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Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 9 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 55), October 25, 2011
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0910 
 
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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Effects of Cycle and Fill Period Length on the Performance of a Single Sequencing Batch Reactor in the Treatment of Composite Tannery Wastewater.

 

Andualem Mekonnen* and Seyoum Leta

 

Environmental Science program, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

*E-mail: andumk21@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A single laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was used to optimize cycle times and to evaluate the performance at the optimum cycle, moreover effects of period of fill time on COD removal efficiencies was studied. The average overall COD removal efficiencies found at the 6 and 8 hour cycle times were 71 % and 85 %, respectively. At the cycle times of 12 and 24-h were 89% and 92%, respectively. The TN removal efficiencies were also increased from 33% to 49% as the cycle time increases from 6-h to 24-h. At the optimum cycle time (8-h), the reactor showed removal efficiencies of 85% for carbon, 38% for total nitrogen, 99.9 % for sulfide and 100% for orthophosphate. The change in fill time was appeared to affect the removal of organic matter. The removal efficiencies change from 94 to 90 and then to 85 % with change of fill time from 180 to 83 and final to 48 and 39 minutes, respectively. In the steady-state condition, the removal efficiencies of COD and TN increased as the cycle time increased. The removal efficiency of COD increased as the length of feed time increased.

[Andualem Mekonnen and Seyoum Leta. Effects of Cycle and Fill Period Length on the Performance of a Single Sequencing Batch Reactor in the Treatment of Composite Tannery Wastewater. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.01

 

Keywords: COD, TN, sequencing batch reactors, tannery wastewater

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2

Grid Parity and Solar Electricity for Homes

 

 Nnorom ACHARA

 

MDPGA, Ministry of Defence, Wethersfield, Braintree UK.

nnoromeluwa@btinternet.com

 

Abstract: Although the discovery of the photovoltaic effect is over hundred years ago its application globally has been slow to take off because of its high price/kW ratio compared with the grid. Efforts to achieve price parity with the grid include the development of higher efficiency cells with materials other than silicon being employed. The Feed-In-Tariffs (FITs) is a cost effective way of popularizing solar electricity. The connection of the modules in an array for the panel can either be made in series to achieve the desired voltage or in parallel for the current level. The capacity of solar panel required to charge a 12V battery bank ranges from 14V to 17V with the upper limit reserved for hot environments since cell generated voltage drops with increasing temperature. The charge controller is a desirable feature introduced in the solar electric circuit to protect the battery bank. Before the DC stored in the battery bank can be used in a home wired for an AC supply, it has to go through an inverter. Ideally, the surge capacity of the inverter should be stated. It is recommended that the whole solar panel be electrically well grounded.

[Nnorom ACHARA. Grid Parity and Solar Electricity for Homes. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):9-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.02

 

Key Words: Photovoltaic, parity, semiconductor, spectrum, charge-controller, inverter, wafer-based

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3

Application of Antimicrobial Non Woven Fabrics in Nursing Pads

 

Ibrahim, G.E.

 

Spinning, Weaving & Knitting Dept., Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Egypt

appliedarts71@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nursing pads are widely used by nursing mothers to prevent strike-through of milk onto their clothing. This research aims to produce fabrics suitable for being used as a breast-milk absorbent pad. The produced nurse pad consists of three layers The non-woven technique was applied to produce the outer layers , using different substrates where the outer layers were made of (cotton, viscose, polyester, viscose/ polyester blend and polypropylene),and the wadding layer were made of cotton and viscose . The produced fabrics were treated with an antimicrobial agent. Different parameters were studied including, fabric construction (using nonwoven technique), material used and weight. Their influence on the performance of the end-use fabric and the achieved properties were studied. On the other hand physical-chemical properties including roughness, thickness, absorption, and antimicrobial, were evaluated according to the final product needs.

[Ibrahim, G.E. Application of Antimicrobial Non Woven Fabrics in Nursing Pads]. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):16-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.03

 

Key wards: nursing pads, nonwoven fabrics, antimicrobial.

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4

Indoor Mycoflora in Household Dust and Human Health

 

Mohamed A. Fareid

 

Botany and Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University

Present address: Medical Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, H’ail University, SA.

mohamedfareid73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Indoor mycoflora in household dust were assessed by using conventional methods to investigate the enumeration and identification of mycoflora. The dust samples were collected during the spring season (March-May, 2011) from indoor of homes in different localities of Ha’il, Saudi Arabia. A total of six fungal genera were determined. The most frequency of these was Aspergillus (54.45%), Penicillium (21.63%), Fusarium (8.91%), followed by Trichoderma (6.96%) colonies. Also, a total of two yeasts genera were determined. The most frequency one of these was Candida (60.77%) colonies. Statically our results indicated that there was a highly significant different in temperatures and wind speed during March, April and May (P=0.001), while there was no significant different in humidity (P>0.05). Serum IgE (total and specific) antibody levels to 13 different fungal species in 76 patients with asthma (adults and children's) were studied. The number of allergen-specific IgE measurements above the cut-off (>0.35 kUA/L) was highly significant different for all fungal species tested (P=0.001). There were significant correlations between total IgE level and specific IgE to Aspergillus repens (r=0.332, P<0.05), Trichoderma viride (r=-0.332, P<0.05) and Candida albicans (r=0.298, P<0.05).

[Mohamed A. Fareid. Indoor Mycoflora in Household Dust and Human Health. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):27-36]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.04

 

Key words: Mycoflora; Fungi; Household Dust; Human; Health

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Hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) and risk factors of transmission among patients attending Universal Hospital, Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria

 

Sule WF1, Okonko IO2*, Yunusa IP3, Odu NN2, and Frank-Peterside N2

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, PMB 4494, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. mac2finney@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine Hepatitis B Surface Antigenemia (HBsAg) and risk factors of transmission among patients attending Universal Hospital, Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria. In order to estimate the prevalence rate of HBsAg and to evaluate the influence of subjects' demographics on HBsAg seropositivity, we used well-designed questionnaire to obtain data considered risk factors for contracting hepatitis B virus from consenting patients. Thereafter, 150 apparently healthy male and female patients (ages 2 - 80 years) were consecutively selected; blood samples of whom were screened by parallel diagnostic method using Dia Spot® HBsAg test kit and One Step Strip Style HBsAg test kit (ANTEC DIAGNOSTIC®) for HBsAg. With SPSS 13.0, we used Chi square statistical test to establish association between the risk factors and HBsAg seropositivity. Overall prevalence rate of HBsAg was 14.0%. Contrary to educational status (p = 0.041), history of blood transfusion (p = 0.001) and marital status (p = 0.001); sex (p = 0.501), age (p = 0.142), condom-use during sexual intercourse (p = 0.432) and occupation (p = 0.903) were not significantly associated with HBsAg seropositivity among the study patients. This study however confirmed the presence of Hepatitis B surface antigenemia among apparently healthy patients in Kogi State, Nigeria. General surveillance, mass immunization and public health education to stop the spread of the infection on Ankpa community and indeed the whole society is advocated.

[Sule WF, Okonko IO, Yunusa IP, Odu NN, and Frank-Peterside N. Hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) and risk factors of transmission among patients attending Universal Hospital, Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):37-44]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.05

 

Keywords: HBsAg, seropositivity, healthy patients, risk factors.

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Antimicrobial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of Mirabilis jalapa against some human pathogenic bacteria

 

1Akintobi, O.A., 1Agunbiade, S.O., 2Okonko, I.O., and 1Ojo, O.V.

 

1Department of Biochemistry & Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria; mac2finney@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The aim of this study was to screen for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Mirabilis jalapa (4’O clock plant) leaf. Samples of M. jalapa were collected randomly from the University of Ibadan botanical garden, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria between July and October, 2009 and air dried. Pure cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Proteus mirabilis were obtained from the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The cultures were maintained on MacConkey agar slants for a period of 48 hours in a refrigerator before they were subcultured into freshly prepared MacConkey agar slants for nutrient replenishment. The aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Mirabilis jalapa (4’O clock plant) leaf were screened for antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents using standard techniques. From the results, ethanol extract showed highest antimicrobial effect against some of the tested pathogenic bacteria, followed by Methanol extract. Aqueous and Petroleum ether extracts showed no significant antimicrobial activity. Comparison of the inhibitory effect of the leaf extracts against some broad spectrum antibiotics revealed that Ciprofloxacin had the highest efficacy against the susceptible gram negative bacteria strains used. Proteus mirabilis was highly susceptible to the alcohol extracts of Mirabilis jalapa compared to the result of its antibiotic sensitivity testing which showed no observable antimicrobial activity. In the case of Escherichia coli, there was no noticeable antimicrobial activity with both the aqueous and organic solvent extracts, as well as with the broad spectrum antibiotics used. Staphylococcus aureus also showed similar results as Escherichia coli. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals carried out on the leaf extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids, while quantitative analysis showed that alkaloids were present in all the extracts, and in the highest quantity, followed by flavonoids, then tannins. Quantity of saponins was the lowest. Ethanol extract recorded the highest number of phytochemicals identified, followed by the methanol extract, then aqueous extracts. Petroleum ether extracts recorded the lowest value. The results obtained from the In vitro antimicrobial assay of the leaf extracts of Mirabilis jalapa lend scientific credence for the use of the plant against bacterial infections. This results confirm the therapeutic potency of Mirabilis jalapa for use in folklore medicine. The activities observed could be due to the presence of some of the secondary metabolites like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids which have known antimicrobial activity.

[Akintobi, O.A., Agunbiade, S.O., Okonko, I.O., and Ojo, O.V. Antimicrobial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of Mirabilis jalapa against some human pathogenic bacteria.Nature and Science 2011;9(10):45-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.06

 

Keywords: Antibiotics, Antimicrobial, Mirabilis jalapa, 4’ O clock plant, Phytochemicals

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Influence of Rosemary Extract on Immune Responses and Oxidative Stress in Mice Intoxicated by Aflatoxins

 

Sahar, T. Ahmad1; Abeer, S. Hafez1; Manal, A. Hassan2and Mogda, K. Mansour3

 

Departments of Immunology1, Mycology2 and Biochemistry3, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki-Giza. Egypt. dr.sahartawfik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A research study was conducted to investigate the impact of rosemary extract (RM) as a natural antioxidant on immune responses and oxidative stress in mice challenged with aflatoxins (AFB1). Seventy five samples of feeds included poultry ration, processed animal meal and bone and blood meal (25 of each), were subjected for mycological and aflatoxin detection. The results revealed that 8 genera of fungi and one genus of yeast were recovered. Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) was recovered from all tested feed samples of poultry ration, processed animal meal and bone and blood meal in a significant frequency (72%, 64% and 60%) respectively. Significant levels of aflatoxins were produced by A.flavus that recovered from the feed samples included in this work , where the maximum toxin level was obtained from A. flavus (86.6%)that isolated from bone and blood meal which produced the mean level of 70 ± 0.2ppb aflatoxins, followed by those isolated from poultry ration ( 66.6‰ with mean level of 33.5±0.61ppb). Whereas, A. flavus that recoverd from processed animal meal produced the lower level of aflatoxins with a relatively lower incidence (56.2‰ with mean level of 7.6±0.1ppb). A total of 60 BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into three equal groups, 1st gp as control, 2nd gp orally treated with AFB1 (50 ug/0.1ml/mice/day) and 3rd gp orally treated with AFB1 (50 ug/0.1ml/mice/day) plus RM extract (1000 mg/ kg b.wt./day) for 3 weeks. The peritoneal macrophages were isolated from these animals and mononuclear cells activation was determined. Immunological parameters indicated that proliferation of peritoneal macrophages was higher in the 3rd gp than 2nd gp. It is interesting to report that the releases of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum have been regulated against AFB1 toxicity. MAD and GSH levels and catalase activity in hemolysate have provoked a high correlation between RM extract intake and the improved functions of total antioxidant enzymes under oxidative stress induced by the aflatoxin challenge. From the foregoing results it was concluded that antioxidant components of RM extract were able to improve the impaired immune responses and oxidative disorders from oxidizing agents which produced during experimental aflatoxigenesis. Therefore, the RM extract could be used as an alternative compound to antioxidants which have dangerous side effects to human and animal health. The significance of our results was fully discussed.

[Sahar, T. Ahmad; Abeer, S. Hafez; Manal, A. Hassan and Mogda, K. Mansour. Influence of Rosemary Extract on Immune Responses and Oxidative Stress in Mice Intoxicated by Aflatoxins. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):54-63]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.07

 

Keywords: Rosemary extract, immunomodulation, fungi, aflatoxins, oxidative stresses.

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Growth and Nutrients Status of Wheat as Affected by Ascorbic Acid and Water Salinity

 

Hussein, M.M.1, Abd El-Rheem, Kh. M2. Khaled, S. M3. and Youssef, R. A.*2

 

1Department of Water Relations and Irrigation, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Soils and Water Use, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Plant Nutrition, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*refatay1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt in the winter season of 2009/2010 to study the effect of salinity on growth and yield of wheat. Salinity treatments were: irrigation by diluted red sea water with 3000, 6000 ppm salt concentration and tap water (TW) as a control (300 ppm). Wheat plants were sprayed by ascorbic acid (ASA) in the rate of 100 and 200 ppm twice at 30 and 45 days from sowing. Increasing salt concentration from 3000 to 6000 ppm decreased in the all growth and yield parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of stem, leaves and spikes. Spraying ascorbic acid (ASA) improvement the parameters of growth and yield and decreased the salt effect. Increasing the ascorbic acid spraying rate from 0 to 200 ppm increased the uptake of essential nutrients of wheat but decreased the Na and Cl uptake so the ascorbic acid played an important role for decreasing effects of saline water. Meanwhile, the uptake of all determinated minerals showed its higher values with spraying 200 ppm ASA. It's intersting that, increasing ascorbic acid rates increased Ca/(Na + K) ratios compared to the another ratios Na/Mg, Na/Ca and Na/K. Therfore, spraying ascorbic acid to wheat plants could be decreased saltthe harmful effects of salinity.

[Hussein, M.M., Abd El-Rheem, Kh. M, Khaled, S. M and Youssef, R. A. Growth and Nutrients Status of Wheat as Affected by Ascorbic Acid and Water Salinity. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):64-69]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.08

 

Keywords Wheat (Triticum aestavium L.) - Salt stress-Ascorbic acid-Plant growth – Yield- Nutrients uptake- Nutrients ratios

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9

Rayleigh and Compton Scattering Cross-sections for 19.648 keV Photons

 

Prem Singh

 

Dept. of Physics, S.D. College Ambala Cantt.-133001, Haryana, India

pspundir1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Rayleigh and Compton scattering differential cross-sections for the 19.648 keV photons in a few elements with 6 ≤ Z ≤ 50 have been measured. These measurements were performed under vacuum (~10-2 Torr) at 141º scattering angle in secondary reflection mode geometrical arrangement using 42MoKβ x-ray photons excited by 241Am radioisotope as the primary photon source and an HPGe/Si(Li) detector. Measured cross-sections for the Rayleigh scattering are compared with the modified form-factors (MFs), the MFs corrected for the anomalous scattering factors (ASFs), i.e., MFASFs and the S-matrix calculations. The measured Compton scattering cross-sections are compared with the theoretical Klein-Nishina cross-sections corrected for the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock incoherent scattering function S(x, Z).

[Prem Singh. Rayleigh and Compton Scattering Cross-sections for 19.648 keV Photons. Nature and Science 2011;9(10):70-77]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.09

 

Keywords: Rayleigh and Compton Scattering; Radioisotope; Photons; cross-sections

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10

Analytical Study of the Movements of Time and Price of Some Vegetable Crops in the Egyptian Market

 

Yahya M. M. Khalil1, Mahmoud A. A. Farrag1, Ahmed H. Ghanimi2 and Samir. A. Metwalli 2
 

1Economy Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2 Economy Department, Agricultural Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Cairo, Egypt
 

Abstract: Due to the characteristic of the soft nature of vegetables which result in quick damage by the factors of various climatic conditions which make transportation and circulation is difficult These factors led to high rates of waste of the marketing crops especially in the peak periods of production, and increasing supply on demand report lower prices Thereby reducing the revenues and lower incomes of producers make them not reluctant to produce some of these crops. The problem of the imbalance between the quantity offered and demand of potatoes, tomatoes and onions may be due to the inability of these crops to satisfy the prosecution and consumption, leading to a gap in food. The research aims to analyze the movements of time in the vegetable market in Egypt, where they are among the goods of perishable and they are more responsive to price changes and production and demand effects. The model includes the periodical time price changes each year, seasonal index and rural movements. The results of the equations of general time trend pointed out to statistically significant increase in the quantity produced and consumed vegetables during the period (1990-2008) by about 2.97%, 1.67% in Egypt. Such increase indicates the potentiality to increase Egyptian exports of vegetables, which represent about 7.55%. The results also shows the significant increase in the quantities produced, consumed of tomatoes and the rate of increase in production is greater than the rate of increase in consumption, where the rate of increase in production reached 4.32%, while the increase in consumption of about 2.43% which confirms the opportunity to increase Egyptian exports of these crops. As for the onions, the rate of increase in production was 4.05%, while consumption totaled about 2.09%. The results showed stable seasonal movements of wholesale prices for potatoes and tomatoes, while it was not true for the onion as the wholesale prices are subject to many factors during the season. The study indicated the periodic cycle changes of the wholesale ranges between 2-7 years of potatoes, tomatoes, onions, which indicates that they are productive and economic cycles. In other words the production cycles are not the main responsible for the cyclical changes in prices, but that economic cycles and production policies also controls price cycles completely.

[Yahya M. M. Khalil, Mahmoud A. A. Farrag, Ahmed H. Ghanimi and Samir Metwalli. Analytical Study of the Movements of Time and Price of Some Vegetable Crops in the Egyptian Market]. Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):78-84]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.10

 

Keywords: Movements of Time and Price; Vegetable; Crop; Egyptian; Market

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Comparative Evaluation of Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccines Used in Egypt

 

Saad, MA.*1 and Wafaa Deghaidy2

 

1Central lab for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbasia, Cairo

2Vet. Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Abbasia, Cairo

*saad940@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Once vaccine formulation, bottling conditions, and labels fulfill the requirements of national or international standards, safety and potency tests must be performed under the responsibility of an independent control Authority. In our study we evaluate four commercial FMD vaccine Batches (two oil and two gel), Two of this vaccine prepared from the local Egyptian O and A FMD strain and the other two prepared from a range of A and O antigens used in combinations that are specifically targeted for a particular territory. The four vaccine batches tested were safe. The first oil vaccine batch gave 80% protection for FMD strain A and O. The second gel gave 80% protection for FMD strain A and O, The third gel vaccine batch gave 100% protection for FMD strain A and O, while the fourth oil vaccine batch gave protection 100% for FMD strain A and 80% for FMD strain O. All the vaccine batches are evaluated with the Egyptian FMD strain A and O .the SNT titer for calves sera with batch one were 1.59 log10, 1.68 log10 for FMD strain A and O, respectively, while the SNT titer for calves sera vaccinated with batch 2 were 1.78 log10, 1.77 log10 for FMD strain A and O, respectively, while the SNT titer for calves sera vaccinated with batch 3 were 1.94 log10, 1.95 log10 for FMD strain A and O respectively, while the SNT titer for calves sera vaccinated with batch 4 were 1.92 log10, 1.83 log10 for FMD strain A and O, respectively.

[Saad, MA. and Wafaa Deghaidy. Comparative Evaluation of Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccines Used in Egypt]. Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):85-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.11

 

Keywords: Comparative Evaluation; Foot; Mouth Disease; Vaccine; Egypt

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Comparison of the Effects of Some Essential Oils as Anti-inflammatory Agents on the activities of Lysosomal Acid-Hydrolases in Rat Liver in-vitro

 

Kamal, M. El-Deib and Nermien, Z. Ahmed

 

Molecular Drug Evaluation Dep., National Organization for Drug Control & Research (NODCAR), Egypt. nermienteleb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different volatile oils such as: (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum N.)(CIN); (Eucalyptus globules L.) (EUC); (Mentha Piperita L.)(PEP) oils and their combination by two concentrations (100 and 300 μg/ml) on the four marker lysosomal enzymatic activities (ACP, Acid phosphatase; β-GAL, β- galactosidase, β-NAG, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and β-GLU, β-Glucuronidase) in rat liver in-vitro. In addition to, the activities of these enzymes in Carbontetrachloride(CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity (in-vivo) for each volatile oil by the two concentrations were investigated. It was observed that at the in-vitro experiment, the activity of each lysosomal enzyme appeared to be decreased by different values depending on the concentration of the volatile oil. The highest percentage values of the inhibitory effect were observed at the high concentration of the oil. The enzyme activity was altered according to the enzyme type and the oil. On the other hand, at the experiment of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity (in-vivo), the enzyme activity behavior was changed according to sole dose of treatment. At the sole treatments of each volatile oil by the two concentrations, the enzyme activity was decreased by different percentage values of inhibition. It was concluded that (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum N.); (Eucalyptus globules L.); (Mentha Piperita L.) oils by the two concentrations and also their mixtures exerted an inhibitory effect by different percentage of inhibition due to the effect of their antioxidant components of oils on the membrane permeability of the lysosomes.

[Kamal, M. El-Deib and Nermien, Z. Ahmed. Comparison of the Effects of Some Essential Oils as Anti-inflammatory Agents on the activities of Lysosomal Acid-Hydrolases in Rat Liver in-vitro. Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):90-98]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.12

 

Keywords: Cinnamomum Zeylanicum N.; Eucalyptus globules L.; Mentha Piperita L. oils; Rutin; Lysosomal enzymatic activity; CCl4, Hepatotoxicity.

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Biochemical studies on the effect of dietary fibers on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism in rats

 

Maha J. Balgoon, Karima S. Mohamed, and Sawsan H. Mahassni

 

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA.

 

Abstract: Recent work has focused on the role of natural and purified fiber preparations in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Although fiber has been increasingly recognized as an important dietary constituent, controversy and confusion still exist about the physiological effects of dietary fiber. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of various sources of dietary fibers (natural and purified) on levels of serum & liver lipids, serum lipoproteins and serum glucose of rats. Seventy-two Wister rats were divided into six groups. One group of rats was fed on the control diet, while two groups of rats were fed on the control diet supplemented with oat bran or wheat bran as sources of natural fiber. The other three groups of rats were fed on the control diet supplemented with either pectin, guar gum or cellulose as sources of purified fiber. From results obtained in this study it can be concluded that the oat bran and the wheat bran diets have similar hypocholesterolemic effect in rats, while the oat bran diet is less useful in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease. Moreover, the oat bran diet has a hypoglycemic effect compared to the wheat bran diet. Comparing the control diet with the control diet supplemented with various sources of purified fibers, cellulose had no hypolipidemic effect, whereas the pectin diet significantly reduced levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum and in the liver and glucose while it diet increased serum level of HDL-cholesterol. The guar gum diet was able to lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum and in the liver and also to increase the serum HDL-cholesterol level of rats. But these effects were still less than that obtained with the pectin diet.

[Maha J. Balgoon, Karima S. Mohamed, and Sawsan H. Mahassni, Biochemical studies on the effect of dietary fibers on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism in rats. Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):99-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.13

 

Keywords: dietary fiber; lipid; carbohydrate metabolism; rat

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Sensorial Evaluation of Egyptian School Meals

 

Alaa Azouz

 

Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: The actual recipes used to prepare school meals are important to provide the children in some Egyptian school with adequate daily balanced diet to enhance the nutrient content of easily available and accessible plan as participated in the Egyptian school program focusing on food quality and assessing healthy eating behaviors. Also, these diets should allow children to achieve optimal physical and conjunctive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food and reduce the risk of chronic disease. The aim of this study is to sensorial evaluate five suggested school pies (A, B, C, D and E), which contained different ratios of yellow butter and margarine (8:0, 6:2, 4:4, 2:6 and 0:8, respectively). This sensory evaluation was tested by 150 primary stage students (25 students from each grade), their ages ranged from 6 to 12 years old. Results showed that all the prepared formulas were healthy and good sources of protein and energy. However, the formulas covered the daily requirements of energy for students aged from 6 to 12 years in the range from 15.31 to 22.52%. Also, the baked pies made from formula C (1 : 1, yellow butter : margarine) was the most preference meal which received statistically the highest scores in all the judged quality attributes (color, odor, chewing, taste and overall acceptability) compared to all other tested formulas. Therefore, the nutrition education for children may promote better health for children's in various locations.

[Alaa Azouz. Sensorial Evaluation of Egyptian School Meals. Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):109 -115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.14

 

Keywords: Sensorial Evaluation; Egyptian; School; Meal

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Non-endoscopic parameters for prediction of esophagogastric varices in chronic liver disease patients - A novel prediction score for the presence of varices

 

Mohammad Sakr, M.D.1; Soheir Abdel Kadder, M.D.1; Eman Barakat, M.D.1; Sara Abdelhakam, M.D.1; Wesam Ibrahim, M.D.2; Samir Abdel Ghaffar, M.D.3; Maha El-Gaafary, M.D.4

 

Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Purpose: This study aimed at developing a predictive model for esophagogastric varices in patients with chronic liver disease using non-invasive parameters. Methods: This study was conducted on 120 patients with chronic liver disease admitted to Ain Shams University Hospitals or attending the outpatient clinics. They were subjected to complete clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography, color doppler ultrasonographic study of portal hemodynamics and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Results: The Child staging, liver and spleen sizes (cm) were independent risk factors for the presence of varices. From this proposed model, a prediction scoring system was generated. A scoring point was given to each parameter in the model: Child A class took zero, Child B 1.5 points and Child C 2.5 points. The patient’s liver and spleen sizes in cms by ultrasonography were multiplied by -0.297 and 0.607 respectively to get the scoring points for these parameters. Then the total score of the patient was the product of summation of all these points. This prediction score had a high sensitivity and specificity and a relatively high negative predictive value at cutoff points 6 and 7. Thus, above these cutoff values, the risk of the presence of varices is increased and patients should be screened by upper GIT endoscopy. Conclusion: From the generated predictive model using the Child staging, liver and spleen size (cm), we could predict the presence of varices in chronic liver disease patients.

[Mohammad Sakr; Soheir Abdel Kadder; Eman Barakat; Sara Abdelhakam; Wesam Ibrahim; Samir Abdel Ghaffar; Maha El-Gaafary. Non-endoscopic parameters for prediction of esophagogastric varices in chronic liver disease patients A novel prediction score for the presence of varices. Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):116-126]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.15

 

Key words: chronic liver disease; varices; predictors; ultrasonography; Doppler; scoring system

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Significance of C3 in Egyptian Cirrhotic Patients with Ascites Complicated By Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

 

Sayed A. Shalaby a, Hossam Abdel Aziz a, Wesam A. Ibrahim a ,*, Tarek M. Yousef a, Sara Abdelhakam b, Dalia M. Ghoraba b Dina A Soliman c

 

a Department of Internal Medicine M.D, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

b Department of Tropical Medicine M.D, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

c Department of Clinical Pathology M.D, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

 wesamahmed74@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In cirrhotic patients, the bactericidal and opsonic activity of the ascitic fluid is lower than that observed in non cirrhotic ascites. Aim of the work: to assess the association between serum and ascitic fluid levels of C3 in patient with cirrhotic ascites complicated by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Patients and Methods:study was conducted on 50 subjects,Group I: (20) patients with cirrhotic ascites complicated by SBP,Group II:(20) patients with cirrhotic ascites without SBP, Group III: (10) patients with non cirrhotic ascites. All patients were subjected to clinicolaboratory investigations,serum,ascetic C3, examination of ascitic fluid and abdominal ultrasonography. Results: Patients with cirrhotic ascites complicated by(SBP)had significantly low levels of ascitic and serum C3 compared to those without SBP and with non cirrhotic ascites. There was a statistically significant difference in serum C3 level between Child’s B and Child’s C.There was a positive correlation between serum C3 with ascitic C3 and albumin. Conclusion: The deficiency of serum complement concentrations of C3 is influenced with more progress of the disease and presence of ascites.In patients with cirrhosis and ascites, follow up of complement concentrations may help to recognize patients with increased risk for the development of SBP. Serum C3 of 45g/L and ascitic C3 of 11g/L was the best cutoff value for discriminating patients with SBP from patients without SBP.

[Sayed A. Shalaby, Hossam Abdel Aziz, Wesam A. Ibrahim, Tarek M. Yousef, Sara Abdelhakam, Dalia M. Ghoraba, Dina A Soliman. Significance of C3 in Egyptian Cirrhotic Patients with Ascites Complicated By Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):128-133]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.16

 

Key words: Liver cirrhosis; Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Serum C3; Ascitic C3

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Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Hesperidin and Naringin in Experimental Model of Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Rats: Focus on Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Resistin

 

Adel Abdel-Moneim; Mohamed B. Ashour; Ayman Moawad Mahmoud* and Osama M. Ahmed

 

Physiology Unit, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. *aymano911@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Both insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion are major features of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Inflammatory pathways are found to be critical in mechanisms underlying insulin resistance, which is a major determinant of increased risk of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes, and so, it is a potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to study the effects of hesperidin and naringin on serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and resistin in a model of type 2 diabetes in rats. In addition, this study was extended to demonstrate the effect of tested compounds on white adipose tissue TNF-α and resistin mRNA expression. Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with a high fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of streptpzotocin (35 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 50 mg/kg hesperidin or naringin was daily given for 30 days after diabetes induction. In the diabetic control group, levels of glucose, FFA, TNF-α and resistin were significantly increased, while serum insulin levels were decreased. Both hesperidin and naringin administration significantly reversed these alterations; hesperidin seemed to be more potent. Moreover, supplementation with either compounds significantly ameliorated the up-regulated adipose tissue TNF-α and resistin mRNA expression. These preliminary experimental findings demonstrate that both hesperidin and naringin exhibit antidiabetic effects in a rat model of type 2 diabetes by suppressing serum and adipose TNF-α and resistin.

[Adel Abdel-Moneim; Mohamed B. Ashour; Ayman Moawad Mahmoud and Osama M. Ahmed Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Hesperidin and Naringin in Experimental Model of Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Rats: Focus on Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Resistin] Nature and Science 2011;7(10):134-141]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.17

 

Key words: Tumor necrosis factor, resistin, hesperidin, naringin, insulin resistance

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Contrast of Evolution between in Computer and in Cell

 

WU Sheng-Ping

 

State key laboratory of software engineering, Wuhan University

hiyaho@126.com

 

Abstract: This paper discusses the difference between the evolutions in cell and that in computer, to find the difference in logic, and by learning from nature to improve the evolutionary computation method.

[WU Sheng-Ping. Contrast of Evolution Between In Computer And In Cell. Nature and Science 2011;7(10):142-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.18

 

Key words: speed of evolution of life; strategy of evolution; convergence of evolution, stable solution

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Preparation and Evaluation of Master Seed for infectious bronchitis vaccine from local variant isolate

 

Susan, S. El-Mahdy1; Y. A., Soliman1 and M. M. El-Hady2.

 

1Central Lab. for Evaluation of Vet. Biologics, Abassia, Cairo Egypt. (CLEVB)

2Vet. Collage, Cairo University. Cairo Egypt

prof.s.elmahdy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Preparation and Evaluation of Master seed prepared from Local variant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolated from different poultry farms in Egypt and identified as IS/1494/06 nephropathogenic strain are very important point for vaccine production for controlling of infectious brobchitis(IB) disease in Egypt. Master seed of the virus (MSV) contained 104 EID50 per dose per bird free from bacterial; fungal; mycoplasma ; extraneous viral contamination; Safe and potent. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping methods used for determining the relation between MSV and other IB variant strains (IB-88 and IB 4-91). The molecular basis of antigenic variation has been investigated in showed a distinct dissimilarity with either CR-88 ( 27.83%) or IB4-91(9.3%) .

[Susan, S. El-Mahdy; Y. A., Soliman and M. M. El-Hady. Preparation and Evaluation of Master Seed for infectious bronchitis vaccine from local variant isolate] Nature and Science 2011; 9(10):145-151]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091011.19

 

Key Words: Master seed of the virus (MSV); local variant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 3, 2011

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