Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 10 - Number 08 (Cumulated No. 65), August 25, 2012, Monthly
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1008 
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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1

The Microbiological Assessment of Ready-To-Eat-Food (Shawarma) In Port Harcourt City, Nigeria

 

Odu NN and Akano UM

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria

odungozi@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to analyze the microbial quality of shawarma purchased in Port Harcourt city. Twelve (12) Shawarma samples were randomly sampled from (3) local eateries and four (4) home prepared samples were analyzed for the presence of microorganism using appropriate selective media. Inoculations were done using the spread plate technique. The total viable count (TVC) of bacterial population in all shawarma samples were in the range of 2.0x103 to 1.8x106cfu/g. Generally, the vegetables recorded the highest (1.8x106) number of bacterial growth especially in Elelenwo. Also, when all elements where combined, Elelenwo still had the highest total viable bacterial count (1.1x106). The total coliform count ranged from 1.9x103 to 9.4x105, with Elelenwo having the highest count. The range for staphylococci count was 1.9x103 to 5.3x103, with Choba recording the highest. The home made sample which was used as a control had significantly smaller total viable count of aerobic bacteria. Some fungal species was isolated from the dough and vegetables and this includes; Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger and the total fungal count ranged from 2.0x104 to 8.1x104, with Government Residential Area (GRA) having the highest count. The TVC for aerobic mesophillic bacteria for all 3 locations and the home made samples were 1.1x106cfu/g, 8.0x105cfu/g, 9.0x105cfu/g and 4.2x103cfu/g respectively, with Elelenwo and GRA having the highest TVC, while the total viable bacterial count for both Choba and home-made samples were the lowest (8.0x105 and 4.2x103). It showed that bacterial isolates were most predominant (84.6%) compared to the fungi isolates (15.4%). The frequency of occurrences of the eight genera of pathogenic bacteria isolated from all shawarma samples showed that Proteus spp. (22.7%) was the most predominant. This was followed by Escherichia coli (13.6%), Bacillus spp. (13.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13.6%). Enterobacter aerogens (9.1%), Klebsiella spp. (9.1%), Serratia marcescens (9.1%), and Micrococcus spp. (9.1%) were least predominant. The study showed that the home made samples, which were prepared in the right sanitary condition, showed that contamination may be as a result of poor manufacturing practices employed by the food vendors. This is of public health concern as these organisms are known causes of food-borne diseases and food intoxications.

[Odu NN and Akano UM. The Microbiological Assessment of Ready-To-Eat-Food (Shawarma) In Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.01

 

Keywords: pathogenic organisms, ready-to-eat food, staphylococci count, Shawarma, coliform count.

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Isolation and Identification of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus from Oral Swabs among Primary School Pupils in Uzuakoli, Abia State, Nigeria

 

Mbakwem – Aniebo C, Odoemelam HA and Okonko IO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from oral swabs of one hundred pupils, (aged 8 – 11 years) of Ngwu/ Amankwo Community Primary School, Uzuakoli, Abia – State. Sterile swab sticks were used for the collection of the specimens. Out of the 100 specimens collected, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from (61.0%) samples, (65.0%) samples contained yeast – like organisms and (30.0%) samples had both Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, forty of the yeast – like isolates were identified as Candida albicans. The highest carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was found in the mouth of pupils using Charcoal and Chewing stick as dental agent. These pupils, who used chewing stick only, as their method of oral hygiene maintenance, had a carriage of 67.0%. Pupils that used the toothbrush infrequent had a carriage of 75.0%, those that alternated the use of tooth brush with chewing stick had a carriage of 42.0%, while those that used toothbrush regularly, as their method of oral hygiene, had the least carriage of 4.0%. This study showed that the use of tooth brush regularly, is the best method of oral hygiene.

[Mbakwem – Aniebo C, Odoemelam HA and Okonko IO. Isolation and Identification of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus from Oral Swabs among Primary School Pupils in Uzuakoli, Abia State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):9-16]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.02

 

Keywords: Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Charcoal, Chewing stick, oral swabs, toothbrush, Nigeria

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Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) As Influenced By The Number Of Shoots Retained Per Stand On An Ultisol

 

A. O. Ikeh1; N. U Ndaeyo1*; E. I. Udoh 1; K. O. Iboko 2 ; P. I. Udounang 3

 

1Department of Crop Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

2Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

3Akwa Ibom State University , Mkpat Enin, Nigeria.

*E-mail: dr_nundaeyo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A two-year (2008 and 2009) study was carried out at University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm, Uyo to assess the effects of number of shoots retained per stand on growth and yield of cassava. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used and the number of shoots retained per stand constituted the treatments. Results revealed significant differences in stem girth, height, leaf area and number of leaves per plant among the treatments in both years. However, increasing number of shoots beyond two per stand decreased all the growth and yield parameters, except number of storage roots per plant. Retention of five shoots per stand produced the highest number of storage roots per plant (7.33 and 7.83 in 2008 and 2009, respectively). The two shoots per stand treatment produced the highest storage root yield (25.76 and 23.62 t/ha in 2008 and 2009, respectively). Two shoots per stand out yielded other treatments by 18 – 31 % and 17-31% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. It therefore appears that retention of two shoots per stand is rewarding for increased cassava storage root yield.

[A. O. Ikeh; N. U Ndaeyo; E. I. Udoh; K. O. Iboko; P. I. Udounang. Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) As Influenced By The Number Of Shoots Retained Per Stand On An Ultisol. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):17-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.03

 

Key words: Cassava; shoots per stand; growth; yield

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Ecological Studies on Food and Feeding Habits and Daily Feeding Time Schedule of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758)

 

1Girish Chopra and 2Ajay Kumar

 

1,2Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, India

2e-mail- ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out from February, 2008 to July, 2008 to record the food habits as well as daily feeding time schedule of Rhesus monkey in Saraswati Plantation Wildlife Sanctuary (SPWS), Haryana (India). Selected three troops (T-I, T-II, T-III) of Rhesus monkey were found to feed on leaves/inflorescences/pods/fruits/bark/ gum/seeds/sucking juices of young stems of 13 species of trees (Acacia nilotica, Albizza lebbek, Butea monosperma, Delbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus sp., Ficus religiousa, Morus alba, Prosopus juliflora, Cordea dichtoma, Ficus religiousa, Syzigium cuminis, Ziziphus mauritiana, Terminalia arjuna), 2 species of shrubs (Ziziphus nummularia, Capparis sepiaria) and 7 species of herbs (Brassica compestris, Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Saccharum officinarum, Trifolium alexanderium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon). In all, 72 sighting of feeding were recorded. Feeding was mostly restricted to morning and evening phases of the day. T-I group was noticed to feed for minimum time, i.e., 2.25 hrs (in February, 2008) to maximum time of 4.41 hrs (in July, 2008); T-II group fed for minimum time of 2.28 hrs (in February, 2008) to maximum time of 4.37 hrs (in June, 2008) and T-III group was observed to feed for minimum time of 2.13 hrs (in February, 2008) to maximum time of 4.44 hrs (in July, 2008).

[Girish Chopra and Ajay Kumar. Ecological Studies on Food and Feeding Habits and Daily Feeding Time Schedule of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1758). Nat Sci 2012;10(8):21-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.04

 

Keywords: Rhesus monkey, Feeding habits, Feeding time schedule, Sanctuary.

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MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF UNTREATED AND SALT-TREATED OGI (AKAMU) KEPT AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

 

MBAKWEM- ANIEBO C. AND UDEMGBA G.

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria

chiakaniebo@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This study was designed to monitor the quality of treated and untreated Ogi kept at Room Temperature (28oC) for three weeks. Treatment of Ogi was by the addition of different concentrations of cooking salt. Purchased Ogi was subjected to storage at ambient temperature. The first sample (Ogi 1) was kept without the replacement of the supernatant water throughout the experimental period, while the second sample (Ogi 2), had the supernatant water replaced daily throughout the experimental period. The samples were analyzed microbiologically. The analyses showed that Ogi 1 had higher total viable counts for both bacteria and fungi than Ogi 2. In Ogi 1, the bacterial counts ranged from 1.20 x 107 to 2.65 x 107cfu/g while in Ogi 2, the counts ranged from 1.25 x 107 to 1.65 x 107cfu/g. The fungal counts in Ogi 1 ranged from 3.5 x 106 to 1.35 x 107cfu/g, and 3.5 x 106 to 6.1 x 106cfu/g in Ogi 2. The bacteria identified were Lactobacillus sp, Corynebacterium sp, Enterobacter sp, Citrobacter sp, Micrococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp, while the fungi were Aspergillus sp, Rhizopus sp, Fusarium sp and Saccharomyces sp. The same bacterial and fungal genera found in Ogi 1 and Ogi 2 were identified in the salt- treated samples (Ogi 3 and Ogi 4) but there was a great decrease in the microbial load in samples with 0.005g/ml salt only Bacillus sp and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated. This work has shown that salt can serve as an inexpensive material for extending the shelf-life of Ogi.

[MBAKWEM- ANIEBO C. AND UDEMGBA G. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF UNTREATED AND SALT-TREATED OGI (AKAMU) KEPT AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):26-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.05

 

Keywords: Ogi, (akamu), Fermentation, Supernatant, Cooking Salt, Preservation, Shelf-life

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Integrated Constructed Wetland for Nitrogen elimination from Domestic Sewage: The case study of Soba rural area in Khartoum South, Sudan

 

John Leju CELESTINO LADU1, 2; Martin Kajokare LOBOKA3; Yatta S. LUKAW4

 

1. School of Energy and Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China

2. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Environmental Studies, University of Juba, Republic of South Sudan

3. School of Environmental Science, China University of Geo-sciences, Wuhan, China

4. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Basic of Sciences, University of Juba, Republic of South Sudan

John.leju6@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research paper tried to assess the efficiency of integrated constructed wetland in eliminating Nitrogen from domestic sewage of Soba rural area in Khartoum South, Sudan. The integrated constructed wetland is about 8.89 acres and consists of two sludge puddle and five shallow vegetated wetland units. The assessment of this study was base on influent and effluent concentrations of ammonia – nitrogen (NH3), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and wetland hydrology. The influent sewage classically contained 40 mg L-1 NH3-N and 5 mg L-1 NO3-N. The average concentration of Nitrogen in the integrated constructed wetland effluent was less than 1.0 mg L-1 for both forms. Generally, a total load of 2802 kg NH3-N and 441 kg NO3-N was received by the integrated constructed wetland and an elimination rate of 98.0 % and 96.9 % respectively. Average a real N loading rate (245 mg m-2 d-1 NH3-N and 38 mg m-2 d-1 NO3-N) had a significant linear relationship with a real N elimination rate (240 mg m-2 d-1 and 35 mg m-2 d-1, correspondingly) for both forms. The a real first-order N elimination rate constants in the integrated constructed wetland averaged 14 m yr-1 for NH3-N and 11 m yr-1 for NO3-N respectively. Temperature coefficients (θ) for N lessening in the integrated constructed wetland was low and recommended that the variability in N elimination by the integrated constructed wetland was temperature independent.

[John Leju CELESTINO LADU, Martin K. LOBOKA, Yatta S. LUKAW. Integrated Constructed Wetland for Nitrogen elimination from Domestic Sewage. The case study of Soba rural area in Khartoum South, Sudan. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):30-36]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.06

 

Keywords: integrated constructed wetland; domestic wastewater, Nitrogen, sludge puddle; Wetland hydrology.

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7

Nutritional Evaluation of Some Products from Ber Fruits

 

Helmy, I. M. F., Wafaa, M. Abozied and Nadir, A

 

Food Science and Technology Department, National Research, Centre, Cairo, Egypt

wafaaabozeid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Several nutritional products were produced from local and Chinese ber fruits such as (beverage, combot, jam, candied ber and syrup). The physicochemical constituents, vitamin C, phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined. Also, minerals, color values and organoleptic properties were measured. The results showed that Chinese ber jam had high values of TSS% (72.87%), protein (3.34%), fat (0.91%) and ash (3.06%). The same trends were found for total solids (91.07%), pH (4.01)%, fiber (3.98)% Contents in Chinese candied ber. Acidity (as malic acid) and total sugars% reached to their maximum values in Chinese ber beverage and syrup being (2.41% and 70.61%) respectively. The contents of vitamin C, phenol and total antioxidant activity (DPPH%) ranged from 48.25-191.65mg/100g, 2.40-7.14mg GAE/gm and 76.95-89.95% respectively. Potassium and calcium were the most predominant minerals and ranged from (203.68-548.71mg/100g and (74.92-419.13mg/100g) respectively. Color results showed that there was a reduction in L (lightness) and a (redness) values for local and Chinese ber beverages and increment the same parameters for local and Chinese ber jams and it's saturation values compared to the other products while, candied ber samples prepared from two ber varieties had the highest hue values. High score values for the tested organoleptic properties were present in all ber products prepared from Chinese ber fruits. This research aimed to preparing several new products from ber fruits (local and Chinese) varieties such as beverage, combot, jam, dried candy and syrup also, study the nutritional analysis and sensory characteristics for these products.

[Helmy, I. M. F., Wafaa, M. Abozied and Nadir, A Nutritional Evaluation of Some Products from Ber Fruits] Nat Sci 2012;10(8):37-46]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.07

 

Keywords: Beverage, combot, jam, candied ber and syrup

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8

Effect of pH on Hatching Success and Larval Survival of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

 

Ariole Caroline Nchedo, Okpokwasili Gideon Chijioke

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

cnariole@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the effect of pH on hatching success and larval survival of Clarias gariepinus which is the dominant fresh water fish produced in Nigeria. The incubation time, hatching rate and larval survival of Clarias gariepinus were compared at pH levels between 4.0 and 10.0. The incubation time extended from 17 hours at pH 6.5. – 8.5 to 20 hours at pH 4.5 and 9.5. No hatch occurred at pH 4.0 and 10.0. Mean hatching rate increased from 31.18% at pH 4.5 to 69.84% at pH 8.0 and then declined to 34.21% at pH 9.5. Larval activity depressed at low and high pH whereas larvae were very active at pH 7.5-8.5. The results indicate that the optimum pH range for normal hatching and larval survival of Clarias gariepinus is pH 7.5-8.5.

[Ariole Caroline Nchedo, Okpokwasili Gideon Chijioke. Effect of pH on Hatching Success and Larval Survival of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Nat Sci 2012;10(8):47-52]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.08

 

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus; pH levels; larval activity; incubation time; hatching rate; larval survival

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Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant and halotolerant aerobic bacterial that produce biosurfactants and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water discharge point

 

Chuma Okoro*, Akhil Agrawal** and Cameron Callbeck**.

 

*Department of Biological Sciences, Caleb University Lagos, Nigeria, ** Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

chuma2k2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Six thermo and halo-tolerant bacterial isolates from a produced water discharge area were evaluated for their ability to produce biosurfactants and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons simultaneously under elevated temperature and saline conditions. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that all the 6 bacterial isolates were homologous to the class Gammaproteobacteria. Growth and degradation studies over a time course were carried out using the produced water samples collected at discharge point and supplemented with 10% crude oil (Escravos light) as the sole carbon and energy source for microorganisms. At an elevated temperature of 480C and salinity level of 9016mg/L, the bacterial isolates were able to grow and produce highly biological active biosurfactants and when used as a mixed culture, the bacterial isolates were able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons by reducing the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by 94.6% within 2 weeks of exposure. Our findings demonstrated that in-situ bioremediation using resident thermotolerant and halotolerant bacterial flora found at a produced water discharge area can be employed to degrade and eliminate the residual and accumulated TPH found within the produced water discharge area. This can reduce the threat of chronic pollution to the marine environment by petroleum hydrocarbons that otherwise accumulate to significant proportions with time if left untreated.

[Chuma Okoro, Akhil Agrawal and Cameron Callbeck. Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant and halotolerant aerobic bacterial that produce biosurfactants and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water discharge point. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):53-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.09

 

Keywords; Thermotolerant, Halotolerant, Biosurfactant, Biodegradation, Produced water, Petroleum hydrocarbons

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The Speed of Light is not the Greatest in the Universe!

 

Salah Eid

 

Faculty of Arts – Suez Canal University – Ismailia – Egypt

Salaheid050@gmail.com

 

Abstract: By analyzing Maxwell's well known equation that proved the electromagnetic nature of light, we find that it contains an electron interacting with another particle with the same charge in magnitude ( like or unlike) this interaction takes place at the nuclear diameter . Maxwell's equation in its analytical form gives gamma ray energy of  for two electrons with opposite charges, where the speed of light c appears here ,but with greater gamma energies the distance between the two particles is shorter and accordingly the speed is greater. We applied the analytical form of this equation on gamma of 2.17 Mev used by Bethe in 1938 where he succeeded in separating a neutron from a proton in deuteron , the speed of the electron here exceeded that of light. This led us to conclude that the energy determined for breaking down the bind energy of helium nucleus according to S. theory of relativity, this determination must be strongly reconsidered, as it had been based on that nothing in the universe can travel faster than light.

[Salah Eid. The Speed of Light is not the Greatest in the Universe! Nat Sci 2012;10(8):63-65]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.10

 

Key words: Maxwell's equation, gamma ray, nuclear diameter, speed of light, deuteron

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Development of Disease Forecasting Model for Leaf rust of Mulberry ( Morus alba L.) of Dimapur of North East India

 

S. K. DUTTA1, M.K. GHOSH1, A. BORAH2, B.B. BINDROO1

 

1Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Berhampore, WB, India

2Research Extension Centre, CSR&TI, Dimapur (Nagaland), India

dutta_sandipkumar@yahoo.in

 

Abstract: Dimapur ( 25.55˚N / 93.44˚E ), the capital of Nagaland is located at 190 meter above sea level (MSL) in the North East zone of India. Sericulture is one of the primary occupations for livelihood of rural population of Eastern and North Eastern India. The tradition of silkworm rearing has become a part of culture of rural masses of different states of India viz., West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha. Presently, the Eastern and North Eastern region generates about 3,254 ton of raw silk per annum and contributes to nearly 50% of total production of India. Mulberry (Morus alba, L.) belongs to family Moraceae is the sole food plant of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.). Disease incidence is one of the major hindrance for sericulture activity in India. Mulberry can be grown under various agro climatic conditions. In Dimapur climatic vagaries and fluctuating environmental situations have significantly adverse impact on congeniality for successful silkworm rearing. Despite of the hurdles, this state (Nagaland) possess great potential for sericulture development which ultimately contributes towards overall prosperity and remunerative employment generation. Among the commercially exploited mulberry varieties viz, S1 and S1635 of Dimapur, incidence of leaf rust (Peridiopsora mori) is very common. The disease severity data ( PDI) of leaf rust (LR) in different areas of Dimapur district viz., Samaguri, Jalukie, and Maimansi were collected along with the meteorological parameters viz., maximum temperature, minimum temperature, maximum RH, minimum RH and rainfall for prediction of disease severity through regression analysis, when coefficient of determination R2 = 0.255 Maximum severity of Leaf rust was observed during November ( 16.89 PDI).

[S. K. DUTTA, M.K. GHOSH, A. BORAH, B.B. BINDROO. Development of Disease Forecasting Model for Leaf rust of Mulberry ( Morus alba L.) of Dimapur of North East India. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):66-69]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.11

 

Key words: Leaf rust (LR), Regression analysis, Coefficient of determination.

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Immune Response of Fish to Viral Infection

Adedeji BO1, Onianwa O2, Okerentugba PO2, Okonko IO2

 

1Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891

 

ABSTRACT: This study reports on the immune responses of fish to viral infections. In this review, the innate and acquired host immune responses of fish to viral infections will be considered. These would enable a more comprehensive understanding of fish immunity to viruses. The control of these viral infections are challenging as there are only a few treatments that are effective. Furthermore, the development of vaccines for the control of viruses remains elusive. Viruses are important pathogens affecting both wild and cultured fish. Teleost fish possess an array of defence mechanisms to prevent successful infections of these pathogens which abound in the surrounding aquatic environment. These mechanisms can be grouped as innate (non-specific) and adaptive (specific) immunity. Here the general protective immune mechanisms of fish to viral infections are reviewed. The fundamental components of innate and adaptive immunity present in finfish are similar to their mammalian counterparts in many ways. Once the physical barriers are overcome by the invading pathogen, chemical and genetic barriers kick in. Complement and interferon are part of such chemical barriers. Natural Killer cells also contribute to non-specific immunity through cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes are the major players in specific immune response and are the final defence against the pathogens. Developments in genomics have caused remarkable breakthroughs in insight into immune responses in finfish. However, quite a lot of ground remains to be covered. The zebra fish is currently being studied as a model to bridge the gaps in knowledge.

[Adedeji BO, Onianwa O, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Immune Response of Fish to Viral Infection. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):70-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.12

 

Keywords: Viral infections, Defence mechanisms, Complement, Interferon, Cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Innate (non-specific), Adaptive (specific) immunity

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Physico-chemicial Quality of a Yoghurt-Like Product from African Yam Bean

 

Odu NN and Egbo NN

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; odungozi@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The utilization of soy bean for the production of soy milk was evaluated. Soy milk was extracted from whole and dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented. Physicochemical qualities of the soy milk samples were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical quality of the products. All the samples were treated with potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate (in combination) with propyl gallate and Ascorbyl palmitate (singly and in combination), organoleptically evaluated and stored at ambient temperature and 4 2OC for 16 days and were subjected to physical examination and chemical analyses such as pH and titratable acidity (TTA). There was a gradual decrease in the pH and an increase in the total titratable acidity of the samples. For both pH and TTA, there was significant difference (P<0.05) between all the treatments and the length of storage. At ambient temperature, a rapid decline in pH was dominant especially for samples treated with NaHCO3. Samples treated with Na2CO3 had a higher pH stability compared to its counterpart. At refrigeration temperature, there was a slow decrease in pH over time. Samples treated with Na2CO3 also had a stable pH during the first few days of storage (4-10). For TTA, samples treated with NaHCO3 had the highest increase in TTA value compared to samples treated with Na2CO3 at ambient temperature. The control showed least increase (from 0.026-0.036) for samples treated with Na2CO3 and 0.027-0.037 for sample treated with NaHCO3. At refrigeration, due to longer storage time, there was a higher value for TTA. Ascorbyl Palmitate treated samples showed marked increase in TTA values in comparison with those treated in combination and singly. However, in all the samples, the control showed the least increase (for Na2CO3 0.026-0.039 and 0.027-0.037 for NaHCO3). No direct relationship was observed between pH values and titratable acidity. The study showed that the overall changes in pH and TTA observed for all the stored soy milk samples in the study may be suggesting that the fermentative activities of the soy milk starters still continued in storage. Generally, improved combined preserving techniques can in particular improve keeping quality; lessen the risk of microbial food poisoning.

[Odu NN and Egbo NN. Physico-chemicial Quality of a Yoghurt-Like Product from African Yam Bean. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):77-84]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.13

 

Keywords: Soybean, soy milk, pH, temperature, physicochemical quality, total titratable acidity (TTA)

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Microbiological Quality of Soy Milk produced from Soybean using different methods

 

Odu NN and Egbo NN

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; odungozi@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The utilization of soybean for the production of soymilk was studied. The soybean was washed and soaked in water (500g in 1 Liter) for 12 hours. It was rinsed and blanched in 1.25% Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 for 30 minutes. The soybean seeds were ground in blender (kenwood) and expressed in the ratio of 3:1 to remove the okra. The resultant slurry was formulated by adding 0.1% of sodium benzoate and 0.1% potassium sorbate, 2% sucrose and propy gallate and Ascorbic pamitate at this ratios: 100ppm Ascorbic palmitate and 100ppm propyl gallate, 200ppm Ascorbic palmitate, 200ppm propyl gallate and Control (without preservative and antioxidant). The milk was heated at 71oC for 15 seconds and subsequently bottled and stored at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Microbial qualities of the soymilk samples were evaluated to determine the microbiological quality of the products. Bacterial species isolated from the soymilk samples were Lactobacillus sp, Streptococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Aspergillus sp. There was increase in microbial population with storage time in both treated and untreated soymilk samples. There was significant difference (P<0.05) among the individual samples treated with NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. The highest number of aerobic count at the end of storage occurred in the control sample (1.15x106) at ambient temperature. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the aerobic count between the NaHCO3 treated soymilk and Na2CO3 treated soymilk. Also, similar comparable trends occurred in fungal population in all the samples. Both samples treated with Na2CO3 and NaHCO3, had similar counts. Growth of S. typhi and Staph. aureus was absent in all the samples. At refrigeration temperature, there was no growth in aerobic population from day 0 to day 6 in all the samples. The same trend was observed in fungal count except that growth started on day 12 and the controls that started on day 8. The same individual samples treated with propyl gallate and in combination (A, C, E and G) had the least count while the control had the highest count. There was no coliform, S. typhi and S. aureus growth throughout the refrigeration storage. The results obtained in this study shows that soymilk can keep for up to 16 days at refrigeration temperature, during which no reasonable multiplication of mesophilic aerobes above 3x104 CFU/ml was observed and total inhibition of yeast and molds were achieved up till day 12. In addition, they exhibited lower microbial count at both temperatures than the controls. The study has shown that the use of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 could therefore be an additional/complementary method of soymilk preservation, since potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate are known to act at lower pH.

[Odu NN and Egbo NN. Microbiological Quality of Soy Milk produced from Soybean using different methods. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):85-93]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.14

 

Keywords: Soybean, soy milk, Streptococcus sp, Lactobacillus sp, Micrococcus sp, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Aspergillus sp, microbial quality

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Plasmodium falciparum and HIV- 1/2 Co-infection among children presenting at the Out-patient clinic of Oni Memorial Children Hospital in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

 

Okonko IO1, Adejuwon AO2, Okerentungba PO1, Frank-Peterside N1

 

1Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

2Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to detect circulating Plasmodium falciparum and HIV-1/2 as co-infection among attendees of Oni Memorial Children Hospital in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 217 blood samples were collected from consenting subjects (ages 3 days to 15 years) from April to September, 2011. The detection of circulating P. falciparum malaria was carried out using Malaria Plasmodium falciparum Rapid Test Device. Microscopic examination of thick and thin films techniques was also employed as standard while the screening for HIV-1/2 antibodies was carried out using Chembio HIV-1/2 Stat-Pak and Abbott Determine HIV-1/2 test kit. All tests were done according to the manufacturers’ specifications. Overall prevalence rate of P. falciparum was 35.5%. Of the 35.5% P. falciparum positive subjects; 9.1% had HIV-1/2 as co-infection. Similarly, 64.5% were P. falciparum negative and 3.6% of them were positive for HIV-1/2 antibodies. The study showed no significant difference between age groups for either malaria infection (29.2% vs. 30.1%, P >0.05) or HIV co-infection (8.7% vs. 9.7%, P > 0.05). Also, no significant difference existed between sexes for either malaria infection (37.3% vs. 33.6%, P>0.05) or HIV co-infection (4.9% vs. 13.9%, P > 0.05) and no significant difference in HIV between groups with & without history of vaccination (7.0% vs. 15.0%; P>0.05). The study however, showed that subjects with no history of vaccination had a significantly higher prevalence of malaria (44% vs. 27%; P=0.001). Thus, it further confirmed the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and HIV co-infection among children and teenagers in Oyo State, Nigeria. General surveillance and public health education to stop the spread of the infection among children in Ibadan and indeed the whole society is advocated.

[Okonko IO, Adejuwon AO, Okerentungba PO, Frank-Peterside N. Plasmodium falciparum and HIV- 1/2 Co-infection among children presenting at the Out-patient clinic of Oni Memorial Children Hospital in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):94-100]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.15

 

Keywords: Antibody, children, HIV -1 & -2, seropositivity, risk factors, mosquito eradication, malaria, malaria interventions, Plasmodium falciparum

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The Circle as the Heart of Ancient Egyptian Geometry

 

Salah Eid

 

Faculty of Arts – Suez CanaI University Ismailia – Egypt

Salaheid050@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ancient Egypt extracted the ratio between the circumference and the diameter of any circle through the determination of the area of the circle as where this amount , also from the decimal system this ratio can be concluded by doubling 8 and dividing it by 9 , and the square of this sum gives the mentioned ratio which is a universal constant because the circle is the geometry of the universe . The circle governs the geometry of the Great Pyramid as its squared base equals a circle, the radius of this circle is the height of the Pyramid itself and by dividing the base by the height we have . The golden ratio  is based also on circular terms in the Pyramid because it comes from dividing the slope by  of the base and both of them are parts of a circle. The problem known as squaring the circle in middle ages, took in ancient Egypt the form of circling the square! It seems that ancient Egypt intended to harmonize its thought and the top of its achievements (the pyramids) according to the circular universe

[Salah Eid. The Circle as the Heart of Ancient Egyptian Geometry. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):101-102]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.16

 

Keywords: Diameter, ancient Egypt, golden ratio, geometry, Circle

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SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF MIXED ISONIAZID-PYRIDOXINE METAL DRUG COMPLEXES.

 

Bamigboye M.O*1, Obaleye J.A1, Lawal M2. and Yakubu A1.

 

Email: seymercyx@yahoo.com +2347033328218

1. Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

2. Kebbi State, University of Science and Technology. Aliereo Kebbi State. Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

 

ABSTRACT: Many antituberculosis metal complexes have been synthesized, but most of these drugs may encourage the bacteria that causes tuberculosis to become resistant to drugs used to treat the disease when they are taken alone and when the bacteria becomes resistant, treating the disease becomes very difficult. This has led to the research of finding a way of synthesizing more active antituberculosis drugs that the bacteria will not be able to resist. So this research was carried out in order to synthesis more active antituberculosis drug.

[Bamigboye M.O, Obaleye J.A., Lawal M. and Yakubu A. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF MIXED ISONIAZID-PYRIDOXINE METAL DRUG COMPLEXES. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):103-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.17

 

Keyword: Antituberculosis, Synthesis, Drug

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Smart System For Teaching Stiffness Method For Structural Analysis Of Truss

 

A.E. Bakeri

 

Department of Structural Eng., Faculty of Eng., Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

aebakeri@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: This research is the first block in Learning Structural Analysis Project (LSAP) that aims to produce a software package offers a detailed solution of the structural analysis problems. This research presents an educational program designed to understand the stiffness structural analysis theory of plan trussed structures. The program is written using Matlab. The program is designed to be user friendly, where students can input any truss problem easily. The program offers also theoretical basic concepts of the method, and arranges the solution in steps.

[A.E. Bakeri. Smart System For Teaching Stiffness Method For Structural Analysis Of Truss. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):106-113]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.18

 

Keywords : matrix structural analysis; Assembly stiffness method; matlab; Smart system

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Potential Longevity of Maize Seeds under Storage in Humid Tropical Seed Stores

 

Oyekale, K. O.1; Daniel, I. O.2; Ajala, M. O.2 and Sanni, L. O.3

 

1Department of Agriculture and Industrial Technology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

2Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Technology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

3Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

 

Abstract: This study was undertaken to calibrate open seed warehouse storage environments in the humid tropics and model maize seed deterioration under them. Five maize varieties (TZPBSR, DMR-ESR-Y, Oba Super-2, Suwan-1-SRY, and ART-98-SW1) were used for the study. The seeds were cleaned and their initial quality determined by recommended methods. One kilogramme of seeds of the five maize varieties were packaged in separate moisture-proof polythene bags (with automatic thermohygrometers inserted to monitor changes in temperature and RH) and placed in the seed stores at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB) and the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan (IAR&T) from 2005-2007. Seed samples were taken at 3-month interval and evaluated for seed viability and seedling vigour attributes. Probit analysis was used to estimate seed deterioration and potential longevity. PROC GLM statement of SAS was used to separate means of variables evaluated in both environments. The seed survival curves under the humid tropical conditions fitted the normal distribution curve well (p {χ2}>0.05); with UNAAB seed storage environment extending the longevity of stored seeds far better than the IAR&T seed store. Overall, results showed that effective seed storage under humid tropical conditions is possible, though effectiveness may differ from one environment to the other.

[Oyekale, K. O.; Daniel, I. O.; Ajala, M. O. and Sanni, L. O. Potential longevity of maize seeds under storage in humid tropical seed stores. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):114-124]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.19

 

Keywords: Seed storage, Longevity, Storage environment, Probit modeling.

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Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli O157 Contamination of Beef and Chicken in Municipal Abattoirs of Southwest Nigeria

 

Isaac Olufemi Olatoye1, 2, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun 3, Gabriel Adetunji Ogundipe 1

 

1. Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2. Paul Allen School for Global Animal Health, Bustard Hall, Washington State University, Pullman WA

3. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria

olatoye@vetmed.wsu.edu; olaotoyevet@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Indiscriminate antibiotics usage in food animals and unhygienic meat processing could predispose meat consumers to risks of antibiotic resistant bacterial contamination and infection. This study investigated the contamination of meat from cattle and chicken slaughtered for human consumption with E. coli 0157:H7 at the metropolitan abattoirs and slaughtered slabs of selected poultry farms in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria. The aim was to compare the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns across the different locations and climatic seasons. The organism was isolated by cultural method using selective media and confirmed serologically using latex agglutination kits (OxoidR UK). Antibiotic susceptibility to ten antimicrobial agents was performed by disc diffusion method using commercial Gram negative discs. Out of 800 meat samples collected, the overall prevalence of 17.1% (comprising of 19.8% and 14.5% of beef and chicken respectively) was obtained. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in beef from Ibadan and Lagos were 28.5% and 11.0%, while those of chicken from Ibadan and Lagos markets were 13.0% and 14.0%, and from Ibadan and Lagos farms were 18.0% and 13.0% respectively. The prevalence of E. coli O157 was significantly higher in beef compared to chicken (p<0.05), while during wet season, contamination of beef was also higher than in dry and significantly higher in beef from Ibadan than Lagos abattoir. All the isolates were resistant to one or multiple antibiotics, but the highest resistance of 91.1% was to tetracycline and nine different resistance patterns were observed among the isolates. Indiscriminate antibiotics usage in livestock predisposes meat consumers to risks of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 in southwest Nigeria. Regulatory control of antibiotics usage in livestock production, meat hygiene and pharmaco-epidemiological surveillance in food animals is hereby recommended to ensure consumer safety.

[Olatoye IO, Amosun EA, Ogundipe GAT. Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli O157 Contamination of Beef and Chicken in Municipal Abattoirs of Southwest Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):125-132]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.20

 

Keywords: Escherichia coli 0157: H7; antibiotics; beef; chicken; abattoir; Nigeria

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Parents' Behavior towards Their Children and Its Relationship to Prep- Stage Students' Motivation for Achievement in Menoufia Governorate

 

Aly Osman Mohamed Abdel Latif

 

Department of House and Establishments Management, Faculty of Specific Education – Menoufia University. ali_osman67@yahoo.in

 

Abstract: This research aims at studying the parents' behavior towards their children and its relationship to the pre- stage student's motivation for achievement in Menoufia Governorate. The following forms were used in the research to collect the data: the student's socio–economic information form, the parents' behavior towards their children questionnaire and the primary, prep and secondary students' motivation for achievement measure. The study sample includes (250) male and female students, 50% each and 61 were excluded for incomplete information. The total sample became (189) male and female students at Ashmoon schools, Menoufia Governorate for the first academic term of the year 2011 / 2012. The study found out the following most important results: (1) There are differences statistically significant between the socio – economic factors and the parents' behavior towards their children. (2) There are differences statistically significant between the socio – economic factors and the motivation for achievement. (3) There is a strong significant relation between the parents' educational level and the parents' behavior towards their children. (4) There is a strong significant relation between the parents' educational level and the motivation for achievement. (5) There is a significant relation between the parents' work and the motivation for achievement. (6) There is a significant relation between the parents' work and parents' behavior towards their children. (7) There is no relation between the family's residence place and the motivation for achievement. (8) There is no relation between the parents' behavior towards their children and the motivation for achievement.

[Aly Osman Mohamed Abdel Latif. Parents' Behavior towards Their Children and Its Relationship to Prep- Stage Students' Motivation for Achievement in Menoufia Governorate. Nat Sci 2012;10(8):133-142]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.21

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Reservoir in Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Oluseye Oladapo Abiona1, Adebanjo Jacob Anifowose1, Mathew Adewale Adedokun2, Jelilah O Abdullah1 and Oluwadamilola R Bamigbelu1

 

1Department of Chemical Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria

2Department of Fishery Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture, Igbo-Ora, Nigeria

oludapobiona@yahoo.com, adebanjo.anifowose@uniosun.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Hospitals and public offices produce wastewaters that contain various potentially hazardous materials. In this study, concentrations of some metals (Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Pb and Hg) on the muscles of two fish species (Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus) from Dandaru reservoir as a result of influx of wastewaters from the University College Hospital and Oyo State Secretariat, Ibadan, Nigeria, were investigated. The metals in wastewaters from the hospital, Secretariat and at their confluence en route the reservoir were analyzed; also, water from the Dandaru reservoir and at its exit were analyzed, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results (mg/L) for the water samples showed that Mn, Co, Fe, Zn, Hg and Pb, respectively, ranged between 0.616-1.169, 0.604–2.160, 0.616–1.272, 0.003–0.005, 0.001–0.002 and 0.001–0.002; the hospital wastewater had the highest concentrations of the metals, whereas Hg and Pb were not detected in the reservoir water. Mn, Co and Fe concentrations in the hospital wastewater were significantly higher (p>0.05) than those of the Secretariat and reservoir. Metal concentrations in the muscle of Oreochromis niloticus was in the decreasing order of Fe>Mn>Co>Zn>Pb with concentrations (μg/g) of 62.800, 4.390, 4.152, 0.713 and 0.120, respectively. For Clarias gariepinus, the decreasing order of the metals was Fe>Co>Mn>Zn>Pb with respective concentration (μg/g) of 56.700, 3.513, 1.060, 0.690, 0.120. There was significant difference at (p<0.05) in the concentrations of these metals, except for Zn and Pb. However, mercury was not detected in both fish species. Oreochromis niloticus had higher bioaccumulative power for the metals than Clarias gariepinus. The increased levels of the metals in the fish muscle than those found in the reservoir water showed their tendency to bioaccumulate the metals which are potentially hazardous if consumed by humans.

[Oluseye Oladapo Abiona, Adebanjo Jacob Anifowose, Mathew Adewale Adedokun, Jelilah O Abdullah and Oluwadamilola R Bamigbelu. Impact Assessment of Pollution from Metal Concentrations in Water and Fish – A Case Study of Dandaru Reservoir in Ibadan, Nigeria Nature and Science 2012; 10(8):143-148]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.22

 

Keywords: wastewater, hospital, metals, fish species, reservoir, bioaccumulate

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Investigating heavy metal composition in medicinal tree barks

 

*Taiye R. Fasola and O.I Shittu

 

*Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Correspondence: fasolatr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Plant barks have been documented as the mostly used plant part in most parts of the World. The use of bark of plants in parts or as a whole in ethnomedicinal preparations is popular as a major form of medicine by 80% of the world’s population. This study therefore investigates the heavy metal level of trees outer bark as compared to the inner bark of some medicinal trees with a view to ascertaining their fitness for consumption when used in phytomedicinal preparations and to know if any of the barks constitute health hazards. Six heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and Cr) from nine different plants: Mangifera indica, Alstonia boonei, Khaya ivorensis, Enantia chlorantha, Newbouldia laevis, Azadirachta indica, Morinda lucida, Nauclea diderrichii, Lannae welwitschii were identified for this study. The result shows that metal content of the outer bark of plants is about twice of the content of the inner bark. The heavy metal content in the outer bark of the trees studied outweighs that of the inner bark and is suggestive why the outer bark is scrapped off as a way known or unknown to some users in other to reduce consumption of heavy metals in ethnomedicine. For the purpose of forecasting, the inner bark content is regressed on the outer bark content with the equation QUOTE  error with the error term assumed to be normally distributed.

[Taiye R. Fasola and OI Shittu. Investigating heavy metal composition in medicinal tree barks. Nature and Science 2012; 10(8):149-153]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 23

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.23

 

Keywords: Plant barks; Metal content; Ethnomedicne; Outer bark; Inner bark

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EFFECTS OF A CARBONACEOUS BOTTLING PLANT EFFLUENT ON ALBINO MICE SPERM MORPHOLOGY AND TESTES HISTOPATHOLOGY

 

1Agunbiade SO, 2Okonko IO, 1Alimba CG, 1Folarin AC, 3Anugweje KC

 

1Department of Biochemistry, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; 3Department of Health Services, Lulu Briggs Health Centre, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: This study seeks to examine the genotoxic effects of an industrial effluent from a carbonaceous bottling plant in Lagos state Nigeria using sperm head abnormality assay and assessment of testicular histopathology of albino mice. Samples of the effluent were administered orally to mice at test concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 25%. Mice were given 0.3ml daily for 25 days by oral dosage. Each dose group comprised of 5 mice; positive and negative control groups also had 5 mice each. The result data shows that the test sample induced a dose-dependent, statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the number of sperm with abnormal morphology, as well as diverse histopathological changes in the testes. Physicochemical analysis of the test samples showed that they contain constituents that are capable of inducing mutation in the biological system. The interaction of some of these constituents with the genetic material in the differentiating cells during spermatogenesis may be responsible for these observations. This study is relevant in environmental waste management, and for the assessment of the hazardous effects of chemicals in waste effluents.

[Agunbiade SO, Okonko IO, Alimba CG, Folarin AC, Anugweje KC. EFFECTS OF A CARBONACEOUS BOTTLING PLANT EFFLUENT ON ALBINO MICE SPERM MORPHOLOGY AND TESTES HISTOPATHOLOGY. Nat Sci 2012; 10(8):154-160]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 24

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.24

 

Keywords: Plant Effluent, Albino Mice, Sperm, Morphology, Testes, Histopathology

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The development of critical thinking skills in physics and sociology curricula

 

1Kiumars Azizmalayeri*, 2Ebrahim MirshahJafari,3 Mostafa Sharif, 4Mohammad Asgari, 5Maboud Omidi

 

1Assistant Professor in Department of Education, University of Malayer, 4 Km Arak road, Iran

*Corresponding author email: K_ azizmalayeri@yahoo.com

2Professor in Department of Education, University of Isfahan, Iran E mail: sebrahimjafari@yahoo.com

3Professor in Department of Education, University of Isfahan, Iran E mail: m.sharif@edu.ui.ac.ir

4Professor in Department of Education, University of Isfahan, E-mail: drmasgari@yahoo.com

5 Research scholars in Department of Education, University of Mysore Manasagangothri, Mysore-57006, India

email: Maboud_omidi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aims to compare the impact of guided inquiry and traditional teaching methods on critical thinking skills of second-grade high school students in physics and sociology courses. Given the purpose, a total of 190 second grade high school students were chosen through random, multi-step and cluster sampling methods in the form of 8 classes and placed into 8 experimental and control groups in physics and sociology courses. A pre-test post-test design was administered to the control group. In order to collect information about participants, two tools were employed. The demographic information was collected by a researcher–made questionnaire and the thinking skills information was determined by Watson - Glaser test. Two- factor covariance method was utilized for data analysis. Results showed that the impact of guided inquiry teaching method on the critical thinking skills of students in inference and conclusion subscales, and the effect of subject in conclusion and interpretation subscales was significant.

[Kiumars Azizmalayeri, Ebrahim Mirshah Jafari, Mostafa Sharif, Mohammad Asgari, Maboud Omidi. The development of critical thinking skills in physics and sociology curricula. Nature and Science 2012; 10(8):161-167]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 25

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.25

 

Keywords: critical thinking, physics curriculum, sociology curriculum, guided inquiry teaching method, traditional teaching method.

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Performance Evaluation for New OLSR versus Variant MANET Routing Protocols

 

1Ashraf Diaa El-Den; 2Hosny Ahmed Motaafy, 3Ibrahim Fathy Torad; 1Atef Lofty Salama and 2Adel Fouad El-Kabbany

 

1Military Technical College, 2Higher technology Institute, 3Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University, kabany_2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The provision of quality-of-service (QoS) on the network layer is a major challenge in communication networks. This applies particularly to mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) especially with the increasing use of delay and bandwidth sensitive applications. The focus of this survey lies on the classification and analysis of selected QoS routing protocols in the domain of mobile ad-hoc networks.

[Ashraf Diaa El-Den; Hosny Ahmed Motaafy, Ibrahim Fathy Torad; Atef Lofty Salama and Adel Fouad El-Kabbany. Performance Evaluation for New OLSR versus Variant MANET Routing Protocols. Nature and Science 2012; 10(8): 168-176]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 26

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100812.26

 

Keywords: quality-of-service (QoS); network layer; communication; mobile

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from May 26, 2012, and finalized in August, 2012

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Nature and Science, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com; naturesciencej@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

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