Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 9 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 51), June 25, 2011
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0906 
 
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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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No.

1

Geomorphic Evidence of Active Tectonics in the Dhundsir Gad Watershed of Alaknada Basin, Uttarakhand, India

 

Hari Ballabh1, Devi Datt Chauniyal1 & Mahendra Singh Lodhi2, *

 

1. Department of Geography, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Uttarakhand 246174, India

2. GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, North East Unit, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh 791113, India

ballabh2228@gmail.com, chauniyal_devidatt@yahoo.co.in, mahen29.mail@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study of geomorphological features of a watershed can help in understanding the behavior of active tectonic movements. In view of the geological and geomorphic importance the Himalayan region, the importance of study the geomorphic features such as river meander, confluence angle, channel direction etc., works as a driving force for investigating the temporal changes in these features. Dhundsir Gad, a tributary of Alaknanda river in Lesser Himalaya is a small geomorphic unit, which is important for the activity along the North Almora Thrust (NAT) which cross the Dhundsir Gad and separate it into two tectonic units. As a result drainage anomalies are developed along the course of river. In the present study geomorphic analyses of drainage basins were carried out using topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite imageries. The strong control by the thrust, faults and lineaments on the drainage network is well signature in the form of drainage pattern and seasonal rivulets.

[Hari Ballabh, Devi Datt Chauniyal & Mahendra Singh Lodhi. Geomorphic Evidence of Active Tectonics in the Dhundsir Gad Watershed of Alaknada Basin, Uttarakhand, India. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.01

 

Key words: geomorphology; drainage anomalies; active tectonics; lesser Himalaya; Alaknanda river

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The Study of Gastric Motility and Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Hypothyroidism

 

Fadila Gad Allah , Salwa Seddik, Inas Elkhder ,Iman Kamel

 

Departments of Endocrinology and Gastro-enterology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

salwaseddeek@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:The patients suffering from hypothyroidism are at increased risk of developing disturbances in the digestive system. The gastric motility dysfunction may be present early in hypothyroidism. The Helicobacter pylori infection, which is prevalent in developing countries, is possibly related to hypothyroidism. To study the disturbance in gastric myoelectrical activity as well as the infection with Helicobacter pylori in hypothyroidism.40 hypothyroid female subjects aged 20-40 years of age were chosen the study, with duration of hypothyroidism less than 5 years and a mean body mass index 25.4%. None of the patients had a history of surgery or radioiodine therapy. 40 normal females were chosen as matched controls. Electrogastrography ( EGG) was done for each case using mixed fluid and a carbohydrate solid meal. The Helicobacter pylori antibody Ig G was measured in each case by ELISA. Electrogastrography in hypothyroid patients showed a decrease in the percentage of normal dominant frequency( DF) in the fasting and post prandial periods. The power ratio( PR) was low in hypothyroid patients; thus demonstrating dysrhythmic wave forms. The distribution of post prandial dip was 65% in hypothyroid subjects and 70% in control. EGG parameters were not significantly different between hypothyroid and normal controls. During the study of gastric dysrthymia by visual analysis of Electrogastrograpgy, normogastria was found in 82.5% hypothyroid patients, bradygastria in 12.5% and tachygastria in 5% of hypothyroid patients as opposed to 90%, 5% and 5% in control respectively. There was no correlation between thyroid hormone levels and various EGG parameters. The positive Helicobacter pylori infection ratio was positive in 62.5% of patients and in 25% of control, with significant higher titer in hypothyroid patients (mean = 2.71) as compared to normal controls (mean= 1.55). There was positive correlation between EGG parameters and Helicobacter titer in power cycle per minute (CPM) at rest only. The Electrogastrography changes in hypothyroid patients could explain the dysfunction in gastric motility present in hypothyroidism. The gastric dysrhythmia by visual analysis of Electrogastrography especially bradygastria may be related to the dyspeptic symptoms in hypothyroidism. The high titer of Helicobacter pylori could be associated with the autoimmune process or related to the changes in gastric motility in hypothyroidism.

[Fadila Gad Allah ,Salwa Seddik, Inas Elkhder ,Iman Kamel. The Study of Gastric Motility and Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Hypothyroidism. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):7-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.02

 

Keywords: Helicobacter, hypothyroidism, motility

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Comparative Study Between Low Dose Bupivacaine With Fentanyl & Bupivacaine Alone For Cesarean Section 

 

Farouk G. 1, El- Sokkary M. *2 

 

1 Department of anesthesia – Al- Azhar University

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology – Ain Shams University

mageleel2000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of reducing the bupivacaine dose with addition of fentanyl in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was done during a period started from January 2008 to Decemeber 2009. It was conducted on 40 patients in the age group of 20-35 years. They were divided randomly into two groups having 20 patients in each, group B received 2ml intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacain 0.5% (10mg) & group BF received 1.5ml (7.5mg) hyperbaric bupivacain 0.5% plus 25 g fentanyl. The efficacy of anesthesia, patient satisfaction and neonatal affection were assessed. Results: Adequate sensory blockade (T6 or higher) was obtained in 75% of all cases. Two cases need general anesthesia & were excluded from the research. Two patients in groups BF need IV nalbuphine supplementation after delivery of the baby. Hypotension occurs in 80% of patients in group B & in 40% of patients in group BF. This difference in incidence of hypotension is significant. Number of ephedrine treatment & total dose of ephedrine were all significantly lower in group BF but the difference was not significant. There were no significant differences in quality of anesthesia between the tow groups. Conclusion: lowering bubivacaine dose to 1.5 ml instead of 2.0 ml (usual dose for cesarean section) and adding 25ug fentanyl is associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of hypotension and the number and total dose of ephedrine used.

[Farouk G., El-Sokkary M. Comparative Study Between Low Dose Bupivacaine With Fentanyl & Bupivacaine Alone For Cesarean Section. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):14-17]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.03

 

Key Wards; Bupivacaine - Fentanyl - Cesarean Section

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Comparison between Online Classes and Traditional Classes

 

1 Kobra Lashgari, 2 Alireza Talkhabi and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

Abstract: Teachers must be involved in planning the systems, trained to use the tools they provide, and given the flexibility to revise their teaching. Federal and state regulations will need revision to ensure a more flexible and effective use of technology. Connections have been established across geographic, instructional, and institutional boundaries which provide opportunities for collaboration and resource sharing among many groups In the pooling of students and teachers, distance learning reconfigures the classroom which no longer is bounded by the physical space of the school, district, state or nation. There are two types of programs offered by distance education schools: synchronous learning programs and asynchronous learning programs. With synchronous learning, distance education students must log on to the school’s website at a set time. Often, they interact with their peers and professors via group chats, web seminars, video conferencing, and phone call-ins. With asynchronous learning, distance education students complete all coursework on their own time. They often learn via assignment sheets, message boards, email, pre-recorded video lectures, mp3s, and traditional mail correspondence.

[Kobra Lashgari, Alireza Talkhabi and Mehdi Nazarpour. Comparison between Online Classes and Traditional Classes. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):18-23]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.04

Keywords: Online Classes, Traditional Classes, distance education

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The role of Distance learning in promoting agricultural activities

 

1 Mojtaba Sadighi, 2 Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 3 Mohammadreza Ghaffari

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Historically, most distance education courses were vocational in nature, but today courses are offered for academic, professional, and avocational purposes for students of all ages. There are numerous specialized programs, such as those for blind persons and for parents of small children with hearing impairments. Distance education is available in practically any field, from accounting to zoology. There are two types of programs offered by distance education schools: synchronous learning programs and asynchronous learning programs. With synchronous learning, distance education students must log on to the school’s website at a set time. Often, they interact with their peers and professors via group chats, web seminars, video conferencing, and phone call-ins. With asynchronous learning, distance education students complete all coursework on their own time. They often learn via assignment sheets, message boards, email, pre-recorded video lectures, mp3s, and traditional mail correspondence.

[Mojtaba Sadighi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mohammadreza Ghaffari. The role of Distance learning in promoting agricultural activities. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):24-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.05

Keywords: Distance Learning, Distance education, agricultural activities

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The importance of rural women's self-reliance

 

Khatereh siyar

 

Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of basic barriers in development of rural women is their independent inaccessibility to get credits for investment in their job. Although their illiteracy is the big barrier to use of bank credits, but this view that women are dependent people that their husband should decide about their financial decisions is the other reason that rural women couldn't access to official credits. Maybe these barriers are the reason why rural women are happy about applying micro-credit thought in village. Having investment (capital) independency enforce people to think about economic from different angles. He should study the ways for using capital, he must consult with authority and experienced people and he will investigate about relevant markets. Such things will help him to be authoritative & independent. But how rural women can get such independency? Are the women created inherently for housekeeping, parenting and working or is there any opportunity for rural women to show their skills in economic & social development?

[Khatereh siyar. The importance of rural women's self-reliance. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):28-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.06

 

Keywords: financial self-reliance, rural women

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7

PAHs Utilizing Bacterial Population and Physico-chemical Variability in Oil Contaminated Soils

 

Kumar Arun 1, *, Sawhney Rajesh 2, Munjal Ashok 1, Singh RN 3

 

1. Banasthali Vidyapith, Banasthali 304022, Rajasthan, India

2. Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, Budh, Baddi , Distt. Solan (H.P) 173205, India

3. S.B.S (PG) Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Research, Balawala, Dehradun 248161, India

arunkaran84@yahoo.com, sawhneyrajesh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the known xenobiotic agents, persist as potentially hazardous soil contaminants. Various bioremediation strategies (indigenous microflora, introduced microorganisms, priming with bioremediated soil), applied for their removal from polluted soils, have rarely been successful. Biostimulation (nutrient amendment) and bioaugmentation (suitable microbial population) have shown accelerating effect on naturally occurring biodegradation of PAHs. However, a plausible bioremediation tool is still awaited. A study was conducted to examine PAH utilizing population and physico-chemical characteristics of the oil contaminated soil from different geographical locations. This could evolve an effective soil inoculum, with defined soil properties, for use as a bioremediation and bioaugmentation tool. Sixteen oil contaminated soil samples (AS-1 to AS-16) were collected from different sites under varying geographical locations in India. All the samples were analyzed for moisture content, pH, carbon (%), total organic content (TOC), inorganic phosphate, nitrate, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAHs utilizing bacterial populations. All the samples showed different soil characteristics. AS-15 exhibited maximum pH (9.82) where as minimum pH (3.47) was observed in AS-8. The soil sample (AS-4), with higher content of PAH, Chloride, inorganic phosphate, TOC, % carbon, moisture and pH (7.45) was found to harbor comparatively higher PAH utilizing bacterial population. The results of this study highlight the possible higher degradation potential of PAHs utilizing bacteria under natural conditions. This study provides a baseline to understand the population dynamics, possible biodegradation potential of oil contaminated soils, at different locations, and may be used to prepare an appropriate inoculum with defined soil characteristics to evolve a plausible bioremediation technology.

[Kumar Arun, Sawhney Rajesh, Munjal Ashok, Singh RN. PAH Utilizing Bacterial Population and Physico-chemical Variability in Oil Contaminated Soils Nature and Science 2011;9(6):32-37]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.07

 

Key words: poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbon, total organic content, oil contamination

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A Study of Ambient Air Quality Status in Jaipur City (Rajasthan, India), Using Air Quality Index

 

 Anand Kumar a *, Dr. Ashish Garg a and Prof. Upender Pandel b

 

 (a) Department of Chemistry, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India.

 (b) Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur-302017, India.

 (*) Corresponding author, E mail- anandkumarchoudhary.2010@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to express the ambient air quality of Jaipur city in the form of Air Quality Index (AQI). The data of air pollutants were collected from twelve sites in residential, industrial and commercial areas of the city. The survey was carried out to evaluate Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by sampling for a period of 24 hours in winter season of the year, 2009-2010. Pollutants concentrations were used to calculate the Air Quality Index .The results show that SPM, RSPM levels at all the selected sites excluding residential area of Tilak Nagar, exceeds the prescribed limits as stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) New Delhi, India. Apart from this, the SO2 and NOx levels in residential, industrial and commercial areas remain under prescribed limits of CPCB. One site showed AQI values above 100, representing severe air pollution, five sites showed AQI values between 76 to 100, representing heavy air pollution, other five sites showed moderate air pollution and one site showed light air pollution.

[Anand Kumar, Ashish Garg and Upender Pandel. A Study of Ambient Air Quality Status in Jaipur City (Rajasthan, India), Using Air Quality Index. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):38-43]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.08

 

Key Words: Jaipur city, Ambient air quality, Air quality index

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Characterisation of Anopheles Mosquitoes breeding habitats in lowland rice fields in Uganda

 

Nanfumba David1; Tenywa,M.M2.; Okui,O.3; Majaliwa,M.J.G.2; Wasige,J.E.2; Lufafa,A.2; Musiime,O.2

 

1. National Agricultural Research Organisation, Buginyanya Zonal Agriculturel Research and Development Institute, P.O.Box 1356.Mbale-Uganda, nanfumbada@yahoo.com, nanfumbada@agric.mak.ac.ug

2. Makerere University, College of Agricultural and Environment Sciences, P.O.Box 7062, Kampala-Uganda

3. Makerere University, Institute of Public Health, P.O.Box 7062, Kampala-Uganda

Abstract: Malaria, the number one killer disease in sub-Saharan Africa, is closely linked with lowland rice cropping systems. In this cropping system, parts of the irrigated/flooded lowland rice fields act as breeding grounds for the anopheles mosquito – the malaria vector. In Uganda, source control of this vector, is almost limited to removal of stagnant water, a strategy not realistic in paddy rice growing areas. Source control of this vector in paddy rice growing areas requires a comprehensive understanding of the bio-physical factors that influence its breeding/multiplication activity. There however exists an information gap of breeding habitats’ bio-physical properties influencing breeding of this vector in the lowland rice cropping systems. This research aimed at identifying bio-physical properties influencing the anopheles mosquitoes (AM) breeding in lowland land rice fields. The research was conducted in Nankoma, Nabukalu and Buluguyi sub counties in Bugiri district, a district classified by Ministry of Agriculture, as a lowland rice growing area in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected every after 25days for a period of 12 months covering 2 rice growing seasons. Shallow skim dipping method was used to sample the anopheles mosquito larvae (AML) from breeding habitats. Number of AML dip-1 was used as a proxy for suitability of breeding conditions for the mosquitoes. Water from the habitats was characterised for water temperature, pH, oxygen content, electro conductivity, water depth, turbidity and number of other organisms. Also recorded for suspected habitats with rice still standing in the field was; the rice height (cm), density (hillm-2) and number of tillers. Pearson correlations results between variables and number of anopheles larvae dip-1 were 0.17, 0.437, 0.193, -0.357, -0.393, -0.329, 0.356, and -0.329 for water depth, turbidity, temperature, paddy density, paddy height, oxygen content, electro-conductivity and number of rice tillers respectively, significant at p<0.05. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that turbidity, water electro conductivity, rice height, water depth, water temperature, number of other organisms and rice density, significantly (p<0.05) explained the number of AMs in a given habitat. This research is fundamental in guiding malaria vector-source control in paddy rice growing systems in Uganda and sub-Saharan Africa as a whole.

[Nanfumba David; Tenywa,M.M.; Okui,O.; Majaliwa,M.J.G.; Wasige, J.E.; Lufafa, A.; Musiime,O. Characterisation of Anopheles Mosquitoes breeding habitats in lowland rice fields in Uganda. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):44-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.09

 

Key words; Malaria, paddy rice field, Anopheles mosquitoes, Anopheles Mosquito Larvae, breeding habitats, biophysical properties

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Histological Studies of H1N1 Vaccine on Testes of Adult Male Albino Rats

 

Enas Khalil *and Atif Ibrahim**

 

*Department of Histology, National Organization for Drug Control &Research

** Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhier University

enasamk@hotmail.com , narmout @ yahoo com

 

Abstract: In early 2009,''Swine flu'', a new infectious disease, emerged in Mexico and further spread around the world. To control this new infection, the swine flu vaccine was used. Squalene is used as an immunologic adjuvant in swine vaccine. The reports on the adverse effects of any new vaccine during trials must be declared to the public. Among the world most of respondents believed that the swine flu vaccine was not safe and protective. This research aims to histological study the effect of both swine flu vaccine and squalene on testes of adult male albino rats. 24 adult male albino rats were divided into four groups 6 for each. Control, swine flu vaccine treated, squalene treated and swine flu vaccine and squalene treated groups. The results indicated that swine flu vaccine treated group showing histological alternation in testes of rats appeared as vacuolated spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa, mild inflammatory mast cells in interstitial tissue and thickened basement membrane. Squalene treated group showing reduction in the number of germinal epithelium layers with vacuolated spermatogenic cells, reduction the spermatozoa number with thickened basement membrane and moderate inflammatory mast cells appeared in interstitial tissues. Vaccine and squalene treated group showing reduction the number of layers of germinal epithelium and of spermatozoa and deposition of the acidophilic materials in the interstitial tissues with marked inflammatory mast cells and thickened basement membrane. In conclusion vaccine H1N1 without squalene and with squalene affects testes.

[Enas Khalil and Atif Ibrahim. Histological Studies of H1N1 Vaccine on Testes of Adult Male Albino Rats. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):58-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.10

 

Key words: H1N1vaccine, squalene, testes, rat

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Characterization of Escherichia coli using Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis

 

*Hamza. M. Eid , Enany. M. E. and Iman. T.

 

Bacteriology Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt

*h.eid@scuegypt.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Twenty six E. coli strains, 11of them are E. coli O157:H7 and 15 of them are E. coli strains of different serotypes were subjected for analysis using pulsed field gel electrophoresis after digestion using restriction enzyme Xba I. The digested DNA products were electrophoresed in 1% agarose in 0.5X TBE buffer and the power supply was adjusted under the following conditions (Initial: 2.2 s/ final 54.2 s, voltage 6V/cm, Run time 19h.). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 11 E. coli O157:H7 are arranged in two clusters A and B which show 65% similarity in banding patterns between the two clusters: while PFGE of the 15 E. coli strains of different serotypes produced seven PFGE types. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis can be used in the determination of genetic relatedness between different E. coli serotypes so it is important in epidemiological surveillance of E.coli as a causative agent of diarrhea in human and animals.

[Hamza. M. Eid, Enany. M. E. and Iman. T. Characterization of Escherichia coli using Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):67-71]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.11

 

Keywords: Characterization; Escherichia coli; Pulse-Field; Gel Electrophoresis

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Potential of agroforestry systems in carbon sequestration for mitigating climate changes in Tarai region of central Himalaya

 

Anil Kumar Yadava

 

Associate Professor & campus Head, Department of Forestry, Kumaun University, Soban Singh Jeena campus, Almora, India. E-mail: akyadava_09@rediffmail.com / akyadava09@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Carbon sequestration refers to the provision of long term storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere so that the buildup of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere will be reduced or slowed in order to improve environmental conditions and check the processes of environmental degradation. The experiment was initiated in October, 2005 under six different agroforestry systems, viz., S1: (Populus deltoides ‘G-48’ + wheat in block plantation), S2: (Eucalyptus hybrid + wheat in boundary plantation), S3: (Populus deltoides + wheat boundary plantation), S4 : (Populus deltoides + lemon grass in block plantation), S5 : (Dalbergia sissoo + wheat in block plantation) and S6 : (Dalbergia sissoo + Lemon grass in block plantation) under nine years old block and boundary plantations of Populus deltoides and Eucalyptus hybrid and ten year old block plantation of Dalbergia sissoo with wheat (Triticum aestivum cv UP-2425) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus ‘CKP-25’). The present investigation deals with effect of structural composition of agroforestry system, number of woody perennial involved in the system and the management practices plays a major role in influencing the biomass level, carbon storage, CO2 mitigation potential and total carbon sequestration (in trees) of 70.59 tha-1, 21.38 tha-1, 116.29 tha-1 and 18.53 t C ha-1 in system S1 followed by 68.53 tha-1, 20.63 tha-1, 113.15 tha-1 and 17.60 t C ha-1 in system S4, respectively. It was observed that Populus deltoides + wheat, Populus deltoides + lemon grass, Dalbergia sissoo + wheat and Dalbergia sissoo + lemon grass under block plantation have the maximum potential to sequester carbon than the boundary plantations of Populus deltoides and Eucalyptus hybrid.

[Anil Kumar Yadava. Potential of agroforestry systems in carbon sequestration for mitigating climate changes in Tarai region of central Himalaya. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):72-80]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.12

 

Key words: Biomass, Carbon sequestration, carbon stock, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Populus deltoides, Tarai.

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Study on Ethno-Medicinal practices and system of cure among the People of Rath Region of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand

 

Harsh Mani Pant1,*, Neelam Pant2, J.S. Negi3

 

1. District Project Management Unit (SWAJAL), Gopeshwar-246 401, Chamoli, Uttarakhand, India

2. District Project Management Unit (SWAJAL), S-53 Rajpur Road DehraDun-248001, Uttarakhand, India

3. Herbal Research and Development Institute, Mandal-Gopeshwar, Uttarakhand, India

*Correspondence: dr_pant_harsh@yahoo.co.in ,nbbotdav@yahoo.com, negi_js1981@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: The present paper deals with the Ethno-medicinal practices used by the people of Rath region to cure various therapeutic purposes. The study reveals that people of Rath region still depend on the indigenous method of treatment to cure various diseases due to their knowledge of medicinal plants. They chiefly used their knowledge in curing fever, dysentery, headache, Migran, Cough & Whopping, Piles, Rheumatism, Jaundice, Stomachace etc. Elderly persons of village and Vadiyas have a good knowledge of the herbal plants. The medicinal properties of these plants may be due to the presence of various chemical constituents.

[Harsh Mani Pant, Neelam Pant, J.S. Negi. Study on Ethno-Medicinal practices and system of cure among the People of Rath Region of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):81-84]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.13

 

Key words: Ethno-medicine, Rath Region, Garhwal Himalaya, Indigenous knowledge

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Prevalence, Haemolytic Activities and Flouroquinolones Susceptibility Profiles of Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae Associated with Acute Otitis Media.

 

1*Akinjogunla Olajide Joseph and 2Eghafona Nosakhare Odeh

 

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P.M.B 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, P.M.B.1154, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author’s E–mail: papajyde2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was designed to determine the prevalence, haemolytic activities and flouroquinolones susceptibility profiles of Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae associated with acute otitis media. 272 middle-ear swabbed samples were aseptically collected and analyzed using standard microbiological and disk diffusion methods for antibiotic susceptibility. Haemolytic activities were determined using blood agar. Significant difference at (p<0.05) was observed among 124 (45.6%) male patients and 148 (54.4%) female patients with acute otitis media. 51(18.8%) Moraxella catarrhalis, 58 (21.3%) Haemophilus influenzae and 47(17.3) Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified. The flouroquinolones susceptibility of these bacteria showed that 80-84% of the Moraxella catarrhalis were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, while 29.4% of Moraxella catarrhalis were resistant to ofloxacin. The resistance rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the flouroquinolones varied from 29.8 % for levofloxacin to 42.6% for ciprofloxacin. 42 (26.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least 2 antibiotics with multiple antibiotics resistance index ranging between 0.25 to 0.75 in Moraxella catarrhalis and 0.25 to 1.00 in both Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae . Haemolytic activities of these isolates showed that for Moraxella catarrhalis, 7 strains (13.7%) showed α-haemolysis, 27 (52.9%) β- haemolysis, and (α + β) hemolysis occurred in 3 (5.9%). Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae showed 9 (15.5%), 28 (59.6%) α-haemolysis, respectively. Haemophilus influenzae also showed 21 (36.2%), 2 (3.4%) and 26 (44.8%) β, α + β and γ. respectively, while 3 (6.4%) Streptococcus pneumoniae showed β- haemolysis. Despite the effectiveness of flouroquinolones especially levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against these bacterial isolates, prudent use of the antibiotics is strongly recommended.

[Akinjogunla, O. J and Eghafona, N. O: Prevalence, Haemolytic Activities and Flouroquinolones Susceptibility Profiles of Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae Associated with Acute Otitis Media. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):85-92]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.14

 

Key Words: flouroquinolones, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Otitis media, Susceptibility.

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Response of Three Sweet Basil Cultivars to Inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi under Salt Stress Conditions

 

Sayed S.A. Abdel-Rahman, *Atef A.S. Abdel-Kader **and Soha E. Khalil***

 

*Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

**Department of Medicinal and Aromatic plants Research, Horticulture Research Institute, A.R.C, Giza, Egypt

***Department of Water Relation and Field Irrigation, National Research Centre, Dokki ,Egypt

Corresponding author: soha_khalil2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and/or Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) or maintained as uninoculated controls on the growth, oil %, oil yield and nutrient uptake of three sweet basil cultivars (Local cultivar, Nano Compatt and Red Bordaux) under different salt stress levels (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm). Results indicated that the high salinity level (4000 ppm) caused significantly reduction in plant height, fresh and dry weights of the herb, number of branches/plant, oil % and oil yield as well as contents of N, P and K in leaves of all studied sweet basil cultivars. Meanwhile, sodium Na+ content in leaves were high, especially at high NaCl concentration. Red Bordaux cultivar was more sensitive to salinity stress than Local and Nano Compatt cultivars. Inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and/or mycorrhizal fungi showed positive effects on growth, oil %, oil yield and nutrient uptake either with or without the salinization treatment. Mycorrhizal colonization showed generally more pronounced effects than B. subtilis. Dual inoculation with B. subtilis and mycorrhizae provided higher tolerance to salinity compared with the individual treatment. It could be concluded that inoculation of sweet basil cultivars with B. subtilis and mycorrhizal fungi may induce increases in tolerance to salinity of the three tested sweet basil cultivars.

[Sayed S.A. Abdel-Rahman, Atef A.S. Abdel-Kader and Soha E. Khalil. Response of Three Sweet Basil Cultivars to Inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi under Salt Stress Conditions. Nature and Science 2011;9(6):93-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090611.15

 

Key words: Basil, growth, oil yield, nutrient uptake, Bacillus subtilis, mycorrhizae, salt stress

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