Science Journal


Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 10 - Number 09 (Cumulated No. 66), 25, 2012, Monthly 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1009 
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Assessment of the Effect of Different Preservatives on the Keeping Quality of Soymilk Stored at Different Temperatures


Odu NN and Egbo NN


Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;


ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of preservation on the keeping quality of soymilk preserved by different methods under ambient and refrigeration temperatures and to identify an extraction process for the effective reduction of microbial growth in soymilk. The utilization of soybean for the production of soymilk was also studied. The soybean was washed and soaked in water (500g in 1 Liter) for 12 hours. It was rinsed and blanched in 1.25% Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 for 30 minutes. The soybean seeds were ground in blender (kenwood) and expressed in the ratio of 3:1 to remove the okra. The resultant slurry was formulated by adding 0.1% of sodium benzoate and 0.1% potassium sorbate, 2% sucrose and propy gallate and Ascorbic pamitate at this ratios: 100ppm Ascorbic palmitate and 100ppm propyl gallate, 200ppm Ascorbic palmitate, 200ppm propyl gallate and Control (without preservative and antioxidant). The milk was heated at 71oC for 15 seconds and subsequently bottled and stored at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Microbial qualities of the soymilk samples were evaluated to determine the microbiological quality of the products. Bacterial species isolated from the soymilk samples were Lactobacillus sp, Streptococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Aspergillus sp. There was increase in microbial population with storage time in both treated and untreated soymilk samples. There was significant difference (P<0.05) among the individual samples treated with NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. The highest number of aerobic count at the end of storage occurred in the control sample (1.15x106) at ambient temperature. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the aerobic count between the NaHCO3 treated soymilk and Na2CO3 treated soymilk. Also, similar comparable trends occurred in fungal population in all the samples. Both samples treated with Na2CO3 and NaHCO3, had similar counts. Growth of S. typhi and Staph. aureus was absent in all the samples. At refrigeration temperature, there was no growth in aerobic population from day 0 to day 6 in all the samples. The same trend was observed in fungal count except that growth started on day 12 and the controls that started on day 8. The same individual samples treated with propyl gallate and in combination (A, C, E and G) had the least count while the control had the highest count. There was no coliform, S. typhi and S. aureus growth throughout the refrigeration storage. The results obtained in this study shows that soymilk can keep for up to 16 days at refrigeration temperature, during which no reasonable multiplication of mesophilic aerobes above 3x104 CFU/ml was observed and total inhibition of yeast and molds were achieved up till day 12. In addition, they exhibited lower microbial count at both temperatures than the controls. The study has shown that the use of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 could therefore be an additional/complementary method of soymilk preservation, since potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate are known to act at lower pH.

[Odu NN and Egbo NN. Assessment of the Effect of Different Preservatives on the Keeping Quality of Soymilk Stored at Different Temperatures. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 1



Keywords: Soybean, soy milk, Streptococcus sp, Lactobacillus sp, Micrococcus sp, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Aspergillus sp, microbial quality

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Effect of whey protein and nandrolone in rat submandibular salivary glands


Eman M.Fathy El- Maghraby


Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to verify the histological and the ultrastructural alterations produced in the salivary glands in groups of rats associated with nandrolone (anabolic steroid) and /or to the use of whey Protein (natural product). Material & Methods: 40 male albino rats weighing 100-120 g each were used. The experimental animals were divided into 4 groups (10 each). Group 1: Untreated control rats. Group II: Rats treated with whey protein orally administrated daily for 3 months. Group III: Rats treated with nandrolone intramuscular injected for 3 months. Group IV: Rats treated with whey protein and nandrolone, whey protein extract was orally administrated daily for 6 weeks and then, they were intramuscularly injected by nandrolone extract for 6 weeks. The animals were sacrificed after 1 and 30 days post treatment. Result: Histological &ultrastructure investigations of whey group showed no distinctive changes in the architecture of the gland after 1 &30 days. In nandrolone group III after 1 day post treatment, degeneration of the acinar cells, decrease in the number and size of secretory granules, large irregular cytoplasmic vacuoles were seen and the fibrous connective tissue septa was also increased. In whey & nandrolone group IV, some acinar cells appeared with normal nuclear appearance and having large number of secretory granules with different electron densities, others appeared with shrunken apoptotic nuclei having irregular outline. In this study, both group III & IV 30 days post treatment showed regeneration of acinar cells with intact cytoplasmic membrane, normal nuclear morphology and abundance of secretory granules. Conclusion: Administration of nandrolone can cause degenerative changes to the salivary gland tissues which may lead to loss of salivary function with expected xerostomia, however these changes were found to be reversible after stoppage of the drug. The whey protein did not cause any damaging effects to salivary gland tissues and it enhanced the immune system to resist the toxic effects of nandrolone.

 [Eman M.Fathy El- Maghraby. Effect of whey protein and nandrolone in rat submandibular salivary glands. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):10-19]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 2



Key words: Nandrolone, Whey protein, Salivary gland, Histopathological, Ultrastructure

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1Mgbahuruike Leonard Udochukwu, 2Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi, 3Nwachukwu, Joseph Ikechukwu


Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria.


Abstract: This study investigated the impact of plume emission on soil quality of New Idea Asphalt plant in Owerri West, Imo State. Four (4) locations SP1 (100m) from point of emission, SP2 (300m) and SP3 (600m) in a farm land with depths(0-30cm) were established in the downwind direction while a control location was also measured 5km away from the emission point in the upwind direction. In the soil, priority parameters: TPH, Nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphate, pH, Textural class, Moisture content, Total Nitrogen and TOC were investigated. The results of TPH in the soil was in the range of 60.97 to 356.76mg/kg and belonged to the group of aliphatics(C17/22,C31andC36) with C17 most contributed and C31 least contributed in variability of the thirty(30) original variables measured. The highest concentration of 356.76mg/kg was most contributed by SP2 location. Correlation(r) matrix and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were basic statistical tools used to determine the interactions of the TPHs components at p< 0.05. Further structure detections were made with means plot for this analysis. Soil pollution is a major public health hazards, especially with inhabitants close to the industrial environment as there could be possible seepage and subsequent ground water contamination. This contaminated water will subsequently be ingested by drinking and this calls for serious public health intervention. Best Available Techniques (BAT) and policy reforms should therfore be intensified as a measure for ecological efficiency in production processes. Assessment of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and its Effect on Soil around Ashphalt Producing Facility in Obinze, Owerri.

[Mgbahuruike Leonard Udochukwu, Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi, Nwachukwu, Joseph Ikechukwu. IMPACT OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON SOIL AROUND ASPHALT PRODUCING FACILITY IN OBINZE, OWERRI. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):20-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 3



Key words: TPH, emissions, contamination, Asphalt, Facility, Obinze

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Diabetic foot infection and prevention measures: A literature review


Samira Alsenany1 and Amer Al Saif 2


1Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


2Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


Abstract: Diabetic foot infection is both a common and potentially disastrous complication that can progress rapidly to irreversible septic gangrene necessitating amputation of the foot. Diabetic foot infection was obviously spreading in hospital. Much infection is sporadic, but outbreaks occur from time to time due to hospital-acquired infection. The factors involved in infection are complex; they include acquisition by patients or healthcare workers of many kinds of micro-organisms varying in virulence and distribution. Hospital Infection can cause patients with widely varying susceptibility to be exposed to these micro–organisms. There have been fluctuations in severity and prevalence of some infections, and some new kinds of infection have emerged. Furthermore, diabetic foot infection is the most common infectious cause of hospitalization in patients with diabetic mellitus in Saudi Arabia. Often ulceration is complicated by infection. The development of infection in diabetes is often poly-microbial, and the incidence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in diabetic foot disease is increasing. There are many different strains of MRSA, some of which may be epidemic in character, causing serious outbreaks. The consequence of not controlling MRSA in hospitals could lead to increased cost because of increased length of stay of patients in hospital. On the other hand, prevention of infection acquired in the care setting remains a major goal for all healthcare personnel and hand washing is the single most important method to prevent cross infection. Hand washing is therefore considered to be one of the most important procedures in the prevention of cross-infection in healthcare facilities. The efficacy of a hand wash depends on the technique and the time taken. Routine hand washing will render the hands clean and remove transient microorganisms provided that an effective technique is used. Moreover, all patients known to be infected or colonized with MRSA should be admitted directly to a single room with contact isolation precautions. In addition, healthcare workers must receive education and training in hand washing techniques. The education programme should be regularly updated in view of changing knowledge and work practice. The aim of this literature review is to explore the common health problems, which is diabetic foot infection, to identify the principal infective organisms (MRSA) and their conditions for growth and survival to control and prevent this incident through infection control measures such as hand washing techniques and implementing a change in strategy through the education programme in hand washing techniques. Moreover, the challenge of managing diabetic foot infections can help to reduce complication of these infections.

[Samira Alsenany and Amer Al Saif. Diabetic foot infection and prevention measures: A literature review. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):26-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 4



keywords: Diabetic, infection, foot infections, MRSA organism, septic ,gangrene, Hand washing

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Effect of Arburscular mycorrhizea(AM), poultry manure(PM), NPK fertilizer and the combination of AM-PM on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

Cyril Chikere Nwangburuka 1*, Odunayo J. Olawuyi2, Kehinde Oyekale1, Kayode O. Ogunwwenmo2, Olanrewaju Denton1, David S. Daramola1 and David Awotade1


1. Department of Agriculture, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, PMB, 21244 Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.

2. Bioscience and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, PMB, 21244 Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.


Abstract: Five accessions of Abelmoschus esculentus, obtained from two research and academic institution in Nigeria were used to access the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AM), Poultry Manure (PM), Inorganic fertilizer (NPK), and the synergy of Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AM) and Poultry Manure (PM) on the growth and yield of okra. This experiment was a 5 x 5 factorial, laid out in a Randomized Complete block design with 5- replications. The experiment was a pot experiment carried out at the Babcock University horticultural garden (rain forest ecology). This experiment was carried out during the late planting season of November 2011 to January 2012. Data were collected on nine yield related characters. The combined Analysis of Variance showed significance treatment, accession, replication and accession x treatment interaction effects on majority of the trait evaluated at 0.01 and 0.05 probabilities. Combination of AM-PM treatment produced a significantly high results in the traits observed though not significantly different from NPK treatment result in all traits, implying that AM-PM treatment can conveniently replace NPK in the growth and yield of okra. There was a significant positive correlation between plant height, leaf area, fruit width at maturity, pod weight and seed weight in okra. Bab okr3 and NH.Cb/07/008 performed well in pod weight per plant and fruit length at maturity and would make good putative parent for selection in an okra hybridization program.

[Nwangburuka CC, Olawoyi OJ, Oyekale K., Ogunwenmo O., Denton O., Daramola DS. Awotade D. Effect of Arburscular mycorrhizea (AM), poultry manure (PM), NPK fertilizer and the combination of AM-PM on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Nat Sci 2012;10(9):35-41]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 5



Key words: Mycorrhizae, Fertilizer, okra, Mucilage, Rain forest, Bio-fertilizer

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Circulating Plasmodium falciparum and HIV 1/2 as Co-infections among Blood Donors in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria


Okonko IO1, Adejuwon OA2, Okerentugba PO1 and Innocent-Adiele HC1


1Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Uniport Post Office, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

2Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria;,; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891


ABSTRACT: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens including hemoparasities. In Nigeria, screening of blood for blood-borne pathogens does not fulfill the standard protocols and screening for malaria parasites is not practiced. Determination of the prevalence of circulating Plasmodium falciparum and HIV as co-infections in a population in general, and blood-donors in particular will certainly help in reviewing the screening procedures and making health policy decisions. In view of the problem of transfusional malaria, the prevalence of malaria Plasmodium in consenting blood donors was assessed. Whole blood was used for the diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria using Malaria P. falciparum Rapid Test Device. The screening for HIV antibodies was carried out using Chembio HIV-1/2 Stat-Pak and Abbott Determine HIV-1/2 test. All tests were done according to the manufacturers’ specifications. Overall prevalence rate of asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria was 17.5% (n=35) and HIV as co-infection was 22.9% (n=8), while the remaining 27(77.1%) had no HIV. The study showed no significant difference between malaria infection either for age groups (17.8% vs 16.6%, P>0.05) or sexes (16.6% vs 22.6%, P >0.05). However, it showed a significantly higher prevalence of HIV as co-infection among blood donors within ages less than 40 years than their counterparts in age groups 40 years and above (29.6% vs. 0.0%; P = 0.001). It also showed a significantly higher prevalence of HIV as co-infection among female donors than males (42.9% vs. 17.9%; P = 0.001). This study however confirmed the presence of P. falciparum malaria infection and HIV as co-infection among blood donors in Ibadan, Nigeria. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. General surveillance and public health education to stop the spread of the infection among blood donors in Ibadan and indeed the whole society is advocated.

[Okonko IO, Adejuwon OA, Okerentugba PO and Innocent-Adiele HC. Circulating Plasmodium falciparum and HIV 1/2 as Co-infections among Blood Donors in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):42-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 6



Keywords: Antibody, HIV/malaria co-infection, seropositivity, blood donors, Plasmodium, prevalence, transfusional malaria

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Effects of Rubber Cultivation And Associated Land Use Types on The Properties of Surface Soils


*1Orimoloye, J. R., 2Akinbola, G. E., 1Idoko, S. O., 1Waizah, Y. and 1Esemuede U.


1Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Nigeria

2Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria



Abstract: The effects of rubber plantation of different ages on the surface soil properties were compared with other land use types associated with rubber cultivation in the rubber research Institute of Nigeria. The rubber plantations are young rubber (0- 8 years old), middle aged rubber (10-20 years old), old rubber (>25 years old), while the associated land use types are fallow/forest and arable farm. Soil samples collected at depths of 0-15 and 15-45 cm depths in three replicates were subjected to routine and microbial content analysis. The soils are predominantly sandy-loam textured in the surface layer in all the land use types. Soil acidity (pH) changes significantly from 4.30 in arable farm to 4.7 in young rubber plantations while organic carbon at 13.4 g/kg is significantly lower in arable cropping landuse than fallow/forest with 33.4 g/kg. The forest/fallow and old rubber landuse types are statistically similar on most parameters considered showing that rubber cultivation can be considered as ‘planted fallow’ and could be employed as a cheap and economically viable means of mitigating land degradation in the rubber belt of Nigeria.

[Orimoloye, J. R., Akinbola, G. E., Idoko, S. O., Waizah, Y. and Esemuede U. Effects of Rubber Cultivation And Associated Land Use Types on The Properties of Surface Soils. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):48-52]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 7



Keywords: Rubber; Cultivation; Land; Property; Surface; Soil

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The Influence of Growth Hormones and Cocos nucifera Water on the In Vitro Propagation of Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill.


Gbadamosi I. T.*and Sulaiman M. O.


 Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Dr. Idayat T. Gbadamosi

Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 08035505173 / 07056114030;


Abstract: Irvingia gabonensis fruit has high nutritional, therapeutic and commercial value. Despite its economic importance, this plant is threatened in Nigeria due to over collection in the wild and its very slow growth via natural method of propagation. In view of this, the in vitro culture of I. gabonensis was studied to promote its conservation and sustainable use in Nigeria. Embryos from fresh and ripe seeds of I. gabonensis were cultured aseptically on MS-basal media supplemented with varied concentration of four different growth hormones and Cocos nucifera (coconut) water. The development of I. gabonensis in culture was evaluated using standard growth parameters: viability; number of shoot; shoot length; number of root; root length; number of leaf primordial; and % callus formation. Data were analysed statistically. Irvingia gabonensis demonstrated varied growth patterns in cultures. Medium IG02 (1/4MS + 0.05mg/L NAA + 20.0% coconut water) gave the highest viability (60%) and best enhanced root formation (1.67 roots). Medium IG05 (1/4MS + 0.05mg/L BAP + 0.05mg/L KIN + 0.05 mg/L IBA + 10.0% coconut water) supported shoot (2.17 shoots) and leaf (6.00 leaves) formation. The least growth of I. gabonensis was recorded on the control medium (1/4MS only), although it best supported root elongation (58.67 mm). The experiments are easily reproducible and generated prototypes of the parent plant. It was concluded that pathogen-free I. gabonensis plantlets could be produced via tissue culture to supplement natural propagation. The improved variety of the plant could be produced from wild varieties via in vitro propagation and biotechnology to combat the slow growth of naturally propagated germplasms.

[Gbadamosi I. T. and Sulaiman M. O. The Influence of Growth Hormones and Cocos nucifera Water on the In Vitro Propagation of Irvingia gabonensis. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):53-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 8



Keywords: Irvingia gabonensis, embryo, tissue culture experiment, growth hormones, Cocos nucifera water, Nigeria.

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An Efficient and Facile Multicomponent Synthesis of 4,6-Diarylpyridine Derivatives under Solvent-Free Conditions


Hassan A. El-Sayed* and Nabil H. Ouf


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt


Abstract: An efficient and facile synthesis of 4,6-diaryl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles (4a-j) via four-component system for aromatic aldehydes 1, acetophenones (2), ethyl cyanoacetate (3) and ammonium acetate. The short reaction time coupled with the simplicity of the reaction procedure and clean reaction make this method one of the most efficient methods for the synthesis of this class of compounds.

[Hassan A. El-Sayed and Nabil H. Ouf. An Efficient and Facile Multicomponent Synthesis of 4,6-Diarylpyridine Derivatives under Solvent-Free Conditions. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):59-63]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 9



Key words: multicomponent synthesis, Solvent-Free Conditions and pyridine-3-carbonitrile

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Red wine as a diluent supplement for counteract the deleterious effects of lipid peroxidation during liquid storage of aged roosters semen


Hazim J. Al-Daraji


Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq


Abstract: This study is an attempt to enhance the resistance of roosters' semen to peroxidative damage during in vitro storage by supplementing the semen diluent of cockerels with the powerful antioxidant red wine. Cockerels at 65 weeks of age were randomly distributed into six treatment groups of 10 birds each. Semen was collected twice a week from all cockerels during the whole period of experiment (12 consecutive weeks). Fresh semen served as a control (T1); Treatments were semen extended with Al – Daraji 2 diluent (AD2D) alone (T2); extended semen supplemented with 4, 8, 12 or 16 ml of red wine / 100 ml of AD2D (T3, T4, T5 or T6, respectively). Semen samples were then stored at 4 – 6 C for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h. Results revealed that the addition of red wine into semen diluent (T3, T4, T5 and T6) resulted in significant (p < 0.01) improvement in mass activity, individual motility, viability and percentages of normal spermatozoa and intact acrosomes compared to T1 and T2 groups. Moreover, T6 (16 ml red wine / 100 ml of diluent) recorded the best results in relation to these five traits followed by the results of T5, T4 and T3, respectively. In conclusion, the supplementation of semen diluent composition with red wine significantly ameliorates quality of aged roosters semen that in vitro stored for up to 72 h. However, the beneficial effect of red wine found in the present study may be due to enhance sperm resistance to lipid peroxidation that naturally occurred during in vitro storage of avian semen.

[Al-Daraji, HJ. Red wine as a diluent supplement for counteract the deleterious effects of lipid peroxidation during liquid storage of aged roosters semen. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):64-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 10



Key words: red wine, diluent, lipid peroxidation, liquid storage, semen, aged roosters.

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Carrier Gas as a new factor affecting the Separation Efficiency of Gas Chromatography: I-Using natural gas as a probe


A.Y. El-Naggar1, 2*, A. M. El-Fadly1, A. A. Salem1** and M. A. Ebaid1


1-Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

 2-Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, KSA.



Abstract: Different carrier gases markedly affect retention times and separation efficiency of eluted gases in both gas liquid chromatography (GSC) and gas solid chromatography (GLC), the carrier gases have a pronounced effect on the retention times and efficiency of natural gas separation. In solid chromatography, carrier gases which are adsorbed to any extent occupy more active adsorption sites, reducing the net heat of adsorption of the eluted zone. The efficiency of separation of a light gas mixture is shown to depend markedly on the type and pressure of carrier gas in addition to the column temperatures. Hydrogen and helium are the preferred mobile phases in GSC giving higher efficiency of separation because of their higher thermal conductivity. Helium is the best one because of its safety to handle than hydrogen. Nitrogen is the preferred mobile phase used in FID giving high efficiency of heavy components of natural gas separation. For all different mobile phases, it is preferred to use lower sample capacity in order to obtain high efficiency of gas chromatographic separation.

[A.Y. El-Naggar, A. M. El-Fadly, A. A. Salem and M. A. Ebaid. Carrier Gas as a new factor affecting the Separation Efficiency of Gas Chromatography: I-Using natural gas as a probe. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):71-75]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 11



Keywords: Carrier gases, Retention times, Separation efficiency, Sample capacity, Gas liquid chromatography and Gas solid chromatography.

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Molecular Epidemiology of Nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates


Rasha A. Nasr, Makram F. Attalah


Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: In view of the high rate and rapid spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii causing nosocomial infections especially in ICUs, this study was conducted to elucidate the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular epidemiology of the A. baumannii isolated from nosocomial infections in 3 ICUs in the El-Zaitoun Specialized Hospital, Cairo. During a 7-month study period, a total of 20 A. baumannii were isolated from nosocomial infections and environmental sources in the 3 ICUs. Susceptibility of the isolates to different antimicrobials was determined by the disk diffusion method. Molecular typing of all isolates was performed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR assay. A. baumannii were most frequently isolated from endotracheal aspirates (14), 4 strains from post-operative wound infection and 2 from environmental samples. All isolates were MDR and were totally resistant to imipenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftriaxone. A high resistance rate was observed to amikacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (90% each) gentamicin (85%) and doxycycline (75%). Molecular typing revealed circulation of 8 RAPD-fingerprints, of which fingerprint A accounted for 50% of A. baumannii strains including the 2 environmental isolates. Fingerprint B comprised 20% while the other isolates showed different RAPD-fingerprints. In conclusion, there was an increase in the rate of MDR A. baumannii in the ICUs which necessitates the implementation of an appropriate antibiotic policy. The intrahospital spread of especially one RAPD fingerprint of A. baumannii and its isolation from environmental sources emphasize the need of strict adherence to infection control measures in hospitals as well as the value of molecular typing to investigate spread of infection.

[Rasha A. Nasr, Makram F. Attalah. Molecular Epidemiology of Nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):76-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 12



Key words: Acinetobacter baumannii, intensive care units, multidrug-resistant, RAPD-PCR

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Use of Molecular, Biochemical and Cellular Biomarkers in Monitoring Environmental and Aquatic Pollution


Adedeji OB1, Okerentugba PO2, Okonko IO2


1Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;;; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891


Abstract: This paper gives an overview of the variety of animals and plants that are available for use as environmental and aquatic pollution monitors. Most aquatic and environmental management authorities required assessing the potential toxicity of metals-contaminated effluent at its point of discharge to avoid the determining effects of toxic metals in high quality food. Otherwise changes in fish health due to pollution may decline in fish population. Understanding the effect of toxicants on fish innate immunity supports the larger ecotoxicological goal of comprehending the actions of ecotoxicants on fish populations. There have been various reports that the utilization of a single species or target biomarker is not appropriate or scientifically sound for the monitoring of several toxic pollutants. Recent years have seen the development of biological measurements (biomarkers) as tools for use in monitoring and environmental impact assessment, such biomarkers being indicative of contaminant exposure and/or impact. The results of the study by most researchers indicated that biological effect monitoring is the only appropriate method providing a reliable environmental risk assessment. The advances in molecular genetics have led to an upsurge in interest in most susceptibility factors, and identification of polymorphisms of various enzymes has become possible. Among various biochemicals, cellular and physiological systems, certain innate immune responses are considered as suitable biomarkers for monitoring biological effects of pollution. Ongoing search for “ultra-high risk” individuals may be fruitful, but probably only relevant to a small segment of potentially exposed populations. The monitoring efficacy can be greatly improved by using batteries of non-specific biomarkers comprising different biological levels. Thus, the use of molecular, biochemical and cellular biomarkers has proved to be very useful in environmental and aquatic pollution monitoring.

[Adedeji OB, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Use of Molecular, Biochemical and Cellular Biomarkers in Monitoring Environmental and Aquatic Pollution. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):83-104]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 13



Keywords: Aquatic pollution monitoring, Biochemical biomarkers, Cellular biomarkers, Environmental risk assessment, Molecular biomarkers

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The application of FSM model for the prediction of sediment yield in Tehran basin


Abbas Atapourfard1, Majid Moradi Sharaf1, Gholamreza Shoaei2


1. Watershed Research Group, Agriculture investigation center of Hamedan, P.O.Box: 887, Hamedan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O.Box: 14115-175, Tehran, Iran


Abstract: Because of scarce recorded data, experimental models are widely used in Iran. Due to the model variable parameters and widely irregular conditions of the basins, particularly in Tehran region, the calibration of the models are necessary to reduce the prediction errors. The available data for the basins selected for this investigation are physiographic, vegetation cover, geology, the results of erosion and sedimentation studies and data of a few sedimentary gauge stations with more than 15 years of collected data (sediment and flow discharge) in their outlets. Daily flow records were compiled and combined with adopted sediment rating curve (the Model on mean values) to give annual sediment loads through the period of record. Bed load of selected basins have been estimated by the use of the accumulated bed load in the reservoir of small dams. Calibration and validation of The Factorial Scoring Mode (FSM) was done using specific sediment yield (SSY) data from 9 gauge stations. Then by comparing the results of calibrated and uncalibrated FSMs (calibrated and uncalibrated) and calculated annual SSY of gauge stations, the model efficiency (ME) as defined by Nash and Sutcliffe (1970), and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) were determined. The adjusted R2 between predicted and observed SSY of calibrated FSM was 0.8, the model efficiency is 0.62 and the RRMSE value is 0.27.

[Abbas Atapourfard, Majid Moradi Sharaf, Gholamreza Shoaei. The application of FSM model for the prediction of sediment yield in Tehran basin. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):105-112]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 14



Keywords: sediment yield; soil erosion; sedimentary gauge stations; Tehran basin

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Pesticidal effects of extracts of Barbula indica on Callosobruchus maculatus ( Coleoptra Bruchidae)


A.O. Adebiyi and P.O.Tedela


Department of Plant Science, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria


Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the insecticidal potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Barbula indica (a moss plant) on the survival of Callosobruchus maculatus F. a major storage pest of cowpea in Nigeria. Air dried plant materials were sieved to remove sandcrete materials. They were then ground into powder and portions of 1g, 2g,3g,and 4g each of the powder was suspended in 100ml of cold distilled water and ethanol separately for 24 hours. Each of these was filtered using a clean muslin cloth and the filtrates were used for the experiment. The effects of the extracts were tested on cowpea weevils. Percentage mortality of the weevils at 24, 48 and 72hours of treatment were recorded for these extracts at different concentrations.The results obtained indicated that the extracts caused significant reduction in the number of the weevils through contact killing, when compared with the control. Highest mortality was recorded in ethanol extract of the plant at 4% concentration. The plant can be used as an effective bio pesticide.

[A.O. Adebiyi and P.O.Tedela. Pesticidal effects of extracts of Barbula indica on Callosobruchus maculates (Coleoptra Bruchidae). Nat Sci 2012;10(9):113-115]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 15



Keywords: Callosobruchus maculatus, Barbula indica, pest.

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V. Vinayak1*,Chitralekha2, S.Kaur3,. A. Kadyan4 and A.Rai5


1Senior Scientific Officer(Biology) 2 Scientific Assistant(Biology) 3 Senior Scientific Assistant(Biology) 4 Assistant Director(Biology) 5 Scientific Assistant (D.N.A).Forensic Science Laboratory, Haryana, Madhuban. 132037


Abstract: Forensic trichology has played an important role in criminal justice delivery system. Hair is encountered as physical evidence in many crime cases. If hair is properly collected at scene of crime it can provide as a strong corroborative evidence to place an individual to crime scene. A microscopic examination of hair distinguishes human hair from or animal hair or a fiber. Scale structure, medullary index, shape, colour, ends of hair help in judging whether hair belongs to an individual have been cut , pulled , thrashed or artificially coloured. If hair is forcibly removed in such a way that it leaves some blood or skin with the root, then DNA typing can be performed. With the exception of mitochondrial DNA, it is not possible to extract DNA from a single hair without blood or skin attached.

[V. Vinayak, Chitralekha, S. Kaur, A. Kadyan and A. Rai. FORENSIC TRICHOLOGY AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN CRIME CASES. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):116-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 16



Keywords: Trichology, crime scene, Microscopy

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Parents' Behavior towards Their Children and Its Relationship to Prep- Stage Students' Motivation for Achievement in Menoufia Governorate


Aly Osman Mohamed Abdel Latif


 Department of House and Establishments Management, Faculty of Specific Education – Menoufia University


Abstract: This research aims at studying the parents' behavior towards their children and its relationship to the pre- stage student's motivation for achievement in Menoufia Governorate. The following forms were used in the research to collect the data: the student's socio–economic information form, the parents' behavior towards their children questionnaire and the primary, prep and secondary students' motivation for achievement measure. The study sample includes (250) male and female students, 50% each and 61 were excluded for incomplete information. The total sample became (189) male and female students at Ashmoon schools, Menoufia Governorate for the first academic term of the year 2011 / 2012 The study found out the following most important results:- There are differences statistically significant between the socio – economic factors and the parents' behavior towards their children. There are differences statistically significant between the socio – economic factors and the motivation for achievement. There is a strong significant relation between the parents' educational level and the parents' behavior towards their children. There is a strong significant relation between the parents' educational level and the motivation for achievement. There is a significant relation between the parents' work and the motivation for achievement.There is a significant relation between the parents' work and parents' behavior towards their children.There is no relation between the family's residence place and the motivation for achievement.There is no relation between the parents' behavior towards their children and the motivation for achievement.

[Aly Osman Mohamed Abdel Latif. Parents' Behavior towards Their Children and Its Relationship to Prep- Stage Students' Motivation for Achievement in Menoufia Governorate. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):121-130]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 17



Keywords: parent; behavior; children; motivation

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Biodegradation of agricultural wastes (rice straw and sorghum stalk ) into substrates of utilizable products using white rot fungus( Pleurotus florida).


Jonathan SG1, Okorie AN1 and Babayemi OJ2, Oyelakin AO 1 Akinfemi A3


1Department of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Animal sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

3Department of Animal Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Shabu-Lafia, Nigeria


Abstract: Problem of disposal of solid wastes such as agro-industrial wastes and other pollutants is a major concern in the developing countries of the world. In this study, emphases were focused on conversion of agricultural wastes such as rice straw and sorghum stalk into substrates of utilizable products (wastes to wealth). These wastes were subjected to solid state fermentation for 40 days using Pleurotus florida (a white rot fungus from Nigeria). Nutritional analyses were carried out on both fermented and non fermented substrates (control).Nutrients in the biodegraded samples were observed to be increasing with the days of incubation. The results also showed that fermented rice straw and sorghum stalk were richer in nutrients than none fermented substrates. It was also observed that the biodegraded samples enhanced in-vitro digestibility in the tested animals. Biologically treated sorghum stalk were found be richer in nutrients than the treated rice straw. The implications of these observations were discussed.

[Jonathan SG, Okorie AN and Babayemi OJ, Oyelakin AO. Akinfemi A. Biodegradation of agricultural wastes (rice straw and sorghum stalk ) into substrates of utilizable products using white rot fungus( Pleurotus florida). Nat Sci 2012;10(9):131-137]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 18



Keywords: White rot fungus, fermentation, agro-industrial wastes, invitro digestibility

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Effectiveness of Assessment patterns in chemistry Learning


1Maboud Omidi* , 2Y.N. Sridhar


1 research scholar in Department of Education, University of Mysore Manasagangothri, Mysore-57006, India

*Corresponding author


2 professor in, Department of Education , University of Mysore Manasagangothri, Mysore-57006, India E-mail: 


Abstract: This study aims at determining: (a) whether there is any difference between chemistry learning achievements of students taking the chemistry class with the implementation of Performance Assessment and ones joining the class without the implementation of Performance Assessment if the prior knowledge was statistically controlled, (b) Differences of scores in male and females' students after the implementation of performance assessment and traditional assessment in class. The experiment was conducted in 2 high schools in Malayer. The subjects were 87 pre-university science students (42 boys and 45 girls) that select from population by random method and then randomly assign patterns to experimental group and control group. Research instruments used included academic achievement pretest and post test that was prepared by investigator and teachers. The results have provided sufficient evidence for the context validity of these two instruments. Cronbach coefficient alpha reliability of chemistry academic achievement pre test was .81 and post test was .83. The results showed: (a) there were significant differences on chemistry learning achievement with and without the implementation of Performance Assessment on pre-university chemistry students. (b) Based on the statistical analysis of Ankova of same subjects, it showed that there was a significant increase of scores of females' students to learn chemistry in classes with the implementation Performance Assessment.

[Maboud Omidi, Y.N. Sridhar. Effectiveness of Assessment patterns in chemistry Learning. Nat Sci 2012; 10(9): 138-141]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 19



Key words: Performance assessment, Traditional assessment, Academic achievement, Chemistry

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Insect and fungal pests of some mushrooms collected from university of Ibadan,Nigeria campus


Jonathan S.G.1, Popoola K.O.K.2, Olawuyi OJ 1,Ajiboye M.1 and Oyelakan A. O.1


1Department of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Abstract: Ten mushrooms species collected within the premises of University of Ibadan were examined for infestation of various insect and fungal pests .Insects belonging to the orders; Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Collembolla were encountered both at the larval and adult stages of life on the collected mushroom samples. Infestation by the order Coleoptera (adult beetle) on Pleurotus squar-rosulus was found to be higher in incidence, with a total number of 17species which were found at the adult stage of life; but the larva stage were found on Lycoperdon gigantum . Fungal species identified to be Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium redolens, Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor piriformis were found to be associated with several species of mushrooms.

[Jonathan S.G., Popoola K.O.K., Olawuyi OJ ,Ajiboye M. and Oyelakan A. O. Insect and fungal pests of some mushrooms collected from university of Ibadan,Nigeria campus. Nature and Science 2012; 10(9): 142-147]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 20



Keywords: Mushrooms, fungal pathogens, insects, collection, pollution

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A Survey for Antibodies to Hepatitis C virus among Women of Childbearing Age


Obinna O.Nwankiti,1 Amarachi J. Ejekwolu2, James A. Ndako2, Solomon Chollom1, Emmanuel. Samuel.2


1National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

2Federal College of Veterinary and Medical laboratory Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.


Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now considered a pandemic. It has emerged as the most important cause of chronic liver disease world wide and an important cause of acute hepatitis and jaundice in pregnancy and its attendant complications. The disease prevalence was determined among 300 women of childbearing age attending Vom Christian Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to each subject to obtain data on socio-demographic and risk factors that may be associated with their predisposition to the infection. One step HCV immunochromatographic test strip was used for the screening. 27 (9.0%) subjects were seropositive. Women in the age group 26-30 years had the highest seroprevalence of 9.3%. There was no significant association between age and HCV seroprevalence (x2 = 8.403, df = 5, P = 0.20). Seropositivity in some subjects was linked to a number of risk factors which included scarification and multiple sex partnership. The results obtained indicate the presence of HCV in the study area and the need for effective awareness to educate the public on preventive measures against contraction and transmission of the disease.

[Obinna O.Nwankiti, Amarachi J. Ejekwolu, James A. Ndako, Solomon Chollom, Emmanuel. Samue. A Survey for Antibodies to Hepatitis C virus among Women of Childbearing Age. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):148-152]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 21


Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, seropositivity, contraction, transmission.

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Efficacy of Some Liquid Antiseptics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Wounds


A. M. Deji-Agboola,1 O. J. Onakalu,1 A. O. Hassan,1,2 K. S. Adeboyejo,1 T. A. Banjo,1 B. C. Calebs,1

M. A. Adeleke,3 A. Oluwadun2.


1Medical Microbiology / Parasitology Department, Olabisi Onabanjo University PMB 2022, Sagamu, Ogun State.

2Medical Microbiology / Parasitology Department, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, PMB 5000 Osogbo Osun state.

3 Biology Department, Osun State University, Osogbo


Abstract: The increasing prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wound infections have been a major concern, antiseptics are developed to inhibit or reduced the number of bacteria in or on living tissues. Several antiseptics are available in the market with paucity of information on their efficacy. This study therefore determines the efficacies of some liquid antiseptics against P. aeruginosa isolated from wounds using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The result of the purity test showed that all the antiseptics were sterile prior to use. The comparative assessment of the zones of inhibition of the diluted antiseptics indicated that Ethanol, TCP and Methylated Spirit were least effective (F = 799.94, p<0.05). Savlon produced the largest zone of inhibition followed by Purit. The result of the quantitative test using the MBC/MIC ratio showed that 8 (66.7%) were bactericidal with MBC/MIC ratio < 4. The presence of organic matter (plasma) in the undiluted and diluted antiseptics was observed to significantly (t = 11.48, P<0.05) reduce their zones of inhibition when compared with those without plasma. The antiseptics tested are potent against P. aeruginosa, the efficacy are reduced in the presence of organic matters

[Deji-Agboola AM, Onakalu OJ, Hassan AO, Adeboyejo KS, Banjo TA, Calebs BC, Adeleke M. A, Oluwadun A. Efficacy of Some Liquid Antiseptics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Wounds. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):153-157]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 22



Keywords: Antiseptics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antimicrobial efficacy, wounds

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Predicting the Effects of water temperature, pH, nitrogen and Phosphorus on the abundance of Melosira in Jebel Aulia Reservoir – Sudan, using Multiple Regression model


John Leju CELESTINO LADU1, 2; Yatta S. LUKAW3; Denis D. Kenyi4


  1. School of Energy and Environment, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China

  2. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies. Department of Environmental Studies, University of Juba, South Sudan

3. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Basic of Sciences,

University of Juba, South Sudan

4. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Fisheries, University of Juba


Abstract: This study attempt to envisage the effects of water temperature, pH and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus on the phytoplankton Melosira in Jebel Aulia Reservoir in Khartoum, Sudan. The study took a complete year from January 2003-December 2003 during which selected physicochemical variables such as water temperature, pH, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were measured at the time of plankton collection. The effects of the four physicochemical variables on the Melosira abundance were predicted by the development of seven models using the Multiple Regression Analysis of STATVIEW 5.0. The annual means of water temperature, pH, nitrate, phosphate and the Melosira abundance were in the order of 25.19 1.10oC, 7.99 0.30 μgl-l, 3858.50 1087.37 μgl-1 and 340.83 12.44 μgl-1 and 1650.992386.90 cell L-1. The highest Melosira density of 9111.5 cells L-1 occurred in March at the temperature of 21.8oC, pH 8μgl-l, nitrate and phosphate concentrations of 3800 and 280 μgl-1. The lowest density of 442 cells L-1 occurred in June at the temperature of 28.8oC, pH 7.60μgl-l and at the nitrate and phosphate concentrations of 4100 and 360μgl-1. The actual population density and the population density of Melosira predicted by the estimated regression model were compared using t-Test analysis and the result indicated a non-significant difference at P ≤ 0.05 (t-Value = 0.26, DF=11, P-Value =0.80) between the means of the two.

[John Leju CELESTINO LADU; Yatta S. LUKAW; Denis D. Kenyi. Predicting the Effects of water temperature, pH, nitrogen and Phosphorus on the abundance of Melosira in Jebel Aulia Reservoir – Sudan, using Multiple Regression model. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):158-163]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 23



Key words: Multiple Regression model; physico-chemical variables; Melosira; t-Test

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Improving Designing Elements to Maintain Radiation Safety of Cobalt60 Industrial Irradiator


A. B. Keshk


Radiation Engineering Department. National Center for Radiation Research and Technology. Atomic Energy Authority. Egypt.


Abstract: The main problems of design elements for different irradiators are studied and developed in this work beside their positive design elements to improve quality of irradiation processing and increase radiation safety standards inside and outside a proposed design. A comparison is maintained between different categories irradiators and the new irradiator’s models in Brazil leads to increase radiation safety standards for design, operation, and safety. Strike accidents between moveable vertical source racks and metallic containers on the horizontal conveyor system caused very bad effects, firing all different mechanical, electrical systems and bad thermal effects on concrete shielding inside old Canadian irradiators. Also the new irradiator models (Previon) in Brazil will be faced by dinger problems through passing gamma radiation through gaps between the moveable heavy concrete shielding and irradiator concrete shielding and also between rotating concrete door and concrete shielding which were built in 2003 and 2007. Irradiation processing quality inside Pravion irradiators is lower than any old Canadian irradiator. Concrete shielding performance is affected badly by fire through hydration and thermal stress inside irradiation rooms. Radiation shielding penetration and designing engineering sciences are applied to develop old useful designs of Canadian irradiators (wet storage) through preventing dinger stick between radiation source rack components and metallic containers on horizontals mechanical conveyor system. New irradiator designs in Brazil become better safety for operation and radiation through designing and adding new safe concrete mazes in separate lines to operators movement and to trance products containers inside and outside them to maintain the necessity goal through preventing repeating transport big masses of moveable concrete shielding , or rotating concrete door in these new irradiators. The product mechanical systems inside irradiation rooms of new Canadian irradiators will be modified to moveable horizontal mechanical conveyor system of old Canadian irradiator to prevent stick between vertical radiation source rack systems and product containers on horizontal conveyor systems, then new Brazilian irradiators will be modified and become more safe.

[A. B. Keshk. Improving Designing Elements to Maintain Radiation Safety of Cobalt60 Industrial Irradiator. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):164-175]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 24



Keywords: Industrial irradiator, concrete shielding penetration, vertical source rack, horizontal mechanical conveyor system, rotating concrete door, moveable concrete shielding, irradiation processing quality and previon irradiator.

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Bacteriological Examination of Spring Water in Five Different Locations In Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria


1Awe, S., 1Madueke, S. N and 2Olonila, O T.


1Department of Bioscience, Salem University Lokoja, Km 16 ,Lokoja –Ajakuta Rd., PMB 1060,Lokoja Kogi State Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria.


ABSTRACT: Investigation of bacteriological quality of five different spring water located in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria was analyzed for portability purpose using MPN technique and standard plate method. Samples were collected from each site weekly for a period of three month (between May and July, 2011). Mesophilic count from the samples were generally high exceeding the limit of 1.0 x 102 cfu/ml for water, with a range between1.8 – 3.9 x 102 cfu/ml and Ogui new layout having the highest range of 3.9 x 102 cfu/ml. The MPN count ranges from 7 to 1600 MPN per 100ml of water, with Abakpa and Ogui new layout showing MPN value less that acceptable range of less than 10 only within the first two weeks of sampling. The isolated organisms were identified to be Klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerogenosa. This implies that the spring water were fecal contaminated and hence unsuitable to serve as source of drinking water.

[Awe, S., Madueke, S. N and Olonila, O T. Bacteriological Examination of Spring Water in Five Different Locations In Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria. .Nat Sci 2012;10(9):176-179]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 25



Keyword: Spring water, fecal contamination, portability

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Effect of Training on the serum creatine Kinase (CK) levels of Athletes


Anugweje KC1 and Okonko IO2


1Department of Health Services, Lulu Briggs Health Centre, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Uniport Post Office, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

2Virology Unit of Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Uniport Post Office, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;; Tel: +234 803 538 0891


ABSTRACT: The effect of training on the serum creatine kinase levels of athletes was evaluated clinically. Study was conducted in 46 highly-trained athletes. The collective results indicate that training has effect on the serum creatine kinase. The study showed that there was significant difference (P=0.002) between the serum creatine kinase (CK) values of pre-training and post-training values for the study groups and their controls. The study showed that serum CK is a marker for skeletal and myocardial muscle damage. Muscle damage reduces performance in endurance activities.

[Anugweje KC and Okonko IO. Effect of Training on the serum creatine Kinase (CK) levels of Athletes. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):180-185]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 26



Key words: serum creatine kinase, endurance, performamce, muscle damage

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Nutritional values of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm. cultivated on different agricultural wastes


Jonathan S.G1; Okon, C.B.1; Oyelakin A.O.2 and Oluranti OO3


1Department of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2College Of Agriculture, Igbo-Ora.Nigeria.

3Department of Biological Sciences,Bowen University, Iwo.Nigeria


Abstract: In this study, different agricultural wastes such as (Oryza sativa straw, Gossypium hirsutum wastes and Milicia excelsa sawdust were used for the cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm. Different agricultural wastes were mixed evenly with Oryza sativa bran additive in other to enhance mycelial growth of this fungus. High moisture content (93.43%), crude protein (28.02%), fat contents (8.72%) and fiber contents (17.42%) of P. ostreatus were all recorded with cotton waste substrate supplemented with 20% rice bran. Results showed that this mushroom was deficient in vitamin A, but contained appreciable amount of vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6 and D. The average highest mushroom yield (6.42g) was recorded on cotton waste substrate +20% rice bran and the lowest mushroom weight (3.62g) was recorded on rice straw without rice bran. Highest biological Efficiency (B.E) was 93.6% while the lowest was 74.0%. Cotton waste was found to be the best substrate that supported the growth of this fungus.

[Jonathan S.G; Okon, C.B; Oyelakin A.O. and Oluranti OO. Nutritional values of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm. cultivated on different agricultural wastes. Nat Sci 2012;10(9):186-179]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 27



Keywords: Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation proximate composition, mineral element

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 19, 2012

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