Nature and Science
Volume 10 - Number 09 (Cumulated No. 66), 25, 2012, Monthly
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1009
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Titles / Abstracts / Authors
Assessment of the
Effect of Different Preservatives on the Keeping Quality of
Soymilk Stored at Different Temperatures
Odu NN and Egbo NN
Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba,
P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of preservation
on the keeping quality of soymilk preserved by different methods
under ambient and refrigeration temperatures and to identify an
extraction process for the effective reduction of microbial
growth in soymilk.
The utilization of
soybean for the production of soymilk was also studied. The
soybean was washed and soaked in water (500g in 1 Liter) for 12
hours. It was rinsed and blanched in 1.25% Na2CO3
and NaHCO3 for 30 minutes. The soybean seeds
were ground in blender (kenwood) and expressed in the ratio of
3:1 to remove the okra. The resultant slurry was formulated by
adding 0.1% of sodium benzoate and 0.1% potassium sorbate, 2%
sucrose and propy gallate and Ascorbic pamitate at this ratios:
100ppm Ascorbic palmitate and 100ppm propyl gallate,
palmitate, 200ppm propyl gallate and Control (without
preservative and antioxidant). The milk was heated at 71oC
for 15 seconds and subsequently bottled and stored at ambient
and refrigeration temperature.
Microbial qualities of the soymilk samples were evaluated to
determine the microbiological quality of the products. Bacterial
species isolated from the soymilk samples were Lactobacillus
sp, Streptococcus sp, Micrococcus sp,
Saccharomyces cerevisae and Aspergillus sp.
There was increase
in microbial population with storage time in both treated and
untreated soymilk samples. There was significant difference
(P<0.05) among the individual samples treated with NaHCO3
and Na2CO3. The highest number of
aerobic count at the end of storage occurred in the control
sample (1.15x106) at ambient temperature. There was a
significant difference (P<0.05) in the aerobic count between the
treated soymilk and
treated soymilk. Also, similar comparable trends occurred in
fungal population in all the samples. Both samples treated with
Na2CO3 and NaHCO3, had similar
counts. Growth of S. typhi and Staph. aureus was
absent in all the samples. At refrigeration temperature, there
was no growth in aerobic population from day 0 to day 6 in all
the samples. The same trend was observed in fungal count except
that growth started on day 12 and the controls that started on
day 8. The same individual samples treated with propyl gallate
and in combination (A, C, E and G) had the least count while the
control had the highest count. There was no coliform, S.
typhi and S. aureus growth throughout the
refrigeration storage. The results obtained in this study shows
that soymilk can keep for up to 16 days at refrigeration
temperature, during which no reasonable multiplication of
mesophilic aerobes above 3x104 CFU/ml was observed
and total inhibition of yeast and molds were achieved up till
day 12. In addition, they exhibited lower microbial count at
both temperatures than the controls. The study has shown that
the use of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3
could therefore be an additional/complementary method of soymilk
preservation, since potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate are
known to act at lower pH.
NN and Egbo NN. Assessment of the Effect of
Preservatives on the Keeping Quality of Soymilk Stored at
2012;10(9):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
milk, Streptococcus sp, Lactobacillus sp,
Micrococcus sp, Saccharomyces cerevisae and
Aspergillus sp, microbial quality
Effect of whey protein and
nandrolone in rat submandibular salivary glands
Eman M.Fathy El- Maghraby
Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for
Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo, Egypt.
The purpose of this study was to verify the histological and the
ultrastructural alterations produced in the salivary glands in
groups of rats associated with nandrolone (anabolic steroid) and
/or to the use of whey Protein (natural product).
Material & Methods: 40 male
albino rats weighing 100-120 g each were used. The experimental
animals were divided into 4 groups (10 each). Group 1: Untreated
control rats. Group II: Rats treated with whey protein orally
administrated daily for 3 months. Group III: Rats treated with
nandrolone intramuscular injected for 3 months. Group IV: Rats
treated with whey protein and nandrolone, whey protein extract
was orally administrated daily for 6 weeks and then, they were
intramuscularly injected by nandrolone extract for 6 weeks. The
animals were sacrificed after 1 and 30 days post treatment.
Result: Histological &ultrastructure investigations of whey
group showed no distinctive changes in the architecture of the
gland after 1 &30 days. In nandrolone group III after 1 day
post treatment, degeneration of the acinar cells, decrease in
the number and size of secretory granules, large irregular
cytoplasmic vacuoles were seen and the fibrous connective tissue
septa was also increased. In whey & nandrolone group IV, some
acinar cells appeared with normal nuclear appearance and having
large number of secretory granules with different electron
densities, others appeared with shrunken apoptotic nuclei having
irregular outline. In this study, both group III & IV 30 days
post treatment showed regeneration of acinar cells with intact
cytoplasmic membrane, normal nuclear morphology and abundance of
secretory granules. Conclusion:
Administration of nandrolone can cause degenerative changes to
the salivary gland tissues which may lead to loss of salivary
function with expected xerostomia, however these changes were
found to be reversible after stoppage of the drug.
The whey protein did not
cause any damaging effects to salivary gland tissues and it
enhanced the immune system to resist the toxic effects of
M.Fathy El- Maghraby.
Effect of whey protein and
nandrolone in rat submandibular salivary glands.
Nandrolone, Whey protein, Salivary gland, Histopathological,
IMPACT OF TOTAL
PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON SOIL
AROUND ASPHALT PRODUCING FACILITY IN OBINZE, OWERRI
Leonard Udochukwu, 2Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi,
3Nwachukwu, Joseph Ikechukwu
Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of
Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria.
This study investigated the impact of plume emission on soil
quality of New Idea Asphalt plant in Owerri West, Imo State.
Four (4) locations SP1 (100m) from point of emission, SP2 (300m)
and SP3 (600m) in a farm land with depths(0-30cm) were
established in the downwind direction while a control location
was also measured 5km away from the emission point in the upwind
direction. In the soil, priority parameters: TPH, Nitrate,
Phosphate, Sulphate, pH, Textural class, Moisture content, Total
Nitrogen and TOC were investigated. The results of TPH in the
soil was in the range of 60.97 to 356.76mg/kg and belonged to
the group of aliphatics(C17/22,C31andC36)
with C17 most contributed and C31 least
contributed in variability of the thirty(30) original variables
measured. The highest concentration of 356.76mg/kg was most
contributed by SP2 location. Correlation(r) matrix and Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) were basic statistical tools used to
determine the interactions of the TPHs components at p< 0.05.
Further structure detections were made with means plot for this
analysis. Soil pollution is a major public health hazards,
especially with inhabitants close to the industrial environment
as there could be possible seepage and subsequent ground water
contamination. This contaminated water will subsequently be
ingested by drinking and this calls for serious public health
intervention. Best Available Techniques (BAT) and policy reforms
should therfore be intensified as a measure for ecological
efficiency in production processes. Assessment of Total
Petroleum Hydrocarbon and its Effect on Soil around Ashphalt
Producing Facility in Obinze, Owerri.
Leonard Udochukwu, Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi, Nwachukwu,
Joseph Ikechukwu. IMPACT OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON
CONCENTRATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON SOIL AROUND ASPHALT PRODUCING
FACILITY IN OBINZE, OWERRI.
TPH, emissions, contamination, Asphalt, Facility, Obinze
infection and prevention measures: A
Samira Alsenany1 and Amer Al Saif 2
1Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Nursing Department, Faculty of
Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia. Salsenany@kau.edu.sa.
Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department,
Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University,
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Aalsaif@kau.edu.sa
infection is both a common and potentially disastrous
complication that can progress rapidly to irreversible septic
gangrene necessitating amputation of the foot. Diabetic foot
infection was obviously
spreading in hospital. Much infection is sporadic, but outbreaks
occur from time to time due to hospital-acquired infection. The
factors involved in infection are complex; they include
acquisition by patients or healthcare workers of many kinds of
micro-organisms varying in virulence and distribution. Hospital
Infection can cause patients with widely varying susceptibility
to be exposed to these micro–organisms. There have been
fluctuations in severity and prevalence of some infections, and
some new kinds of infection have emerged. Furthermore, diabetic
foot infection is the most common infectious cause of
hospitalization in patients with diabetic mellitus in Saudi
Arabia. Often ulceration is complicated by infection. The
development of infection in diabetes is often poly-microbial,
and the incidence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
(MRSA) in diabetic foot disease is increasing. There are many
different strains of MRSA, some of which may be epidemic in
character, causing serious outbreaks. The consequence of not
controlling MRSA in hospitals could lead to increased cost
because of increased length of stay of patients in hospital. On
the other hand, prevention of infection acquired in the care
setting remains a major goal for all healthcare personnel and
hand washing is the single most important method to prevent
cross infection. Hand washing is therefore considered to be one
of the most important procedures in the prevention of
cross-infection in healthcare facilities. The efficacy of a hand
wash depends on the technique and the time taken. Routine hand
washing will render the hands clean and remove transient
microorganisms provided that an effective technique is used.
Moreover, all patients known to be infected or colonized with
MRSA should be admitted directly to a single room with contact
isolation precautions. In addition, healthcare workers must
receive education and training in hand washing techniques. The
education programme should be regularly updated in view of
changing knowledge and work practice.
The aim of this literature review is to explore the common
health problems, which is diabetic foot infection, to identify
the principal infective organisms (MRSA) and their conditions
for growth and survival to control and prevent this incident
through infection control measures such as hand washing
techniques and implementing a change in strategy through the
education programme in hand washing techniques. Moreover, the
challenge of managing diabetic foot infections can help to
reduce complication of these infections.
Alsenany and Amer Al Saif.
infection and prevention measures: A
2012;10(9):26-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Diabetic, infection, foot infections, MRSA organism, septic
,gangrene, Hand washing
Effect of Arburscular mycorrhizea(AM), poultry
manure(PM), NPK fertilizer and the combination of AM-PM on the
growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)
Nwangburuka 1*, Odunayo J. Olawuyi2,
Kehinde Oyekale1, Kayode O. Ogunwwenmo2,
Olanrewaju Denton1, David S. Daramola1 and
Department of Agriculture, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo,
PMB, 21244 Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
Bioscience and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo,
PMB, 21244 Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
Five accessions of Abelmoschus esculentus, obtained from
two research and academic institution in Nigeria were used to
access the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AM), Poultry
Manure (PM), Inorganic fertilizer (NPK), and the synergy of
Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AM) and Poultry Manure (PM) on the
growth and yield of okra. This experiment was a 5 x 5 factorial,
laid out in a Randomized Complete block design with 5-
replications. The experiment was a pot experiment carried out at
the Babcock University horticultural garden (rain forest
ecology). This experiment was carried out during the late
planting season of November 2011 to January 2012. Data were
collected on nine yield related characters. The combined
Analysis of Variance showed significance treatment, accession,
replication and accession x treatment interaction effects on
majority of the trait evaluated at 0.01 and 0.05 probabilities.
Combination of AM-PM treatment produced a significantly high
results in the traits observed though not significantly
different from NPK treatment result in all traits, implying that
AM-PM treatment can conveniently replace NPK in the growth and
yield of okra. There was a significant positive correlation
between plant height, leaf area, fruit width at maturity, pod
weight and seed weight in okra. Bab okr3 and NH.Cb/07/008
performed well in pod weight per plant and fruit length at
maturity and would make good putative parent for selection in an
okra hybridization program.
CC, Olawoyi OJ, Oyekale K., Ogunwenmo O., Denton O., Daramola
DS. Awotade D. Effect of Arburscular mycorrhizea (AM),
poultry manure (PM), NPK fertilizer and the combination of AM-PM
on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus).
2012;10(9):35-41]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Mycorrhizae, Fertilizer, okra, Mucilage, Rain forest,
Circulating Plasmodium falciparum and HIV 1/2 as
Co-infections among Blood Donors in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria
Okonko IO1, Adejuwon OA2, Okerentugba PO1
and Innocent-Adiele HC1
Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of
Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Uniport Post Office, Choba, East-West
Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;
of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State,
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com; Tel.:
+234 803 538 0891
Blood serves as a
vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens including
hemoparasities. In Nigeria, screening of blood for blood-borne
pathogens does not fulfill the standard protocols and screening
for malaria parasites is not practiced. Determination of the
prevalence of circulating Plasmodium falciparum and HIV
as co-infections in a population in general, and blood-donors in
particular will certainly help in reviewing the screening
procedures and making health policy decisions. In view of the
problem of transfusional malaria, the prevalence of malaria
Plasmodium in consenting blood donors was assessed. Whole
blood was used for the diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria
using Malaria P. falciparum Rapid Test Device. The
screening for HIV antibodies was carried out using Chembio
HIV-1/2 Stat-Pak® and Abbott Determine HIV-1/2®
test. All tests were done according to the manufacturers’
specifications. Overall prevalence rate of asymptomatic P.
was 17.5% (n=35) and HIV
as co-infection was 22.9% (n=8), while the remaining 27(77.1%)
had no HIV. The study showed no
difference between malaria infection either for age groups (17.8%
P>0.05) or sexes (16.6% vs
>0.05). However, it showed a significantly higher prevalence of
HIV as co-infection among blood donors within ages less than 40
years than their counterparts in age groups 40 years and above
(29.6% vs. 0.0%; P = 0.001). It also showed a significantly
higher prevalence of HIV as co-infection among female donors
than males (42.9% vs. 17.9%; P = 0.001).
This study however
confirmed the presence of P. falciparum malaria infection
and HIV as co-infection
among blood donors in
Ibadan, Nigeria. This could be attributed to lack of adequate
accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under
study. General surveillance and public health education to stop
the spread of the infection among blood donors in Ibadan and
indeed the whole society is advocated.
IO, Adejuwon OA, Okerentugba PO and Innocent-Adiele HC.
Circulating Plasmodium falciparum and HIV 1/2 as
Co-infections among Blood Donors in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria.
2012;10(9):42-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
co-infection, seropositivity, blood donors, Plasmodium,
prevalence, transfusional malaria
of Rubber Cultivation And Associated Land Use Types on The
Properties of Surface Soils
*1Orimoloye, J. R.,
2Akinbola, G. E., 1Idoko, S. O., 1Waizah,
Y. and 1Esemuede U.
Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Nigeria
of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
The effects of rubber plantation
of different ages on the surface soil properties were compared
with other land use types associated with rubber cultivation in
the rubber research Institute of Nigeria. The rubber plantations
are young rubber (0- 8 years old), middle aged rubber (10-20
years old), old rubber (>25 years old), while the associated
land use types are fallow/forest and arable farm. Soil samples
collected at depths of 0-15 and 15-45 cm depths in three
replicates were subjected to routine and microbial content
analysis. The soils are predominantly sandy-loam textured in
the surface layer in all the land use types. Soil acidity (pH)
changes significantly from 4.30 in arable farm to 4.7 in young
rubber plantations while organic carbon at 13.4 g/kg is
significantly lower in arable cropping landuse than
fallow/forest with 33.4 g/kg. The forest/fallow and old rubber
landuse types are statistically similar on most parameters
considered showing that rubber cultivation can be considered as
‘planted fallow’ and could be employed as a cheap and
economically viable means of mitigating land degradation in the
rubber belt of Nigeria.
Akinbola, G. E.,
Idoko, S. O.,
Waizah, Y. and
Effects of Rubber
Cultivation And Associated Land Use Types on The Properties of
2012;10(9):48-52]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Rubber; Cultivation; Land; Property; Surface; Soil
The Influence of Growth Hormones and Cocos nucifera Water
on the In Vitro Propagation of Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke)
T.*and Sulaiman M. O.
of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Dr. Idayat T. Gbadamosi
Department of Botany, University of Ibadan,
08035505173 / 07056114030;
fruit has high nutritional, therapeutic and commercial value.
Despite its economic importance, this plant is threatened in
Nigeria due to over collection in the wild and its very slow
growth via natural method of propagation. In view of this, the
in vitro culture of I. gabonensis was studied to
promote its conservation and sustainable use in Nigeria. Embryos
from fresh and ripe seeds of I. gabonensis were cultured
aseptically on MS-basal media supplemented with varied
concentration of four different growth hormones and Cocos
nucifera (coconut) water. The development of I.
gabonensis in culture was evaluated using standard growth
parameters: viability; number of shoot; shoot length; number of
root; root length; number of leaf primordial; and % callus
formation. Data were analysed statistically. Irvingia
gabonensis demonstrated varied growth patterns in cultures.
Medium IG02 (1/4MS + 0.05mg/L NAA + 20.0% coconut water) gave
the highest viability (60%) and best enhanced root formation
(1.67 roots). Medium IG05 (1/4MS + 0.05mg/L BAP + 0.05mg/L KIN +
0.05 mg/L IBA + 10.0% coconut water) supported shoot (2.17
shoots) and leaf (6.00 leaves) formation. The least growth of
I. gabonensis was recorded on the control medium (1/4MS
only), although it best supported root elongation (58.67 mm).
The experiments are easily reproducible and generated prototypes
of the parent plant. It was concluded that pathogen-free I.
gabonensis plantlets could be produced via tissue culture to
supplement natural propagation. The improved variety of the
plant could be produced from wild varieties via in vitro
propagation and biotechnology to combat the slow growth of
naturally propagated germplasms.
and Sulaiman M. O.
The Influence of Growth Hormones and Cocos nucifera Water
on the In Vitro Propagation of Irvingia gabonensis.
2012;10(9):53-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Irvingia gabonensis, embryo, tissue culture experiment,
growth hormones, Cocos nucifera water, Nigeria.
Efficient and Facile Multicomponent Synthesis of
4,6-Diarylpyridine Derivatives under Solvent-Free Conditions
El-Sayed* and Nabil H. Ouf
Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig,
An efficient and facile synthesis of
via four-component system for aromatic aldehydes 1,
acetophenones (2), ethyl cyanoacetate (3) and
ammonium acetate. The
short reaction time coupled with the simplicity of the reaction
procedure and clean reaction
make this method one of the most efficient methods for the
synthesis of this class of compounds.
A. El-Sayed and Nabil H. Ouf.
An Efficient and Facile Multicomponent Synthesis of
4,6-Diarylpyridine Derivatives under Solvent-Free Conditions.
2012;10(9):59-63]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
multicomponent synthesis, Solvent-Free Conditions and
Red wine as a diluent
supplement for counteract the deleterious effects of lipid
peroxidation during liquid storage of aged roosters semen
Hazim J. Al-Daraji
Department of Animal Production,
College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
This study is an attempt to enhance the resistance of roosters'
semen to peroxidative damage during in vitro storage by
supplementing the semen diluent of cockerels with the powerful
antioxidant red wine. Cockerels at 65 weeks of age were randomly
distributed into six treatment groups of 10 birds each. Semen
was collected twice a week from all cockerels during the whole
period of experiment (12 consecutive weeks). Fresh semen served
as a control
(T1); Treatments were semen
extended with Al – Daraji 2 diluent (AD2D) alone (T2); extended
semen supplemented with 4, 8, 12 or 16 ml of red wine / 100 ml
of AD2D (T3, T4, T5 or T6, respectively). Semen samples were
then stored at 4 – 6
ºC for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h.
Results revealed that the addition of red wine into semen
diluent (T3, T4, T5 and T6) resulted in significant (p < 0.01)
improvement in mass activity, individual motility, viability and
percentages of normal spermatozoa and intact acrosomes compared
to T1 and T2 groups. Moreover, T6 (16 ml red wine / 100 ml of
diluent) recorded the best results in relation to these five
traits followed by the results of T5, T4 and T3, respectively.
In conclusion, the supplementation of semen diluent composition
with red wine significantly ameliorates quality of aged roosters
semen that in vitro stored for up to 72 h. However, the
beneficial effect of red wine found in the present study may be
due to enhance sperm resistance to lipid peroxidation that
naturally occurred during in vitro storage of avian
Red wine as a diluent supplement
for counteract the deleterious effects of lipid peroxidation
during liquid storage of aged roosters semen.
2012;10(9):64-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
red wine, diluent, lipid peroxidation, liquid storage, semen,
Carrier Gas as a new factor
affecting the Separation Efficiency of Gas Chromatography:
I-Using natural gas as a probe
A.Y. El-Naggar1, 2*,
A. M. El-Fadly1,
A. A. Salem1** and M. A. Ebaid1
Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, KSA.
Different carrier gases markedly
affect retention times and separation efficiency of eluted gases
in both gas liquid chromatography (GSC) and gas solid
chromatography (GLC), the carrier gases have a pronounced effect
on the retention times and efficiency of natural gas separation.
In solid chromatography, carrier gases which are adsorbed to any
extent occupy more active adsorption sites, reducing the net
heat of adsorption of the eluted zone. The efficiency of
separation of a light gas mixture is shown to depend markedly on
the type and pressure of carrier gas in addition to the column
temperatures. Hydrogen and helium are the preferred mobile
phases in GSC giving higher efficiency of separation because of
their higher thermal conductivity. Helium is the best one
because of its safety to handle than hydrogen. Nitrogen is the
preferred mobile phase used in FID giving high efficiency of
heavy components of natural gas separation. For all different
mobile phases, it is preferred to use lower sample capacity in
order to obtain high efficiency of gas chromatographic
El-Naggar, A. M. El-Fadly,
A. A. Salem and M. A. Ebaid.
Carrier Gas as a new factor affecting the Separation Efficiency
of Gas Chromatography: I-Using natural gas as a probe.
2012;10(9):71-75]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Carrier gases, Retention times, Separation efficiency, Sample
capacity, Gas liquid chromatography and Gas solid
Molecular Epidemiology of Nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii
Rasha A. Nasr, Makram F. Attalah
Department of Medical
Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams
University, Cairo, Egypt.
In view of the high rate and rapid spread of multidrug-resistant
(MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii causing nosocomial
infections especially in ICUs, this study was conducted to
elucidate the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular
epidemiology of the A.
baumannii isolated from nosocomial infections in 3 ICUs in
the El-Zaitoun Specialized Hospital, Cairo. During a 7-month
study period, a total of 20 A. baumannii were isolated
from nosocomial infections and environmental sources in the 3
ICUs. Susceptibility of the isolates to different antimicrobials
was determined by the disk diffusion method. Molecular typing of
all isolates was performed using the random amplified
polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR assay. A. baumannii were most
frequently isolated from endotracheal aspirates (14), 4 strains
from post-operative wound infection and 2 from environmental
samples. All isolates were MDR and were totally resistant to
imipenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin,
piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftriaxone. A high resistance rate
was observed to amikacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (90%
each) gentamicin (85%) and doxycycline (75%). Molecular typing
revealed circulation of 8 RAPD-fingerprints, of which
fingerprint A accounted for 50% of A. baumannii strains
including the 2 environmental isolates. Fingerprint B comprised
20% while the other isolates showed different RAPD-fingerprints.
In conclusion, there was an increase in the rate of MDR A.
baumannii in the ICUs which necessitates the implementation
of an appropriate antibiotic policy. The intrahospital spread of
especially one RAPD fingerprint of A. baumannii and its
isolation from environmental sources emphasize the need of
strict adherence to infection control measures in hospitals as
well as the value of molecular typing to investigate spread of
A. Nasr, Makram F. Attalah. Molecular Epidemiology of
Nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates.
2012;10(9):76-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Acinetobacter baumannii, intensive care units,
Use of Molecular,
Biochemical and Cellular Biomarkers in Monitoring Environmental
and Aquatic Pollution
Adedeji OB1, Okerentugba PO2, Okonko IO2
of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, University of
Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road,
P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;
firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; Tel:
This paper gives
an overview of the variety of animals and plants that are
available for use as environmental and aquatic pollution
aquatic and environmental management authorities required
assessing the potential toxicity of metals-contaminated effluent
at its point of discharge to avoid the determining effects of
toxic metals in high quality food. Otherwise changes in fish
health due to pollution may decline in fish population.
effect of toxicants on fish innate immunity supports the larger
ecotoxicological goal of comprehending the actions of
ecotoxicants on fish populations.
There have been various reports that the utilization of a single
species or target biomarker is not appropriate or scientifically
sound for the monitoring of several toxic pollutants.
Recent years have
seen the development of biological measurements (biomarkers) as
tools for use in monitoring and environmental impact assessment,
such biomarkers being indicative of contaminant exposure and/or
impact. The results of the study by most researchers indicated that biological
effect monitoring is the only appropriate method providing a
reliable environmental risk assessment. The advances in
molecular genetics have led to an upsurge in interest in most
susceptibility factors, and identification of polymorphisms of
various enzymes has become possible.
biochemicals, cellular and physiological systems, certain innate
immune responses are considered as suitable biomarkers for
monitoring biological effects of pollution.
Ongoing search for “ultra-high risk” individuals may be
fruitful, but probably only relevant to a small segment of
potentially exposed populations.
efficacy can be greatly improved by using batteries of
non-specific biomarkers comprising different biological levels.
Thus, the use
of molecular, biochemical and cellular biomarkers has proved to
be very useful in environmental and aquatic pollution
OB, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO.
Use of Molecular, Biochemical and Cellular Biomarkers in
Monitoring Environmental and Aquatic Pollution.
2012;10(9):83-104]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Aquatic pollution monitoring, Biochemical biomarkers, Cellular
biomarkers, Environmental risk assessment, Molecular biomarkers
Abbas Atapourfard1, Majid Moradi Sharaf1,
Research Group, Agriculture investigation center of Hamedan,
P.O.Box: 887, Hamedan, Iran
Assistant Professor, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O.Box:
14115-175, Tehran, Iran
Because of scarce recorded data, experimental models are widely
used in Iran. Due to the model variable parameters and widely
irregular conditions of the basins, particularly in Tehran
region, the calibration of the models are necessary to reduce
the prediction errors. The available data for the basins
selected for this investigation are physiographic, vegetation
cover, geology, the results of erosion and sedimentation studies
and data of a few sedimentary gauge stations with more than 15
years of collected data (sediment and flow discharge) in their
outlets. Daily flow records were compiled and combined with
adopted sediment rating curve (the Model on mean values) to give
annual sediment loads through the period of record. Bed load of
selected basins have been estimated by the use of the
accumulated bed load in the reservoir of small dams. Calibration and validation of The Factorial Scoring Mode (FSM)
was done using specific sediment yield (SSY) data from 9 gauge
stations. Then by comparing the results of calibrated and
uncalibrated FSMs (calibrated and uncalibrated) and calculated
annual SSY of gauge stations, the model efficiency (ME) as
deﬁned by Nash and Sutcliffe (1970), and the relative root mean
square error (RRMSE) were determined. The adjusted R2 between
predicted and observed SSY of calibrated FSM was 0.8, the model
efficiency is 0.62 and the RRMSE value is 0.27.
Atapourfard, Majid Moradi Sharaf, Gholamreza Shoaei. The
application of FSM model for the prediction of sediment yield in
Tehran basin. Nat
sediment yield; soil erosion; sedimentary gauge stations; Tehran
Pesticidal effects of extracts of Barbula indica on
Callosobruchus maculatus ( Coleoptra Bruchidae)
Department of Plant Science,
Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the
insecticidal potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of
Barbula indica (a moss plant) on the survival of
Callosobruchus maculatus F. a major storage pest of cowpea
in Nigeria. Air dried plant materials were sieved to remove
sandcrete materials. They were then ground into powder and
portions of 1g, 2g,3g,and 4g each of the powder was suspended in
100ml of cold distilled water and ethanol separately for 24
hours. Each of these was filtered using a clean muslin cloth and
the filtrates were used for the experiment. The effects of the
extracts were tested on cowpea weevils. Percentage mortality of
the weevils at 24, 48 and 72hours of treatment were recorded for
these extracts at different concentrations.The results obtained
indicated that the extracts caused significant reduction in the
number of the weevils through contact killing, when compared
with the control. Highest mortality was recorded in ethanol
extract of the plant at 4% concentration. The plant can be used
as an effective bio pesticide.
Adebiyi and P.O.Tedela.
Pesticidal effects of extracts of Barbula indica on
2012;10(9):113-115]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Callosobruchus maculatus, Barbula indica,
FORENSIC TRICHOLOGY AND ITS
IMPORTANCE IN CRIME CASES.
S.Kaur3,. A. Kadyan4
Scientific Officer(Biology) 2 Scientific
Assistant(Biology) 3 Senior Scientific
Assistant(Biology) 4 Assistant Director(Biology)
5 Scientific Assistant (D.N.A).Forensic Science
Laboratory, Haryana, Madhuban. 132037
has played an important role in criminal justice delivery
system. Hair is encountered as physical evidence in many crime
cases. If hair is properly collected at scene of crime it can
provide as a strong corroborative evidence to place an
individual to crime scene. A microscopic examination of hair
distinguishes human hair from or animal hair or a fiber. Scale
structure, medullary index, shape, colour, ends of hair help in
judging whether hair belongs to an individual have been cut ,
pulled , thrashed or artificially coloured. If hair is forcibly
removed in such a way that it leaves some blood or skin with the
root, then DNA typing can be performed. With the exception of
mitochondrial DNA, it is not possible to extract DNA from a
single hair without blood or skin attached.
TRICHOLOGY AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN CRIME CASES.
2012;10(9):116-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Trichology, crime scene, Microscopy
Parents' Behavior towards
Their Children and Its Relationship to Prep- Stage Students'
Motivation for Achievement in Menoufia Governorate
Aly Osman Mohamed Abdel Latif
Department of House and Establishments Management, Faculty of
Specific Education – Menoufia University
This research aims at
studying the parents' behavior towards
their children and its relationship to the pre- stage student's
motivation for achievement in Menoufia Governorate. The
following forms were used in the research to collect the data:
the student's socio–economic information form, the parents'
behavior towards their children questionnaire and the primary,
prep and secondary students' motivation for achievement measure.
The study sample includes (250) male and female students, 50%
each and 61 were excluded for incomplete information. The total
sample became (189) male and female students at Ashmoon schools,
Menoufia Governorate for the first academic term of the year
2011 / 2012 The study found out the following most important
results:- There are differences statistically significant
between the socio – economic factors and the parents' behavior
towards their children. There are differences statistically
significant between the socio – economic factors and the
motivation for achievement.
There is a strong significant
relation between the parents' educational level and the parents'
behavior towards their children. There is a strong significant
relation between the parents' educational level and the
motivation for achievement. There is a significant relation
between the parents' work and the motivation for
achievement.There is a significant relation between the parents'
work and parents' behavior towards their children.There is no
relation between the family's residence place and the motivation
for achievement.There is no relation between the parents'
behavior towards their children and the motivation for
Osman Mohamed Abdel Latif. Parents' Behavior towards Their
Children and Its Relationship to Prep- Stage Students'
Motivation for Achievement in Menoufia Governorate.
2012;10(9):121-130]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
parent; behavior; children; motivation
Biodegradation of agricultural wastes (rice straw and sorghum
stalk ) into substrates of utilizable products using white rot
fungus( Pleurotus florida).
Jonathan SG1, Okorie AN1 and Babayemi OJ2,
Oyelakin AO 1 Akinfemi A3
of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
of Animal sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
of Animal Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi,
Problem of disposal of solid wastes such as agro-industrial
wastes and other pollutants is a major concern in the developing
countries of the world. In this study, emphases were focused on
conversion of agricultural wastes such as rice straw and sorghum
stalk into substrates of utilizable products (wastes to wealth).
These wastes were subjected to solid state fermentation for 40
days using Pleurotus florida (a white rot fungus from
Nigeria). Nutritional analyses were carried out on both
fermented and non fermented substrates (control).Nutrients in
the biodegraded samples were observed to be increasing with the
days of incubation. The results also showed that fermented rice
straw and sorghum stalk were richer in nutrients than none
fermented substrates. It was also observed that the biodegraded
samples enhanced in-vitro digestibility in the tested animals.
Biologically treated sorghum stalk were found be richer in
nutrients than the treated rice straw. The implications of these
observations were discussed.
SG, Okorie AN and Babayemi OJ, Oyelakin AO. Akinfemi
of agricultural wastes (rice straw and sorghum stalk ) into
substrates of utilizable products using white rot fungus(
Pleurotus florida). Nat
2012;10(9):131-137]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
rot fungus, fermentation, agro-industrial wastes, invitro
Effectiveness of Assessment patterns in chemistry Learning
scholar in Department of Education, University of Mysore
Manasagangothri, Mysore-57006, India
*Corresponding author email:Maboud_omidi@yahoo.com
professor in, Department of Education , University of Mysore
Manasagangothri, Mysore-57006, India E-mail:
This study aims at determining: (a) whether there is any
difference between chemistry learning achievements of students
taking the chemistry class with the implementation of
Performance Assessment and ones joining the class without the
implementation of Performance Assessment if the prior knowledge
was statistically controlled, (b) Differences of scores in male
and females' students after the implementation of performance
assessment and traditional assessment in class. The experiment
was conducted in 2 high schools in Malayer. The subjects were 87
pre-university science students (42 boys and 45 girls) that
select from population by random method and then randomly assign
patterns to experimental group and control group. Research
instruments used included academic achievement pretest and post
test that was prepared by investigator and teachers. The results
have provided sufficient evidence for the context validity of
these two instruments. Cronbach coefficient alpha reliability of
chemistry academic achievement pre test was .81 and post test
was .83. The results showed: (a) there were significant
differences on chemistry learning achievement with and without
the implementation of Performance Assessment on pre-university
chemistry students. (b) Based on the statistical analysis of
Ankova of same subjects, it showed that there was a significant
increase of scores of females' students to learn chemistry in
classes with the implementation Performance Assessment.
Omidi, Y.N. Sridhar. Effectiveness
of Assessment patterns in chemistry Learning.
Nat Sci 2012;
Performance assessment, Traditional assessment, Academic
Insect and fungal pests of some mushrooms collected from
university of Ibadan,Nigeria campus
Popoola K.O.K.2, Olawuyi OJ 1,Ajiboye M.1
and Oyelakan A. O.1
of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Ten mushrooms species collected within the premises of
University of Ibadan were examined for infestation of various
insect and fungal pests .Insects belonging to the orders; Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Collembolla were
encountered both at the larval and adult stages of life on the
collected mushroom samples. Infestation by the order Coleoptera
(adult beetle) on Pleurotus squar-rosulus was found to be
higher in incidence, with a total number of 17species which were
found at the adult stage of life; but the larva stage were found
on Lycoperdon gigantum . Fungal species identified to be
Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus,
Fusarium redolens, Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus
stolonifer and Mucor piriformis were found to be
associated with several species of mushrooms.
Popoola K.O.K., Olawuyi OJ ,Ajiboye M. and Oyelakan A. O. Insect and fungal
pests of some mushrooms collected from university of
Nature and Science 2012; 10(9): 142-147]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Mushrooms, fungal pathogens, insects, collection, pollution
A Survey for Antibodies to Hepatitis C virus
among Women of Childbearing Age
Obinna O.Nwankiti,1 Amarachi J. Ejekwolu2,
James A. Ndako2, Solomon Chollom1,
Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.
College of Veterinary and Medical laboratory Technology,
National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State,
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now considered a pandemic.
It has emerged as the most important cause of chronic liver
disease world wide and an important cause of acute hepatitis and
jaundice in pregnancy and its attendant complications. The
disease prevalence was determined among 300 women of
childbearing age attending Vom Christian Hospital, Plateau
State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to
each subject to obtain data on socio-demographic and risk
factors that may be associated with their predisposition to the
infection. One step HCV immunochromatographic test strip was
used for the screening. 27 (9.0%) subjects were seropositive.
Women in the age group 26-30 years had the highest
seroprevalence of 9.3%. There was no significant association
between age and HCV seroprevalence (x2 = 8.403, df =
5, P = 0.20). Seropositivity in some subjects was linked to a
number of risk factors which included scarification and multiple
sex partnership. The results obtained indicate the presence of
HCV in the study area and the need for effective awareness to
educate the public on preventive measures against contraction
and transmission of the disease.
[Obinna O.Nwankiti, Amarachi J. Ejekwolu, James A. Ndako,
Solomon Chollom, Emmanuel. Samue.
for Antibodies to Hepatitis C virus among Women of Childbearing
2012;10(9):148-152]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Hepatitis C virus, seropositivity, contraction, transmission.
Efficacy of Some Liquid
Antiseptics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from
A. M. Deji-Agboola,1
O. J. Onakalu,1 A. O. Hassan,1,2
K. S. Adeboyejo,1 T. A. Banjo,1
B. C. Calebs,1
M. A. Adeleke,3 A. Oluwadun2.
Microbiology / Parasitology Department, Olabisi Onabanjo
University PMB 2022, Sagamu, Ogun State.
Microbiology / Parasitology Department, LAUTECH Teaching
Hospital, PMB 5000 Osogbo Osun state.
Biology Department, Osun State University, Osogbo
prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wound infections
have been a major concern, antiseptics are developed to inhibit
or reduced the number of bacteria in or on living tissues.
Several antiseptics are available in the market with paucity of
information on their efficacy. This study therefore determines
the efficacies of some liquid antiseptics against P.
aeruginosa isolated from wounds using both qualitative and
quantitative methods. The result of the purity test showed that
all the antiseptics were sterile prior to use. The comparative
assessment of the zones of inhibition of the diluted antiseptics
indicated that Ethanol, TCP and Methylated Spirit were least
effective (F = 799.94, p<0.05). Savlon produced the largest zone
of inhibition followed by Purit. The result of the quantitative
test using the MBC/MIC ratio showed that 8 (66.7%) were
bactericidal with MBC/MIC ratio < 4. The presence of organic
matter (plasma) in the undiluted and diluted antiseptics was
observed to significantly (t = 11.48, P<0.05) reduce their zones
of inhibition when compared with those without plasma.
The antiseptics tested are potent against P. aeruginosa,
the efficacy are reduced in the presence of organic matters
[Deji-Agboola AM, Onakalu OJ,
Hassan AO, Adeboyejo KS, Banjo TA, Calebs BC, Adeleke M. A, Oluwadun A. Efficacy of Some Liquid
Antiseptics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from
Nat Sci 2012;10(9):153-157].
Antiseptics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antimicrobial
the Effects of water temperature, pH, nitrogen and Phosphorus on
the abundance of Melosira in Jebel Aulia Reservoir – Sudan,
using Multiple Regression model
John Leju CELESTINO LADU1,
2; Yatta S. LUKAW3; Denis D. Kenyi4
School of Energy and
Environment, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering
Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China
College of Natural Resources
and Environmental Studies. Department of Environmental
Studies, University of Juba, South Sudan
3. College of Natural Resources
and Environmental Studies, Department of Basic of Sciences,
University of Juba, South Sudan
4. College of Natural Resources
and Environmental Studies, Department of Fisheries, University
This study attempt to envisage the effects of water temperature,
pH and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus on the
phytoplankton Melosira in Jebel Aulia Reservoir in Khartoum,
Sudan. The study took a complete year from January 2003-December
2003 during which selected physicochemical variables such as
water temperature, pH, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were
measured at the time of plankton collection. The effects of the
four physicochemical variables on the Melosira abundance were
predicted by the development of seven models using the Multiple
Regression Analysis of STATVIEW 5.0. The annual means of water
temperature, pH, nitrate, phosphate and the Melosira abundance
were in the order of 25.19 ±1.10oC, 7.99± 0.30 μgl-l,
3858.50 ±1087.37 μgl-1 and 340.83 ±12.44 μgl-1
and 1650.99±2386.90 cell L-1. The highest Melosira
density of 9111.5 cells L-1 occurred in March at the
temperature of 21.8oC, pH 8μgl-l, nitrate
and phosphate concentrations of 3800 and 280 μgl-1.
The lowest density of 442 cells L-1 occurred in June
at the temperature of 28.8oC, pH 7.60μgl-l
and at the nitrate and phosphate concentrations of 4100 and
360μgl-1. The actual population density and the
population density of Melosira predicted by the estimated
regression model were compared using t-Test analysis and the
result indicated a non-significant difference at P ≤ 0.05
(t-Value = 0.26, DF=11, P-Value =0.80) between the means of the
CELESTINO LADU; Yatta S. LUKAW; Denis D. Kenyi.
Predicting the Effects of water temperature, pH, nitrogen and Phosphorus
on the abundance of Melosira in Jebel Aulia Reservoir – Sudan,
using Multiple Regression model.
2012;10(9):158-163]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Multiple Regression model; physico-chemical variables; Melosira;
Improving Designing Elements
to Maintain Radiation Safety of Cobalt60 Industrial
A. B. Keshk
Radiation Engineering Department.
National Center for Radiation Research and Technology. Atomic
Energy Authority. Egypt.
The main problems of design
elements for different irradiators are studied and developed in
this work beside their positive design elements to improve
quality of irradiation processing and increase radiation safety
standards inside and outside a proposed design. A comparison is
maintained between different categories irradiators and the new
irradiator’s models in Brazil leads to increase radiation safety
standards for design, operation, and safety. Strike accidents
between moveable vertical source racks and metallic containers
on the horizontal conveyor system caused very bad effects,
firing all different mechanical, electrical systems and bad
thermal effects on concrete shielding inside old Canadian
irradiators. Also the new irradiator models (Previon) in Brazil
will be faced by dinger problems through passing gamma radiation
through gaps between the moveable heavy concrete shielding and
irradiator concrete shielding and also between rotating concrete
door and concrete shielding which were built in 2003 and 2007.
Irradiation processing quality inside Pravion irradiators is
lower than any old Canadian irradiator. Concrete shielding
performance is affected badly by fire through hydration and
thermal stress inside irradiation rooms. Radiation shielding
penetration and designing engineering sciences are applied to
develop old useful designs of Canadian irradiators (wet storage)
through preventing dinger stick between radiation source rack
components and metallic containers on horizontals mechanical
conveyor system. New irradiator designs in Brazil become better
safety for operation and radiation through designing and adding
new safe concrete mazes in separate lines to operators movement
and to trance products containers inside and outside them to
maintain the necessity goal through preventing repeating
transport big masses of moveable concrete shielding , or
rotating concrete door in these new irradiators. The product
mechanical systems inside irradiation rooms of new Canadian
irradiators will be modified to moveable horizontal mechanical
conveyor system of old Canadian irradiator to prevent stick
between vertical radiation source rack systems and product
containers on horizontal conveyor systems, then new Brazilian
irradiators will be modified and become more safe.
Improving Designing Elements to Maintain Radiation Safety of
Cobalt60 Industrial Irradiator.
Industrial irradiator, concrete
shielding penetration, vertical source rack, horizontal
mechanical conveyor system, rotating concrete door, moveable
concrete shielding, irradiation processing quality and previon
Bacteriological Examination of Spring Water in Five Different
Locations In Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria
S., 1Madueke, S. N and 2Olonila, O T.
Bioscience, Salem University Lokoja, Km 16 ,Lokoja –Ajakuta Rd.,
PMB 1060,Lokoja Kogi State Nigeria.
of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria.
Investigation of bacteriological quality of five different
spring water located in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria was analyzed
for portability purpose using MPN technique and standard plate
method. Samples were collected from each site weekly for a
period of three month (between May and July, 2011). Mesophilic
count from the samples were generally high exceeding the limit
of 1.0 x 102 cfu/ml for water, with a range
between1.8 – 3.9 x 102 cfu/ml and Ogui new layout
having the highest range of 3.9 x 102 cfu/ml. The MPN
count ranges from 7 to 1600 MPN per 100ml of water, with Abakpa
and Ogui new layout showing MPN value less that acceptable range
of less than 10 only within the first two weeks of sampling. The
isolated organisms were identified to be Klebsiella spp,
Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus
and Pseudomonas aerogenosa. This implies that the
spring water were fecal contaminated and hence unsuitable to
serve as source of drinking water.
S., Madueke, S. N and Olonila, O T.
Bacteriological Examination of Spring Water in Five Different
Locations In Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria.
.Nat Sci 2012;10(9):176-179].
Spring water, fecal contamination, portability
Effect of Training
on the serum creatine Kinase (CK) levels of Athletes
KC1 and Okonko IO2
of Health Services, Lulu Briggs Health Centre, University of
Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323,
Uniport Post Office, Choba,
East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers
Unit of Medical Microbiology Division, Department of
Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt,
P.M.B. 5323 Uniport
Post Office, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State,
Iheanyi.firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: +234 803 538 0891
effect of training on the serum creatine kinase levels of
athletes was evaluated clinically. Study was conducted in 46
highly-trained athletes. The collective results indicate that
training has effect on the serum creatine kinase.
study showed that there was
difference (P=0.002) between the serum creatine kinase (CK)
values of pre-training and post-training values for the study
groups and their controls.
study showed that
serum CK is a marker for skeletal and myocardial muscle damage.
Muscle damage reduces performance in endurance activities.
[Anugweje KC and Okonko IO.
Effect of Training on
the serum creatine Kinase (CK) levels of Athletes.
Nat Sci 2012;10(9):180-185].
Key words: serum creatine kinase, endurance, performamce,
Nutritional values of oyster
mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm.
cultivated on different agricultural wastes
Jonathan S.G1; Okon, C.B.1; Oyelakin A.O.2
and Oluranti OO3
of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Of Agriculture, Igbo-Ora.Nigeria.
of Biological Sciences,Bowen University, Iwo.Nigeria
In this study, different
agricultural wastes such as (Oryza sativa straw,
sawdust were used for the cultivation of oyster mushroom
Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm. Different
agricultural wastes were mixed evenly with Oryza sativa
bran additive in other to enhance mycelial growth of this
fungus. High moisture content (93.43%), crude protein (28.02%),
fat contents (8.72%) and fiber contents (17.42%) of P.
ostreatus were all recorded with cotton waste substrate
supplemented with 20% rice bran. Results showed that this
mushroom was deficient in vitamin A, but contained appreciable
amount of vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6 and D. The average highest
mushroom yield (6.42g) was recorded on cotton waste substrate
+20% rice bran and the lowest mushroom weight (3.62g) was
recorded on rice straw without rice bran. Highest biological
was 93.6% while the lowest was
74.0%. Cotton waste was found to be the best substrate that
supported the growth of this fungus.
S.G; Okon, C.B; Oyelakin A.O. and
Nutritional values of
oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm.
cultivated on different agricultural wastes.
Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation proximate composition,
in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review
starting from June 19, 2012.
comments are welcome: email@example.com
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