Science Journal


Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 Volume 10 - Number 02 (Cumulated No. 59), February 25, 2012, Monthy 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1002 
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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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Faculty position for neurosience in Berlin, German

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Detection of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus among male carriers in Jeddah Cites

Salha H.M. Al-Zahrani Microbiology Department, King Abdul Aziz University, Faculty of Science, Saudi Arabia
Corresponding Author : shaalzahrani@kau.edu.sa

Different bacterial species such as Pseudomonas sp., E. coli and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from fingernails, nasal cavity and saliva of 70 workers of different nationalities in Jeddah. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by API system and biochemical testing. The occurrence percentage of Staphylococcus aureus in nasal cavity, saliva and fingernails samples were ranged between 23.72 to 72.32%, 19 to 94.49% and 11.36 to 92.54%, respectively. The occurrence percentage of S. aureus was high in a few workers at 28oC and humidity of 28 or 57 RH%, but at higher temperature (32oC) and humidity (44%) it was increased in nasal cavity of all workers in one restaurant. Concerning sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotic, the results showed that 40 isolates were sensitive to Cefotaxime and Cefoxitin, 11 isolates were sensitive to all antibiotics, 9 isolates were non- multi drug resistant (NMDR) but they were resistant to one antibiotic only, and 50% of isolates were multi drug resistant (MDR). It was also clear that two isolates from nasal and fingernails were resistant to seven antibiotics and two isolates from fingernails were resistant to 14-15 antibiotics. [Salha H.M. Al-Zahrani. Detection of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus among male carriers in Jeddah Cites. . Nature and Science 2012;10(2):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 1


Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotics, personal hygiene, finger nails

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Macroinvertebrate communities in two tropical reservoirs (Lamingo and Liberty reservoirs) in Jos, Nigeria


Cyril C. Ajuzie


Applied Fisheries and Hydrobiology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Jos, Nigeria

E-mail: efulecy@yahoo.com


Abstract: Macroinvertebrates are animals without backbones. Those that are adapted to aquatic life have representatives in a variety of animal groups that include hydras, worms, molluscs and arthropods. Some of them are large enough to be seen with the naked eye, though, in some cases, their detailed characteristics can only be appreciated with the aid of a dissecting microscope or an appropriate magnifying lens. This study investigated the taxon richness of macroinvertebrates in two tropical neighbouring reservoirs located in the biotite granite-rock-strewn Lamingo village in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria. These two reservoirs are subjected to different levels of human interferences. The overall idea was to provide a preliminary inventory (base-line data) of macroinvertebrate taxa in the two water bodies that will serve as references for future works in the reservoirs. A pond net was used to sample the benthic zone at the shallower parts of the reservoirs’ littoral zone, in a shovel- and rake-like manner. Benthic matter (mud, silt, sand, small gravels and detritus as well as associated invertebrates) collected was washed through a vegetable sieve and then through a tea sieve - procedures which made it possible to pick out and sort the macroinvertebrates. Captured animals were identified to family level. Lamingo reservoir had more taxa than Liberty reservoir. Out of the 199 animals recorded for the two reservoirs, 80.40 % were recorded in samples collected from Lamingo reservoir. A striking observation was that whereas mollucs (gastropods and bivalves) were present in samples collected from Lamingo reservoir, no mollusc was recorded in samples collected from Liberty reservoir. The fewer taxa recorded for Liberty reservoir could be as a result of ecological disturbance occasioned by human activities (farming on the catchment area, extraction of water for crop farming, silviculture, and for block moulding, as well as water tankers driving into the reservoir to collect water). Lamingo reservoir is far less disturbed. Some management strategies that could help reduce human impacts on the reservoirs are suggested.

[Cyril C. Ajuzie. Macroinvertebrate communities in two tropical reservoirs (Lamingo and Liberty reservoirs) in Jos, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):8-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 2



Key words: tropical reservoirs, Nigeria, macroinvertebrates, macrozoobenthos, molluscs, arthropods, human interferences

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Aspects of reproductive biology of big eye grunt Brachydeuterus auritus (Valenciennes, 1832)


Fatimat Adenike Adebiyi*


Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria



Abstract: Aspects of reproductive biology of big eye grunt Brachydeuterus auritus off Lagos coast, Nigeria were investigated and focussed on sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity. A total of 450 fish with body length of 11.7 – 19.3 cm (total length) and body weight of 12.4 – 110.5g were used for this study. The sex ratio of B. auritus was 1: 1.11 (male to female). The females were more than the males. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in sex ratio from the expected 1:1 distribution. Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.18 – 12.73%. The mean gonadosomatic index was 3.96 ± 0.19. High gonadosomatic indices were observed in July, August and September which indicated the spawning period and falls within the wet season. Quiescent, maturing and mature ovarian and testicular stages of gonadal development were observed in all samples of B. auritus collected for this study. Fecundity ranged from 12,503 – 74, 045 eggs with a mean of 32, 344 ± 1,889 eggs. This suggested that B. auritus is a low fecund fish. Fecundity –length and fecundity-weight relationships showed positive correlations. The Fecundity-length and fecundity–weight relationships were determined by regression analysis with the regression equation Log F = 1.8985 + 2.2706 Log L (r = 0.5083) for fecundity–length relationship and Log F = 4.0292 + 0.2657 Log W (r = 0.3090) for fecundity-weight relationship. Fecundity was more related to length than to weight. This information is relevant for fisheries recruitment and population dynamics as well as breeding programmes in aquaculture of B. auritus.

[Fatimat Adenike Adebiyi. Aspects of reproductive biology of big eye grunt Brachydeuterus auritus Valenciennes, 1832) . Nature and Science 2012;10(2):19-24]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 3



Key words: Brachydeuterus auritus, fecundity-length relationship, fecundity-weight relationship, gonadal development, Lagos coast, reproductive biology, sex ratio.

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Phytochemical evaluation and quantification of primary metabolites of Cassia pumila Lamk


R.A. Sharma, Daulat Singh and Ankita Yadav


Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, lab no 14, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India

Correspondence auther: Ankita Yadav

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, lab no 14, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan,

Jaipur-302004, India. yadanki22@gmail.com, 9887847890


ABSTRACT: The developing countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. The traditional medicines involve the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. This type of studies provides health applications at affordable costs. Keeping this view in mind, laboratory evolutions were made to assess the phytochemical screening and quantification of primary metabolites in Cassia pumila Lamk. It contains higher soluble sugars in pods, starch in stem, lipid in fruits, phenol in pods, ascorbic acid in flowers, proteins in pods as compared to other parts of the plant. Maximum extractive value (11.086%) was found in alcoholic extract among test solvents. All the metabolites were qualitatively present in water and ethanolic extracts.

[R.A. Sharma, Daulat Singh and Ankita Yadav. Phytochemical evaluation and quantification of primary metabolites of Cassia pumila Lamk. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):25-28]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 4



Key words: Traditional medicines; Phytochemical; primary metabolites; Cassia pumila lamk

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P.G and Research Department of Botany, Jamal Mohammed College (Autonomous) Tiruchirappalli-620 020. Tamilnadu. India.

E-mail: myla- kalai @yahoo.com


Abstract: In the present investigation Bulbophyllum kaitense Rechib. root (Orchidaceae ) property is curing different diseases to determine the possible thirteen bioactive constitutents in ethanolic extract were identified by Gaschromatography- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Squalene (23.22%) Methtl 3 – bromo-1 – adamantaneacetate (13.03%) Didodecyl phthalate (3.52%) 1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl 2 – methylpropyl ester (3.45%) Nonane, 1-iodo-(2.77%) 3,4- Hexanediol 2.5 – dimethyl –p (2.10%) 3- Buten – 2-01- (1.12A%) 2,4 – Dimethyl Cyclopentanol (1.05%) This is the first report of identification of Bio active constituents from Root parts fo Bulbophyllum Kaitense Rechib. By GC-MS.

[A.Kalaiarasan., P.Kumar. , S.Ahmed john. Bio Chemical Investigation of Bulbophyllum kaitense rechib. Root by GC-MS. Estern Ghats of India Nature and Science 2012;10(2):29-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 5



Key words: Bulbophyllum Kaitense, GC-MS, Bioactive constituents, Extract

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Effect of Temperature on Biochemical and Microbiological qualities of Ngari


Suchitra Taorem and Ch. Sarojnalini


Department of life Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur - 795003, Manipur, India


ABSTRACT: Ngari, a traditional fermented fish product prepared from sundried Puntius sp were fermented in different temperature and its biochemical and microbiological qualities were analyzed. Changes in the different parameters were observed. During fermentation, the value of moisture changes at different temperature. Ash content was low, at 180 days of 20° C followed by 40°C and room temperature 30°C. The values of Total protein, amino acid, non protein nitrogen soluble protein nitrogen, free fatty acid, were found to vary during the course of fermentation indicating of fish fermentation. The values of Cholesterol were 3.90, 3.67 and 3.22 at 20°C, room temperature and 40°C respectively. Changes in pH were minimal. Variations in the microbial count during the fermentation of Puntius were analyzed at various intervals. The colony forming unit of bacteria was observed in the range of 104-106. Bacillus and Micrococcus spp. were dominant amongst the bacteria identified. Staphylococcus aureus and faecal Streptococci count reaches 105 and 106 cfu/g respectively. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and E,coli were not detected during the course of study. Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp were the dominant fungal species during the period of fermentation. The results shows that several microflora with varying percentage were found to be associated with the fermentation of sundried P sophore and they might play an important role during fermentation.

[Suchitra Taorem and Ch. Sarojnalini. Effect of Temperature on Biochemical and Microbiological qualities of Ngari. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):32-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6



Keywords : Ngari. Biochemical. Microbiological. Bacteria. Fungi

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Antimicrobial activity of bulbophyllum kaitense. Rechib. Stem of eastern penisular flora in india.


A.Kalaiarasan 1, P.Kumar 2, S.Ahmed john 3


P.G & Research Department of Botany, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 020, Tamilnadu, India.



Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Bulbophyllum Kaitense. The kolli hills a part of Eastern penesulor flora of India is a treasure of medicinal plants. An attempt has been made together for the information about the traditional use of herbs from the local healers. Bulbophyllum Kaitense stem is being used for the treatment of certain anticancer. Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory Nematicide, pesticide Lubricant Anti and rogenic and Antimicrobial activity to various diseases as medicine.The plant parts of stem are collected and phytochemicals present in them are analyzed . Hence stem is selected as investigation material. Antimicrobial activity of the various solvent extracts (Petrolieum either, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous) are screened for both samples of the 16 organisms investigation, streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Kolebsilla pneumoniae, Entrobacter facalis, Shigella flexneri, Micro coccus specieas and fungal organisms. Aspergillus fumicatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseum. Tricho phyton rubrum and mucor specieas are found to be sensitive to life extracts. The fungi organisms are found to be more sensitive than Gram – Positive bacteria and Gram-Negative bacteria. The inhibition is found to be more in ethanol and chloroform extract. This research proves that Bulphyllum kaitense. would be the herbal medicine and stem can be used as herbal and scientific medicine throughout in treating microbial infections in humans.It is indification of bioactive compounds present in the Bulphyllum kaitense stem. It is the first report of investigation for Antimicrobial activity in world.

 [A.Kalaiarasan, P.Kumar, S.Ahmed john. Antimicrobial Activity of Bulbophyllum Kaitense. Rechib. Stem Eastern Penisular Flora in India. Journal of Nature and Science 2012;10(2):41-44]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

http://www.sciencepub.net. 7



Keywords: Bulphyllum kaitense, Antimicrobial activity, Phytochemicals, Extract

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Performance modeling and availability analysis of sole lasting unit in shoe making industry


Vikas Modgil 1 , S.K. Sharma2,Jagtar Singh3


1Dept of Mechanical Engineering, D.C.R.U.S.T., Murthal, Sonepat, Haryana, India

2Dept of Mechanical Engineering, N.I.T Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

3Dept of Mechanical Engineering, S.L.I.E.T Longowal, Sangrur, Punjab, India

vikasmodgil@yahoo.co.uk, sksharmanitk49@yahoo.com, j_s_ranu@rediffmail.com


ABSTRACT: In the present work, time dependent availability of sole lasting unit in a shoe making plant is estimated. Here, Performance modelling has been developed on the basis of Markov birth-death process using probabilistic approach. The first order governing equations thus formulated using the mnemonic rule are solved to estimate the availability of the system. The failure rates and the repair rates of the subsystems are taken constant and are statistically independent .The solution of these equations is carried out using more sensitive and advance numerical technique, known as adaptive step-size control Runge-Kutta method to find the time reliant availability. This performance model deals with quantitative study of all aspects which influence all maintenance decisions associated with sole lasting unit system. The results obtained in the present work are considered to be very useful for devising the best possible maintenance strategies

 [ Vikas Modgil 1 , S.K. Sharma2,Jagtar Singh. Performance modeling and availability analysis of sole lasting unit in shoe making industry. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):45-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 8



Key Words: Performance Modelling; Reliability; Availability; Runge-Kutta; Sole lasting.

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Repellent effects of leaves essential Oils from Eucalyptus globules (Mirtaceae) and Ocimum bascilicus (Lamiaceae) against two major stored grain insect pests of Coleopterons


Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra1,2, S.P. Tripathi1 and C.P.M.Tripathi2


1. P.G. Department of Zoology, M.G.P.G. College, Gorakhpur, 273 001, India

2. Department of Zoology, D.D.U,Gorakhpur University,Gorakhpur,273 009, India


Abstract: The essential oils was extracted by water distillation method from two medicinal plants Euculyptus globules (Mirtaceae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) leaves, and its repellent activity were investigated against two major economic important stored-grain insect pests red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionide) adults. The results indicated that the repellency of E. globules and O. basilicum was 9.16±0.30 and 8.50±0.22 for T. castaneum and 8.66±0.33 and 8.16±0.30 for S. oryzae. The repellency of both insect pests increased with concentration from 0.05% to 0.40% at exposure time of 4 h. These observations confirmed that the essential oils that are extracted from these two medicinal plants leaves have more repellency against both insect pests.

[Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra, S.P. Tripathi and C.P.M.Tripathi. Repellent effects of leaves essential Oils from Eucalyptus globules (Mirtaceae) and Ocimum bascilicus (Lamiaceae) against two major stored grain insect pests of Coleopterons. Journal of Nature and Science 2012;10(2):50-54]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

http://www.sciencepub.net. 9



Key words: Repellency; Insect pests; rice weevil; flour beetle; essential oils

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[Nature and Science 2012;10(2):55-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 10

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Investigation on defensive enzymes activity of Brassica juncea genotypes during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight


Pankaj Singh Parihar, Om Prakash and H. Punetha*


Department of Biochemistry College of Basic Sciences and Humanities

Department of Chemistry College of Basic Sciences and Humanities

G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145 (Uttarakhand) India.

punetha_hp@rediffmail.com, oporgchem@gmail.com


ABSTRACT: The investigation was carried out to know the biochemical basis of defense mechanism of seven Brassica juncea genotypes infected with Alternaria blight, under field conditions. Genotypes EC-399299, EC-399296, EC-399313 and PHR-2 showed lowest percent Disease Severity Index. The activity of PAL, PPO, Peroxidase and Catalase were recorded at 65DAS, 25DPI and 50DPI. Biochemical analysis of infected genotypes revealed an increase in PAL, PPO and peroxidase activity. EC-399299, EC-399296 and PHR-2 exhibited maximum increase in these parameters. Catalase activity was decreased, with the progresses of disease. The activity of PAL, PPO, peoxidase and catalase were used as parameter to identify the resistant genotype for breeding programmes. The finding revealed that EC-399299, EC-399296, EC-399313 and PHR-2 are comparatively more resistance against infection of Alternaria brassicae then other observed genotypes and suggested that PAL, PPO and peroxidase may play an important role in under taking the defense mechanisms of Brassica juncea genotypes against Alerternaria blight pathogenesis.

[Pankaj Singh Parihar, Om Prakash and H. Punetha. Investigation on defensive enzymes activity of Brassica juncea genotypes during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):63-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 11



Key Words: Brassica juncea, Alternaria blight, defensive enzymes

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evaluation of Phytotoxicity of compost DURING COMPOSTING PROCESS


1 Sh. M. Selim.; 2 Mona S. Zayed and *3 Houssam M. Atta


1. Unit of Biofertilizers, Dept. of Microbiology, Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ. The present address: Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Education- Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA. 2. Unit of Biofertilizers, Dept. of. Microbiology, Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ. *3. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. The present address: Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Education- Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA.

houssamatta@yahoo.com and houssamatta@hotmail.com; Tel: 00966506917966


Abstract: The phytotoxicity of compost as germination index (GI) was evaluated during composting period. This study suggested that NH4+-N and heavy metals in the organic wastes were major compounds inhibiting seed germination and root elongation. The increase in GI of cress plant during composting coincided with the decrease in NH4+-N, and water extractable Zn and Cu content to very low levels, and with the increase in NO3--N and water extractable P and K content. Negative correlation was observed between GI of cress with NH4+-N, Cu, and Zn content, while positive correlation was observed with NO3-_N, P and K content. NH4+/NO3- ratio has been used as an index of compost maturity where values were decreased as composting progresses.

[Sh. M. Selim.; Mona S. Zayed and Houssam M. Atta]. Evaluation of Phytotoxicity of Compost During Composting Process. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):69-77]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 12



Keywords: phytotoxicity, Composting process, germination index

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Antibacterial Activities of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Five Nigerian Medicinal Plants on Some Wound Pathogens


G.C. Agu1, B.T. Thomas2*


1.Department of Microbiology , Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

2. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye , Ogun State, Nigeria. *Benthoa2009@yahoo.com


Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial activity of five medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Nigeria against wound pathogens. The antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. conyzoides (Goat Weed); A. indica (Nee tree); C. aurantifolia (Lime fruit), V. amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and F. exasperate (Sandpaper tree) were determined against wound pathogens isolated from our study using disc diffusion method. The prevalence of the isolated wound pathogens were Escherichia coli (4%), Proteus mirabilis (9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13%) and Staphylococcus aureus (63%). All the extracts (both aqueous and ethanol extracts) showed marked antibacterial activity but to varied zones of inhibition. The antibacterial activity of the extracts of C. aurantifolia (Lime fruit) was found to be apparently higher than other plant extracts (p<0.05).When the antibacterial activity of each of the plant extracts were compared for both ethanol and aqueous, no significant difference was noticed to exist in their activity (p>0.05).Our study therefore showed that crude extracts of the selected plant species could serve as a possible candidate for drug development.

[G.C. Agu, B.T. Thomas. Antibacterial Activities of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Five Nigerian Medicinal Plants on Some Wound Pathogens. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):78-84]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 13



Keywords: Antibacterial activity, wound pathogens, nigerian medicinal plants

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The Cognitive Capacity of the Human Brain - Evolutionary Evidence of Eternal Barriers


Boghos L. Artinian


Lebanese Order of Physicians, Tahwita, Beirut, Lebanon



Abstract: proof is presented, using well- known biological facts (which are common knowledge to high school students) that the information the human brain can process is limited by the organizational level in which it (brain) exists (Holo 5).

[Boghos L. Artinian. The Cognitive Capacity of the Human Brain - Evolutionary Evidence of Eternal Barriers. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):85-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 14



Key words: Organizational Spectrum of Matter, Holo, super-organisms, cognitive capacity

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Evaluation of Electromagnetic Field of Vertical Magnetic Dipole above Grid Screen


Adel A. S. Abo Seliem1 and F2


1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science,University of Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

2 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul- Aziz University, Jeddah21412, KSA.



Abstract: In this paper, the solution of describing the radiation field of V.E.D placed above a plane grid screen is presented. If is shown that both the solution and the related computational. Procedure can be substantially simplified using methods of virtual images and boundary conditions; the method requires the proper Fourier transform for theoretical formulation of the problem. The results can be used to calculate the parameters of electromagnetic screen involving metal grids are obtained.

[Adel A.S.Abo Seliem and FEvaluation of Electromagnetic Field of Vertical Magnetic Dipole above Grid Screen. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):87-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 15



Key words: Electromagnetic fields – Radiation – Vertical dipole.

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Toxicological Implications of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis paniculata in Wistar Rat


Oyewo, Emmanuel Bukoye 1, *, Akanji, Musbau Adewumi 2, Iniaghe, Martin Onome3 and Fakunle, Ponle Bamidele 4


1. Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

2. Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.

3. Department of Biochemistry, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.

4. Department of Anatomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

askafterbukoye@yahoo.com, akanjima@yahoo.com, iniaghe@yahoo.com, fakuns@yahoo.com


Abstract: The toxicological implications of long-term administration of aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata was investigated in male Wistar rats. Dry leaf powder was extracted with water and lyophilized. Forty male Wistar rats of average body weight of 130g were grouped into four (A-D), comprised of ten rats per group. Group A received distilled water (control), while doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of extract were administered once daily for 84 days to animals in groups B, C and D respectively. Significant reductions (p<0.05) were obtained at 1000 mg/kg body weight dose in ‘enzyme markers’ activities in tissues with corresponding significant increases (p<0.05) in the serum. Significant increases (p<0.05) were obtained in liver reduced GSH concentrations at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses with significant reductions (p<0.05) in liver MDA concentrations at these doses. Dose dependent significant reductions (p<0.05) were observed in the sperm count and motility. Varied alterations in were exhibited in the photomicrographs of the organs studied, as toxicity increased with dose increase. The results from the study revealed that the various enzyme activities suggested disruption of the plasma membrane at high doses of the extract. The extract at 1000 mg/kg body weight dose induced chronic inflammatory responses in tissues, suggesting that the use of the aqueous leaf extract of A. paniculata is recommended at doses of not more than 250 mg/kg body weight and its long-term or habitual use calls for caution especially spermatogenesis.

[Oyewo, Emmanuel Bukoye, Akanji, Musbau Ademi, Iniaghe, Martin Onome and Fakunle, Ponle Bamidele. Toxicological Implications of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis paniculata in Wistar Rat. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):91-108]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 16



Key words: Andrographis paniculata, Toxicological implications, Long-term administration, Chronic inflammatory responses, Spermatogenesis

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Electrochemical techniques for measuring some trace heavy metals in Taps Water of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia


Sanaa Arab1 and Asia Alshikh2


1.Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdulaziz University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jeddah. 2.Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, Jizan University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational. Jizan. Ziadahmed1020@hotmail.com


Abstract: The estimation of Pb, Cd, Cu , Zn, Fe, Se concentration in the taps water of the capital Riyadh in Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia city was accomplished using electrochemical methods. Also, chemical , physical and bacteriological Parameters were studied. The obtained results were lower than the average range of these Parameters in the maximum concentration as they were allowed to be by The World Health Organization (WHO).

[Sanaa Arab and Asia Alshikh. Electrochemical techniques for measuring some trace heavy metals in Taps Water of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia] Nature and Science 2012;10(2):109-115]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 17



Keywords: Tap water; electrochemical ; Saudi ; trace heavy elements.

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Maternal practice and its effect on Quality of Life of their Epileptic Children


Gamalat Mansy1, Azza Elshehawy2, Ebtisam El-sayed3, Nahed Morsy4 and Samia Hegazy3.


1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. 2Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. 3Pediatric Nursing and 4Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University. ebtisamelsayed@yahoo.com


Abstract: Epilepsy is the commonest serious neurological condition of childhood. It is a group of chronic disorders in which the indispensable feature is recurrence of seizure. Mothers' knowledge and skills about management of epilepsy is very important particularly management of epileptic fits. Educational intervention enables children and their families to cope effectively with epilepsy and improve their quality of life. The study aims to explore the effect of maternal practice on their epileptic children's quality of life. The study was conducted in the Pediatric Neurological unit and the pediatric outpatient clinic at Tanta University Hospital. A convenient sample of 50 epileptic children and their mothers were included in the study, their age ranged from 8-12 years. Four tools were used to collect the required data. Structured interview sheet to obtain the sociodemographic characteristics ,medical history of children and their families. Mothers practices questionnaire sheet to assess mothers' practices regarding care of epileptic children. Seizure severity scale to assess severity of epileptic fits and Ped's quality of life inventory version 4.0 TM to assess children quality of life. Results of the study revealed that, the educational program showed significant improvement of mothers' practices and improved children quality of life. further studies to assess the needs of the epileptic children and their families and measures to fulfill these needs was Recommended.

[Gamalat Mansy, Azza Elshehawy, Ebtisam El-sayed, Nahed Morsy; Samia Hegazy. Maternal practice and its effect on Quality of Life of their Epileptic Children. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):116-123]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 18



Keywords: Epilepsy; childhood; children; life

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Source Rocks Thermal Evaluation and Burial History Reconstruction in the Caswell Sub-basin, Northwest Shelf, Australia


Lisssn N. H. 1* and Sheng He 2


1*: Department of Oil and Gas Exploration, Faculty of Earth Resources China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Hubei 430074, People’s Republic of China. 2: Key Laboratory of Tectonics and Petroleum Resources, China University of Geosciences MOE, Wuhan 430074, China. lissannh14@yahoo.com


Abstract: The Caswell Sub-basin is the northernmost depocentre of the Browse Basin which is a hydrocarbon-bearing, offshore passive margin basin formed by Gondwana breakup on the southern Timor Sea region of the Australia's Northwest Shelf. A study utilizing integrated source rock geochemical assessment, and basin-modeling techniques using BasinMod® computer programme was performed in the sub-basin. The modeling was conducted using rift-heatflow approach, constrained and calibrated through maturity indicators, thermal data and kinetic parameters combined with geological and geophysical data. The study had the objective of evaluating the source rocks’ hydrocarbon generative potential, determining their maturity status and reconstructing the paleo-thermal regime of the Caswell Sub-basin. The geochemical source rocks assessment study suggests widespread mature, fair to good quality source rocks at multiple stratigraphic levels in the Jurassic - Early Cretaceous section and most of the oil-prone source sources are associated with the transgressive marine shale sequences of the Vulcan and Echuca Shoals formations, and the more gas-prone source associated with the fluvio-deltaic shales of the Plover Formation. The geohistory models show an Early-Late Triassic subsidence with comparatively constant and slow rates, Late-Triassic to middle-Jurassic rifting with a steady sedimentation and Late-Jurassic to Cenozoic subsidence with the highest rates and maximum mean sediment accumulation which is reached at the present. Horizon maturity modeling indicates that post-Turonian source units are presently immature through the entire sub-basin. Most source units first reached oil window in the mid-late Cretaceous (91-125 Ma), below 1500 m depth and temperature of 82-100 °C. In the central Caswell Sub-basin, top gas window was first reached by the Jurassic source rocks in early Eocene, corresponding to 3600-4000 m depth and temperature of 138-142°C and for the rest of the sub-basin in the late Miocene time when buried to 2600-4300 m and temperature increased over 145°C.

[Lisssn N. H. and Sheng He. Source Rocks Thermal Evaluation and Burial History Reconstruction in the Caswell Sub-basin, Northwest Shelf, Australia. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):124-141]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 19



Keywords: Caswell Sub-basin; Source Rocks Thermal Evaluation; Burial History; offshore Sub-basins Australia; Maturity modeling

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Perspective of the Stem Cell therapy in Cardiovascular Disease


Tiffany Eschweiler 1,.Yucui Zhu 1,.Ludwika E. Delatorre 1,.Yan Yang 2, Hongbao Ma 2,.Huaijie Zhu 1, *


1. Columbia University, Medical Centre, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA; 2.Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA

* hz42@columbia.edu, jacksun689@gmail.com


Abstract: Stem cells are population of immature tissue precursor cells that is capable of self-renewal and provision of replacement cells for many tissues. The regenerative cardiovascular medicine to use stem cell therapy that is a novel approach is feasible, safe and potentially beneficial in patient with cardiovascular disease. Recent clinical results have shown the feasibility of adult autologous cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction in humans. Stem cell therapy represents a fascinating new approach for the management of heart diseases. The conclusion of the research and clinical trial on the stem cell transplantation in different heart disease have been obtained exciting results of treatment, the results bode well for the myocardial regeneration by using human stem cells in the future.

[Tiffany Eschweiler, Yucui Zhu, Ludwika E. Delatorre, Yan Yang, Hongbao Ma, Huaijie Zhu. Perspective of the Stem Cell therapy in Cardiovascular Disease. Nature and Science 2012;10(2):142-146]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 20



Keywords: stem cell; immature tissue; replacement; cell; tissue; regenerative cardiovascular medicine

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from January 22, 2012

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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