both TL and TCH was recorded. There was also a significant positive correlation between T3 and E2, GLU, IGF-I and T4. Significant positive correlation between TL and TCH was found while serum glucose showed no strong correlations with other energy-related metabolites. These results suggest that incidence of low reproductive performance in the postpartum lactating cows is associated with a decrease of some metabolic hormones such as IGF-1, T4 and T3 and the alterations seen in these hormones could be tightly related with changing in energy metabolites suggesting that energy influences ovarian activity in postpartum lactating cows possibly through changes in secretory patterns of these metabolic hormones.

[Nahed Saleh, Emad Mahmud, Emad Waded. Interactions between insulin like growth factor 1, thyroid hormones and blood energy metabolites in cattle with postpartum inactive ovaries. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):56-63]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.11

Keywords: IGF-1; thyroid hormones; inactive ovary; energy metabolites

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Nuclear Research Reactors Accidents Diagnosis Using Genetic Algorithm/Artificial Neural Networks

 

Abdelfattah A. Ahmed**, Nwal A. Alfishawy*, Mohamed A. Albrdini* and Imbaby I. Mahmoud**

 

* Minufiya university, Faculty of Comp. & Inf., Minuf, Egypt.

** Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Research Center, Inshas, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The Nuclear Research Reactors plants are expected to be operated with high levels of reliability, availability and safety. In order to achieve and maintain system stability and assure satisfactory and safe operation, there is increasing demand for automated systems to detect and diagnose such failures. In recent years, both Genetic algorithms and neural networks, which are inspired by computation in biological systems, are emerged as established techniques for optimization and learning. Genetic algorithms have been used in conjunction with neural networks in three major ways: First, genetic algorithms have been used to construct neural network topologies. Second, they have been used to set the weights in fixed architectures. Third, they have been used to select training data and to interpret the output behavior of neural networks. This paper is concerned with the construction of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) using Genetic algorithms (GAs) for the nuclear accidents diagnosis. MATLAB ANNs toolbox and GAs toolbox are employed to optimize an ANN for this purpose. When we apply the results obtained from genetic algorithms on the back-propagation algorithm, the results are similar but the design of ANNs using GAs is useful in terms of automating and optimizing the design and finding weights and biases for the suggested construction. The results obtained show the efficiency of using genetic algorithm, which can construct the high performance neural network structure for the nuclear reactor's input data. The best structure obtained is two layers ANN with correspondence values of weights and biases that are required to construct such network. [Abdelfattah A. Ahmed; Nwal Ahmed Alfishawy; Mohamed A. Albrdini, and Imbaby I. Mahmoud. Nuclear Research Reactors Accidents Diagnosis Using Genetic Algorithm/Artificial Neural Networks. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):64-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.12

Keywords: Genetic algorithms (GA), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Nuclear Reactors, Accidents Diagnosis, MATLAB

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Yield Productivity and Energy-Saving Advantages at Applying Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer in Upper Egypt

 

*Khadra A.Abbady, M.M.M Ahmed, M A Elshazely and Amer Kh A

 

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Instit. Agric.Res. Center.

* Corresponding author: nefert60@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two experiments have been conducted in New Valley and Assiut agriculture research stations "Typic Torripsamments, hyperthermic and Typic Torriorthents, coarse loamy, hyperthermic" to evaluate the fertilization of two cropping sequences of oil crops (sunflower, safflower and peanut & sesame and canola) with ureaform (UF) as a slow release nitrogen fertilizer (SRNF) comparing with ammonium nitrate (AN) as a conventional one. First sequence: the applied rates of UF-fertilizer have been 45, 67.5, 90, and 112.5 kg N.fed-1 added as side banding only at planting the first crop, Sunflower, followed by safflower planting in the same previous plots and then peanut to determine the residual effect of UF-fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate (AN) has been applied in one rate of 45, 45 and 20 kg N.fed-1 (recommended rate) for each crop of the sequence and in the same order. It has been taken as a scale to estimate the performance of UF, in addition to no-fertilized one (Control). Second sequence: UF-fertilizer has been applied in the same rates mentioned in first sequence against the recommended rate of ammonium nitrate (45 kg N.fed-1 for each crop) with or without application of clay sediments and control treatment. Yield and its components, Nitrogen & energy consumption ability, net return and investment factor have been recorded. The results show that: (1) Firstly, the UF-fertilizer has almost had strong positive effect on yield and its components for both two cropping sequences. (2) Secondly, calculations of nitrogen-consumption ability have demonstrated that the UF-fertilizer has had much more efficiency at donating its nitrogen than that of AN one where their values at first cropping sequence have been (on average) 70 and 110 kg N. ton-1 dry matter (yield) for UF and AN respectively, as well as 92.66 and 158.72 at second cropping sequence. (3) Thirdly, calculations of Energy-consumption ability have illustrated that the saved energy with application of UF-fertilizer to produce one ton dry matter (yield) has been (on average) 36.54% for first cropping sequence and 41.6% for second cropping sequence calculated of those of AN-one. In other words, the saved energy with using UF has been (on average) 83.75 and 105.69, Liter of diesel fuel.ton-1 dry matter for first and second cropping sequence respectively which equivalent to 3132.25 and 3952.81 M. Joule or 0.53 and 0.67 barrel of diesel fuel or L.E. 92.13 and L.E.116.26. This would undoubtedly reduce CO2 emissions, the first accused in global worming case. (4) Fourthly, all treatments have been almost implemented reasonable profitability (IF>3) either at first or second cropping sequences. The economic application of UF has been fulfilled when it hah been applied in high rate and then it is enough to fertilize two crops. It is also observed that added the clay has positively affected net return; however it has not given profitability. In spite of marked superiority of UF-net return value to those of AN, their IF values have been approximated. (5) Fifthly, the cost of consumed energy related to nitrogen fertilization has been reduced to about 1/2 by using UF fertilizer.

[Mariam Refaat Mohamed Gad and Mohamed Fawsy Abd-El hamid. Yield Productivity and Energy Saving Advantages at Applying Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer in Upper Egypt. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):75-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.13

 

Key words: ureaform; slow release nitrogen fertilizer (SRNF); clay sediments; oil crops; nitrogen-consumption ability; energy-consumption ability

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Response of Snap Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Plants to Nitrogen Fertilizer and Foliar Application with Methionine and Tryptophan

 

El-Awadi, M. E.*1; A. M. El-Bassiony2; Z. F. Fawzy2 and M. A. El-Nemr2

 

1Botany Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Vegt. Res. Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*el_awadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out in two successive seasons of 2008 and2009 at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre, EL-Nubaria, Elbehira Governorate, Egypt, to study the effect of different combinations of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100%, 65% and 35% of the recommended dose) with two levels of foliar spray methionine and tryptophan (100 and 200mgL-1) on growth, pod yield, quality and some chemical constituents of snap bean plants. Results showed that fertigated snap bean plants with the highest nitrogen dose increased the vegetative growth, yield and quality. tryptophan (100mgL-1) improved vegetative growth, yield and quality. Foliar application of tryptophan at both concentrations increased free amino acids content and phenolics content in the leaves. In addition, both concentrations of methionine increased free amino acid, protein percentage and nitrogen percentage in pod. It can be concluded that nitrogen fertilizer can be reduced to 65% with sprayed tryptophan amino acid (100mgL-1) to obtain the highest vegetative growth, yield and quality of snap bean plants.

[El-Awadi, M. E.; A. M. El-Bassiony; Z. F. Fawzy and M. A. El-Nemr. Response of Snap Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Plants to Nitrogen Fertilizer and Foliar Application with Methionine and Tryptophan]. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):87-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.14

 

Keywords: Snap bean, Nitrogen fertilizers, Amino acids, Vegetative growth, Yield, Fruit quality

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Medicinal Plants of submontane forest in a part of Tarai and Bhawar of Kumaun Himalaya

 

Bhasker Joshi

 

Department of Botany, R. H. Govt. P. G. College, Kashipur (Kumaun University, Nainital) Uttarakhand, India-244713. E-Mail: bhaskerjoshiphd@in.com

 

Abstract: The medicinal properties of forest vegetation was analyzed in a submontane forest of Tarai and Bhawar of Kumaun adjacent to Kashipur, at (29 14-43.6)–(29 19-50.5) E longitude and (79 03-22.6)–(79 04-23.2) N latitude at an elevation of 253.4–265.5 meter above the sea level, within the districts of Nainital and Udham Singh Nagar. 29 plants species belonging to 22 family, 26 genera, and 29 species were reported. Of these leaves in 19% cases, roots and whole plants in 16% cases, fruits and bark 13% cases are used. Based on life form 17 phanerophytes, 5 chamaephytes, 4 therophytes, 2 hemicryptophytes and 1 therophyte were recorded.

[Bhasker Joshi. Medicinal Plants of submontane forest in a part of Tarai and Bhawar of Kumaun Himalaya. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):95-99]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.15

 

Key Words: Ethnomedicinal, Kumaun Himalaya, Medicinal plant, Submontane forest, Tarai and Bhawar.

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Mechanism and Modelling for Sorption of Toxic Ion on Cement Kiln Dust

 

A. El- Dakroury*, M.S. Sayed and E. EL- Sherif

 

Hot lab. Center and waste management, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759 Cairo Egypt

*eaishaw95@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cement manufacturing is a critically important industry in Egypt. The industrial by-product and waste materials must be managed responsibly to insure a clean and safe environment. Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a significant by-product material of the cement manufacturing process. Cement kiln dust is a waste residue composed chiefly of oxidized, anhydrous, micron – sized particles generated as a by product of the manufacture of Portland cement. The use of cement kiln dust as adsorbent in wastewater treatment has a great attention as cheap material and clay structure. This work will discuss the basic characteristics of CKD physical and chemical properties and regulatory requirements. The batch removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using low-cost adsorbents such as cement kiln dust under different experimental conditions and the influences of initial Cr (VI) ion concentration (50 to 300 mgl-1) and pH (1 to 4) were investigated in this study. Adsorption of Cr (VI) is highly pH-dependent and the results indicate that the optimum pH for the removal was found to be 1 for CKD. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of Cr (VI) ions on the CKD was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, the pseudo second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models, respectively. The results showed that the pseudo second-order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well.

[A. El- Dakroury, M.S. Sayed and E.EL- Sherif. Mechanism and Modelling for Sorption of Toxic Ion on CementKiln Dust]. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):100-108]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.16

 

Keywords: CKD; adsorption; Cr (VI); adsorption kinetics; low-cost adsorbents

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The Value of Esterman Binocular Visual Field Testing in Issuing A Driver’s License for Glaucoma Patients

 

Iman A. Fahmy, Fady E. Mitwally, and *Marwa A. Fouly

 

Glaucoma Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO)-airo- Egypt

*marwa_elfouly@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To identify the relation between monocular visual field in glaucoma patients and binocular visual field (VF) (Esterman VF) and its effect on driving performance in different stages of glaucoma and to investigate whether Esterman disability score (EDS) is suitable for the assessment of mobility difficulty. Objective: Whether the visual efficiency scale in drivers’ licensing currently adopted to determine the legal grade of visual disability associated with visual field loss is appropriate or not for the evaluation of disability regarding driving. Patients and Methods: Twenty eight patients recruited from the glaucoma clinic of the Research Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO) with different grades of glaucomatous VF affection were included in the study: mild VF affection: MD >6.00 dB, moderate VF affection: MD 6-12 dB, severe VF affection: <12 dB. Normally sighted control subjects were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the RIO. The glaucoma patients included in the study were follow-up patients of the glaucoma clinic. Detailed ophthalmological examination was performed including corrected and uncorrected visual acuity (VA) measurement using the Landolt VA chart, assessment of the angle of the anterior chamber using the Goldman contact lens for grading, examination of the optic nerve head using the 90 D indirect Volk lens, monocular visual field test using the Automated Humphery VF Analyzer 24-2 strategy and the binocular Esterman VF of the same patient on the same day. The correlation between the EDS and the monocular VF 24-2of each eye and the degree of subjective mobility difficulty was analyzed by statistical formulae. Conclusion: In addition to the currently adopted visual efficiency scale, EDS could be employed for the assessment of mobility difficulty in patients with visual field loss, also to establish new judgment criteria for issuing driver’s license.

[Iman A. Fahmy, Fady E. Mitwally, and Marwa A. Fouly. The Value of Esterman Binocular Visual Field Testing in Issuing A Driver’s License for Glaucoma Patients]. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):109-118]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.17

Keywords: Esterman Binocular Visual Field; Driver’s License; Glaucoma Patient

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Histopathological and Enzyme Changes in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) Exposed to Nitrite at Different Water Temperatures

 

Ajani, F 1; Emikpe B. O.. 2 And Adeyemo, O. K.3

 

1 Department of Animal Science and Fisheries Management, Bowen University, lwo, Nigeria

2 Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of lbadan,lbadan, Nigeria

3 Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive medicine, University of lbadan, lbadan, Nigeria

funmilolajani@yahoo.com; bendoctor@yahoo.com; olanikeadeyemo@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Nitrite is a natural component of the nitrogen cycle in ecosystems.lt is an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate.The elevation of ambient nitrite concentration is a potential problem for freshwater fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different water temperatures on the toxic effect of nitrite in a freshwater fish. Sixty Clarias gariepinus (300 1.30g), were exposed to nitrite at different water temperatures (270C and 350C) for 48hours. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total protein levels were assayed in the gill, liver and tissue (skin) of the fish. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Analysis (SPSS 11.0 for Windows). Statistical differences were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired-sample t test. ALT and ALP increased significantly (P<0.05) in nitrite-intoxicated fish at 350C compared to the value obtained at 270C in the organs while a significant decrease (P<0.05) was observed for the enzyme AST at 350C compared to 270C. Protein level in all the tissues showed a significant decrease in nitrite-intoxicated fish at higher temperature. The histopathological changes observed in the gills of nitrite-treated fish at 350C were that of congestion and vacuolization while the liver showed generalized fatty350C were that of congestion and vacuolization while the liver showed generalized fatty degeneration, congestion of central veins and multifocal necrosis. Moderate hydropic degeneration of the epidermal layer was observed in the skin tissue. These results revealed that high temperature can increase the toxic action of nitrite in fish.

[Ajani, F.; Emikpe B. O. And Adeyemo, O. K. Histopathological and Enzyme Changes in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) Exposed to Nitrite at Different Water Temperatures. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):119-124]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.18

 

Keywords: Nitrite, Clarias gariepinus, enzymes, proteins, histopathology, Temperature, toxicity.

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Enzyme Mediated Amido Black Decolourization by Soil borne RS-II Strain Isolated from an Industrial Town.

 

Arun Kumar, Robina Sharma, Rajesh Sawhney*

 

Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, Budh, Baddi, Distt. Solan (H.P). 173205 India

sawhneyrajesh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Total 10 strains of microorganisms were isolated from the soils exposed to dyeing industry effluent, in and around Baddi. (HP). The isolate, RS-II, tentatively identified as Galactomyces sp. showed maximum amido black (azo dye) decolourization activity (72.08%), on primary screening. However, this isolate exhibited 81.43% decolourization of amido black, under optimal conditions of pH (8.0) and temperature (370C). The decolourization activity was found to be pH and temperature dependant, and mediated by enzymatic step. The SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis results spotted a 66 Kd band. The purification of crude enzyme was carried out by Ion Exchange Chromatography. The activity of the pure fraction (eluted CM sepharose) was recorded as 5.5 moles/min/ml. The study highlights that RS-II has an adequate potential to decolourize the amido black dye, and the pure fraction of enzyme has even higher potential to do so. The findings could be a safe and viable solution for bioremediation of azo dye containing effluents, and could be an effective gateway to evolve more advanced and effective strategies based on the use of pure or immobilized enzymes.

[Arun Kumar, Robina Sharma, Rajesh Sawhney Enzyme Mediated Amido Black Decolourization by Soil borne RS-II Strain Isolated from an Industrial Town. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):125-131]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.19

 

Key words: decolourization, amido black, azo dye, bioremediation, SDS-PAGE, Galactomyces sp

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The Ends of the Earth (The Four Corners of the Earth)

 

Soleilmavis Liu

 

Phone: +(86) 13854570873

Email: soleilmavis@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Old and New Testament Bible Stories told us The Creation Story; and God used Jews stories to teach us that we should obey God Jesus, walked the earth in the form of a man, he lived only near Jerusalem. But God did not only live in Jerusalem. God was everywhere! The Bible mentioned "the Ends of the Earth" many times. The Queen of the South came from the Ends of the Earth (Matthew12:42). When The Queen of the South would rise at the Judgment, more stories of “the Ends of the Earth” would be given. This article briefly introduced where “the Ends of the Earth” were; who lived in “the Ends of the Earth”; The Brief histories and legends of “The Ends of the Earth”. Indexing references were listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order.

[Soleilmavis Liu. The Ends of the Earth. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):132-139]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.20

 

Keywords: Bible; Creation; God; Jews; Jerusalem; End; Earth

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Increase the efficiency of adult education with the proper use of learning styles

 

Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Students, in fact all individuals, are most effective when they are taught in their personal learning style. In fact, there are three major types of learners: visual, auditory, and tactile/kinesthetic. While most individuals without disabilities can learn using any one of these styles, most people have one for which they show a stronger affinity. There are many tests available to help you and your students discover your best learning style. Generally speaking, however, if you are someone who is more likely to think in pictures, prefer to meet with someone in person, and are more likely to want visual diagrams when completing a project you have tendencies towards visual learning. Similarly, if you are more likely to think in terms of sounds, prefer to speak on the phone with someone, and want verbal instructions then you tend towards auditory learning. Finally, if you are more likely to think in terms of moving images like mini-movies in your mind, prefer to participate in an activity when you meet to speak with someone, and tend to jump right into a project without reading directions you tend towards tactile/kinesthetic learning.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour. Increase the efficiency of adult education with the proper use of learning styles. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):140-145]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.21

Keywords: learning styles, adult learning

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Learning styles in education: with emphasis on adult education

 

Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Though rarer today then in the past, some teachers discount the importance of learning styles. They continue to teach in their one major method without trying to vary instructional methods. This is a mistake that will lead to less learning in the classroom. On the other hand, many students and to a lesser degree some teachers make the mistake of thinking that they cannot learn using methods that are not focused on their learning style. This is also a huge mistake that in the end will result in less learning. If teachers do not help their students find ways to be successful learning information presented in any style, they are not helping them succeed in the future. The fact is that students will be faced with many different styles of teaching during the educational career. Only by finding ways to adapt and learn using other styles, will students end up succeeding.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour. Learning styles in education: with emphasis on adult education. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):146-149]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.22

 

Keywords: learning styles, adult learning

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Understanding and Using Learning Styles

 

Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There are many tests available to help you and your students discover your best learning style. Generally speaking, however, if you are someone who is more likely to think in pictures, prefer to meet with someone in person, and are more likely to want visual diagrams when completing a project you have tendencies towards visual learning. Similarly, if you are more likely to think in terms of sounds, prefer to speak on the phone with someone, and want verbal instructions then you tend towards auditory learning. Finally, if you are more likely to think in terms of moving images like mini-movies in your mind, prefer to participate in an activity when you meet to speak with someone, and tend to jump right into a project without reading directions you tend towards tactile/kinesthetic learning.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehdi Nazarpour. Understanding and Using Learning Styles. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):150-154]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.23

 

Keywords: learning styles, adult learning

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Farmers’s Perception of Sugar cane Production and Marketing Problems in Qena and Asswan Governorates, Egypt

 

*Bahgat M. Abdel-Maksoud and Ez- Eldin E. M. Gad-El-Kareim

 

Agric. Extension Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt

*bahgatm43@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to know farmers’ perception and evaluation of problems facing sugar cane growers in Qena and Asswan governorates, Egypt. An empirical investigation was carried out to identify and assess problems facing sugarcane growers in six villages in these two governorates (four villages in Qena and two villages in Asswan). The identification of sugarcane problems was based on data gathered from nine focus groups held with farmers in three villages and problems identified in the previous research. Twenty seven production problems and nineteen marketing problems were identified. The assessment of these identified problems was based on survey data collected by means of personal interview using questionnaires from a random sample of 262 farmers in the other three villages (Two villages in Qena and One village in Asswan). Sample members were asked to state whether each problem existed, the degree of its importance, and efforts devoted to solve it. Different methods and techniques were used for problems assessment. These are: importance, achievement, the discrepancy between importance and achievement, Borich model, Delta N, and the Modified Delta N method. Results showed that most of the identified problems were perceived by farmers were evaluated as important or very important problems. Differences among farmers in the three villages in the two governorates were examined. Problems were rank ordered according to the results of different assessment methods and techniques. Ranking results showed spatial differences among farmers in the two governorates. The extension system should be aware of such problems and differences and plan its programmes and activities based on them.

[Bahgat M. Abdel-Maksoud and Ez- Eldin E. M. Gad-El-Kareim. Farmers’s Perception of Sugar cane Production and Marketing Problems in Qena and Asswan Governorates, Egypt]. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):155-162]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.24

 

Keywords: Sugar cane Problems, assessment methods, Modified data N, Egypt

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Imprinted polymers as drug delivery vehicles for anti-inflammatory drugs 

 

Mehrdad Mahkam*, Nahid Poorgholy

 

Chemistry Department, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem. Tabriz, Iran

mmahkam@yahoo.com; mahkam@azaruniv.edu

 

Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of employing semi-covalent molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as a controlled release device for ibuprofen and naproxen in biological fluids, especially gastrointestinal ones, compared to non imprinted polymers (NIPs). The carboxyl groups of ibuprofen and naproxen were converted to vinyl ester group by reacting ibuprofen and vinyl acetate as an acylating agent in the presence of catalyst. The semi-covalent molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by free radical polymerization of vinyl esters derivatives of ibuprofen and naproxen in the presence of methacrylic acid and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The composition of the cross-linked three-dimensional polymers was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. The hydrolysis of drug polymer conjugates was carried out in cellophane membrane dialysis bags and the in vitro release profiles were established separately in enzyme-free simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF, pH 1 and SIF, pH 7.4). Detection of hydrolysis solution by UV spectroscopy at selected intervals showed that the drug can be released by hydrolysis of the ester bond between the drug and polymer backbone in low rate.

[Mehrdad Mahkam, Nahid Poorgholy. Imprinted polymers as drug delivery vehicles for anti-inflammatory drugs. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):163-168]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.25

 

Key words: molecularly imprinted polymer, pH-sensitive, anti-inflammatory drugs, sustained release

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Chemical Reaction in Tomato Plants in Response to A biotic Elicitors Treatments 

 

1El-Samra, I.A.; 1M. A. Amer; 2M. R. Abd-El-Hamid; 3S. S. Kabeil; and 1A. M. El-Alwany

 

1Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba-Bacha), Alexandria University, P.O. Box 21531-Bolkley, Alexandria, Egypt

2Plant Protection Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Sabahia, Alexandria, Egypt.

3Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg-El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt

bcgroup1@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Early blight resistant cultivar “Tezier” and susceptible cv. “Castle rock” were tested to identification their response to A. solani infection on tomato seedlings pre-treated with chemical inducers: Salicylic acid (SA), Isonicotinic acid (INA), and Thiamine (vit. B1), under greenhouse conditions. Resistant cv. “Tezier” exhibited rapid reaction represented in higher significant endogenous SA levels compared to the susceptible cv. “Castle rock” for all chemical treatments. “Tezier” endogenous SA levels surpassed “Castle Rock”, 5 folds in exogenous SA, 2 fold in INA, and about 5 folds for vit. B1 application. “Tezier” also had higher quantities in PRs accumulation (β-1, 3-glucanase, chitinase and peroxidase) in time course intervals 3, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs after pathogen inoculation, through increase of PRs activity which was started one day after inoculation in all the induced plants and reached maximum level after three to four days compared to “Castle rock” for all chemical inducers. Total protein content and polyphenol oxidase activity were also observed, their levels were highly significant in “Tezier”.

[El-Samra, I.A.; M. A. Amer; M. R. Abd-El-Hamid; S. S. Kabeil; and A. M. El-Alwany. Chemical Reaction in Tomato Plants in Response to A biotic Elicitors Treatments. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):169-185]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.26

 

Key Wards; Early blight disease; Chemical inducers: Salicylic acid (SA), Isonicotinic acid (INA), and Thiamine (vit. B1).

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Toxigenic Potential of Co-occurring Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin A Detected in Poultry feed on Clarias gariepinus Larvae

 

Ezekiel C.N.1*, A.C. Odebode2, S.O. Fapohunda1, G.O. Tayo3, O.J. Olawuyi1, O.B. Olaoye1, A.O. Olarinmoye4 And O.O. Adeyemi1

 

1Mycology Unit, Department of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Babcock University, PMB 21244, Ikeja, Lagos 100 001, Nigeria.

2Mycology Unit, Department of Botany & Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

3Animal Nutrition Unit, Department of Agriculture & Industrial Technology, Babcock University.

4Veterinary Medicine Unit, Department of Agriculture & Industrial Technology, Babcock University.

*Corresponding author: <chaugez@gmail.com>

 

Abstract: The worldwide contamination of poultry feeds with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) independently and in co-occurrence has been reported in several countries. However, there is paucity of information on the co-occurrence of aflatoxins and OTA and their detection by immunoassay in Nigerian poultry feed. Fourty-seven locally formulated poultry samples collected from 13 locations within Southwestern Nigeria were analyzed for total aflatoxins (TA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) using the Immunoassay method. The potential toxicities of the samples were tested by the Clarias gariepinus day-old larvae bioassay. Approximately 98.2% samples were positive for TA and OTA with concentrations above the limits of quantitation. The ranges of TA and OTA in the samples were <4.0 g kg-1 to 575 g kg-1 and <2.0 g kg-1 to 14.2 g kg-1 respectively. Toxicity to C. gariepinus larvae was concentration dependent and 17, 21 and 7 samples containing the co-occurring toxins showed high, moderate and low toxicities respectively. On the average, 88.9% and 65.5% of the total samples had concentrations above the EU permissible limits for TA in immature and mature poultry feed respectively. The overall contamination risk for TA and OTA in samples in a significant (P = 0.01) decreasing order was: chick mash, broiler finisher, layers mash, broiler starter and growers mash.

[Ezekiel C.N., A.C. Odebode, S.O. Fapohunda, G.O. Tayo, O.J. Olawuyi, O.B. Olaoye, A.O. Olarinmoye And O.O. Adeyemi. Toxigenic Potential of Co-occurring Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin A Detected in Poultry feed on Clarias gariepinus Larvae. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):186-192]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.27

 

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Immunoassay, Ochratoxin A, Poultry feed, Toxicity assay

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Estimating external demand functions for Egyptian exports of grapes In light of the current global economic variables

 

MohyEL-Din M. Kh. El-BeGAWY, Ezzat Awad Zaghloul, Iman Abdel-Ghafour Ahmed and Mahmoud Riad ElGebaly

 

Agricultural Economics Department, National Research Centre, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The research aim is to estimate the functions of foreign demand for Egyptian exports of grapes to the most important foreign markets, imported. These markets are the markets "the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Italy", considering that these markets are the main importing markets for Egyptian grapes, which absorbed about 69% of the amount of exports of Egyptian grapes during the period (2005-2009). The results showed that, an increase in export price of Egyptian grapes to the UK market by about 1% leads to a decrease in demand of about 2.412% of any commodity to be flexible in this high demand market. The cross demand elasticity’s noted that the increase in the Egyptian grapes price as the main rival to Egypt market to the United Kingdom are (Spain, Germany, and the United States) is estimated at 1% lead to increased demand for Egyptian grapes about 1.521%, 1.140%, and 0.175%, respectively. These refer to the replacement relationship between grapes exported from these countries and the grapes exported from Egypt. The spending elasticity indicated that the power to increase the true total spending import of the United Kingdom on grapes by about 1%, leading to increased spending on Egyptian grapes about 0.792%, which indicates that the Egyptian grapes is a commodity necessary within the UK market. With regard to the Netherlands market, the elasticity of demand price on Egyptian grapes showed that, the increase in the price of grapes, about 1% leads to a decrease in demand of about 1.594%, which means that a product with elastic demand in this market. The cross demand of elasticity’s noted to increase in the price of exported grapes, from these states as the main rival to Egypt which are Spain, Germany, and Greece, about 1% leads to an increase of demand on Egyptian grapes about 0.481%, 0.659%, and 0.572%, respectively. These referred to the replacement relationship between Egyptian grapes from one hand and the exported grapes from those countries on the other hand. The spending elasticity power shown that to increase the real total spending import of Dutch grapes about 1%, leading to increased spending on Egyptian grapes about 0.851%, which indicates that the Egyptian grapes is a commodity necessary within the Dutch market. While, noting that the results of estimating model (ADIS) with respect to price elasticity of demand on Egyptian grapes in the Italian market, that the increase in prices by about 1% leads to a decrease in demand of about 0.469%, which means that a product with inelastic demand of the Italian market. Nevertheless, noting that cross demand’s elasticity that an increase in the price of grapes, from the States as the main rival to Egypt-Italian market which are (Spain, Germany, the Netherlands, and Israel) about 1% lead to changes in demand for Egyptian grapes about 3.193%, 1.490, - 0.244%, and 1.738% respectively. These indicate the replacement relationship of exported grapes from those countries in the one hand, and the exported grapes from Egypt in the other hand (excluding the Netherlands). This relationship is complementary, in the case of high export prices of Spain, Germany, Israel, and Egypt, respectively. It is clearly seen from the spending power of elasticity that, to increase the real Italian total import spending of grapes about 1%, leading to the increased expenditure on the import Italian Egyptian grapes by 0.814%, which indicates that the Egyptian grapes is a necessary commodity in the Italian market. The study recommended that, there is a need for attention to specifications of the required quality and conformity to international standards, and develop systems to ensure quality control. As well as, working on creating a strong export institutions and export high-efficiency, to study foreign markets and their needs in terms of quantity, quality and time of export. In addition to the study of world markets, competition for Egypt in the important markets, with the need to open new markets for exports of Egyptian grapes, and not rely mainly on a single market or a limited number of markets, as it turned out coefficiency of geographic concentration of the quantity of exports of Egyptian grapes, that there is a heavy concentration in the amount of exports of Egyptian grapes, which may displays these exports to the violent tremors if was one of these markets.

[MohyEL-Din M. Kh. El-BeGAWY, Ezzat Awad Zaghloul, Iman Abdel-Ghafour Ahmed and Mahmoud Riad ElGebaly. Estimating external demand functions for Egyptian exports of grapes In light of the current global economic variables. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):193-204]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.28

 

Key Words: Egyptian Grapes exports, Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS), Competitiveness capability, demand-price elasticity, cross elasticity, indicated elasticity.

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Light Hydrocarbons in Niger Delta Oils: Geochemical Significance of Ring Preference.

 

Mark O. Onyema and Leo C. Osuji.

 

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 onyemark@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The light hydrocarbon ring preference (RP) in crude oils from the Niger Delta has been investigated. The crude oil samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic fingerprints of ring preference light hydrocarbons. The ratios of P23, P33 (3RP) and N25 (5RP) ranged from 9.73 to 13.27%, 4.04 to 7.90% and 8.75 to 14.71% with no compositional variation of ring preference for correlation and/or differentiation. The ratio of 6RP, N1 ranged from 38.47 to 55.17% and revealed Niger Delta crude oils as exhibiting high 6RP. The ratio of parent P1 separates the oils into two homologous sets. k2 supports the grouping by P1, compares well with RP ratio and classified EN-A4, EN-A9 (Eastern) and CE-B3, CE-C7 (Central) as marine source crude oils and WT-D5 (Western) as terrigenous source oil. Plots of ring preference further showed that Western Niger Delta oil remained distinct from the Central and Eastern oils. Gross differences observed on star plots of key ring preference parameters established that the Central and Eastern crude oils remained constrained and distinct from the Western. The ring preference appears to be reliable but must be interpreted within a complete understanding of the petroleum system under study.

[Mark O. Onyema and Leo C. Osuji. Light Hydrocarbons in Niger Delta Oils: Geochemical Significance of Ring Preference. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):205-210]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.29

 

Key words: Ring Preference, Light Hydrocarbons, Niger Delta, Geochemical, Star Plot.

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Role of nitric acid or H2O2 in antioxidant defense system of Pisum sativum L. under drought stress

 

1Helal Ragab Moussa and 2Mohamed Abd El-Fattah Hassan Mohamed

 

1Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Malaeb El-Gamaa St., P.O. 12311, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2Agriculture Research Center, Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Giza

 

Abstract: Water shortage is likely to be one of the major global environmental stresses of the 21st century. Drought is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed pretreatment by hydrogen peroxide at 70 mM or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor) at 10 M on drought tolerance in pea seedlings. Osmotic stress was provoked by addition of polyethylene glycol to the nutrient solution at the flowering stage. H2O2 or SNP are active molecules involved in mediation of various biotic and abiotic stress induced physiological responses in plants. H2O2 or SNP pretreatment alleviate oxidative damage, accelerate proline accumulation and enhance total chlorophyll, carotenoid, photosynthetic activity (14CO2–fixation), and total yield/plant in leaves of pea seedlings subjected to osmotic stress. The results showed that osmotic stress induced decrease in the enzyme activities of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and overproduction of O2˙ˉ in pea leaves, which in turn caused exacerbation of lipid peroxidation and depression of photosynthesis. Application of H2O2 or SNP significantly increased the enzyme activities and decrease O2˙ˉ production and hence inhibited lipid peroxidation. Level of H2O2, proline and Evan blue uptake in seedlings pretreated with H2O2 or SNP were markedly lower than under drought stress, indicating the operation of antioxidant system in them. Moreover, seedlings arising from H2O2 or SNP pretreatment enhanced the membrane stability, as revealed from greatly reduced malondialdehyde content. The present data suggest that pea seed pretreatment with H2O2 or SNP, a stress signal, could trigger the activation of antioxidants in seeds, which persists in the seedlings to alleviate the oxidative damage, leading to improvements in physiological attributes for the seedling growth under drought.

[Helal Ragab Moussa and Mohamed Abd El-Fattah Hassan Mohamed. Role of nitric acid or H2O2 in antioxidant defense system of Pisum sativum L. under drought stress. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):211-216]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.30

 

Keywords: Antioxidative enzymes, Drought stress, Photosynthesis, Proline, Pea

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Protease Production and Growth Characteristics of Aspergillus sydowii

 

Arun Kumar Sharma*, Vinay Sharma and Jyoti Saxena

 

1. Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, 304022, Rajasthan, India.

* Corresponding Author Email:

 

Abstract: The present work was aimed to evaluate the optimization of medium composition for protease production by Aspergillus sydowii. The fungus was isolated from the garden soil of Banasthali University and was identified as Aspergillus sydowii on potato dextrose agar medium. It was maintained on potato dextrose agar medium for 7 days at 280C. Spore suspensions was prepared, inoculated in Czapek Dox broth medium supplemented with various substrates, incubated and the mycelium was separated from the culture medium by filtration and the filtrate was used to determine the protease activity. The biomass was determined after drying the mycelium at room temperature for 24 hours. Maximum growth rate of this fungus in casein as substrate was found after 8 days of incubation (7.11mgmL-1) at 350C. But maximum protease activity was obtained after 6 days (11.95 Uh-1mg-1dry mycelium). The highest protease production was attained with casein, peptone and mung seedlings as nitrogen sources. The extracellular protease production and mycelial growth were influenced by the concentration of casein. Other protein sources (yeast extract) supported growth but did not induce such excellent protease synthesis and ammonia as end product repressed it, indicating catabolite repression in this microorganism. Optimal protease production was obtained at final pH 5.3.

[Arun Kumar Sharma, Vinay Sharma and Jyoti Saxena. Protease Production and Growth Characteristics of Aspergillus sydowii. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):217-221]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.31

 

Key words: Aspergillus sydowii, Casein, Nitrogen sources, Protease.

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DNA fingerprinting of Rape seed (Brassica rapa L.) varieties of Bangladesh using SSR markers

 

M.R. Molla1*, M.N. Islam2, M.M. Rohman3, I. Ahmed1 and L. Rahman4

 

1Molecular Biology Laboratory, Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Department of Biotechnology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka

3Molecular Breeding Laboratory, Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

4Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymenisingh

rezwanbt@gmail.com, motiar_1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The identification and differentiation of the varieties through DNA fingerprinting using microsatellites (SSRs) are quite effective, when the variety specific primers are used. This is gaining importance particularly when the distinguishing a variety from others using morphological traits are becoming difficult due to use of limited elite varieties for new varieties. A set of microsatellite loci (B.n.12A, B.n.38A and B.n.59A1) has been investigate to distinguish the uniqueness of nine released rape seed (Brassica rapa L.) varieties in Bangladesh for the purpose of obtaining distinctness of the plant variety at molecular level. In the present study a total of nine rape seed (Brassica rapa L.) varieties have been used to characterize those groups. Upon PCR amplification, the alleles were separated on polyacrylamide gel using a sequencing gel electrophoresis system and visualized by silver-staining method. The loci were polymorphic in all the varieties. Differences were observed in heterozygosities in the studied varieties. The mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) were 0.124 and 0.507, respectively. Varied ranges of alleles occurred might be due to mutation of di-nucleotide repeat units which could also be indicative of varietal differences. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values in the present study were high which ranged from 0.481 to 0.667. UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei’s (1972) genetic distance indicated differentiation of nine varieties of rape seed into two main clusters: Tori-7, BARI sharisha-9 and BARI sharisha-12 grouped in cluster 2 while others in cluster 1. In cluster 1 Agrani and Sampad grouped together in sub-cluster I and with minimal genetic distance (0.000). Safal also showed nil genetic distance with SS-75 and BARI sarisha-6. The varieties Sampad and Tori-7 showed the highest genetic distance value (3.860). Nine rape seed varieties in this study showed unique and differential DNA banding patterns across at least one and/or combination of three primers. The data obtained can be provided some levels of identity and protection against remaining and other practices are beyond ethics and rules.

[Molla MR, Islam MN, Rohman MM, Ahmed I, Rahman L. DNA fingerprinting of Rape seed (Brassica rapa L.) varieties of Bangladesh using SSR markers. Nature and Science 2011;9(5):222-228]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090511.32

 

Keywords: SSR, Genetic diversity, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), Rape seed

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 27, 2011
 
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