Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 9 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 54), September, 2011
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0909 
 
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Canibalism Among Cultured African Catfishes (Heterbranchus Longifillis And Clarias Gariepinus)

 

SOLOMON, R. J.  AND  UDOJI, F. C.

 

Department Of Biological Sciences, Faculty Of Science,

University Of Abuja, Federal Capital Teritory - Nigeria

 

Abstract:A two month experiment was conducted to check cannibalism among cultured African catfishes, using Heterobranchus longifilis and Clarias gariepinus. There were three treatments (A, B and C) each 22.4 x 10cm3 which were situated in the botanical garden of the department of Biological Science, University of Abuja. Water quality parameters (Temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Ammonia and Nitrate) were recorded throughout the study period and found within suitable ranges throughout the length of study. Three stocking densities were used namely Heterobranchus  longifilis and Clarias gariepinus (8:8, 16:16, 24:24) fishes/m2. The fishes were fed multi coppen with 45% protein, fat 12%, calcium 2.2% phosphorus 1.2%, ash 8.5%. The result of the study showed that the fish in treatment ‘C’ stocked at the rate of 24:24 (Heterobranchus longifilis and Clarias gariepinus) significantly showed increase in rate of cannibalism. Treatment ‘A’ had significant increase in growth and this was attributed to the fact that they had more space, food and less competition.

[SOLOMON, R. J;  UDOJI, F. C. Canibalism Among Cultured African Catfishes (Heterbranchus Longifillis And Clarias Gariepinus). Nature and Science 2011;9(9):1-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.01

 

Keyword: Canibalism, Cultured, African Catfishes, Heterbranchus Longifillis , Clarias Gariepinus

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2

Aquatic Macrophyte Composition in Lake Alau, Arid Zone of Nigeria in West Africa.

 

Idowu Racheal Toyosi1, Gadzama Usman Ngamarju1

 

                           1.  Department of Biological sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

ugadzama@yahoo.com, idowu_toyosi@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: Six field survey were conducted to evaluate the aquatic macrophyte vegetation in Lake Alau, Maiduguri Borno- State during the Harmattan period  between (October - December 2005), dry hot period (March – April 2006), and  wet raining period (July – August 2006) seasons. Four categories of the aquatic macrophytes were identified into free floating, submerged, fringe, and emergent vegetations. A total of 48 species were recorded. The species with the highest occurrence was Pistia stratioles, Lemna paucicostata. The raining season was significantly different in terms of species composition and taxa richness. The percentage composition of each category of the aquatic macrophytes varied with seasons.  The Shannon weaver index calculated for the seasonal taxa compositions showed that the raining season had 1.16, followed by 0.77 in the harmattan and the least value of 0.42 was recorded in the dry season months. The species index was also higher in the rainy season, compared with other seasons. The abundance of the four categories of the aquatic macrophyte composition in the three seasons was not uniformly distributed in all seasons.

[Idowu Racheal Toyosi, Gadzama Usman Ngamarju. Aquatic Macrophyte Composition in Lake Alau, Borno State, Arid Zone of  Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):14-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.02

 

Key words: Aquatic Macrophyte, Floating, Submerged, Lemna paucicostata

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3

SEDIMENTOLOGICAL VARIATION IN BEACH SEDIMENTS OF THE BARRIER BAR LAGOON COASTAL SYSTEM, SOUTH - WESTERN NIGERIA.

 

*Rabiu Abdulkarim, Akinnigbagbe Edward Akintoye, Imo Daniel Oguwuike, Titocan mark Imhansoeleva, Ibitola Mayowa Philips, Faleye Bamidele Ruth, Shonde Olufunke Olubukola, Jimoh Olayinka Rasheed, Abe Oluwaseun Banji.

 

Marine Geology/Geophysics Department,

Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), Lagos, Nigeria.

abpero1@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: A total of 32 sediment samples were collected from four selected beaches along the barrier bar complex, namely Alpha, Takwa Bay, Eleko and Badagry. They were studied in order to define the spatial trend in their textural characteristics. The sediment grain sizes were assessed by dry sieving. The coarseness of sediments reflects the local intensity of turbulence and wave energy dissipation; hence the mean grain size is greatest within the wave plunge point. Mean grain size closely reflect the energy level of the wave processes. Badagry and Alpha beach are of medium grained size with average mean value of (1.10 Ф and 1.14Ф respectively), Eleko beach sediment is coarsely grained with an average mean value of (0.56 Ф) while Takwa Bay beach sediment is fine grained and very well-sorted with an average mean value of (2.25 Ф.) The beach sediments along the barrier bar complex are in most parts clean although mixed with some shells in few places, moderate to well-sorted and mesokurtic in distribution. The dominant sedimentary structures identified are ripple marks. The absence of biogenic structures denotes an area of high energy. An inland improvement in sorting in several of the study area reflects a shallowing of the environment with decreasing wave action.

[Rabiu Abdulkarim, Akinnigbagbe Edward Akintoye, Imo Daniel Oguwuike, Titocan Mark Imhansoeleva, Ibitola Mayowa Philips, Faleye Bamidele Ruth, Shonde Olufunke Olubukola, Jimoh Olayinka Rasheed, Abe Oluwaseun Banji. Sedimentological Variation in Beach Sediments along the Barrier Lagoon Coastal System, Lagos, South West Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):19-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.03

 

Key Words: Barrier Bar Lagoon, Beach Sediments, Grain Size Distribution, Wave Plunge.

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4

Assessment of Cooling Water Chemistry on the Safety of Water Cooled Power Reactors

 

N. S. Mahmoud, M.M.El –Fawal and A. A. Gadalla

 

National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City-P.O. Box 7551, Cairo, Egypt,

*mohamed_Elfawal@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Recently, for economic reasons, nuclear light water-cooled reactors power plants (the Third Generation) operational practices are shifting towards long-term irradiation fuel cycle (extended fuel burn up). So, new and advanced operational measures to satisfy long-term operational safety conditions are required. Among these safety measures is cooling water chemistry control. In the field of nuclear power technology, the term "coolant technology" means a complex of methods and means assuring operation of nuclear plants under definite and possible abnormal conditions. An uncontrolled condition of the coolant contributes to an increase in radioactive waste quantities, higher exposure rate and finally advanced ageing of reactor component. The prevention of these effects can be achieved through essentially the control of the alkalinity (pH) and the radiolysis of the coolant. Adjustment of these conditions requires better understanding of their mechanisms and impact on different material and processes of the reactor. In this paper, a technical evaluation study among light water reactor type concerning cooling water specifications in case of operating experience conditions have been investigated and discussed. For further, cooling water quality improvements to reduce radiation dose, waste generated from primary circuits and to achieve higher burn up and better fuel performance, constitution of LWR chemistry guidelines and a new pH control method for primary coolant have been recommended.

[N. S. Mahmoud, M.M.El –Fawal and A. A. Gadalla Assessment of Cooling Water Chemistry on the Safety of Water Cooled Power Reactors]. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):27-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.04

 

Keywords: light water reactor, coolant water chemistry, pH and radioactive waste

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5

Simulation Based Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Protocols in MANET with Varying Packet Size

 

Tilak Raj 1*, Himanshu Sharma 1, Vikas Gahlot 2*

 

  1. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, M.M.U., Mullana, INDIA

  2. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Mahabir Polytechnic Institute, Kurukshetra, INDIA

*tilakgoyal@gmail.com1; vikasgahlot@gmail.com2

 

Abstract: - A mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless nodes that are capable of changing on a continual basis. These types of networks have no physical links between the nodes. It is a multihop process because of the limited transmission range of energy constrained wireless nodes. Thus in such a multihop network system each node (also known as router) is independent, self-reliant & capable of routing the packet over the dynamic network topology, therefore routing becomes very important and basic operation of adhoc network. Many routing protocol have been proposed & developed for accomplishing this task. The intent of this work is to study three adhoc routing protocols STAR, DSR and AODV based on IEEE 802.11 are surveyed & characteristic summary of these protocols is presented. The performances of above protocols are analysed on throughput, End to End delay by varying packet size on the basis of increasing nodes in the network using Qualnet 5.0.2 network simulator.

[Tilak Raj, Himanshu Sharma, Vikas Gahlot. Simulation Based Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Protocols in MANET with Varying Packet Size. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):35-38]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.05

 

Keywords: Simulation; Based Analysis; Proactive and Reactive Protocol; MANET

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6

The Effect of Chlorhexidine versus Alcohol Povidone-Iodine on Occurrence of Central Venous Catheter Infection among Critically Ill Patients

 

Soheir Mohamed Weheida1, Aml M. EL-Badawy2, Manal E. Fareed*2, Aza Z. Labeeb3 and Shimaa E. Ibraheem2

 

Department of Medical Surgical Nursing1, University of Alexandria , Adult Health Nursing Department2, Faculty of Nursing, Menofia University. Microbiology department3, Faculty of Medicine, university of Menofia, Egypt

*manalfareed2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to compare the effect of Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.25% versus alcohol 70% Povidone-iodine 10% on occurrence of central venous catheter infection among critically ill patients. A sample of 60 patients divided randomly and alternatively into two equal groups; 30 patients for each one.  For Group І: dressing of central venous catheter was done using Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.25%, while for Group ІІ: dressing of central venous catheter was done using alcohol 70% in Povidone-iodine 10%. The study was conducted in Intinsive Care unites and Critical Care Department of Menofia University Hospital . Two Tools  were applied for the study: tool 1: An interviewing questionnaire ,it includes two parts , tool 2: Biophysiological measurement tool , it consists of three parts. The results revealed that the mean age for group I and group II were 48.33 9.47, 49.807.94 years, respectively. Infection occurred was 3.3% for group I and 23.3% for group II. This infection occured in the sixth day for group I,while most of infection among group II occured in the third day.The centeral venous catheter infection rate for study group I was significantly less than study groupII. The most common microorganisms present in central venous catheter sites for both groups were Staph. Aureas. It is conculded that, the occurrence of infection for the catheters  disinfected with Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.25% were significantly lower than  those disinfected with alcohol 70% Povidone - iodine 10%. Moreover, there were no side effects of both used antiseptic solutions among patients of the both groups.It is recommended that ,  useing Chlorhexidine0.25% to prevent or avoid catheter related infection and a strict written procedural manual for nurses about caring for critically ill patients with central venous catheter should be available and should be revised continuously.

[Soheir Mohamed Weheida, Aml M. EL-Badawy, Manal E. Fareed, Aza Z. Labeeb and Shimaa E. Ibraheem,The Effect of Chlorhexidine versus Alcohol Povidone-Iodine on Occurrence of Central Venous Catheter Infection among Critically Ill Patients]. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9): 39-48]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.06

 

Keyword: Effect, Chlorhexidine, Alcohol Povidone-Iodine, Central venous catheter infection, critically ill patients

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7

Numerical Analysis of Geomembrane Behavior in Increasing of Soil Dam’s Height

 

Hamidreza Ahmadaghaei1 , Mohammad Azadi2

 

1Department of Civil Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Civil Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Corresponding author:  h_ahmadaghaei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Geomembranes can be used with current production technology for increasing of dams crest height. Sake increasing useless dam height of copper mine of Sar cheshmeh that is one of present soil dams in Iran is used Geomembranes. In this research, at first optimize using type and thickness of Geomembrane is noticed in this dam and the way of getting base on leakage and resistance analysis of dam downside slope and then with using of SIGMA/W program from GeoStudio software is applied to evaluate Geomembrane  behavior in addition crust to old dam and research be done about sufficiency and insufficiency against enter forces that this evaluation is done base on stress- strain analysis.

[Hamidreza Ahmadaghaei, Mohammad Azadi. Numerical Analysis of Geomembrane Behavior in Increasing of Soil Dam’s Height. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9): 49-52]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.07

 

Key words: Geomembrane, Numeral Analysis, Height increasing, Soil dams, Sealing.

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8

Growth response of Chlorella vulgaris to acetate carbon and nitrogen forms

 

*El-Sayed, A. B. and Abdel-Maguide, A. A

 

Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki-Cairo, Egypt

*bokhair@mn.com

 

Abstract: Growth of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris was performed on BG-II nutrient solution containing 17.6mM N from urea or sodium nitrate source. Acetic acid supports the heterotrophic growth of the examined alga. The investigated growth parameters were dry weight, chlorophylls and carotenes. It was found that growth dry weight was markedly increased as growth medium was supported by urea nitrogen rather than nitrate nitrogen in free carbon media. Enrichment of nitrate growth media by organic carbon as acetic acid resulted in a moderate increase in growth dry weight as compared with urea growth culture. Chlorophylls were reduced due to acetate addition to nitrate grown cultures.  Growth characteristics represented the same pattern and the lowest biomass doubling time of dry weight was about 9.8 hrs with urea nitrogen enriched cultures.  Concerning chlorophyll, similar trend was slightly observed, however the effect was obviously higher with chlorophyll. On the contrary, carotenes accumulation was increased due to acetate supplementation rather than the initial increases in control; however urea cultures represented the maximum. Consequently, growth kinetics was following the same response. 

[El-Sayed, A. B. and Abdel-Maguide, A. A, Growth response of Chlorella vulgaris to acetate carbon and nitrogen formsNature and Science 2011; 9(9): 53-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.08

 

Key words: Chlorella vulgaris, nitrate, urea, acetate carbon, dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenes

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9

Prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax among dental patients attending Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy clinic, Enugu, Nigeria.

 

1Onyido, A.E., 2Amadi, E.S., 3Olofin, I., 4Onwumma, A.A.,

4Okoh, I.C and 2Chikwendu, C.I

 

1 Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of BioSciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Nigeria.

2 Department of Microbiology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

3 Department of Dental Therapy, 4 Department of Dental Technology, Federal School of Dental, Technology and Therapy, Enugu, Nigeria.

ejidikemeonyido@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax among dental patients attending Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy Dental Clinic Enugu between May and October 2009 was studied. A total of 120 oral swab samples were collected; 60 from dental patients and 60 from non-dental patients. Saline and eosin wet mounts were used to examine the oral swab samples and the organisms were subsequently identified using microscopy. Also, the oral environments of the patients were examined using dental instruments to determine the presence of oral deposits and dental diseases. The result of the study showed 66.7% oral protozoa prevalence among dental patients and 3.3% for non dental patients. The prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis was  31.67% while that of Trichomonas tenax was 35%. The occurrence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax were more among patients within the age range 21-30. This work therefore emphasizes that E. gingivalis and T. tenax are associated more with individuals having dental diseases and that poor oral hygiene is a predisposing factor to its frequent colonization. Consistent dental health education should be encouraged especially among the youths.

[Onyido, A.E., Amadi, E.S., Olofin, I., Onwumma, A.A., Okoh, I.C , Chikwendu, C.I Prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax among dental patients attending Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy clinic, Enugu, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):59-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.09

 

Key words:  Trichomonas tenax, Entamoeba gingivalis, oral protozoa, dental patients.

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10

Automatic teller machines (ATMs) as potential sources of food-borne pathogens – a case from Ghana

 

Stephen Abban 1, 2*, Kwaku Tano-Debrah 1

 

1.       Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana

2.       Department of Food Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

sabban@life.ku.dk, ktanode@ug.edu.gh

 

Abstract: The metallic keypads of automatic teller machines (ATMs) were examined to investigate their potential as sources of food borne pathogen. The procedure involved culturing and identifying swabs of the keypads of five ATMs, swabs of disinfected fingers and swabs of disinfected fingers used in a cash-redraw simulation. The results indicated the possibility of cross-contamination of the fingers during usage of the machines with foodborne pathogens such as species of Aeromonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella and Salmonella. Proper cleaning regimen to sanitize these facilities regularly and public education on their hygienic usage are recommended to reduce the associated risks.

 [Stephen Abban, Kwaku Tano-Debrah. Automatic teller machines (ATMs) as potential sources of food-borne pathogens – a case from Ghana. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):63-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.10

 

Key words: Automatic teller machine (ATM); foodborne pathogens; cross-contamination

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Effect of developmental stage on some maturity parameters of plantain fruits

 

Onuegbu, N. C.1, Ubbaonu. C. N.1, Ajoku N. G.1 and Ihediohanma N,C.1

 

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria tobuz2000@yahoo.com, tobzy2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The physical characteristics and total soluble solids of plantain fruits fingers were measured weekly starting from the 6th week after fruit set until ripening. This work was aimed at determining the appropriate time of harvest for the mature plantain fruit in order to obtain maximum yield. The length of the fruit did not show any significant change during the period under study. The fruit weight, pulp weight and circumference increased steadily from mean values of 144.0g, 51.30g and 10.86cm respectively at the sixth week, to 304.0g, 146.30g and 15.64 cm respectively at the 13th week. No significant difference(p≥0.05)  was observed in these parameters from the 13th week until ripening at the 15th week . The length/circumference ratio maintained a steady range of values (1.61- 2.08) , during the 12th to 15th week among all the fruit fingers investigated no matter the size or weight of the fruit finger. Therefore it can be used as an index of fruit maturity and a good determinant of appropriate harvest time. The total soluble solids increased from 5.62oBrix at the 6th week to 6.46oBrix at 9th week. The value gradually decreased to 4.16oBrix  at the 13th week but later increased to 20.13o Brix at the 15th week indicating ripening. The results shows that the appropriate time to harvest unripe plantain for maximum benefit is between the 12th and 14th week. This two week period provides enough time for harvest , distribution , marketing and utilization of the produce before ripening.

 [Onuegbu, N. C., Ubbaonu. C. N., Ajoku N. G. and Ihediohanma N,C. Effect of developmental stage on some maturity parameters of plantain fruits. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):68-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.11

 

 Keywords: Plantain, maturity, development, ripening changes.

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The Physical Properties of Ube (Dacryodes edulis) at Different Stages of Fruit Development

 

* Onuegbu, Ngozika1,  Nwosuagwu1, Uchenna1, Kabuo Ngozi.1, Nwosu Justina1 and Ihediohanma, Ngozi1

 

1.       Department of Food Science and Technology

Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

P.M.B 7276, Owerri.

tobuz2000@yahoo.com, uchehez@hotmail.com.

 

Abstract: Industrial processing is the major reason for the promotion of ube (Dacryodes edulis) since it is a multipurpose fruit tree. Lack of information on the properties of the fruit has led to no processed products from it as the fruit flesh is greatly appreciated by local people who eat it after boiling or roasting. This study examined the physical properties of African pear during fruit development. The results showed that the development of the fruit differed significantly (p <0.05) on all the physical properties. But the 17th- 21st week after fruit set, established the fact of previous reports made at the time of harvest as the physiological mature stage of the fruits to showcase the optimum values of the properties. The fruit width showed two different measurements from the opposite sides due to the rectangular/oblong shape instead of the perfect circle previously thought by some earlier researchers. The fruits with larger pulp/seed ratios had smaller seed weight in relation to fruit-size since a larger air space was enclosed between the fruit pulp and the seed.

[Onuegbu, Ngozika, Nwosuagwu, Uchenna, Kabuo Ngozi., Nwosu Justina and Ihediohanma, Ngozi. The Physical Properties of Ube (Dacryodes edulis) at Different Stages of Fruit Development. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):71-75]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.12

 

Keywords: Fruit, African pear, physical property.

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Response of Rooted Olive Cuttings  to Mineral Fertilization and Foliar sprays with Urea and Gibberlline

 

Shereen, A. Shaheen and Aly A. A.

 

Olive & Semiarid Zone Fruits Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding author: Sheerenatef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The efficacy of foliar application with urea at 1% and gibberellic acid at 200 ppm either alone or in a combination with two N, P, K soil fertilizers (19 – 19 – 19) or (5 – 0 – 45) at 1 gm/pot as soil application on growth vigor and leaf NPK content of Coratina and Maraki olive transplants(rooted cuttings) was studied during two successive seasons of 2006 and 2007. The present investigation was conducted at the experimental form of the Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.  The obtained data indicated that, there were a markable effect of spraying urea plus gibberellins weekly on vegetative growth estimated as stem length, diameter, number of leaves and shoots, fresh and dry weight of stem and roots. Soil fertilizer with (19 – 19 – 19) was superior on increasing  stem diameter, shoot number of Coratina Cv. and number of leaves than Maraki Cv., while soil fertilizer with (5 – 0 – 45) had a positive effect on stem diameter, shoot number of Coratina Cv. and number of leaves in Maraki Cv. Soil application of N, P, K (5 – 0 – 45) to Coratina Cv. exhibited the maximum  stem length and No. of  leaves ,as well as, stem and roots fresh and dry weight of olive cultivars. With regard to leaf NPK content data showed that, all plants sprayed with urea weekly contained higher level of leaf N content, over the control. However, plants sprayed with urea + GA3 weekly contained higher leaf phosphorus content. It is also obvious that spraying urea solely or in a combination with GA3 weekly caused a significant increase in leaves potassium content than other treatments in both studied seasons, however, no statistical difference was observed between two soil fertilizer forms and cultivars in leaf content of phosphor and potassium.  Thus, it can be concluded from the above results that application of urea plus gibberellins could be benefit to reach to the suitable size in an earlier age and shorting this time would benefit by reducing various production in pots and their costs than normal

[Shereen, A. Shaheen and Aly A. A. Response of Rooted Olive Cuttings  to Mineral Fertilization and Foliar sprays with Urea and Gibberlline . Nature and Science 2011;9(9):76-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.13

 

Keywords: Olive transplants, Coratina , Maraki Foliar sprays and Mineral Fertilization

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Paradox of Expansion Speed in  Big-Bang Cosmology

 

Wei  Zhang

Staff and Workers School of Queshan County, Henan Province, China, Zip code: 463200

E-MAIL: zhangwei2006zw1@yahoo.com.cn; PHONE: 86-0396-702633

 

[Abstract] This article reveals the application of optical comb technique which makes the scope and the precision of multi-wave sky patrol constantly increased in the big bang of current cosmographic observation and study. Howeverdue to the limitation of the scope of multi-wave observation, the background radiation of neutrino is not yet detectedcurrently. This article emphatically discusses the issues in expansion rate paradox that may appear in the current cosmographic study and proves the new and reasonable explanations theoretically to realize the important scientific significance for eliminating the logical paradox.

[Wei  Zhang. Paradox of Expansion Speed in  Big-Bang Cosmology. Nature and Science 2011;9(9):87-92]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.14

 

 [Key Words] big-bang cosmology ; basic problems ; research ; report

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Breeding and Biting activities of Yellow Fever Mosquitoes in two urban Communities with  delapidating infrastructures.

 

1Onyido, A.E., 1Ozumba, N A., 2Ezike, V I., 2Nwosu, E O., 3Amadi E.S., 1Obiukwu,  M O.,

1Chukwuekezie, O C. and 1Umeanaeto P.U.

 

1Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University PMB 5025 Awka Anambra State

2 National Arbovirus and Vector Research Centre Enugu, Enugu state, Nigeria.

3 Department of Microbiology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

ejidikemeonyido@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Breeding and biting activities of yellow fever mosquitoes in Coal Camp and Iva-Valley areas of Enugu metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria, were studied between April and June 2010. The two urban communities have similar features of decaying infrastructure. House inspection was used to detect mosquito breeding containers while human bait method was used to collect man-biting adult mosquitoes. 80 houses (40 in each area) were inspected.52 houses (25 from Coal Camp and27 from Iva-Valley) had containers with water in which Aedes larvae were found. 453 containers were examined, 376 (83.0%) had water in them and 71 (18.88%) had A. aegypti larvae. The larval indices (Breteaux, House and Container), lie within or higher than the World Health Organization standard range for epidemics to occur. 89 adult mosquitoes comprising 3 genera and 6 species were collected through human bait method. Aedes albopictus 50(56.2%) constituted the bulk of the collection while Culex quinquefasciatus 1(1.1%) was the least. A plot of quarter-hourly mosquito collection revealed that the landing populations of the two most common biting mosquitoes, A. albopictus and A. aegypti, had two biting peaks with A. albopictus trailing closely to the overall mosquito population peak. These mosquitoes constitute heath risk in terms of biting nuisance and disease transmission. This calls for intervention programmes to avoid disease outbreak

[Onyido, A.E., Ozumba, N A., Ezike, V I., Nwosu, E O., Amadi E.S., Obiukwu,   M O.,Chukwuekezie,O C. Umeanaeto P.U. Breeding and Biting activities of Yellow Fever Mosquitoes in two urban Communities with  delapidating infrastructures. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9): 93-98] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.15

 

Key words: Yellow fever mosquitoes, urban communities, decaying infrastructure

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Antiviral Potentials of Enantia chlorantha Extracts on Yellow Fever Virus

 

Taiye R. Fasola1, Faderera A. Adeyemo1, Joseph A. Adeniji2 and Iheanyi O. Okonko3

 

1 Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Virology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3 Department of Biochemistry & Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

 

Abstract: Enantia chlorantha plant used by traditional medical practitioners or in phytomedical practice in the treatment of diseases such as fevers and influenza were investigated for their inhibitory activities on the yellow fever virus in the tissue cell culture using Vero cells. The dried powdered stem bark of E. chlorantha was extracted with water and the extracts evaporated to dryness. Dry residue were dissolved in respective solvents (1:10 w/v) and tested for antiviral activity at P < 0.01 against yellow fever virus by standard laboratory procedures. The water extract of the plants assayed for cytotoxicity in Vero cells showed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of E. chlorantha was 0.025 mg/ml. each of the extracts was used at the established MICs. These extracts were mixed with equal volumes of 100TCID50 Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) in confluent monolayer of Vero cells. The extract showed antiviral activities against yellow fever virus. Enantia chlorantha resulted in inhibition of yellow fever viruses at MICs of 0.025 mg/ml. E. chlorantha at 0.025 mg/ml ceased to be cytopathic to the cell line. The result of the study revealed that the water extract of E. chlorantha showed significant antiviral activity. Based on this experimental evidence, the extracts were considered effective against YFV as they completely inhibited the infectivity of YFV as evident in complete absence of Cytopathic effects (CPEs). It should therefore be recommended that application of extracts from E. chlorantha could help in the treatment of yellow fever infections. It is possible that more potent components especially against YFV might reside in the polar fractions which should form the focus of future investigation.

[Taiye R. Fasola, Faderera A. Adeyemo, Joseph A. Adeniji and Iheanyi O. Okonko. Antiviral Potentials of Enantia chlorantha Extracts on Yellow Fever Virus. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):99-105] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.16

 

Key words: Antiviral activity, cytotoxicity, cytopathic effects, Enantia chlorantha, yellow fever virus

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Detection of Aflatoxigenic Moulds Isolated From Fish and their Products and its Public Health Significance

 

1Atef, A. Hassan; 1Manal, A. Hassan; *1Howayda, M. El Shafei; 1Rasha, M.H. S. El Ahl and 2R.H. Abd El-Dayem.

 

1Dept. of Mycology and Mycotoxins and 2Food hygiene, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: A total of one hundred fish samples including; 40 of fresh fish (Tilapia nilotica), 30 each of (smoked fish and salted fish) were randomly collected from different shops and retail markets at different sanitation levels at Giza Governorate. Also, one hundred and fifty samples of fish feeds, worker hands and water surrounding the collected fish (50 of each) were collected. All collected samples were subjected for detection of fungal and aflatoxins contamination. The results showed that 7 genera of mould and 2 genera of yeast were recovered from different types of fish. The most commonly isolated mould species in the examined Tilapia nilotica were Alternaria spp. (90%), followed by Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Candida spp. (70.0% for each). Other moulds were recovered in a variable frequency .However, in salted fish samples, Candida spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus spp. were the most common isolates (93.3%, 80% and 83.3 %). Of genus Aspergillus; A.flavus was recovered from (66.6%) of salted fish. On the other hand, in smoked fish samples, members of  Aspergillus spp. were also the most common isolates (100%), A.flavus was recovered from (70%), A. niger (36.6%), followed by Candida spp.(`73.3%), Rhodotorula spp.(66.6%), Penicillium spp. (60%), P. citrinum and P. expansum (33.3% and 26.6%) respectively. Six genera of fungal spp. and one genus of yeast were recovered from fish feeds; worker hands and utilized water with a nearly similar to the incidence of contamination in fish particularly genus Aspergillus spp. Where, the A. flavus was predominantly recovered from fish feed. Moulds of A. flavus that isolated from different types of fish and fish feed were able to produce aflatoxins. Regarding fish feed, ten isolates of A. flavus out of 18 (55.5%) were aflatoxins producer strains. On the other hand, smoked fish was highly contaminated with aflatoxins producing strains, followed by the isolated strains from salted fish and Tilapia nilotica (53.3, 45 and 40%) respectively. It is interstice to report here that the aflatoxins were detected in fish feeds and different types of fish in significant higher levels. Forty percent of fish feeds and salted fish were contaminated with aflatoxin at mean levels of (105.21.3 and 44.10.4 ppb) respectively. Accordingly, the safe alternatives methods to conventional chemical antimicrobial therapy are needed due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance. Therefore, herbal antifungal oils were evaluated as camphor, clove and rosemary oils. Camphor oil had an inhibitory effect on all tested C. albicans isolates, the inhibitory zone in the well or disc-diffusion technique varied between (110.71 and 10.15 mm) diameter. Whereas, the Inhibitory zones of camphor oil against A. flavus were of (90.71 and 70.52 mm) diameter that were obtained by the well and disc-diffusion technique, respectively. On the other hand, the crud clove oil gave a stronger antifungal effect than other tested oils; the inhibitory zones against A. flavus were (150.63 and 150.25 mm) diameter and in case of C.albicans the inhibitory zone (130.55 and 90.52 mm) in diameter by the well and disc-diffusion technique, respectively. In general the well diffusion test gave a wider zone of inhibition for fungal growth by all tested oils or chemicals antifungal. The quality of fish flesh was preserved after treatment with antifungal included normal taste, odor and palatability of flesh. The continuous investigation is necessary to device drug tested to combat fungal infection.

[Atef, A. Hassan; Manal, A. Hassan; Howayda, M. El Shafei; Rasha, M.H. S. El Ahl and R.H. Abd El-Dayem. Detection of Aflatoxigenic Moulds Isolated From Fish and their Products and its Public Health Significance]. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):106-114] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.17

 

Key words: fresh fish, fish products (salted and smoked), fish feeds, moulds, yeasts, aflatoxins, herbal antifungal, chemical antifungal

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The social class relationship of the married women in Kerman and using contraceptive devices and methods for the control of the birth rate

 

Rahmatollah Dadvar1 , Asiye Khoramaki 2, Maryam Habibi Fathabadi3

 

1(PH.D. student of university sains Malaysia (USM) & academy member, Islamic Azad University, Baft branch –Kerman ,Iran);

2 (women studies M.S.from Islamic Azad University- Baft branch – Kerman ,Iran)

3 (women studies M.S.from Islamic Azad University- Baft branch and teacher ofBaft education –Kerman , Iran)

Email: Rdadvar7@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The establishment of a balance between the daily increasing numbers of humans and their needs on one side and the existing resources on the other side is a difficult challenge for many developing countries including Iran. It seems that in order to free from the mentioned difficulties resulting from the irregular growth of population, the exact implementation of family control programs (using contraceptive devices and methods) is the only logic solution. Since the women are the main pillar of the family control plans, the present research also deals with the relation of the social class of the 15-49 years old married women in Kerman and using the contraceptive devices. In this research, survey research methodology has been used. Due to the broadness of the statistical society, through sample taking, first the daily number of the women referring to all health centers in Kerman (15-49 year old married women) was collected. They were 440 individuals in a day. Then using Cochran formula, 160 cases were considered for a further study. The necessary data was collected through questionnaires made by the author and data was collected. In this study, the women were classified in three classes of low, middle and high based on the data collected from the questionnaires. The findings of the study showed that there is a significant relation between the social class of women and using the contraceptive devices. Also based on these findings, there is a significant relation among variables such as level of education, knowledge, family income and tendency to use preventive devices and using these devices. There is no significant relation among variables such as the age of women, place of birth, family, number of children, gender of the children and duration of marriage and that of contraceptive devices to control the birth rate.

[Rahmatollah Dadvar, Asiye Khoramaki, Maryam Habibi Fathabadi. The social class relationship of the married women in Kerman and using contraceptive devices and methods for the control of the birth rate. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):115-119] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.18

 

Key terms: Social Class, Contraceptive Devices (for birth control), Women

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Ecological Studies on Food and Feeding Habits and Daily Feeding Time Schedule of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana (India)

 

 Girish Chopra, Ajay Kumar* and Tarsem Kumar

 

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, India

e-mail* - ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is an old world monkey belongs to Family- Cercopithecidae. Rhesus monkey has a major role in biodiversity and in medical biological study such as surrogate mother, immunodeficiency disease, captive breeding, blood grouping and sequence of genome etc. (Zahn et al. 2007). The present study was carried out from February, 2008 to July, 2008 to record different food habits as well as daily feeding time schedule of Rhesus monkey in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary (SPWS), Haryana (India). Selected three troops (T-I, T-II, T-III) of Rhesus monkey in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary was found to fed on 13 species of trees (Acacia nilotica, Albizza lebbek, Butea monosperma, Delbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus sp., Ficus religiousa, Morus alba, Prosopus juliflora, Cordea dichtoma, Ficus religiousa, Syzigium cuminis, Ziziphus mauritiana, Terminalia arjuna), 2 species of shrubs (Ziziphus nummularia, Capparis sepiaria) and 7 species of herbs (Brassica compestris, Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Saccharum officinarum, Trifolium alexanderium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon). In all, 72 sighting of feeding was observed in which troop I fed for minimum time 2.25 hrs (in February, 2008) to maximum time 4.41 hrs (in July, 2008), troop II fed for minimum time 2.28 hrs (in February, 2008) to maximum time of 4.37 hrs (in June, 2008) and troop III was observed to fed for minimum time 2.13 hrs (in February, 2008) to maximum time 4.44 hrs (in July, 2008).

[Girish Chopra, Ajay Kumar and Tarsem Kumar. Ecological Studies on Food and Feeding Habits and Daily Feeding Time Schedule of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758) in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana (India). Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):120-124] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.19

 

Keywords: Rhesus monkey, feeding habits, feeding time schedule, Sanctuary

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Mycoremediation of Crude Oil and Palm Kernel Contaminated Soils by Pleurotus pulmonarius Fries (Quelet)

 

Adenipekun 1*, C.O. and Lawal,Y. 2

 

1, 2, Department of Botany, University of Ibadan,

Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

oyinpek@yahoo.com, abimbola2002us@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Lignolytic fungi produce extracellular enzymes with low substrate specificity suitable for degradation of many different compounds notably organopollutants This study was conducted to test the ability of white rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius Fries (Quelet) to degrade crude oil and palm kernel sludge in the soil.. The results showed an increased in organic carbon, organic matter, nitrogen content in crude oil contaminated soil at 5% from 2.17% - 2.40%; 3.79% - 4.16% and 0.22% - 0.24% respectively. There was also increase in the nutrient contents of palm kernel sludge contaminated soil. A decrease in the heavy metal contents was observed at all level of crude oil contamination except Pb which increased at 5% and 20% crude oil contamination. An increase was observed at all levels of palm kernel sludge contamination except Zn which decreased from 2.97 to 2.75mg/kg , Pb also decreased at 2.5%, 20%, 40% and Cu at 1% , 40% palm kernel sludge contamination after 2months of incubation. The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon showed a percentage loss of 40.80% at 1% crude oil concentration and 9.28% at 40% crude oil contaminated soil after 2 months. The lignin content of the rice straw reduced from 13.56% in the control to 7.71% and organic matter content  decreased  from 37.96% to 17.90% after 2 months. The improvement of nutrient content value as well as the bioaccumulation of heavy metals at all levels of crude oil concentrations tested through inoculations with P. pulmonarius  is of importance for the mycoremediation of crude oil and palm kernel sludge polluted soil.

[Adenipekun CO,Lawal,Y. Mycoremediation of Crude Oil and Palm Kernel Contaminated Soils by Pleurotus pulmonarius Fries (Quelet). Nature and Science 2011;9(9):125-131] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.20

 

Keywords: mycoremediation, crude oil, palm kernel sludge, Pleurotus pulmonarius

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Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Extraction Sockets Treated with Different Graft Materials

 

Gamal M. Moutamed

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding author: gamalmoutamed@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Various grafting materials have been used immediately in the extraction socket following tooth extraction for ridge preservation in an attempt to limit or prevent ridge resorption. The purpose of the present study was to investigate histologically and histomorphometrically, in mongrel dogs, the influence of bioglass (BG), demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and Grafton demineralized bone matrix (DBM) putty implanted in extraction sockets for ridge preservation compared to no graft at all. Following lower third premolar tooth extraction of both right and left side, a total of 48 sockets in 24 mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two groups. Each group comprised 12 dogs and split-mouth design was applied. In the first group the right sided-socket of 12 dogs was grafted with BG and the left sided- socket of the same dogs was grafted DFDBA. In the second group the right sided-socket of 12 dogs was grafted with Grafton DBM putty and the left sided- socket of the same dogs was un-grafted served as unfilled control. Primary coverage was achieved by flap advancement over each socket. Three animals from each group were euthanized and sacrificed at one, 3, 6, and 12 weeks post-operatively. The right and left mandibular segments, including the implanted sockets, were obtained. The specimens were processed, decalcified and stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination and histomorphometrically analyzed. The count of new bone trabeculae and the average size as well as the total area of new bone trabeculae was calculated. Moreover, changes of alveolar ridge height were evaluated on postoperative radiographs. At one, 3, 6 and 12 weeks post-extraction, a statistical significant difference (P value < 0.05) was obtained in the count of bone new trabeculae, the average size of new bone trabeculae and the total area of new bone trabeculae among treated sites. Grafton DBM putty showed statistically significant highest values amongst treated sites. However the was no statistical significant difference when comparing these variables in the BG treated sockets with the DFDBA treated sockets. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the alveolar ridge height changes between the grafted and un-grafted sockets throughout all time intervals. Conclusion, the implantation of BG, DFDBA as well as DBM putty in extraction sockets was accompanied by varying degrees of bone formation as well as a host response. All used graft materials were biocompatible and biodegradable. DBM putty seems to be an ideal graft material in extraction sockets as it was simple to use, effective, providing scaffold for new bone to build  up for healing process. Efficacy of Grafton DBM putty may relate to methods of demineralization, the concentration of graft material per unit volume, or the nature of the carrier. DBM putty, when used for extraction sockets grafting, resulted in replacement of most of the graft material with bone.

[Gamal M. Moutamed. Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Extraction Sockets Treated with Different Graft Materials. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):132-146] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.21

 

KEY WORDS: tooth extraction, bioactive glass, allografts, ridge preservation, dog model, histomorphometric evaluation

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Extraction of Chromium (Vi) with 4-Adipoyl and 4-Sebacoyl Derivatives of Bis (1-Phenyl-3-Methylpyrazolone-5) in Acid Medium and the Effect of Butanol

 

Kalagbor A. Ihesinachi1, Uzoukwu B. Augustus2 and Chukwu U. John2

 

1. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rivers State Polytechnic, Bori,

P.M.B. 20, Nigeria. Email: ksinachi@yahoo.com

2. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt,

P.M.B 5323, Choba, Nigeria. Email: uzoukwupob331@yahoo.co.uk; lydiuche@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Solvent extraction of chromium (VI) ions from concentrations of various mineral acids (HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3) have been carried out using chloroform solution of 4-adipoylbis(1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5), H2Adp and 4-sebacoylbis(1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5), H2SP in the presence and absence of butanol (BuOH) as synergist. Cr(VI) was quantitatively extracted from all three mineral acids using 0.01M solutions of H2Adp/chloroform and H2SP/chloroform. Optimal % extraction of 62%, at 0.5M acid concentration was obtained for HCl and 66% at 1.0M for H2SO4. While 82% at 3.0M acid concentration was obtained for HNO3 from chloroform solution of H2Adp in the absence of BuOH. Similarly, H2SP/chloroform solution gave optimal % extraction of 50%, 70% and 90% at 0.5M, 2.0M and 5.0M acid concentrations for HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 respectively, for the extraction of Cr(VI) in the absence of BuOH. In the presence of BuOH, synergism was more pronounced for extraction of Cr (VI) from HNO3 and HCl solutions into organic solutions of H2Adp and H2SP respectively. However, optimum extraction was better in HNO3 followed by H2SO4 and least in HCl acidic medium for extraction of Cr(VI) into organic solutions of 0.01M H2Adp/chloroform and 0.01M H2SP/chloroform in both the absence and presence of BuOH. Mechanism of the extraction systems showed that extraction using the ligand H2SP first involves an acidification process followed by the extraction species as ion pair complexes. Hence, the extracted species were: CrO2(Adp) and H4CrO42+(SP)2– with an average log Kex of 4.70.

[Kalagbor A. Ihesinachi, Uzoukwu B. Augustus and Chukwu U. John. Extraction of Chromium (Vi) with 4-Adipoyl and 4-Sebacoyl Derivatives of Bis (1-Phenyl-3-Methylpyrazolone-5) in Acid Medium and the Effect of Butanol. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):147-153] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.22

 

Keywords: Chromium (VI), Chloroform, Butanol, 4-adipoylbis(1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5),  4-sebacoylbis(1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5).

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Paradox of Expansion Speed in Big-Bang Cosmology

 

Author: Wei  Zhang

 

Staff and Workers School of Queshan County, Henan Province, China

(Zip Code: 463200)

Communications author : Wei  Zhang

Communications address: Staff and workers school of Queshan County, Henan Province, China
Zip code: 463200
E-MAIL: zhangwei2006zw1@yahoo.com.cn
PHONE: 86-0396-7026333

 

Abstract: This article reveals the application of optical comb technique which makes the scope and the precision of multi-wave sky patrol constantly increased in the big bang of current cosmographic observation and study. However, due to the limitation of the scope of multi-wave observation, the background radiation of neutrino is not yet detected currently. This article emphatically discusses the issues in expansion rate paradox that may appear in the current cosmographic study and proves the new and reasonable explanations theoretically to realize the important scientific significance for eliminating the logical paradox.

[Wei Zhang. Paradox of Expansion Speed in Big-Bang Cosmology. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):154-159] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.23

 

[Key Words] big-bang cosmology ; basic problems ; research ; report

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Regeneration status and phytosociology in Quercus leucotrichophora (A. Camus) and Pinus roxburghii (Sarg.) mixed forests in two different aspects influenced by forest fires in community managed forests of Kumaun Central Himalaya, India.

 

Nabin Raj Joshi and Ashish Tewari

 

Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, Kumaun University, Nainital, India

*Corresponding author: E-mail-: nabin2001@gmail.com

 

 Abstract:  Forest fire frequencies, aspect, phytosociological analysis, regeneration status and population structure of three community managed forests locally called  as  Van Panchayat  at Almora, in Kumaun  Central Himalaya were studied. The sites were divided into two different aspects i.e. South West (SW) and North West (NW).The Van Panchayats are dominated by Quercus leucotrichophora (Banj oak) and Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) mixed forest. The total basal cover of trees ranged between 4.44 m2ha-1 and 257.62 m2ha-1.Total tree density varied from 160indha-1 to 910ind ha-1. Sapling density from 220 Ind ha-1 to 610 indha-1 and seedling density from 10 ind ha-1 to 530 ind ha-1, the species diversity varied from 0.40 to 0.9, while the concentration of dominance varied from 0.02 to 0.58 for tree layer respectively among all aspects. Pinus roxburghii was the dominant species in south-western aspect and Quercus leucotrichophora in north-western aspect.

[Nabin Raj Joshi and Ashish Tewari. Regeneration status and phytosociology in Quercus leucotrichophora (A. Camus) and Pinus roxburghii (Sarg.) mixed forests in two different aspects influenced by forest fires in community managed forests of Kumaun Central Himalaya, India. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):160-166] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.24

 

Key words:  Aspect, Diversity, Forest fire, Regeneration, Community, Van-Panchayat.

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Antifungal Activity of a Common Himalayan Foliose Lichen Parmotrema tinctorum ( Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

 

Priti Tiwari 1, 2*, Himanshu Rai2**, D.K.Upreti2, Suman Trivedi1, Preeti Shukla2

 

1Motilal Vigyan Mahavidyalaya, Barkatullah University Bhopal (M.P.) 462003

2Lichenology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh-226001, India

* prititiwari.kv@gmail.com, **himanshurai08@yahoo.com

                                                                        

Abstract: In-vitro antifungal activity of acetone, methanol and chloroform extracts of Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr.ex.Nyl.) Hale. was investigated against ten plant pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium roseum, Ustilago spp., Albugo candida and Penicillium citrinum , with reference to commercially available synthetic antifungal drug Ketoconazole (positive control) using disk diffusion assay. Methanol extract was most effective against all investigated fungi followed by acetone and chloroform extract. Principal component analysis (PCA) concluded that though Ketoconazole was effective against five  of the investigated fungi, the extracts of Parmotrema tinctorum were more effective against rest of the five broad spectrum plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus,Fusarium solani, Fusarium roseum, Penicillium citrinum and Ustilago spp.).

[Priti Tiwari, Himanshu Rai, D.K.Upreti, Suman Trivedi, Preeti Shukla. Antifungal Activity of a Common Himalayan Foliose Lichen Parmotrema tinctorum ( Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):167-171] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.25

 

Key Words: Parmotrema tinctorum, Principal component analysis, Himalayan lichen, lichen extract, antifungal activity, secondary metabolites.

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Convergence of Periodical Evolutionary Computation

 

WU Sheng-Ping

 

State key laboratory of software engineering, Wuhan, University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China

hiyaho@126.com

 

Abstract: This article study the convergence of the Genetic Evolution Computation with the algorithm that can be described by discrete Markov Chain with constant transfer probabilities matrix, for example, the algorithm with the periodical mutations in crossing, and static strategy. They likely converge at a stable distribution of probabilities if correctly manipulated, although are generally not convergent well.

[WU Sheng-Ping. Convergence of Periodical Evolutionary Computation. Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):172-174] (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.26

 

Key words: Convergence; Periodical Evolutionary Computation

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27

Hunting Wolves In Montana - Where Is The Data?

 

Jay S. Mallonee

 

Wolf & Wildlife Studies, Kalispell, MT 59901, (406) 291-2965

info@wolfandwildlifestudies.com

 

Abstract:  Management agencies have claimed that the recovery and public hunting of wolves is based in science.  A review of their statistics demonstrated that data collection methods did not follow a scientific protocol which resulted in flawed and often blatantly incorrect data.  Consequently, agencies do not know the total number of wolves in Montana, a major reference point used by wolf managers.  Therefore, the quotas proposed for public wolf hunts are completely arbitrary, and management decisions in general have not been based on facts.  This has produced a wolf management system that lacks scientific perspective and does not utilize what is known about the wolves’ role in sustaining healthy ecosystems.  Instead, the data demonstrates that management decisions are often based on opinion and politics.

[Jay S. Mallonee. Hunting Wolves In Montana - Where Is The Data? Nature and Science 2011; 9(9):175-182] (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090911.27

 

Keywords:  Montana, wolves, hunting, management

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 20, 2011
 
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