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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 9 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 56), November, 2011
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0911 
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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1

Metallo-Β-Lactamase Production by Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Species Isolated from Hospital and Community Subjects in Lagos, Nigeria.

 

Enwuru N.V1*, Enwuru C.A2, Ogbonnia S.O1, Adepoju-Bello A. A.1

 

1. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

2. Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.

nvenwuru111@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract: Metallo β-lactamases (MBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae are of clinical concern globally. β-Lactam antibiotic is the treatment option for serious bacterial infections. Carbapenems is active against Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia; Cephalosporinases and carbapenemases producers as well. This study was designed to evaluate Metallo β-Lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp amongst hospitalized and community subjects in Lagos Nigeria, between March and July 2008. Sixty bacteria from hospital and community were analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility and Metallo- β-Lactamase-Production were determined using Disk Diffusion method, Double Disk Synergy Test and Combined Disk Test respectively. Carbapenems had the highest (100%) activity against the bacteria tested. Two strains of Kleb. spp susceptible to imipenem were found to be MBL producers. Ceftazidime had 52% resistance in both organisms. Among the 17 strains of E. coli from hospital patients, 7 were resistant to ceftazidime and were found to be MBL producers. Out of the 24 Kleb. spp (hospital) tested, 8 were resistant to ceftazidime, and 4/8 were subsequently found to be MBL producers. One E. coli, two Kleb. spp were resistant to ceftazidime and only one strain of Kleb. spp was found to be MBL producer from the community. Metallo-β-Lactamase in E. coli and Kleb Spp. is a threat within the hospital and community studied from the public health view point. Early detection of MBL-producers routinely in clinical laboratories is a tool for its containment and is hereby advocated.

[Enwuru N.V., Enwuru C.A., Ogbonnia S.O., Adepoju-Bello A. A. Metallo-Β-Lactamase Production by Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Species Isolated from Hospital and Community Subjects in Lagos, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011;9(11):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.01

 

Key word: Bacteria, Metallo -β-Lactamase, Hospital, Community.

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 Cooperatives- A Vehicle for Rural Development: The Case of Ahiazu Mbaise Area of Imo State, Nigeria

 

1Chikaire, J.,1Nnadi,F.N., 2Osuagwu,C.O.,2Oguegbuchulam, M.N.,2Oparaojiaku ,J., 3Achama,G.I.and 1Osigwe,T.

 

1Department of Agricultural Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.

2Department of Agricultural Management and Extension, 3Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo

Email – bankausta@yahoo.com; 08065928862.

 

Abstract: The project entitled “Co-operatives - a vehicle for rural development was carried out in Ahiazu Mbaise Area Imo State. The specific objectives were to determine the contribution of co-operatives in infrastructure and agricultural development; factors and problems of co-operative as well as peoples perception of cooperatives. A random sampling technique was adopted in selecting ten (10) co-operators from nine (9) co-operative societies. Data were collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire to respondents. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and percentage). However major constraints to co-operative societies include lack of technical support and credit facilities, government negligence, inconsistent polices etc. It was noted that co-operatives play active role in the provision of basic amenities and social services to boost the life of rural populace. The need for education of member and other people’s involvement was discovered. Based on the findings, recommendations was made on the areas of educating members, enlighten others, supporting of co-operative societies and more. But in general co-operative societies are an appropriate avenue for rural development.

[Chikaire, J., Nnadi,F.N., Osuagwu, C.O., Oguegbuchulam, M.N., Oparaojiaku ,J., Achama, G.I. and Osigwe, T. Cooperatives- A Vehicle for Rural Development: The Case of Ahiazu Mbaise Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2011;9(11):6-11]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.02

 

Keywords: Cooperative, rural development, poverty reduction, livelihood, Nigeria.

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Landholding Inequality Among Smallholder Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria: Implications for Agricultural Development and Rural Livelihood.

 

*Chikaire, J., **Atala, T.K., **Akpoko, J.G. and *Nnadi, F.N.

 

*Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology Owerri.

** Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

e-mail:bankausta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Land is a key asset for the rural and urban poor. It provides a foundation for economic activity and the functioning of market in many developing countries. It is the primary means for generating a livelihood and a main vehicle for investing, accumulating wealth and transferring it between generations. Denying one access to land is like denying one life. This is done in the allocation and distribution of landed property in many parts of Africa and the study area. Land is unequally distributed. While a few have large track of land, many others do not have. This poses a serious problem in the study area both to agriculture and the people who suffer deprivation. The study using questionnaire to gather data observed that land is allocated traditionally on family ties, serious inequality in holding exist and this has caused problems as most farmers are thrown out of farming business, while others steal farm produce and even harbor resentment and animosity against those with large holdings. This at times had led to communal clashes in the study area. Government should put in place a legal mechanism for equitable distribution for all sexes willing to farm.

[Chikaire, J., Atala, T.K., Akpoko, J.G. and Nnadi, F.N. Landholding Inequality Among Smallholder Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria: Implications for Agricultural Development and Rural Livelihood. Nature and Science 2011;9(11):12-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.03

 

Keyword: Land, agriculture, productivity, Rural, smallholder, Nigeria.

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Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy for Rapid and Simultaneous Quality Determination of Some Fruit Products

 

Gamal F. Mohamed1, Mohamed S. Shaheen2 Safaa K.H. Khalil3 , Ahmed M.S. Hussein1 and Mohie M. Kamil*1

 

1Food Science and Technology Dept., 2Flavor and Aromatic Dept., 3Spectroscopy Dept., National Research Center,

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*ResearchTeamMMK@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Detection of adulteration is a technical problem. In our work, we have demonstrated the capability of FT-IR spectroscopy as a simple, rapid and accurate method for simultaneously determining sugars, pectin and organic acid contents (citric acid) in some natural and synthetic fruit products. FT-IR technique used to detect the adulterants added such as glucose syrup, synthetic flavor and pigment (allura red & sunset yellow) in jams (strawberry & apricot), apricot sheet and juices (orange, apple and strawberry). The authenticity of strawberry jam was identified by several spectral bands assigned to fructose as deformation OCH, COH and CCH detected at 1425-1414 cm-1. While, spectral peaks due to the presence of glucose, sucrose, citric acid, pectin and allura red pigment were identified at 1029-1045 cm-1, 1058-1061cm-1, 1351-1378 cm-1, (700 - 705 and 917 - 927 cm-1) and 631 - 633cm-1, respectively in synthetic strawberry jam. Also, spectral band of fructose in fruity apricot jam was detected at (1414-1416 cm-1); and spectral band of synthetic pigment (sunset yellow) were detected at (770-762 cm-1) in synthetic apricot jam. Apricot sheet could be replaced with carrots as a cheap food material. Adulterated apricot sheet (100% Carrot) was identified with presence of a certain peak at 1089 cm-1, which disappeared in 100% apricot sheet. Also, in carrot-adulterated apricot sheet the intensity of the peaks were higher than those of unadulterated one at the same concentration. FT- IR spectra of synthetic strawberry, orange and apple juices were dominated by specific peaks that attributed to corresponding synthetic pigments at (1637 - 1644 cm-1), (1419 - 1421 cm-1) and (1053 - 1056 cm-1), respectively. The synthetic juices characterized with specific spectral bands of stretching C=O ester of aldehydic and ketonic groups in synthetic flavor at (1726-1731 cm-1) and stretching CO of sucrose at (996-963 cm-1), while these functional groups disappeared in natural juices. Results concerning the prediction of other quality traits using reference analyses were discussed. The obtained results indicated that, FT-IR technique could be easily adapted to detect any adulterants added in jam and juice products.

[Gamal F. Mohamed, Ahmed M.S. Hussein, Mohamed S. Shaheen and Safaa K.H. Khalil and Mohie M. Kamil Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy for Rapid and Simultaneous Quality Determination of Some Fruit Products]. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):21-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.04

 

Keywords: Adulteration – Authenticity - FT-IR spectroscopy – Jam – Juice - Apricot sheet

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Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anticarcinogenic Properties of Egyptian Guava Seed Extracts

 

Gamal F. Mohamed*1, Samira S. Mohamed2, and Fakhriya S. Taha2

 

1Food Technology Department, 2 Fats and Oils Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

*G_fouad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Guava seeds waste not yet used for any beneficial purpose, while the proximate composition of defatted guava seeds meal contain 11.52% protein, 0.54% oil and 79.62% crude fiber. Extraction of total phenolic compounds (TP) from guava seed meal was optimized using ethanol, methanol, acetone or iso-propanol, at different meal:solvent (M:S) ratios. Extraction TP from meal by using 80% acetone was higher than those extracted by other solvents, where TP reached to 91.05 mg TP/100g meal at 1:20 (M:S ratio). Two methods were carried out to determine antioxidant activity of guava seeds meal, the first was Free Radical Scavenging Activity (FRSA) using Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). All extracts at 1:15 and 1:20 M:S ratios exhibited greater scavenging activity than those extracted at 1:10 M:S ratio. The same trend was also observed by using the second method of β- carotene bleaching assay, where the ratios of 1:15 and 1:20 M:S gave extracts characterized with its higher antioxidant activity (99.17-80.93%). The Highest AOA was achieved with acetone extract at 1:15, M:S ratio reaching 99.17%. Eight chosen guava meal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity (AMA) against five bacterial strains. The bacterial strains included: E.coli 0157:H7 ATCC 51659, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13565, Bacillus cereus EMCC 1080, Listeria monocytogenes EMCC 1875 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC25566. The overall results indicated that, different bacteria species were affected by guava seed meal extracts. One chosen guava seed meal phenolic extract namely: 80% ethanol at 1:15 M:S ratio extract has been evaluated as a chemo-preventive agents. This was established by testing the ethanolic guava meal extract (EGME) for any cytotoxic activity against some types of human tumor cell. The obtained results indicate that, EGME possess potential anticarcinogenic properties. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and O-coumaric acid were identified in EGME at 1:15 (M:S) ratio by using HPLC. The results showed that, guava seed is a very promising source of bioactive compounds. It is a very potential source of antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic compounds.

[Gamal F. Mohamed, Samira S. Mohamed and Fakhriya S. Taha. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anticarcinogenic Properties of Guava Seed Extracts]. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):32-41]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

 http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.05

 

Keyword: Guava Seeds - total phenolic compounds – Antioxidant – Antimicrobial – Anticarcinogenic.

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The Magic of Heterosis: New Tools and Complexities

 

Gulzar S. Sanghera1, Shabir H Wani2*, Wasim Hussain1, Wajida Shafi2, A. Haribhushan3 and Naorem B.singh4

1. SKUAST –K, Rice Research and Regional Station, Khudwani, Anantnag, 192102, J&K, India;

2. Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar, J&K, India;

3. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Senapati, Manipur, 795 129 India;

4. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, COA, CAU, Imphal, Manipur 795 004 India

shabirhussainwani@gmail.com

 

Abstarct: Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, an unsolved puzzle and a ‘miraculous’ agricultural phenomenon, refers to the phenomenon in which hybrid progeny of two inbred varieties exhibits enhanced growth or agronomic performance. Converse of hybrid vigour is ‘inbreeding depression’ caused by increased homozygosity of individuals, which reduces survival and fertility of offspring. Agricultural heterosis was observed nearly 100 years ago when hybrid plants out yielded their inbred parents and today this “hybrid vigor” is a major provider for global food production. One of the most promising approaches to unravel the genetic basis for heterosis at the molecular level emerged through the availability of molecular markers, as they have provided a powerful approach to map and subsequently identify genes involved in complex traits. Molecular marker technology was used to identify the genomic regions that contribute to heterosis for a trait of interest. The advancements in functional genomics have created a novel avenue to study the genetic basis of heterosis at the gene-expression level. The genetic basis of heterosis has been debated with respect to the relative importance of dominance, overdominance and epistasis; where one of the problems has been the use of whole genome segregating populations where interactions often mask the effects of individual quantitative trait loci. In this review the phenomenon of heterosis and the modern concept of its genetic and molecular basis will be discussed.

[Gulzar S. Sanghera, Shabir H Wani, Wasim Hussain1, Wajida Shafi, A. Haribhushan and Naorem B.singh The Magic of Heterosis: New Tools and Complexities. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):42-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.06

 

Key words: Heterosis; genetic basis; molecular basis; quantitative trait loci; gene expression level

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Detection of Hepatits B surface Antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic at O.L.A. Catholic Hospital, Oluyoro, Ibadan, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria

 

Okonko IO1 and Udeze AO2

1Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital in Ibadan and to generate data which may be useful for appropriate health authorities. Two hundred pregnant women who consented voluntarily after thorough explanation of the purpose of the study were recruited for this study. The samples were tested for the presence of antibodies using rapid Dia Spot HBsAg rapid test strip developed by Dia Spot Diagnostics, USA and Clinotech HBsAg (Clinotech diagnostics, Richmond, Canada). Analysis of the result shows that 23 (11.5%) of the pregnant women had HBsAg. Statistical analysis, however, showed no significant difference (p=0.05) between the prevalence and the age of patients, parity, trimester and type of family. The frequency of HBV carriers did not vary significantly with scarification and the use of condoms and contraceptives. However, there was a significant frequency variation in the distribution of HBsAg between those that have previous history of transfusion, operation, circumcision and those who never had history of operation, transfusion or circumcision.Therefore, the need to institute public health measures to reduce disease burden and transmission, including routine screening of all pregnant mothers for HBV infection and early passive-active immunization of babies born to HBSAg-positive mothers are advocated.

[Okonko IO and Udeze AO. Detection of Hepatits B surface Antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic at O.L.A. Catholic Hospital, Oluyoro, Ibadan, Oyo State, Southwestern.

Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):54-60]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.07

 

Keyword: Detection ,Hepatits B surface Antigen, (HBsAg) pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic.

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FISHERIES, WILDLIFE AND VEGETATION OF AJIDO TOWN, BADAGRY, LAGOS.

 

*Akinnigbagbe Oluwatoyin Ruth1, Akinnigbagbe Akintoye Edward1, Aroriode Ojiyovwi Rebecca (Dr) 1, Jegede Olusolape Margaret2

 

1Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), Lagos, Nigeria.

2 Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. toyinorims@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Fish species, wildlife and vegetation around Ajido town of Badagry, Nigeria were studied. The fish species caught during the period of investigation were properly identified and likewise the wildlife through visual survey, most especially the birds while, the rest that could not be monitored during period of visit were recorded using the analysis from questionnaire issued. The vegetation of this environment was also identified. Fisher folks and peoples’ record from the questionnaire, reported that most of the wild animals in their forest are no more because most of them have been hunted for. Therefore the rest of the animals moved for safety except the aquatic wetland birds that closely associated with water bodies due to their feeding, breeding, roosting behavior and other activities associated with the aquatic environment. The common species of the wetland birds found are herons, waterfowl, fish eagle and darters, the majority of which are piscivorous. The lagoon serves probably as a feeding ground for the juveniles of some fish species and it is reasonable to assume that the presence of suitable food also influence the occurrence and distribution of these species. The presence of Ethmalosa fimbriata that moves in school during the period of study in Badagry lagoon shows that they are more abundant during the rainy season which was the period of visit to the site. This study identified the various types of fishing gears used among the fisher folks in Ajido town; it described why they are used and how they are used among the fisher folks. The most preferred gear among the fisher folks in Ajido town, Badagry during the period of study is the nylon monofilament cast net with the mesh sizes ranges between 15 and 100mm, used by both boys, men and even the women because it does not have weight and can easily be handled by everyone. The natural vegetation of Ajido observed during the period of investigation that there are different species of mangrove vegetation typically around the wetland of the backshore areas of Ajido; this is characterized by an entangled dense growth of stems and aerial roots behind the stretch of palms. Close to the shore line, it was observed from the colouration of the leaves that some of these plants are affected by oil pollution due to the oil company that has pipe lines across the area.

[Akinnigbagbe Oluwatoyin Ruth, Akinnigbagbe Akintoye Edward, Aroriode Ojiyovwi Rebecca (Dr), Jegede Olusolape Margaret, Fisheries, Wildlife and Vegetation of Ajido town, Badagry, Lagos. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):61-69]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.08

 

Keywords: Fisher folks, wildlife, Vegetation, Species,Badagry, Lagoon

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APPLICATION OF SURVEY IN MARINE GEOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHIC STUDY

 

*Akinnigbagbe Edward Akintoye, Rabiu Abdulkarim, Ibitola Mayowa Philips, Imo Daniel Oguwuike, Titocan Mark, Imhansoloeva, , Faleye Bamidele Ruth, Shonde Olufunke Olubukola, Jimoh Olayinka Rasheed, Abe Oluwaseun Banji.

 

Marine Geology/Geophysics Department, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), Lagos, Nigeria. Toye177@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT: The union between survey and marine geology in solving coastal problems cannot be underestimated; therefore the cooperation and the level of integration of these two unique areas will go a long way in achieving great feet in marine research. This work explains application of surveying in oceanographic studies and exposes the different areas in which survey principles can be applicable, such as waves, wind, longshore current, tides and tidal stream, sea level changes, low relief, rhythmic topography, human impact, oil and gas exploration and dredging of port channels. It also gives brief explanation on different areas of application of survey in marine geology and oceanography. The role of survey in solving the problem of coastal erosion is also discussed with some of the control measures used. Finally, some figures are presented to demonstrate how some survey instruments are being used in the field of oceanography.

[Akinnigbagbe Edward Akintoye, Rabiu Abdulkarim, Ibitola Mayowa Philips, Imo Daniel Oguwuike, Titocan Mark Imhansoloeva, , Faleye Bamidele Ruth, Shonde Olufunke Olubukola, Jimoh Olayinka Rasheed, Abe Oluwaseun Banji. Application of Survey in Marine Geology and Oceanographic Study. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):70-75]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.09

 

Key words: Surveyor, Longshore Current, Tidal Stream, Sea level, Oceanography

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Renewable Energy for Sustainable Food, Feed and Fibre Production: A Panacea to Nigeria’s Energy Crisis.

 

Nnadi, F.N., Chikaire, J., Ajaero, J.O., Nwakwasi, R.N. and Oguegbuchulam, M.N.

 

 Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. 2 Department of Agricultural Management and Extension, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo. e-mail bankausta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agriculture is the sole provider of human food. Most farm machines are driven by fossil fuels, which contribute to green house gas emission and, in turn, accelerate climate change. Such environmental damage can be mitigated by the promotion of renewable resources such as solar, wind, biomass, tidal, geo-thermal small-scale hydro, biofuels and wave-generated power. This is because, energy inputs are critical to agricultural production and long-term sustainability of global agricultural production will require renewable alternative energy resources. There are many systems that can provide on-farm energy resources from renewable sources. Solar energy, wind and small-scale hydro systems can provide on-farm as well off-farm energy resources. These renewable resources have a huge potential for the agriculture industry. The concepts of sustainable food, fibre and feed production lies on a dedicate balance of maximizing productivity and maintaining economic stability, while minimizing the utilization of finite natural resources and detrimental environmental impacts. It also emphasize replenishing the soil for future use. Hence, there is a need for promoting use of renewable energy systems for sustainable food production, for instance, solar photovoltaic water pumps and electricity, greenhouse technologies, solar dryers for post-harvest processing, and solar hot water heaters and so on. This article thus explains in detail the role of renewable energy in farming for production of safe and secure food for humans.

[Nnadi, F.N., Chikaire, J., Ajaero J.O.,Nwakwasi, R.N. and Oguegbuchulam, M.N.. Renewable Energy for Sustainable Food, Feed and Fibre Production: A Panacea to Nigeria’s Energy Crisis. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):76-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.10

 

Keywords: Energy, solar, wind, biomass, agriculture, fossil fuel.

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Neuroprotective Effects of Grape Seeds against Photo-Chemical Damage–Induced Retinal Cell Death

 

Elawady A Ibrahim*1 and El-hansi N Mohmed2

 

1Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt

2High institute of engineering in 15th May city

*amalawady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study to investigate the influence of administration of grape seeds as an antioxidant on the blue light effects induced in retinal sensitivity. The a-& b-waves of rabbit electrorentinogram (ERG) were measured after different periods (2, 7, 14 and 21 days) of blue light exposure. The obtained results indicated that the blue light had an apparent effect on both a- & b-waves .That was in the form of a decrease in their amplitudes and increase in their implicit time. This effect increased for longer exposure period of blue light. However, the most striking feature in the ERG wave form variations appeared in case of the longest exposure time (21 days) where a negative ERG is recorded. This Type of ERG reflects the non-vitality of the retina due to the photo-chemical damage of blue light. After administration of grape seeds, there was a type of improvement in the ERG parameters towards control values but they were still lower than the control. However, no improvement appeared in the recorded negative ERG, and in this case the grape seed has no effects. It is concluded that long exposure to blue light affects the high order retinal neurons and this may be considered as a permanent effect. Accordingly, the grape seeds may have a neuroprotective effects that help in protecting the retinal neurons against photo - chemical damage which may induce retinal cell death. So, the administration of grape seeds can help in protecting the retina.

[Elawady A Ibrahim and El-hansi N Mohmed Neuroprotective Effects of Grape Seeds against Photo-Chemical Damage–Induced Retinal Cell Death] Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):83-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.11

 

Key words: Blue light hazard; photo-oxidative; photo-chemical; ERG; negative ERG; antioxidant; grape seeds.

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Use Different Dietray Sources Of Energy In Growing Finishing Sheep Rations

H.M. Metwally and Etab, R. I. Abd El-Galil

Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt

 

SUMMARY:Tapioca was including in growing finishing lamb rations for 90 days before marketing ,to study its effect on daily weight gain ,carcass characteristics ,feed intake, Feed conversion and rumen parameters in comparison with barely and corn grains. Invitro and Invivo digestion trials were conducted to study dry matter disappearance and digestion for tapioca, barely and corn. Thirty ossimi lambs were used in feeding trial through which sample were collected to determent digestion coefficient of experimental diets. Results showed no significant differences (P>0.05) among the three foodstuff. Chemical analysis cleared that ash and ADF contents higher for tapioca while its contents of EE and CP lower than barely and corn. Feeding trials were indicated that diets containing tapioca was the greatest value in daily weight gain and dry matter intake(186.60 and 2195.0 (g/ h/d) ) while feed conversion was no significant difference(P>0.05) with experimental diets . Live body weight and carcass weight in diet content tapioca (49.0 and 26.50 kg) were higher than (P<0.05) diet content barely or corn (45.10 and 24.2 or 44.90 and 23.50 kg, respectively). Digestibility indicated that tapioca diet was less DM, OM, ADF and nitrogen than other diets. It was concluded that tapioca can replace barely or corn in growing finishing lamb diets and improve carcass parameters, average daily gain without adversely affecting daily gain or dry matter intake, with takes economic factors.

[H.M. Metwally and Etab, R. I. Abd El-Galil.. Use Different Dietray Sources Of Energy In Growing Finishing Sheep Ration. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):90-96]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.12

 

Keywords: tapioca ,barely, corn, energy sources ,Invitro dry matter, nutritive value, finishing sheep.

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The Possible Toxic Effect of 4-tert-octylphenol-Polluted Water, on Male Reproductive Hormone of Rat

 

Kamal F. Shalaby*, Lobna F. Wahman** and Suzan F.I. El-Sisi**

Address:* Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University.

 ** National Organization for Drug Control & Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.

 Email: Suzanelsisi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Many phenolic xenoestrogens have been reported to have mimic estrogen effects, and may adversely affect the health and reproduction of animals and human. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), as example of xenoestrogens, in different areas and seasons of Ismailia Canal and to evaluate the activity of OP on reproductive functions of male albino rats. Method: water was collected from the different five tested areas among the four seasons of the year of Ismailia Canal then the concentration of OP was determined by GC in each area. To estimate the possible toxic effect of octylphenol on male reproductive hormones of rat, adult male albino rats were treated with low dose (10g/kg/day) and high dose (450 mg/kg/day) of OP by oral administration for 4 weeks. The levels of prolactin, follicle stimulated hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were determined in rat serum. The results of this study indicated that water OP concentrations at all 5 chosen areas of Ismailia canal among the 4 season of the year (winter, spring, summer and autumn) were highly increased (>35fold) in comparison to the values obtained from metallic drinking water (aqua water 0.04 g.L-1). The data also indicated that the highly polluted area by OP was in the area of oil companies and detergent factor, that showed maximum concentration (2.5 g.L-1) in the level of OP in the summer season followed by Aboza`abal area (1.9 g.L-1) in the spring season. The administration of OP resulted in a significant elevation in serum prolactin and FSH levels. On the other hand, there was a significant decline in serum LH and testosterone levels, after administration of both low and high doses. The obtained data also revealed a significant decrease in sperm count in all treated groups and this confirmed by the histopathological study. In conclusion: the findings of the present study raise the possibility that consumption of OP in drinking water may adversely influence male reproductive hormones and in turn its fertility.

[Kamal F. Shalaby, Lobna F. Wahman and Suzan F.I. El-Sisi. The Possible Toxic Effect of 4-tert-octylphenol-Polluted Water, on Male Reproductive Hormone of Rat. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):97-107]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.13

 

Keywords: phenolic xenoestrogens, Octylphenol, testosterone, LH, FSH, Prolactin.

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Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

 

Ginat, El-sherif*; M. A. El-sherif and Tolba, K. H.

 

Food Technology Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

*ginat.elsherif@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine, identify and to investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

[Ginat, El-sherif; M. A. El-sherif and Tolba, K. H. Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices(Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)] Nature and Science 2011;9(11):108-115].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.14

 

Key words: licorice- carob- natural antioxidants- antioxidant activity- applications

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Fuel Cells Types and Characterisation 

 

Nnorom Achara 

 

MDPGA, Ministry of Defence, Wethersfield, Braintree, United Kingdom

nnoromeluwa@btinternet.com 

 

Abstract: Fuel cell variants have been studied. The distinguishing features for the types include the electrolyte, the catalyst and the operating temperature range. Unlike alkaline, phosphoric acid and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, the molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells can operate on a variety of fuels without suffering from carbon dioxide poisoning. In particular the solid oxide fuel cell is more tolerant to sulphur than any other fuel cell. The alkaline fuel cell is among the earliest and has been employed to produce power and water in spacecrafts. The Direct Ethanol and the Direct Methanol fuel cells are variants of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane. Whereas hydrogen is used as fuel in the polymer electrolyte membrane, ethanol and methanol are respectively the fuels for the direct ethanol and direct methanol fuel cells. This group of fuel cells are suitable for portable applications. The use of direct ethanol and methanol fuel cells for transport will not only benefit from existing storage infrastructure but also overcome the problem associated with hydrogen handling. The regenerative fuel cell runs in the reverse mode by using electricity and one substance to produce another substance.

[Nnorom Achara. Fuel Cells Types and Characterisation. Nature and Science 2011;9(11):145-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.15

 

Key Words: Reformer, Biodiesel, Reaction kinetics, Electro-osmotic pump, Crossover, CO2 sequestration

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Evaluation of the Antidepressant Like Effect for Some Natural Supplements Against Reserpine Induced Behavioral Depression in Mice

 

Suzan F.I. El-Sisi

 

Address: Physiology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research

NODCAR, Giza, Egypt

 Email: Suzanelsisi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : Background: The aim of this study was conducted in a trial to evaluate a model of antidepressant like effect, with fewer side effects and have superior efficacy. This might be achieved through combining two natural antidepressant supplements, omega-3 fatty acids (ω3, 400mg/kg) and B-vitamins [folic acid (B9), 3mg/kg) and cyanocopalamine, (B12) ,1.5mg/kg)] then comparing its antidepressant like effect either against the classical antidepressant drug fluoxetine (FLU, 30mg/kg) or by a combine of each of them with a subthreshold dose of fluoxetine (8mg/kg). Open field, forced-swimming test (FST), tail-suspension test (TST), were performed to assess the potential antidepressant-like action of this combine and to study the mechanisms by which the combine exert the antidepressant-like action in adult reserpinized mice. As well as the levels of catecholamine in hippocampus and cortex of mice brain, and the levels of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and homocysteine (Hcy) in serum, hippocampus and cortex of mice were determined, Results of this study showed that: 1- Intraperitoneal injection (ip) of 10 mg/kg reserpine for 2 weeks induced depression in mice through increasing the immobility time in TST, FST, and increasing the Hcy levels in all tested tissues. As well as decreasing the levels of catecholamine, omega-3, and decreasing the climbing and swimming time in FST. 2- Oral administration of the combined treatment markedly reduced the time of immobility in FST and TST and their effects are somewhat similar to that produced by the active dose of fluoxetine. While the effect of the individual treatment in FST partially reversed reserpine-induced depression. 3- The reduction in immobility produced by B-vitamins and FLU in FST was through increasing swimming behavior, suggesting that these supplements may act in the serotonergic system. This effect was augmented by the act of their combination. 4- The reduction effect produced by omega-3 was through increasing mainly climbing and partially swimming behaviors, suggesting that it may act mainly in the noradrenergic or dopaminergic system besides serotonergic system. 5- the reduction produced by combining omega-3 plus B-vitamins was through increasing both swimming and climbing behaviors suggesting that this combination may act in both the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. 6- The behavioral data are in parallel and supporting the results of biochemical analysis, maximum elevation in the levels of monoamines, omega-3 as well as reduction in the levels of Hcy were achieved by omega-3 and B-vitamins combination. Conclusion: This study provides evidences that co-administration of omega-3 plus B-vitamins possesses potent antidepressant-like activity and this antidepressant-like action, as obvious in FST, may involve different transmitter systems. To better understand these actions, future studies are needed.

[Suzan F.I. El-Sisi. Evaluation for the Antidepressant Like Effect of Some Natural Supplements Against Reserpine Induced Behavioral Depression in Mice. Nature and Science 2011;9(11):125-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.16

 

Key words: depression, reserpine, omega-3, B12, folic acid, fluoxetine, catecholamine, open field test, forcing swimming and tail suspension tests.

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Nitric oxide levels in sustained virological response to peglyated-interferon-alpha-2b plus ribavirin before and after treatment in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C

 

El-Shahat A. Toson1, Mahmoud M. EL-Bendary2, Hatem A. El-mezayen3,* and Heba A. Sahyon1

 

1Chemistry Department (Biochemistry Division), Mansoura University, Egypt

2Tropical Medicine Department, Mansoura University, Egypt

3Chemistry Department (Biochemistry Division), Helwan University, Egypt

Email: hatem_mezayen@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 200 million persons worldwide and thus represents a viral pandemic. Egypt has a high prevalence of HCV especially genotype 4a. The standard pharmacological treatment for HCV infection is pegylated-interferon (INF) α and ribavirin. NO is one of the most versatile mediators in the control of viral infections as well as in the pathogenesis of many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. NO has a role in host defense in the normal liver, but may act in cancer promotion by stimulating aberrant differentiation of the cells and angiogenesis, and inducing tissue DNA damage. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in infectious diseases is gaining attention because of its antiviral effects. Method: Fifty two patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 treated with pegylated interferon (IFN) alpha-2a plus ribavirin underwent blood tests, assessment of serum level of NO and serum GGT before and after 6 months of treatment. Results: The pre-treatment serum NO level was significantly higher [28.97 (16.41 – 43.08) mol/L] when compared to sustained virological responders (SVR) [8.55 (4.15 – 13.18)] and relapsers [5.14 (5.14 – 12.82)]. Also, the serum GGT (U/L) level was significantly higher in pretreatment [23.20 (9.88 – 75.50)] compared to SVR [17.11 (2.94 - 45.47)] and relapsers [21.85 (9.88 - 75.15)]. In ROC analysis, the serum NO was discriminate F1 versus F2F3 by area under curve 0.6. In conclusion: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, nitric oxide levels may be associated with the outcome of pegylated-IFN-α 2b plus ribavirin treatment.

[Elshahat A. Toson, Mahmoud M. EL-Bendary, Hatem A. El-mezayen and Heba A. Sahyon. Nitric oxide levels in sustained virological response to peglyated-interferon-alpha-2b plus ribavirin before and after treatment in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Nature and Science 2011;9(11):137-143]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.17

 

Keywords: HCV, pegylated-INF-α2b, ribavirin, nitric oxide, GGT, SVR, relapsers.

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Health Risk Assessment of Marble Dust at Marble Workshops

 

 M. I. El-Gammal1, M. S. Ibrahim1, El-Sayed. A. Badr1, Samar A. Asker2 and Neven M. El-Galad1.

 

1Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta Branch, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Histology and Cell Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

 

Abstract: Marble workers are occupationally exposed to intense environmental marble dust in their workplace. The main objectives of this study are to evaluate health risk assessment that might generate from marble manufactures in Damietta City. In addition, investigate the effect of marble dust exposure on lugs of rats. The rats exposed to inhalation of dust induced pathological changes in their lungs, which involved the different tissue constituents. The degree of these pathological changes was proportional to the duration of exposure. This study shows positive relationships between respiratory lesions and marble dust. The mean concentrations of inhalable dust in marble workshops (A, B, C) were 30.44, 60.41, 68.73 mg/m3 respectively, whereas the mean concentrations of personal respirable dust in marble workshops (A, B and C) were 6.10, 6.92, 7.15 mg/m3 respectively. Most of these measurements were exceeded the permissible exposure limit. Moreover, the data of the present study demonstrated that long period of chronic exposure to dust induced progressive atrophic changes in the alveoli of rats. Therefore, there is some potential risk of such industry lying on the environmental, which requires attention, mitigations, and management to protect the existing human and animal health.

[M. I. El-Gammal, M. S. Ibrahim, El-Sayed. A. Bader, Samar A. Asker and Neven M. El-Galad. Health Risk Assessment of Marble Dust at Marble Workshops]. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11): 144-153]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.18

 

Keywords: Marble; inhalable and respirable dust; workers, and risk assessment.

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Ensure Microbial Safety and Extending Shelf-Life of Tomato Juice by γ Irradiation

 

Youssef, K.A.1; Hammad, A.I.2; Abd El-Kalek, H.H.2 and Abd El-Kader, R.M.2

 

1 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Microbiology Department, National center for radiation research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The effects of ɣ irradiation on both the microbial and nutritional as well as sensory evaluation of tomato juice were evaluated. Tomato juice has high microbial contamination affecting its quality and shelf-life. Irradiation (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy) as non-thermal processing have been used to improve microbial quality, ensure safety and extending shelf-life of tomato juice. Irradiation dose of 3.0 kGy greatly reduced total aerobic bacterial counts as well as the counts of total molds and yeasts without affecting sensory properties of tomato juice. It reduce lactic acid bacteria to undetectable level (<10 cfu/ml). This irradiation dose was enough for complete elimination of coliform bacteria. The ascorbic acid and lycopene content were determined, where all irradiation doses (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy) used significantly reduced ascorbic acid content of tomato juice and the reduction was proportional with irradiation dose. In contrast, the same doses did not show significant effect on the total lycopene content in the tomato juice. Irradiation dose of 3.0 kGy could improve the microbial quality, ensure safety and extend the shelf-life of tomato juice to 15 days at 4C1 against only 5 days for unirradiated ones. Irradiation dose of 4.5 kGy affect the sensory properties of tomato juice, thus it is recommended to use 3.0 kGy.

[Youssef, K.A.; Hammad, A.I.; Abd El-Kalek, H.H. and Abd El-Kader, R.M. Ensure Microbial Safety and Extending Shelf-Life of Tomato Juice by γ Irradiation . Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):154-163].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.19

 

Keywords: Tomato juice / Gamma irradiation / Microbiological quality / Nutritional quality /sensory quality.

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Effect of Implementing Nursing Guidelines for Tube Feeding on the Occurrence of Aspiration among Critically Ill Patients

 

Amina M. A. Seliman1, Aziza H. El-Soussi2; Mohamed A. A. Sultan3 and Sahara Y. Othman1

 

1Critical Care Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Critical Care and Emergency Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

3Anaethesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

*aminamohamed25@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pulmonary aspiration is a serious complication among enterally tube fed and mechanically ventilated patients. It results in increased patient mortality, length of hospital stay, and healthcare costs. This article describes an evidence-based practice approach to the creation of an enteral feeding guideline and an aspiration risk reduction algorithm. Thus, a safe and effective enteral feeding practices can be implemented for the critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of implementing nursing guidelines for tube feeding on the occurrence of aspiration among critically ill patients. A quasi experimental research design was utilized and the study was conducted on 60 adult patients. Sixty patients were assigned to two groups (study and control) each group consisted of 30 patients. The study group involved patients on tube feeding following enteral feeding guidelines while the control group involved patients on tube feeding following the conventional feeding method. The study was conducted in the Intensive Care Unit at Emergency Hospital of Mansoura University. The results of the present study indicated that occurrence of aspiration was found in 23.3% of the control group compared to 3.3% of the study group. Consistent relationship was found between occurrence of aspiration and its risk factors such as supine position, advanced age, decrease level of consciousness, low endotracheal cuff pressure, high gastric residual volumes, and poor oral care. The findings indicated that tube feeding guidelines can minimize the occurrence of aspiration in critically ill patients.

[Amina M. A. Seliman, Aziza H. El-Soussi; Mohamed A. A. Sultan and Sahara Y. Othman Effect of Implementing Nursing Guidelines for Tube Feeding on the Occurrence of Aspiration among Critically Ill Patients.] Nature and Science 2011; 9(11): 164-175]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.20

 

Key word: tube feeding, pulmonary aspiration, risk factors, evidence based guidelines, critical care, and strategies to minimize aspiration.

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Improving Herbicides Efficacy of Topik and Traxos on Wheat Plants and Associated Weeds by Adjuvants Arkopal

 

Tagour, R. M. H. 1, G. M. Abd El-Hamed 1 and I. M. EL-Metwally 2

 

1Weed Research Central Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

2Botany Dept., National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

*im_elmetwally@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out during winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 at the Experimental Station of Agricultural Research Center, El-Serw Station Damietta Governorate, Egypt to study the effect of additives on the efficacy of Topik (Clodinafop-propargyl) and Traxos (Pinoxadin+Clodinafop+Safener) herbicides (with or without Arkopal N100) on weeds and wheat plants. The results indicated that all weed control treatments significantly reduced fresh, dry weight and caused significant increases in photosynthetic pigments after 75 days from sowing, yield, yield attributes and grain protein percent. In addition anatomical structure is a significant leaf dysfunction constitutes a part of the killing action of the specific herbicide on target weeds. Traxos at 500 cm3 tank-mixed with Arkopal N100 at 4 and 8 % followed by Topik at 140g tank-mixed with adjuvant at 4%, Traxos at 375 cm3 tank-mixed with adjuvant at 8%, Topik at 140 and 105g tank-mixed with adjuvant at 8%, Traxos at 375 cm3 and Topik at 126 g tank-mixed with adjuvant at 4% treatments, respectively recorded the highest reduction of weeds and recorded the highest values of photosynthetic concentrations as well as, increased significantly produced higher number of spike/ m2, grain yield , straw yield, crop index and grain protein % when compared with unweeded control in both seasons. On the other side, the lowest effective on the other self characters were by using Traxos at 500 cm3 alone and Topik at 140g alone and hand weeding twice at 30 and 45 days after sowing respectively gave less effective when compared with all other treatments and unweeded control in both seasons. While, a non significant effect due to weed control treatments 1000 grain weight, phosphorus and potassium percentage in grain .

[Tagour, R. M. H., G. M. Abd El-Hamed and I. M. EL-Metwally Improving herbicides efficacy of Topik and Traxos on wheat plants and associated weeds by adjuvants Arkopal Nature and Science 2011; 9(11):176-183]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.21

 

Keywords: herbicides; Topik Traxos; wheat plants; adjuvants Arkopal

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nfluence of Adjuvant Arkopal with Panther on Weeds Control, Wheat Yield, Photosynthetic Pigments and Anatomical Features of Wheat Leaf

 

Tagour1, R. M. H.; G. M. Abd El-Hamed1 and I. M. El-metwally2

 

1 Weed Research Central Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

2- Botany Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*im_elmetwally@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Station of Agricultural Research Center, El-Serw Station, Damietta Governorate Egypt, in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 winter seasons to determine the effect of adjuvant Arkopal N100 on the efficacy of Panther (Isoproturon + diflufenican) at the rates of 450, 510 and 600 cm3/fed with or without adjuvant Arkopal N100 at the rates of 4, 8 and 12% as well as hand pulling twice and weedy check on weeds and wheat plants. Results illustrated that all weeded treatments decreased dry weight of each weed group compared with unweeded check. Panther at the rate of 600 cm3/fed tank-mixed with adjuvant of Arkopal N100 of 4% concentration came in the first order for decreasing number, fresh and dry weight of total weeds. Panther at the rate of 600 cm3/fed tank-mixed with adjuvant Arkopal N100 at 8% came in the second rank followed by that of Panther at the rate of 510 m3/fed tank-mixed with adjuvant Arkopal N100 at the rate of 8%, Panther at the rate of 510 m3/fed tank-mixed with adjuvant Arkopal N100 at 4% and hand weeding-twice at 30 and 45 days after sowing. Also, the previous treatments gave the highest values of chlorophyll b, a+b, carotenoids, yield and yield components of wheat as well as N, P and K percentage in straw wheat. While, Panther at the rate of 600 cm3/fed tank-mixed with adjuvant Arkopal N100 8% produced the maximum values of chlorophyll a. Mixing Panther at the rate of 600 cm3/fed with adjuvant Arkopal N100 at 4% exceeded the rest of other weeded practices for enhancing leaf thickness in the keel region, mesophyll tissue thickness, large vascular bundles dimensions (length and width), xylem tissue thickness and meta xylem vessel diameter. Thus, the use of adjuvant at 4% can play a good role in enhancing Panther efficacy either at full reduced rates of Panther for weed control in wheat.

[Tagour, R. M. H.; G. M. Abd El-Hamed and I. M. El-metwally Influence of adjuvant Arkopal with Panther on weeds control, wheat yield, photosynthetic pigments and anatomical features of wheat leaf. Nature and Science 2011; 9(11): 184-192]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnsj091111.22

Keywords Arkopal, panther, wheat, weed, yield, photosynthetic pigments

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