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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 Volume 10 - Number 04 (Cumulated No. 61), April 25, 2012, doi prefix: 10.7537; Monthly
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1004 
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Diversity of lichens along altitudinal and land use gradients in the Trans Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh


Jatinder Kumar1, Roshni Khare2, Himanshu Rai2*, D. K. Upreti2, A. Tayade1, S. Hota1, O. P. Chaurasia1, R. B. Srivastava1

1
Defence Institute of High altitude Research (DIHAR), Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Leh – 901205, Jammu & Kashmir, India

2 Lichenology Laboratory, CSIR National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow-226001,

Uttar Pradesh, India

*himanshurai08@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Lichen communities growing on rocks and soil constitutes a major of biodiversity in high altitude Himalayan habitats. An intensive survey in different localities in three major sites in and around Leh in Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state, India, revealed the occurrence of 38 species of lichens. The crustose growth form of lichens belonging to the family Physciaceae exhibited their dominance in the area. Apart from temperature and altitude, land use pattern also influenced the species composition up to a greater extant.

[Jatinder Kumar, Roshni Khare, Himanshu Rai, D. K. Upreti, A. Tayade, S. Hota, O. P. Chaurasia, R. B. Srivastava. Diversity of lichens along altitudinal and land use gradients in the Trans Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.01

 

Keywords: Altitude, Crustose, Ladakh, Land use, Leh, Lichen

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2

Bioconversion of sorghum stalk and rice straw into value added ruminant feed using Pleurotus pulmonarius

 

Jonathan SG1, Okorie AN1 Garuba EO2 and Babayemi OJ3

 

1Department of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Biological sciences, Bowen University Iwo, Nigeria

3Department of Animal sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

oluwaseungaruba@live.com

 

Abstract: In these studies, attempts were made to investigate the bio-conversion of sorghum and rice straw into value-added ruminant feed using Pleurotus pulmonarius in solid state fermentation over a period of forty days. Samples were withdrawn every 10 days and analysed for chemical composition such as crude protein, cellulose, hemicelluloses, crude fats and neutral detergent fibre. The results obtained show a high positive correlation in the degradation of sorghum stalk and rice straw with an increase in the fermentation period. Sorghum stalk showed high digestibility compared to rice straw used for this study. The chemical composition results showed significant differences of (P<0.05), and high digestibility for the two substrates as the days of fermentation increases. Bioconversion of sorghum stalk and rice straw into value added ruminant feed using Pleurotus pulmonarius. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):10-16]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.02

 

Key words: Pleurotus pulmonarius, bioconversion, ruminant feed, rice straw and sorghum stalk

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3

Studies in Adsorption: Determination of Specific Surface Area of Aluminum, Stannous and Vanadium Ferrocyanides by a Cationic Organic Dye Adsorption

 

Rawle Wayne Webster and Brij Bhushan Tewari

 

Department of Chemistry, University of Guyana, PO Box: 101110, Georgetown, Guyana.

brijtew@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present paper deal with the determination of specific surface area of aluminum, stannous and vanadium ferrocyanides by solution adsorption of methylene blue a cationic organic dyestuff at room temperature (30 1C). The adsorption of methylene blue solution was studied in pH range (2.0 – 10.0) and at concentration of 10-5 – 10-6 M. The process was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was attained within 6 h of contact time. The experimental data are fitted to the Langmuir isotherm equation and value of corresponding constant was determined from the slope and intercept of the plot. Methylene Blue Dye (MBD) appears to be adsorbed flatwise from water with an effective molecular area of 1302. The Specific Surface Area (SSA) has been calculated. The SSA of particle size 125 m was found to be 46.36 0.05, 69.00 0.11 and 81.42 0.07 m2g-1 for aluminum, stannous and vanadium ferrocyanides , respectively.

[Rawle Wayne Webster and Brij Bhushan Tewari. Studies in Adsorption: Determination of Specific Surface Area of Aluminum, Stannous and Vanadium Ferrocyanides by a Cationic Organic Dye Adsorption. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):17-21]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.03

 

Keywords: Methylene blue dye; adsorption; metal ferrocyanides; Langmuir constants; specific surface area

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4

Ethnomedicinally important plants of Pachmarhi region, Madhya Pradesh, India

 

Rajesh K. Mishra, Shambhu P. Patel, Anupam Srivastava, Rajiv K. Vashistha*, Ajay Singh and Ashok K. Puskar

 

Ayurveda Research and Development Department, Patanjali Yogpeeth, Maharishi Dayanand Gram, Near Bahadrabad, Haridwar- 249405, Uttarakhand, India

*Corresponding author (Email): rkvashistha78@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted in the Pachmarhi region of Madhya Pradesh, India to document the ethnomedicinal uses of plants. A total of 88 species belonging to 80 genera and 51 families was recorded. Plant species commonly used by local people for food, fodder, medicine and in other fields of their lives were enumerated. A list of plant species along with their local names, plant parts used and mode of application was documented. Ethnomedicinally important families were Fabaceae with 12 species followed by Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Liliaceae with 4 species each. These plant species are utilized by local people against various ailments such as cuts and wounds, fever, joints pain, constipation, diarrhoea, eye disorders, skin problems, cough and cold, antidote for poisonous insects, stomach disorders, urinary troubles, liver complaints, digestive problems, jaundice, asthma, bronchitis, etc. The present study indicates conservation value of the area and the documentation will help the park managers, foresters and policy makers to develop a suitable strategy and action plan for overall development of the area.

[Rajesh K. Mishra, Shambhu P. Patel, Anupam Srivastava, Rajiv K. Vashistha, Ajay Singh and Ashok K. Puskar. Ethnomedicinally important plants of Pachmarhi region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):22-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.04

 

Keywords: Ethnomedicinal survey; Pachmarhi, indigenous knowledge; herbs and medicine.

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5

ANTIBIOGRAM AND OCCURRENCE RATE OF BACTERIA RECOVERED FROM PATEINTS ATTENDING A FERTILITY CLINIC IN ABEOKUTA, NIGERIA

 

Ogiogwa IO1, Motayo BO1, Nwanze JC2, Onoh CC2, Adeniji FO3, Okerentugba PO4, Okonko IO4

 

1Medical Microbiology unit, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Center, Idi-Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

4Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

babatundemotayo@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: Infertility is a growing problem in Sub-Saharan Africa with its attendant Medical and social problems. Our study is designed to examine the Microbial pattern of Urogenital specimen of patients attending a fertility clinic in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Three hundred and six patients attending the Federal Medical Center Abeokuta, fertility clinic were recruited for the study, comprising 108 males and 198 females. Samples collected were semen samples from male patients and Endocervical swab samples from female patients, pregnant female patients were excluded from the study. All samples were processed following standard Microbiological protocols and antibiotic susceptibility was done by disc diffusion following the Kirby-Bauer technique. Semen samples were assessed for Morphology and sperm concentration following standard protocols. An overall isolation rate of (17.8%) was obtained for all samples processed. A total of 306 subjects were recruited consisting of 108(35.3%) male subjects and 198(64.7%) female subjects, with an isolation rate of 48(56.5%) for bacteria and 37(43.5%) for fungi (Candida albicans). Male subjects gave an isolation rate of 15(17.6%) and females 33(68.8%) for bacteria and 37(100.0%) for Candida albicans. It showed that Candida albicans (43.5%) was the only fungal isolates recovered in this study. The isolation rate of various bacteria species showed that Escherichia coli 22(45.8%) was the most predominant, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 12(25.0%), Staphylococcus aureus 7(14.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5(10.4%). Proteus mirabilis 1(2.1%) and Enterococcus feacalis 1(2.1%) was least prevalent. Isolation rate of isolates by pus cell size was 68(80.0%) for normal pus cell size and 17(20.0%) for large pus cell size. Enterococcus feacalis was not isolated from sperm with normal pus cell size. Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not isolated from sperm with large pus cell size. Azoospermia constituted 46.3% of male subjects tested, Oligozoospermia recorded 13.9% and 39.8% of subjects had normal sperm count. Bacteria isolations were highest in Azoospermic subjects with a rate of 59.3% and lowest in Oligozoospermic subjects with 6.7%. Antibiotic susceptibility showed a high activity for Ofloxacin 74.7% and Ciprofloxacin 72.7%, Tetracycline also displayed a high level of activity 72.3%, there was high level of resistance to Cefuroxime, and others showed average susceptibility. Our study shows a high bacteria isolation rate in patients attending fertility clinic at Abeokuta and a broad diversity of organisms in urogenital specimen, therefore better attention needs to be paid to detection and treatment of all forms of urogenital infections in couples attending fertility clinics in our environment.

[Ogiogwa I. O., Motayo B. O., Nwanze J.C., Onoh C.C., Adeniji F.O., Okerentugba P.O., Okonko I.O. ANTIBIOGRAM AND OCCURRENCE RATE OF BACTERIA RECOVERED FROM PATEINTS ATTENDING A FERTILITY CLINIC IN ABEOKUTA, NIGERIA. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):27-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.05

 

Key Words: Urogenital, Infertility, Bacteria, Antibiotic susceptibility, Abeokuta

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6

Diagnostic Role of Serum Glypican-3 as a Tumor Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Soha Z. El-Shenawy1; Maha M El.Sabawi2; Nashwa Sheble2; Mona Abd El-Raof3; Maha M Allam4and Samar K Fath Allah5

 

Departments of 1Clinical Biochemistry, 2Hepatology, 3Public Health and 4Clinical Pathology, National Liver Institute, Minoufiya University, Egypt 5Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Minoufiya University, Egypt

sohazaki69@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem. It has been increasing in Egypt with a doubling in the incidence rate in the past 10 years. It represents the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and is one of the major causes of death among patients with cirrhosis. Current diagnosis of HCC relies on clinical information, liver imaging and measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The reported sensitivity and specificity of AFP are not sufficient for early diagnosis, and so additional marker is needed. The development of effective marker for the diagnosis of HCC could have an impact on HCC-related cancer mortality and significant public health implications worldwide. In the adult, Glypican-3 (GPC3) can only be detected in a limited number of tissues, including the lung, ovaries, mammary epithelium, and mesothelium. It is expressed in fetal livers but not in adult livers. The soluble form of GPC3 was identified in the serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinomas, and can be used as a serological test for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. It was reported that the frequency of GPC3 expression in AFP-negative HCC patients is as high as 90%, suggesting that it can be used in diagnostic of HCC. The aim of the current study was to detect the value of serum GPC3 in HCC Egyptian patients as a more specific, sensitive and accurate biomarker by comparing it with an established biomarker as AFP. Subjects and methods: The patients were selected from the Department of Hepatology, National Liver Institute, Minoufiya University. There were three groups (HCC group, Liver cirrhosis group and control group). The serum estimation of AFP and GPC-3 were done to all subjects. Results: When analysis of variance was done between the three groups, a highly statistical significant difference was found between these groups regarding the mean serum levels of both AFP and GPC-3 where the highest increase of both markers were found in the HCC group. Results of the ROC curves analysis showed that the optimal cut-off of GPC-3 to differentiate between cirrhotic patients from healthy subjects is 0.5 ng/ml with 90% sensitivity & 80% specificity and 19 ng/ml with sensitivity and the specificity 63.5% and 70% respectively to differentiate HCC patients from liver cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: GPC-3 could be a sensitive, specific and accurate serum marker for early diagnosis of HCC. Further studies in larger groups of patients are needed to confirm this finding.

[Soha Z. El-Shenawy; Maha M El.Sabawi; Nashwa Sheble; Mona Abd El-Raof; Maha M Allamand Samar K Fath Allah Diagnostic Role of Serum Glypican-3 as a Tumor Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Nature and Science 2012; 10(4): 32-38]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.06

 

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, Glypican-3, GPC-3, AFP.

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7

Some Economic Relations of the Most Important Egyptian Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

 

Muhammad Yahya Khalil1, Alaa Mahmoud Abdel Aziz Mahmoud1, Iman Abdul Ghafoor Ahmed1, and Samir Anwar2

 

1Economic Research Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2Institute of Agricultural Economics Research. Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The current study aims is to determine the impact of the some economic relations of the most important local variables on the production and export of certain aromatic and medicinal plants, through analysis of some important economic indicators affecting the production and export of these crops. The results showed that, the application of the general time trend of production equations during the period (1995-2009) indicate that, the area of medicinal and aromatic plants in old lands was estimated at 55.4 thousand acres representing 0.46% of crop area, with an average of 12,145 thousand feddans. Fluctuations in the cultivated area of medicinal and aromatic plants were evident during the study period. Estimation of the equation of the general trend of the area cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants at the level of the Egypt during the study period showed statistically significant annual increases with about 1.6 thousand feddans and annual growth rate of about 2.8% of the average area during (1995-2009). The equation of the overall time trend of the average production per feddan of these crops during the period (1995-2009) indicated that, there were annual statistically significant increase in anise and caraway crops being equivalent to 7.6%, 7.11% of the average production, respectively, while the annual rate of decrease in the production of cumin was about 5.7% of the average production is estimated at 2967.7 kg. The increase in the productivity was not statistically significant in the coriander, fennel and chamomile crops. The results of the net revenue showed that, all the crops have not been significantly affected, except for cumin or fennel which was significantly indicating that there is an inverse relationship between the net revenue on the previous year and the current cultivated area. The relationship of the cost per ton with the price of ton of the crops, coriander, fennel, anise, cumin, caraway and chamomile, indicated that if the cost of the ton increased one pound there will be a significant increase in the farm price estimated by 2.45, 3.225, 1.35, 1.09, 0.922, 0.601 pounds. The revenue of the invested pound in the first period compared to the second and third periods for the crops coriander and fennel only, while the values of the rest of the crops were increased in the third period compared to the other two periods. The results of coefficient of instability indicated that the clear that the amount of exports was more stable than the export price or the value of exports for coriander, cumin, anise, chamomile rather than fennel and caraway crops.

[Muhammad Yahya Khalil, Alaa Mahmoud Abdel Aziz Mahmoud, Iman Abdul Ghafoor Ahmed, and Samir Anwar Some Economic Relations of the Most Important Egyptian Medicinal and Aromatic Plants] Nature and Science 2012; 10(4):39-48]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.07

 

Key Words: aromatic and medicinal plants, general trend equation, coefficient of instability

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STUDY OF ROOSTING SITES OF BLUE PEAFOWL, Pavo cristatus LINNAEUS, 1758 IN DISTRICT KURUKSHETRA, HARYANA (INDIA)

 

GIRISH CHOPRA1 and TARSEM KUMAR 2

 

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (INDIA)

1email - Tarsemkuk@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study on the roosting sites of blue peafowl Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 was carried out from August, 2009 to September, 2010 in three study areas, namely, Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary (SPWS), Bir Sonti Reserve Forest (BSRF) and village Jhrouli Kalan and its agricultural lands (JKAL) in district Kurukshetra in the state of Haryana, India. Results revealed that blue peafowls mainly used tree species such as Kikar (Acacia nilotica), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), Safeda (Eucalyptus hybrid), Bargad (Ficus bengalensis), Pilkhan (Ficus rumphii), Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Beri (Zizyphus mauritiana), Teek (Tectona grandis), Nashpati (Pyrus pyrifolia), Nakh (Pyrus cummunis), Mango (Mangifera indica), Guava (Psidium guajava), Popular (Populus populous) for roosting activity during the day time as well as in the whole night in dense forest/scrubby forest/orchards of all the three study areas. Eucalyptus tree, being the dominating plant in SPWS and BSRF, was found to be used as roosting site by majority of peafowls, i.e., 31% in SPWS and 32% in BSRF. However, In JKAL, peafowl were seen roosting on Beri (Zizyphus mauritiana) for maximum 17% number of times.

[GIRISH CHOPRA and TARSEM KUMAR. STUDY OF ROOSTING SITES OF BLUE PEAFOWL, Pavo cristatus LINNAEUS, 1758 IN DISTRICT KURUKSHETRA, HARYANA (INDIA). Nature and Science 2012;10(4):49-55]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.08

 

Keywords: Blue peafowl, Habitat, Eucalyptus, Ziziphus

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9

Screening of Hemoglobin Disorders in Najran Schools’ Children, KSA

Jobran Miree J AlQahtani*

*Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and The Dean of College of Medicine, Najran University, Saudi Arabia.
jobranm@hotmail.com


Abstract: Hemoglobin disorders are group of inherited worldwide disorders with high prevalence in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study was to investigate the Hb disorders among school children in Najran province. 826 male primary school students were screened for hemoglobin disorders using hemoglobin electrophoresis. The children were sub-grouped according to the tribe's home and to the consanguinity of their parents. 23 samples (2.8 %) showed abnormal patterns; 18 samples (2.2%) showed the Hb S pattern and five samples (0.6%) showed increased Hb A2 level and decreased Hb A level of thalassemia patterns. In conclusion, the southern areas of Saudi Arabia represent the tribes’ home of most cases and further studies are needed to confirm that Najran original tribes are free from the hemoglobinopathies.
[Jobran Miree J AlQahtani. Screening of Hemoglobin Disorders in Najran Schools’ Children, KSA. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):56-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.09


Keywords: Hemoglobin disorders; thalassemia; Hb S; school children

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10

Climate Change Scenario on Livestock Agriculture

 

Ogunsipe, M.H. and Ayoola, M.A.

 

Animal Production Unit, Agricultural Science Department, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria. moogunsipe2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Climate change has a serious effect on the economy of livestock production as it affects the feed-grain availability, quality and price, livestock behaviour in terms of grazing ability, feed intake, utilization and conversion rate; pastures and forage crop availability and quality; livestock diseases, pests and parasites; processing, handling and storage of feeds and livestock products; and the production and reproduction parameters. Measures to reduce the effects of climate change on livestock such as physical modifications of the animal environment viz--viz shade provision, ventilation, wetting and water sprinkling; genetic manipulation of less sensitive breeds; improved nutritional management schemes viz--viz supply of good quality feed and water, feed with less digestion heat; improved electronic systems and innovative measures as well as multiple or integrated schemes to reduce the effect of climate change on the thermal comfort of livestock are also discussed.

[Ogunsipe M.H, Ayoola M.A. Climate Change Scenario on Livestock Agriculture. Nature and Science 2012; 10(4): 63-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.10

 

Key words: climate, radiation conditions, heat stress, livestock, innovation measures

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DETECTION OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBsAg) AMONG INTENDING APPARENTLY HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

 

Okonko IO1, Okerentugba PO1, Adeniji FO2, and Anugweje KC3

 

1Medical Microbiology & Virology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

3Department of Health Services, Lulu Briggs Health Centre, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to detect the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among intending apparently healthy blood donors. In order to estimate the prevalence rate of HBsAg among these blood donors, 200 blood samples were screened by parallel diagnostic method using One Step Strip Style HBsAg test kits manufactured by Dia Spot Diagnostics, USA and Global Diagnostics Canada. The overall prevalence rate of HBsAg was 2.5%. Age group 40 years and above had the highest prevalence of HBsAg (4.2%) compared to age groups 18-39 years of age (2.0%). HBsAg seropositivity was more prevalent among females (3.2%) than their male counterparts (2.4%). This study however further confirmed that HBsAg is prevalent among blood donors. General surveillance, mass immunization and public health education to stop the spread of the infection among blood donors and the general populace is advocated.

[Okonko IO, Okerentugba PO, Adeniji FO, and Anugweje KC. DETECTION OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBsAg) AMONG INTENDING APPARENTLY HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS. Nature and Science 2012; 10(4):69-75]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.11

 

Keywords: Antigen, blood donors, HBsAg, seropositivity, risk factors.

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Environment friendly alkaline pulping of Albizia lebbeck from Sudan

 

Osman Taha Elzaki 1, Tarig Osman Khider 2 *, Safaa Hassan Omer 3 Suhair Kamal Shomeina 1

 

 1 Institute for Technological Research, National Centre for Research,

P.O. Box 2404- Khartoum State, Sudan

2* Departments of Pulp and Paper, College of Applied and Industrial Sciences

University of Bahri, Khartoum State, Sudan,

Telephone 00249922240925 E. mail: tkhider@yahoo.com

 3 Department of Forestry -College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies,

University of Bahri, Khartoum State, Sudan

 

Abstract: Albizia lebbeck stems, woody fibers resources from Khartoum state were cooked with alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-AS-AQ and alkaline sulphite anthraquinone with addition of methanol-ASAM -an environment friendly process having high yield and strength properties. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of A. lebbeck for pulping with AS-AQ and ASAM processes. AS-AQ applied with alkali charge 18.6-20% and two NaOH: Na2SO3 ratios mainly 60:40 and 70:30, it was indicted that the latter ratio had better results. The screened yields were 46.73-48.53%, viscosities 811-922 mlg-1, Kappa numbers 17.92-20.96 and ISO brightness 25-30%. ASAM process gave good to excellent physical properties, screened yields 46.65-47.53%, low Kappa numbers 13.27-20.53, viscosities 946-991 mlg-1 and ISO brightness 30.7-34.8%.

[Osman Taha Elzaki, Tarig Osman Khider *, Safaa Hassan Omer and Suhair Kamal Shomeina, Environment friendly alkaline pulping of Albizia lebbeck from Sudan. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):76-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.12

 

Key words: Albizia lebbeck, Papermaking, Pulp strength properties, Alkaline sulphite with anthraquinone, ASAM process.

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Behavioural effects of Benylin-Codein in mice


Tijani AY1, Salawu OA, 1 John –Africa LB1, Sadiq Abubakar1 and Chindo BA1

 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development Idu industrial Area Abuja, Nigeria

E-mail: tijaniyahaya2009@gmail.com

 

Telephone: +234(080) 7215-1058

 

Abstract: The over-the-counter Benylin cough syrup containing codeine (B-C) has emerged as a new agent widely abused in Nigeria among the youths for its opium-like effects such as sedation, euphoria and ability to enhance tolerance for hard work. In the present study the behavioural effects of the cough syrup on locomotion using open field apparatus and short-term memory using Y-maze were evaluated in mice. The behavioural effects of B-C on locomotion and memory were evaluated in mice grouped into four groups of six mice. Groups I served as the control and received 10 ml normal saline/kg body weight while groups II, III and IV received 10.95, 21.90 and 43.80 mg/kg repeatedly for 7-days. Single oral administration of the cough syrup significantly (p<0.001) and dose-dependently increased total locomotive activity and rearing in open field. It significantly decreased short term memory indicated by decrease in spontaneous alternation behaviour and increased the total spontaneous motor activity of mice in Y-maze. Repeated administration of the cough syrup significantly (p<0.001) and dose-dependently decreased total locomotive activity and rearing in open field apparatus and short term memory in Y-maze. These findings suggest that single and repeated administration of the cough syrup decreased locomotion, rearing and impaired short term memory resulting in sedation, impaired motor and mental activities.

[Tijani AY1, Salawu OA, 1 John –Africa LB1, Sadiq Abubakar and Chindo BA. Behavioural effects of Benylin-Codein in mice. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):83-88 ]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.13

 

Key words: motor behaviour, short-term memory, Y-maze, open field.

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Comparative Clinical Trial On The Effect Of Propolis Extract And Sodium Fluoride Mouth Rinse On Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count

 

1Nihal S Gamal El-Din, 2Hala M Abbas, 3Norhan A El-Dokky, 4Nadia L Soliman


1
Researcher assistant in Orthodontic & Pedodontic Department,

Oral & Dental Medicine Research Division, National Research Centre.

2Associate Professor in Pediatric & Community Dentistry Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

3Lecturer in Pediatric and Community Dentistry Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

4Head of Basic Dental Science Department, Oral & Dental Medicine Research Division, National Research Centre.

Corresponding author: dr.halaabbas@gmail.com

Abstract:The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of sodium fluoride and Bee Propolis mouth rinses on salivary S. mutans count. Dental caries was recorded according to the criteria of WHO, 1997, using (dmf) index for primary dentition. Subjects: A sample composed of 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) aged from 4-6 years with mean age 4.7 where all children had only primary dentition to avoid extreme variables. The children were divided into two groups each of 30 children. Group I: used sodium fluoride mouthwash 0.025%. Group II: used propolis mouthwash (10% ethanolic extract) under their parent's supervision twice daily for one month. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from the children before using the mouthwash, after one week, after 2 weeks and after one month of use. The amount of S. mutans in the oral cavity of the tested children was evaluated using selective media for S. mutans TYCSB.The results showed the presence of a statistically significant difference between the effect of both types on mean S. mutans count in girls and also a statistically significant difference between the effect of them on the change in S. mutans count in both sexes during the follow-up period.

[Nihal S Gamal El-Din, Hala M Abbas, Norhan A El-Dokky,Nadia L Soliman. Comparative Clinical Trial On The Effect Of Propolis Extract And Sodium Fluoride Mouth Rinse On Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count. Nature and Science 2012;10(4):89-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.14

 

Key words: Streptococcus mutans, mouthwash, Propolis

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The Effectiveness of Carbon Nano Tube (Cnt) in Voltage Stability and Power Transfer Capability

 

1H.M. Mahmoud, 2M.A.Mehanna and 2S. K. Elsayed

 

1Managing Director of Information System with the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company

2Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, AL-Azhar University

Salah_kamal1982@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nanotechnology is a popular current research area that has the potential to significantly change the electric utility industry. Carbon nanotubes, which are about the size of a human hair, are long, thin cylinders of carbon that can be single- or multi-walled (cylinders inside the other cylinders). Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have a broad range of electronic, thermal, and structural properties of electric power equipment. Often the economic aspect is pointed out, but also a higher efficiency or a reduction of losses predicts this new technology a successful appearance in power engineering. This paper focuses on increasing stability and maximum loadability of a system by replacing congestion conventional transmission line with proposed carbon nano tube (CNT) line to reduce congestion of the system and /or system losses, hence maximum loading point of the system increase and system dynamic performance improve. The transmission line behavior of a proposed (CNT) is studied. The optimal replacement of congested line based on the use of local marginal price (LMP) differences. The (,) is developed using a standard optimal power flow (OPF) tool. A priority list is formed based on the magnitude of the difference in (LMPs) for the most congested lines. For selected line, it is replaced by proposed (CNT).and using continuation load flow method to find maximum loading point. The effectiveness of the method is tested and illustrated on IEEE 14-bus system. Power System Analysis Toolset (PSAT), a computational tool under Matlab program for effective simulation and monitoring is used.

[H.M. Mahmoud, M.A.Mehanna and S. K. Elsayed. The Effectiveness of Carbon Nano Tube (Cnt) in Voltage Stability and Power Transfer Capability. Nature and Science 2012; 10(4): 95-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 15.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.15

 

Keywords: CNT, OPF, LMP, and CPF

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Evaluation of protein preparations from bacteria using proteomics approaches: Application to an Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae

 

Ehab F. Abou-Eladab 1, 2*, M Mohammed Idris2, Medicharla V Jagannadham2

 

1Mansoura University, Faculty of Specific Education-Damietta, 34517 New Damietta City, Damietta, Egypt

2 Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, India.

Email: ehab10f@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The proteins of Pseudomonas syringae pv. TomatoT1 were prepared using a protein preparation method with some modifications and applied the procedure to an Antarctic Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W and evaluate the results using proteomics methods. The preparation of proteins was studied using Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato T1 as a model bacterium and separated the proteins on SDS-PAGE. Suitable method is applied for the preparation of proteins from Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W. The gel bands cut into small slices, in-gel digested with trypsin and the resulting peptide mixtures analyzed by proteomics analysis. Our results showed a total of 190 proteins were identified from supernatant and 326 proteins from pellet when bacteria grown at 22oC by using Method A. Also Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato T1 showed a total of 301 proteins grown at 28oC by using Method B, whereas only 33 proteins were identified using MALDI. The proteomic approaches used in the present study are very useful to evaluate the efficiency of the protein preparation methods. This study highlights that the protein preparation method plays a critical role in proteomics studies of bacteria.

[Ehab F. Abou-Eladab, M Mohammed Idris, Medicharla V Jagannadham. Evaluation of protein preparations from bacteria using proteomics approaches: Application to an Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae Nature and Science 2012; 10(4): 102-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.16

 

Keywords: Proteins of Pseudomonas syringae

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Role of Biological Fluids in Crime Detection

 1Richa Mehta and 2Dr. S.S. Chandna

 1Senior Scientific Officer (Biology Division) 2Assistant Director (Serology Division)

Forensic Science Laboratory (Haryana) INDIA
richamehtaa@gmail.com

 Abstract: All sorts of biological fluids have a severe impact in detection, determination, reconstruction and confirmation of heinous crime. Significance of blood, semen, sweat, saliva, urine etc. lies in the fact that these fluids come out of the body and show multi-direction spread. Moreover, each fluid has its own inherent and distinct features in functioning of body as well as after attaining mortality by the individual. However, individual qualities of blood in consonance of magnetic resonance both in male and female reveal unique parameter of attraction or passive repulsion. Magnetic properties prevalent in the liquid connective tissue also bind lipophilic substances to show more endogenous rhythmic activity to get synchronised with a friend but definitely rhythmic activity of high amplitude has been noticed towards a foe or an accused. Blood of an accused and that of a victim replenishes a severe flow but blood of the victim tries to desist the aggressiveness of the accused displayed by his body. Magnetic induction being displayed through biological fluids-blood and semen have further revolutionized the thinking of Forensic Biologists that why there is strong affinity between male and female. Magnetic devices have to be designed for examination of biological fluid to prove detective value to be followed and to be linked as an active ingredient in the true spirit of circumstantial evidences. Effective corroboration correlated with these vital clues i.e. body fluids enhance the specificity of real happenings of perpetuation of crime. Moreover, scientific sanctity sorted out in the performed experiments will be of immense use in prosecuting system. When true findings come in light, only then it becomes the legitimate issue being exercised in Honourable Courts to fairly dispose the cases.

[Richa Mehta and Dr. S.S. Chandna. Role of Biological Fluids in Crime Detection. Nature and Science 2012; 10(4): 115-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100412.17

 

Keywords: Body Fluids, Semen, Blood, Magnetic Resonance, Crime.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 17, 2012

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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