Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 10 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 67), 25, 2012, Monthly 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1010 
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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

A review of the evolution of current-mode circuits and techniques and various modern analog circuit building blocks

 

Kasim K. Abdalla1, D. R. Bhaskar1, Raj Senani2

 

1 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India
2 Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Azad Hind Fauj Marg, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi- 110078, India. Email: senani@nsit.ac.in

 

Abstract: This paper presents a brief introduction and review of some prominent current mode building blocks, which have been finding prominent attention in the area of analog signal processing. Some exemplary hardware implementations of a selected number of building blocks such as op-amp, OTA, CCI, CCII, FTFN, DDA, CFOA, CCIII, DDCC, DOCC, MOCC, DVCC, ICCII, FDCCII, OTRA, CDBA and CDTA have been reviewed.

[Kasim K. Abdalla, D. R. Bhaskar, Raj Senani. A review of the evolution of current-mode circuits and techniques and various modern analog circuit building blocks. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):1-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.01

 

Keywords: evolution; circuit; technique; analog; building; block

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2

Tobacco rattle Tobravirus: Occurrence in Flax Plants (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Egypt

 

Salwa N. Zein1, A. H. Hamed1and Hanaa S. Zawam2

 

1Virus and Phytoplasma Res. Dept., Plant Patho .Res. Inst., ARC., Giza, Egypt

2Nematode Res. Dept., Plant Patho. Res. Inst., ARC., Giza, Egypt

salwaelhiti2006@yahoo.com, ali_hamed65@yahoo.com and hn_zawam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This is the first report of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolated from naturally infected flax (Linum usitatissimum ) crop growing in the Agriculture Research Experimental Station (ARES) in Egypt. Naturally infected flax plants showed symptoms of TRV i.e. yellowing, systemic mosaic and leaf deformation. Symptoms were collected and subjected to isolation and identification by indirect ELISA. Presence of the virus isolate in different cultivars, all florets, flower parts was confirmed by using DAS- ELISA. ELISA was also used to confirm the modes of transmission (mechanical inoculation, seed and nematodes transmission). The obtained results indicated that DBIA test was useful to confirm the identification of the virus isolated from flax crop. The percentages of seeds transmission ranged between 2.8 - 19.7 %. Paratrichodorus nematodes was successfully transmitted TRV by16.6%.

[Salwa N. Zein, A. H. Hamed and Hanaa S. Zawam. Tobacco rattle Tobravirus: Occurrence in Flax Plants (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Egypt. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):14-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.02

 

Keywords: flax, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Paratrichodorus, production, Mechanical, seed and Nematodes transmission, Serological detection and DBIA.

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Effect of Fertigation on Clogging of Three Types of Emitters in Iran

 

F. Ansari Samani1*, S. Boroomand Nasab2

 

1. M.Sc.Student. Dep. Of Irrigation and drainage, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

2. Prof. Dep. Of Irrigation and drainage, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

*Corresponding author,( faride.ansari@yahoo.com).

 

Abstract: One of the potential advantages of drip irrigation is allowing the use of fertilizers and pesticides with irrigation water. In this study, the effect of fertilizers on clogging dripper and drip irrigation system performance has been investigated. This study in a randomized block design framework was done that its factors were three treatment of fertilizer (ammonium phosphate) includes treatment F0 (control), and two F1 and F2 treatments with concentrations of 5 g/l and 8 g/l, respectively, and three dropper treatment (the in line long path and two outline long path). Dropper with codes A, B and C were named. In order to investigating dropper clogging, reduce discharge rate, efficiency of uniform distribution, Kristiansen uniformity coefficient and coefficient of discharge variation was calculated. After test period the percentage of reduce discharge for droppers was obtained 19.9, 20.78, and 11 percent for treatment F0 (control) respectively, and 26.48, 26.49 and 16.65 percent for treatment F1, and 33.67, 33.06 and 18.59 percent for treatment F2, respectively. The results were shown increasing concentration of irrigation fertilizer caused increasing dropper clogging and have a significant effect on discharge variation.

[F. Ansari Samani, S. Boroomand Nasab. Effect of Fertigation on Clogging of Three Types of Emitters in Iran. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):21-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.03

 

Keywords: Trickle Irrigation, Emitter, Fertilizer, Clogging, Uniformity

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4

Determination of Heating Value of Five Economic Trees Residue as a Fuel for Biomass Heating System

 

Adeyinka Adekiigbe,

 

Department of Civil Engineering (Mechanical Unit), Osun State Polytechnic, P. M. B. 301, Iree, Nigeria. deyinka25@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The concerns about carbon emission and daily rise in prices of fossil fuel has increase the attention on biomass derived fuels which is affordable and environmentally safe fuel source for energy facilities, industrial boilers, pulp and paper industry, and cement industry. The higher heating value (HHV) of residues of five biomass sample (Gmelina Arborea, Terminalia Superb, Milicia Excelsa, Triplochiton Seleroxylau and Tectonia Grandis) obtained from Nigerian sources were determine experimentally and estimated from proximate analysis. The measured HHV of the sample varied between 20MJ/kg and 27MJ/kg, the estimated higher heating value varied between 16MJ/kg and 19MJ/kg which are quite low when compared with those obtained from bomb calorimeter test. It is economic estimation that based on only proximate analysis. Findings from the study established that Terminalia Superb appear the most clean and efficient sample among those tested, though the combustion characteristic of other samples are attractive. The results have very important implication in designing biomass heating system for a production industry which can eventually leads to reduction in cost of energy required in processing. Suggestions are made about ways to guide biomass energy towards effective achievement of government and stakeholder goals for renewable energy, climate change mitigation and natural resource sustainability.

[Adekiigbe A. Determination of Heating Value of Five Economic Trees Residue as a Fuel for Biomass Heating System. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):26-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.04

 

Keywords: Carbon emission; fossil fuel; heating value; production industry; renewable energy

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5

Survey, Biodiversity and Impacts of Economic Activities on Mangroves Ecosystem in Eastern Part of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria.

 

Omogoriola, H.O., Williams, A.B., Ukaonu,S.C., Adegbile, O.M., Olakolu, F.C., Mbawuike,B.C., Akinnigbagbe, A.E and Ajulo. A.A

 

Marine Biology Section, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (N.I.O.M.R), P.M.B. 12729, No 3, Wilmot Point Road, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.

adehannah2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mangrove swamps in Nigeria stretch along the entire coast and are found in nine of the 36 states. The eastern part of Lagos Lagoon is dominated by red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa) which might be as a result of the abundant of this mangrove species in Nigeria. Invertebrates and vertebrates are found at the bottom of the mangroves while some are found on the body of the mangroves. Molluscs like periwinkles (Tympantonous fuscatus and Pachymelaian aurita) and oysters (Crassostrea sp). Crustaceans like purple mangroves crab (Goniopsis pelii), Africana mud crab (Panopeus africanus) and Lagoon land crab (cardiosoma armatum). Fish fauna like tilapia (Sarothenedon melanopterus), Mudskipper (Petriopthalmus Barbatum) and larva stages of some important fishes and shrimps. Other vegetations are found along with the mangroves trees while some are found attached to the prop root or the pneumatophores e.g water hyacinth and water lettuces. Economic activities that surround Lagos Lagoon mangrove communities are Fishing, aquaculture (acadja), sand mining, dredging activities and logging. Mangrove trees are cut to make fire wood, construction of road and artificial pond and local medicine. Soils are mined for bridge, house and industry construction. The negative impact of these economic activities can lead to climate changes, changes in the upstream habitat, loss of habitats and biodiversity and pollution due to population growth and urban development.

[Omogoriola HO, Williams AB, Ukaonu SC, Adegbile OM, Olakolu FC, Mbawuike BC, Akinnigbagbe AE, Ajulo AA. Survey, Biodiversity and Impacts of Economic Activities on Mangroves Ecosystem in Eastern Part of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):30-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.05

 

Keywords: Mangrove; Lagos Lagoon; Survey; Biodiversity; Economic activities

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6

Effect of Rumen Protected Methionine and/or Choline Additives on Productive Performance of Zaraibi Goats

 

Mahmoud E. El-Gendy, Kotob F. El-Riedy, Hanaa S. Sakr, Hamed M. Gaafar

 

Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Cemter, Dokki, Giza

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Forty Zaraibi goats with average body weight of 34.64±0.79 kg and aged 3-4 years at the last month of pregnancy were divided into four similar groups (10 in each). The goats were fed the basal ration containing 0.8 kg concentrate feed mixture, 0.2 kg barley grain and 5.0 kg berseem without additive (control) or with 2 g/head/day rumen protected methionine (RPM) or 2 g/head/day rumen protected choline (RPC) or 2 g/head/day rumen protected methionine + 2 g/head/day rumen protected choline (RPM+RPC). Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) by goats was nearly similar for the different groups. The RPM+RPC group showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest digestibility coefficients and nutritive values followed by RPM and RPC groups, while the control group had the lowest values. The yield of colostrum for RPM, RPC and RPM+RPC groups increased by 19.65, 13.87 and 32.37% compared to control group, respectively. The correspondence values for milk yield were 18.39, 11.21 and 30.04%, respectively. The RPM+RPC group showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest colostrum and milk composition followed by RPM and RPC groups, while the control group had the lowest values. Rumen protected methionine and/or choline additives increased significantly (P<0.05) body weight of goats during the different periods compared to control group. The total DM intake and total feed cost were nearly the same for the different groups. The RPM+RPC group showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest total TDN and DCP intakes followed by RPM and RPC groups, while the control group had the lowest intakes. The RPM+RPC group showed significantly (P<0.05) the lowest amounts of DM, TDN and DCP required per kg milk followed by RPM and RPC groups, while the control group had the highest values. The RPM+RPC group recorded significantly (P<0.05) the highest total and net revenue and net revenue improvement followed by RPM and RPC groups, while the control group had the lowest values. The net revenue for RPM, RPC and RPM+RPC increased by 30.02, 18.71 and 49.50% compared to control group, respectively.

[Mahmoud E. El-Gendy, Kotob F. El-Riedy, Hanaa S. Sakr, Hamed M. Gaafar. Effect of Rumen Protected Methionine and/or Choline Additives on Productive Performance of Zaraibi Goats. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):35-41]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.06

 

Keywords: Zaraibi goats, Rumen protected methionine and choline, digestibility, colostrum, milk, economic efficiency

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Comparison of Three Methods of Digestion for Trace Metal Analysis in Surface Dust Collected from an E-waste Recycling Site

 

Ehi-Eromosele C.O.1,*Adaramodu A.A.2 , Anake W.U.1, Ajanaku C.O.1, Edobor-Osoh, A.1

 

1Department of Chemistry, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023 Ota, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Nigeria

cyril_720@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The recycling of e-waste materials potentially contaminates the environment with heavy metals. Analysing the exact contents of heavy metal in e-waste products is germane for the routine monitoring, risk assessment and regulation of the environment. Therefore, the efficiency of three methods of digestion was evaluated for Cd, Fe, Pb, Cr and Zn by AAS in surface dust from an e-waste recycling site and to recommend the most efficient digestion method. The digestion methods were aqua regia, dry ashing followed by aqua regia and nitric acid digestion followed by extraction with HCl. Analysis of variance, Student’s t-test and F-test were performed separately for the indoor, outdoor and control dust samples analytical result. Analytical results indicated that the nitric acid digestion followed by extraction with HCl was the most efficient in recovering Pb and Fe based on recovery efficiency. Aqua regia was found to be an alternative method for recovering Pb and Fe based on cost and time effectiveness. Aqua regia was the most efficient in recovering Zn while aqua regia and nitric acid digestion followed by extraction with HCl were satisfactory for the recovery of Cd. Dry ashing followed by aqua regia was found unsuitable for the analysis of these metals in the samples because it recovers relatively little heavy metals and more analysis time.

[Ehi-Eromosele Cyril Osereme, Adaramodu Adebayo Abraham, Anake Winifred Uduak, Ajanaku Christina, Edobor-Osoh Abiola. Comparison of Three Methods of Digestion for Trace Metal Analysis in Surface Dust Collected From an E-waste Recycling Site. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):42-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.07

 

Keywords: Digestion methods; Dust; e-waste; Heavy metals

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Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Vitis vinifera L. (Flame cultivar), Family Vitaceae Cultivated in Egypt

 

El- Hawary, S 1, El- Fouly, k 2, El Gohary, HM 1, K.M. Meselhy 1, *, Slem, A 3 and Talaat, Z 2.

 

1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr-el-Aini Street, 11562 Cairo, Egypt

2 National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Cairo- Egypt.

3 Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

kmeselhy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Extracts of the leaves & fruits of Eight cultivars(cv. Superior, cv. Fiesta , cv. Flame, cv. Thompson, cv. Queen, cv. Cardinal, cv. Black monukka and cv. Black rose) of Vitis vinifera L. were prepared from samples grown in EL Kanater El kheiria. GC/MS was used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of Lipoidal content of the different extracts. 19 Components representing 97.17% were identified in the fatty acid methyl esters of the fruits of Vitis vinifera L., while 15 components representing 91.1% were identified in the fatty acid methyl esters of the leaves. On the other hand, 17 components were identified in the unsaponifiable matter of the fruits representing 87.34%, while 16 components were identified in the unsaponifiable matter of the leaves representing 94.99%. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) was used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of sugar content in fruits of eight varieties where white grapes (cv. Thompson, cv. Superior, cv. Fiesta) recorded higher percentage of total sugars. HPLC analysis of red and black grape fruits extract revealed that the presence of peonidin and malvidin as the major anthocyanins in this colored varieties. RAPD analysis of DNA proved that the presence of characteristic bands that can be used as an accurate tool for authentication & differentiation between the eight cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. under investigation. The ethanol (95 %) extract of the leaves & fruits, as well as the juice of Flame cultivar exerted significant, although variable, biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hepatocurative, diuretic and antioxidant.

[El- Hawary, S, El- Fouly, k, El Gohary, HM, K.M. Meselhy, Slem, A and Talaat, Z. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Vitis vinifera L. (Flame cultivar), Family Vitaceae Cultivated in Egypt. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):48-59]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.08

 

Keywords: Vitis vinifera L, Lipoidal content, sugar content, Anthocyanin, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hepatocurative, diuretic and antioxidant.

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Detection of β- Lactam antibiotics (Penicillin and Amoxicillin) residues in Goat milk

 

Victoria Olusola Adetunji and Opeyemi Oyinda Olaoye

 

Veterinary Public Health Unit, Department of Veterinary

 Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria

vadetunji@gmail.com; vo.adetunji@mail.ui.edu.ng; +234-7040979193

 

Abstract: The use of antibiotics may result in drug residues and the promotion of drug resistant strain of organisms. This study evaluated penicillin and amoxicillin residues in goat milk sourced from Ibadan city in South Western Nigeria. A total of one-hundred and sixty-six goat milk samples from Red Sokoto and West African breeds of goats were analysed using the high performance liquid chromatography method. All the samples were positive for the presence of penicillin and amoxicillin residues. The mean penicillin and amoxicillin residues was 0.2823± 0.1227 and 0.1228± 0.0571ppm for Red Sokoto (RS) and 0.2572± 0.0194 and 0.1076 ± 0.0058ppm for West African dwarf (WAD) breed of goats respectively. Hence, values obtained were in line with Maximum residue limit of (4μg/L) set by the European Union regulations or Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA), of 5μg/L for both antibiotics. However, there was no significant difference at p< 0.05 in the means of the penicillin residues in both breeds, but a reverse was the case with amoxicillin residues. Thus, the goat milk are safe for consumption. None the less, it calls for close monitoring to prevent values from increasing in the near future due to indiscriminate use of these antibiotics.

[Adetunji, VO and Olaoye, OO. Detection of β- Lactam antibiotics (Penicillin and Amoxicillin) residues in Goat milk. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):60-64]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.09

 

Key words: Antibiotic residues, Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Goat milk

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Attitude toward using technology and investigating the effective factors

 

Saeed Talebia, Hossien Zare b , Mohammad Reza Sarmadi b, Bahman Saeedipour c

 

a Payame Noor University, (Islamic Republic of Iran)

b Associate Professor, Payame Noor University, (Islamic Republic of Iran)

c Payame Noor University, (Islamic Republic of Iran)

 

Abstract: Various obstacles in the way of promoting information technology in developing countries and industrialized countries cause slow growth in development of information technologies. One of these factors is the negative attitude towards technology adoption; therefore, the main objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with attitude toward the use of information and communication technology (ICT).Students of virtual learning are used as the sample in the present study. Standardized questionnaires are used as the instrument in this research and the data is analyzed by path analysis and AMOS software. Results of path analysis show that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and computer self-efficacy has direct and significant effect on attitude, also computer self-efficacy has significant effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. In this study, like pervious studies in this field a significant relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness is reported. It should be noted that computer anxiety is the only variable in this study which has the inverse relationship with computer self-efficacy and perceived ease of use. Finally, computer anxiety indirectly affects the attitude toward technology.

[Saeed Talebi, Hossien Zare , Mohammad Reza Sarmadi , Bahman Saeedipour , Attitude toward using technology and investigating the effective factors. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):65-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.10

 

Key words: Attitude toward using technology, computer anxiety, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, computer self-efficacy

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An Investigation on Organic solvents tolerance, Heavy metals and Antibiotics resistance of Bacillus oleronius from Petroleum contaminated soil

 

Arockiasamy Edward1, Gabriel Melchias1* and Subramanian Satish Kumar2

 

1. Department of Biotechnology, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, Tamilnadu, India

2. Department of Botany, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, Tamilnadu, India

gmelchias@yahoo.in

 

Abstract: The petroleum contaminated soil can be exploited as an ideal environment to investigate the tolerance and resistance mechanisms of bacteria against organic solvents and antimicrobials. In this study, B. oleronius was isolated from petroleum contaminated soil and characterized by morphological features, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. The bacteria were explored for its tolerance and resistance to organic solvents, heavy metals and antibiotics respectively. Agglutination of O- blood RBCs by B. oleronius was observed. Our results have conclusively proved that B. oleronius have shown moderate tolerance and resistance to the organic solvents, heavy metals and antibiotics tested. Hence it is likely that the bacterial isolates from petroleum contaminated site tend to show extensive adaptation to organic solvents, heavy metals and antibiotics.

[Edward A, Melchias G and Satish Kumar S. An investigation on organic solvents tolerance, heavy metals and antibiotics resistance of Bacillus oleronius from petroleum contaminated soil. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):69-75]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.11

 

Keywords: Petroleum; Organic solvents; Well diffusion; Antibiotics; Heavy metals

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Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment

 

Edwin Zong

 

Oasis Medical Group. Bakersfield, CA 93305, USA

R4gomed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The origin of universe, the big bang, modern observations of paradox phenomenon in Phantom Physics and surprisingly accelerated peripheral galaxies have been the center of confusion in contemporary scientific world. In this paper, a possible cause is discussed base on classic physics. Since the energy in the universe is constant, when the background temperature drops, the heat energy transforms into a different form of energy -- that is momentum. In space, the galaxies are the most significant masses that gather in random movements when their speed drops (due to aging) and they cannot offset inter-mass attractions or gravities; on a macro level, the mega aggregation of galaxies/matters provide them ever-increasing heavier mass by collecting more aged galaxies/mass/comic rayalong the way. On the other hand, lost matter in the background means lost energy, which means a drop in universe background temperature. Gigantic numbers of regional galaxies/masses will eventually join together and reach a critical mass level or a critical energy level that can be labeled as a blast point, which will trigger a gigantic explosion, similar to our nuclear reaction. The gigantic blast is also known as a big bang that simply bombs everything within to its most primitive state. The blast spits out those most primitive particles, which one day will again form atoms, then molecules -- first inorganic, then organic. The universe is nothing but an unending cycle of merging and collapsing first-forming a pre-blast mass/energy that triggers a gigantic explosion when the mass/energy reaches a critical blast point. The blast then spits out primitive particles that once again form molecules and then form galaxies/planets. The mother blast also fuels the mass with initial momentum/kinetic energy. When the kinetic/momentum energy declines to certain levels, those galaxies cannot resist the attractions of gravity. They once again merge and collapse, then trigger another explosion; then a new collection of galaxies will be formed, then they age, then merge, collapse and blast again. The big bang/particle explosion is triggered by a certain level (quantifiable) of mass/energy. It cannot be an infinite level of mass/energy. It is another logical call. To express this in a more organized way, I will have to coin a new term for each part of the universal system – Zolaxy, which is created by a single mother blast. The Zolaxy is a family of galaxies created by a single big blast. In other words, the galaxies of any Zolaxy should have the same birth origin/mother bang. In the micro world of sub atom level (Phantom Physics), any unrelated particles/energies existing in experiment environment will greatly alter the experiment results. Since a theoretical space of temperature 0k has never been accomplished in any man-made labs, I am afraid to say that none of those experiments is valid in Phantom Physics. In other words, there is no evidence support quantum mechanics or quantum laws.

[Edwin Zong. Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):76-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.12

 

Key words: big bang; origin of universe; black matters; particles; time; odds; single bang; numerous bangs; quantum

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Comparative assessment of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide production of wild type and mutant strains of Schizophyllum commune grown in submerged liquid medium

 

Aina DA1*, Oloke JK2, Jonathan SG3 and Olawuyi OJ3

 

1 Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Science and Technology, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State. P.M.B. 21244 Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

2 Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso,Oyo State

3Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

ainatayo2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Wild Schizophyllum commune and mutant strains of the same organism generated by exposure of the wild type fungus to ultraviolet rays at various time intervals of 30minutes, 60minutes and 90minutes respectively were assessed for fungus biomass and exopolysaccharide production (EPS). Growth conditions such as temperature, pH, and carbon sources were optimized. Results showed that temperature of 28oC was optimal for both mycelia biomass yield [(3.18, 4.42, 3.58, 3.13 (g/100mls)] and EPS production [330, 460, 400, 290 (mg/100mls)] for both the wild type and the three mutant strains respectively with SCM 1 having the highest values of 4.42 for mycelial biomass and EPS of 4.60. The optimal pH for both mycelia yield and EPS production was 5.8 for both the wild type and the mutant strains with SCM 2 having the highest mycelial yield of 3.40 and EPS of 4.1 as compared to other strains . Glucose was the carbon source that most supported both the mycelia biomass yield and EPS production for both wild type and the mutant strains [3.18, 3.02, 3.20, 3.13 (g/100mls)] and [160,400,450,350(mg/100mls)] respectively out of the five carbon sources tested with SCM 2 having the highest mycelial yield of 3.20g/100mls and EPS of 4.5mg/mls. These results showed that significant improvement in mycelial yield and EPS production by S.commune wild type and mutant strains could be enhanced through submerged cultivation under appropriate optimized conditions.

[Aina DA, Oloke JK, Jonathan SG and Olawuyi OJ. Comparative assessment of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide production of wild type and mutant strains of Schizophyllum commune grown in submerged liquid medium. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):82-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.13

 

 Keywords: Biomass, Schizophyllum commune, Exopolysaccarides, Submerged culture

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Comparative Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes from Novel Isolates of Basidiomycetes and Their Potential to Degrade Textile Dyes

 

Harisha Poojary, Akshata Hoskeri, Amandeep Kaur and Gopal Mugeraya

 

Department of chemical engineering, National Institute of Technology, Karnataka (NITK), Surathkal-575025, India

harishjarkala@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present work we report the production of ligninolytic enzymes by indigenous basidiomycetes isolated from a village forest of Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Out of 45 strains of basidiomycetes 17 strains were considered as promising producers of ligninolytic enzymes based on initial solid agar screening method. However, only six strains produced significant amounts of Lignin Peroxidase, Manganese Peroxidase and Laccase enzymes in liquid cultures. The ability of the isolates to decolorize various textile dyes was carried out initially in solid plates containing 100mg/l dye concentrations. The predominant laccase producers identified as Peniophora sp.hpF-04 and Phellinus sp. hpF-17 were further employed for the decolorization of textile dyes in liquid cultures. Strain Peniophora sp. hpF-04 showed more than 80% of decolorization of six out of 14 textile dyes, where as Phellinus sp. hpF-17 showed nine out 14 dyes. The isolates showed good performance in the decolorization of textile dye which reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

[Harisha Poojary, Akshata Hoskeri, Amandeep Kaur and Gopal Mugeraya. Comparative Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes from Novel Isolates of Basidiomycetes and Their Potential to Degrade Textile Dyes. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):90-96]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.14

 

Keywords: Laccase; Lignin Peroxidase; Manganese Peroxidase; Basidiomycetes; Textile dyes.

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Adjusting the Suitable Amount of Inorganic, Organic and Biofertilizers of N for Maximizing Growth of Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum Bunt Plants

 

Al- Qubaie, A. I.

 

Dept. of Arid Land Agric. Fac. of Meteorology Environment & Arid Land Agric. King Abdulaziz Univ. Jaddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons in a greenhouse of the experimental Farm of King Abdulaziz Univ. at Hoda Al- Sham Jaddah, Saudi Arabia. Epipremnum pinnatum plants were fertilized with N through inorganic, inorganic + organic or inorganic + organic + bioform. Sources of inorganic, organic and biofertilizers of N were ammonium sulphate, compost and Nitrobien biofertilizer, respectively. This study focused on selecting the best N management that was responsible for maximizing growth of these plants. Results showed that fertilizing of Epipremnum pinnatum plants with N through inorganic, organic and bioform was very effective in enhancing growth characters namely height, number of leaves/ plant, leaf dimensions, stem dimensions, foliage dry weight/ plant, plant pigments and different sugars in relative to using one or two sources of N alone. Negligible stimulation was observed with increasing compost levels from 8 to 9/ plant and Nitrobien levels from 4 to 8 ml/ plant. Supplying Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum Bunt plants with N via 2 g ammonium sulphate, 8 g compost and 4 ml Nitrobien biofertilizer per plant was very responsible for stimulating growth and nutritional status of the plants.

[Al-Qubaie, A. I. Adjusting the Suitable Amount of Inorganic, Organic and Biofertilizers of N for Maximizing Growth of Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum Bunt Plants. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):97-102]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.15

 

Key words: Inorganic; Biofertilizer; Growth; Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum; Plant

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Evaluating Soil Degradation under Different Scenarios of Agricultural Land Management in Mediterranean Region

 

Abd-Elmabod, S. K. 1&2 , R .R .Ali 1, M. Anaya-Romero3, A. Jordan4, M. Muñoz-Rojas3&4, Abdelmageed5, T. A, L. M. Zavala4, and D. de la Rosa2

 

1 Soil and Water Use Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Institute for Natural Resources and Agrobiology (IRNAS), Avda. Reina Mercedes 10, 41012 Sevilla, Spain.

3 Evenor-Tech, CSIC Spin-off, CSIC-IRNAS Building, Ave. Reina Mercedes 10, 41012 Sevilla, Spain.

4MED_Soil Research Group. Dpto. de Cristalografía, Mineralogía y Química Agrícola, Facultad de Química (Universidad de Sevilla)

5Soil and Water Department, Fayoum University, El-Fayoum, Egypt

 

Abstract: In this research work the Agro-Ecological Decision Support System MicroLEIS DSS, was applied to evaluate land degradation under different scenarios of land management. El-Fayoum depression was selected as a pilot area, this is one of the western desert depressions in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The area offers a great potential for agriculture using water from the river Nile. The main objective is to investigate and predict the risk of soil contamination for phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides under traditional and recommended management scenarios of maize cultivation. The following components of MicroLEIS DSS have been used: 1) soil database (SDBm), 2) agro-climate database (CDBm), 3) agricultural management database (MDBm), and 4) the specific assessment model for the vulnerability of soil contamination called “Pantanal”. Then, a recommended scenario based on different land management has been produced for maize crop, which aimed to reduce soil contamination vulnerability of phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides. The model application results are grouped in five vulnerability classes: V1 (none), V2 (low), V3 (moderate), V4 (high) and V5 (extreme) for each specific contaminant. Results obtained for El-Fayoum area showed that 47.8% and 52.2% of total studied area were classified as V3 and V4 vulnerable land due to phosphorus contamination under the traditional management scenario, but 41.9%5.9% and 52% of total area were classified as V2, V3 and V4 because of the same contaminate under recommended management scenario. On the other hand, 98.7% and 1.3% of the total area were classified as V3 and V4 vulnerable land due to nitrogen and heavy metals under the traditional management scenario, however in the other recommended scenario 94.0% and 5.6% were classified as V1 and V2 classes due to nitrogen contaminate and 79.0%, 19.1% and 1.7% were classified as V1, V2 and V4 for heavy metals contaminates. In the same trend 2.6%, 8.1%, 17.4% and 91.7% were classified as V1, V3, V4 and V5 due to pesticides contamination in the actual management scenario, however 24.0% and 76.0% were classified as V1 and V2 respectively due to the same contaminant under the recommended management scenario. In summary, we can ensure that these innovative agro-ecological studies such as those developed by MicroLEIS DSS can be applied and adapted in the agricultural provinces of Egypt in order to achieve a national sustainable rural management.

[Abd-Elmabod SK, Ali RR. Anaya-Romero M, Jordan A, Muñoz-Rojas M, Abdelmageed TA, Zavala LM, de la Rosa D. Evaluating Soil Degradation under Different Scenarios of Agricultural Land Management in Mediterranean Region. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):103-116]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.16

 

Key words: MicroLEIS Decision Support System, contamination risks, soils, Pantanal model, El-Fayoum province, Egypt.

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Phenotypic variability, divergence analysis and heritability of characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes.

 

Ahadu Menzir

 

Debre Markos University, Department of Plant Sciences, Tele +251587780677, Cell phone +251912770924, Email: ahadumen@gmail.com, P.O.Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia

 

ABSTRACT: Sixty four sesame genotypes were tested using an 8x8 simple lattice design at Metema, North Gondar, Ethiopia, in main cropping season. The objectives of the study were to estimate the phenotypic variability and genetic diversity and how much heritable the observed variation is in each character among the genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed that there was highly significant difference among the 64 genotypes for all the characters studied (p<0.01). High phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was recorded for number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, biomass yield per hectare, seed yield per hectare. High heritability value was observed for days to maturity followed by thousand seed weight and oil content. Moderate heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for number of branches per plant and plant height. Cluster analysis revealed that the 64 genotypes were grouped in 9 distinct clusters. Grouping of the genotypes in to 9 clusters was due to the cumulative effect of the traits like days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, seed and biomass yield and number of capsules per plant and others. The presence of clear phenotypic and genotypic differences in the characters under consideration between or among clusters gives us a possibility or opportunity to bring about improvement through hybridization of genotypes between these clusters and subsequent selection can be made from the segregant generations. Principal component analysis showed that the first four principal components explained about 75.59% of the total variation of characteristics of the different Ethiopian sesame local land races. Agronomic characteristics like seed yield per plot(gm/plot), biomass yield (kg/ ha)& gm/plot, capsule filling period and days to maturity had contributed a lot in the formation of the clusters since they are the most contributor for variation in the first principal component(PC1).

[Ahadu Menzir. Phenotypic variability, divergence analysis and heritability of characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):117-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.17

 

Key words: Sesame, phenotype, genotype, variability, cluster, heritability, principal component

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Multi mycotoxin profile of gamma-radiated sesame seeds from Abuja markets, Nigeria using LC-MS/MS

 

Fapohunda SO1, Anjorin, ST2, Akueche EC3 and B. Harcourt3

 

1Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Nuclear Technology Centre, Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC), Abuja, Nigeria

 oystak@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The co-occurrence and concentration levels of mycotoxins produced on gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated sesame (Sesamumindicum) grains from 3 markets at Abaji, Karu and Kuje, all in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria were studied using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The detected regulated mycotoxins with 100% incidence of occurrence were deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins B1 and B2. AflatoxinB1 (AFB1) occurred in only one third of the samples. DON, a Fusarium toxin, with a concentration level of 10.12 ugkg-1 ranked second in overall mean mycotoxin concentration. In both the treated and the control, the AFB1 content in Kujesamples was below the limit of detection (LOD) and total eradication occurred only at 16 kGy for Abaji and Karu samples. In two of the sites, irradiation significantly reduced the levels of aflatoxin B1. Also at 4kGy, fumonisin B1 and B2 levels were significantly reduced at P<0.05. DON levels in Abaji and Kuje were fairly high at all levels of treatment and exhibited no significant difference (p> 0.05) between control and gamma-treated samples. Detected non regulated analytes included tryptophol, 3-nitropropionic acid(3-NPA), monocerin and moniliformin. Fapohunda SO, Anjorin, ST, Akueche EC and B. Harcourt: Multi mycotoxin profile of gamma-radiated sesame seeds from Abuja markets, Nigeria using LC-MS/MS. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):127-134]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.18

 

Keywords: LC-MS/MS, Mycotoxins, Gammaradiation, Sesame Seeds, Abuja-Nigeria

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Therapeutic Properties of Some Nigerian Higher Fungi

 

Olayinka Oluyemi Oluranti ,Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi* and Segun Gbolagade Jonathan

 

Department of Botany and Microbiology,University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria

olawuyiodunayo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The therapeutic effects of some higher fungi – Fomes lignosus, Lentinus subnudus, Termitomyces robustus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Pleurotus pulmonarius and their blend (mixture extract) against some pathogenic bacteria infected in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were studied. The bacteria used include E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella typhi, P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus feacalis, and B. subtilis suspension of 0.1mlcfu intraperitoneally administered 7 days pre-fungi extract administration. Survival rates of the experimental rats were discovered to increase significantly. P. tuber-regium had the best therapeutic effect against the test bacteria.The pathological changes observed on the liver and kidney tissues from histological studies were reversed while they reduced to mild conditions in some. Undoubtedly, extracts from the studied fungi have therapeutic abilities against the test organisms.

[Olayinka Oluyemi Oluranti ,Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi and Segun Gbolagade Jonathan. Therapeutic Properties of Some Nigerian Higher Fungi. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):135-143]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.19

 

Key words: Fungi extracts, therapeutic, Intraperitoneal, Survival rates.

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Unusual Relevance Of Root Rot Fungi In Dead Wood Ecology Of Rubber Forestry Plantation In Nigeria

 

Omorusi, Victor Irogue

 

Plant Protection Division, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. Iyannomo, Benin City, Nigeria.

omorusirrin123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aside the destructive effects of root rot fungi of rubber trees, they potent salient potentials in the functioning of the plantation ecological systems. Dead and living trees are habitat for varying wood decaying fungal organisms. They hasten the development of decomposing wood habitat with concomitant advantages such as nutrient flow, carbon sequestration, soil formation and aggregation for stable forest ecosystems. The functions of the wood decaying organisms depend largely on the coarse woody debris morticultural practices are little known. The implication of this ignorance often leaves out threatened habit at where coordinated practices such as management, and management and conservation practices are enforced the realization of a stable ecological systems in the rubber forest is achieved. This study therefore elucidate potential implications of root rot fungi based on reviewed articles for a sustainable eco-system and much research in this regard is expected as

Challenges to pathologists, management and conservation scientists.

[Omorusi, V.I. Unusual Relevance Of Root Rot Fungi In Dead Wood Ecology Of Rubber Forestry Plantation In Nigeria Nat Sci 2012;10(10):144-148]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.20

 

Keywords: Root Rot Fungi, Dead Wood, Ecology, Rubber Forestry, Management, Conservation.

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Influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus on the yield and nutrient compositions of Telfairia occidentalis Hook .F.A. (Pumpkin) , a Nigerian leafy vegetable

 

Jonathan S.G,Oyetunji O.J and Asemoloye M.A

 

Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan.Ibadan.Nigera

gbolyjoe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The potted pumpkin plants studied were harvested after twelve weeks and the results obtained showed that Telfairia occidentalis planted on 30% SMC soil had the best growth followed by 20%, 50%, 0% and 100% SMC (in respect to plant height, leaf number, stem girth, and leaf area). The Biological Efficiencies (B.E.) of the vegetable was calculated using the field dry weight (FDW) of the plant and the results obtained showed that 30% SMC produced the best above and below ground biomass with B.E. of 40.2% and 29.8% followed by 20% SMC (23.9% and 24% B.E.) and 10% SMC (14.1% and14%). The least B.E. was 1.4 and 4.9% of the 0 and 100% SMC plants respectively. Moreover, the mineral contents of the vegetable revealed that most of the minerals such as iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium increased as the concentration of the SMC in the soil increases, while zinc concentration decreases with SMC treatments. The pH values of SMC treated soil increased significantly with the % of SMC in the soil. The significance of the above observation was discussed.

[Jonathan S.G, Oyetunji O.J and Asemoloye M.A. Influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus on the yield and nutrient compositions of Telfairia occidentalis Hook .F.A. (Pumpkin) ,a Nigerian leafy vegetable. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):149-156]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.21

 

Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis , mineral elements, biological efficiency, SMC, biomass.

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BIOFILM ASSESSMENT IN BACTERIA ISOLATES FROM CLARIAS GARIEPINUS AND TILAPIA SPECIE

 

*Adetunji Victoria Olusola1 , Shoola Abosede Adeola Elizabeth1 and Odetokun Ismail Ayoade1

 

1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT: Biofilms in food processing has become a global concern since it reduces the microbial safety of food. This study determined the biofilm forming ability of Escherichia coli (EC), Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates from Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia specie and assessed their antibiotic sensitivity profile. The ability of these pathogens to form biofilm on plastic and glass surfaces was assessed at ambient temperature using crystal violet binding assay. The highest total aerobic plate count and enterobacteriace count was from skin of both fish types. Isolates of EC (6), LM (1) and SA (3) were made from samples. These strains were found to be resistant or weakly sensitive (0–12mm) to the common antibiotics tested and were also capable of forming biofilms on both surfaces. An absorbance reading range of -0.012±0.003 - 0.107±0.001 and -0.095±0.000 - 0.555±0.002 was obtained for glass and plastics respectively. For cell enumeration a count (log10cfu/cm2) range of 2.651±2.651 - 5.128±0.651 was obtained for glass while a higher count of 2.651±2.651 - 6.102±0.570 was obtained on plastic surfaces. It was concluded that glass contact surfaces is more suitable than plastic as a contact surface in fish processing. Sanitary control in fish processing and proper storage conditions and selection of appropriate contact surfaces is therefore recommended.

[Adetunji VO, Shoola AAE, Odetokun IA. BIOFILM ASSESSMENT IN BACTERIA ISOLATES FROM CLARIA GARIEPINUS AND TILAPIA SPECIE. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):157-161]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.22

 

Key words: Clarias gariepinus, Tilapia specie, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, crystal violet

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Computer Keyboard and Mouse: Etiologic Agents for Microbial Infections

 

Obinna O. Nwankiti 1, James A. Ndako 2, Amarachi, J. Nwankiti 2, Ikenna, O. Okeke 2, Adanma R. Uzoechina 2, Godwin O. Agada 2

 

1National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

2Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 obee_nwankiti@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Surface bio-contamination is a problem that contributes to outbreaks of community-acquired and nosocomial/environmental infections through episodic fomite transmission of disease and persistent fomitic reservoirs. Public user interfaces like computer keyboard and mouse have been shown to be reservoirs and transmitters of microorganisms. The purpose of this study therefore was to examine computer keyboards and mouse in National Veterinary Research Institute’s cyber café in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria for contamination by microorganisms. Bacteria isolated include: Bacillus species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. albus, Streptococcus epidermidis and Diptheroids. Trychophyton species, Aspergilus species and Candida albicans were the fungi/mould isolated. Bacillus species (84%) was the most isolated bacteria. All fungi were isolated in equal percentages (45.0%). Most of these isolates were traditional skin flora and probably dust associated. It is suggested that routine cleaning of keyboards and mice or the use of transparent plastic covers alongside hand hygiene may aid the fight against infection transmission via fomites.

[Nwankiti O.O, Ndako J.A, Nwankiti A.J, Okeke O.I, Uzoechina A.R, Agada, G.O. Computer Keyboard and Mouse: Etiologic Agents for Microbial Infections. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):162-166]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.23

 

Keywords: Surface bio-contamination, fomites, infections.

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24

Tree layer vegetational analysis in temperate forest of Uttarakhand

 

Vardan Singh Rawat * and Jagdish Chandra

 

Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

E-mail. carbonvsrawat@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, we examined plant vegetation analysis at altitudes between 1900 and 2200m asl in the Uttarakhand Himalaya. The maximum species richness was recorded at moist habitat, while minimum at stream bank habitat and ridge habitat. Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus leucotricophora, Rhododendron arboreum and Myrica esculenta was the dominant tree species. Quercus floribunda and Cinnamomum tamala were least species on the study area. Total tree density was maximum at stream bank habitat. Total basal area was maximum on dry habitat whereas minimum on ridge habitat. Species diversity was maximum on moist habitat. The present study concludes that the distribution and species richness pattern in this region largely depend on the altitude and climatic variables like rainfall, temperature.

[Vardan Singh Rawat and Jagdish Chandra. Tree layer vegetational analysis in temperate forest of Uttarakhand .Nat Sci 2012;10(10):167-171]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 24

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.24

 

Keywords: Himalaya, species richness, anthropogenic pressure, Species diversity.

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Role of Visfatin in Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Fatty Albino Rats

 

Mohammad Abulhasan Zoair

 

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine- Al-Azhar University, Cairo

drabolhasn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Visfatin is a novel adipokine that is secreted by visceral and subcutaneous fat, human bone marrow, liver, and muscle., also called pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1 (PBEF1). In this study, we investigated the role of serum visfatin, adipokine, concentrations in alterations of glucose and insulin homeostasis in fatty albino rats. For this purpose, animals were kept in three groups -each of them twelve rats- under three different feeding conditions: (a) Control group: the rats were fed a semipurified standard diet; (b) Fatty group: the rats were fed a semipurified high fat high sucrose diet for 7 weeks, to increase their body fat content and (c) Restricted group: These animals were fed a semipurified standard diet similar to that used in the control group, but supplemented with a 5 g/kg diet of linoleic acid, provided by sunflower oil . It was observed that fatty diet did not modify serum visfatin concentration . Nevertheless, energy restriction led to a significant increase in serum visfatin level. No significant differences in concentrations of fasting glucose and lipids profiles were observed between the 3 groups. Insulin level and resistance measured by HOMA-IR, was significant higher in the fatty group than in the restricted group. a positive significant correlation was found between serum visfatin and triacylglycerols confirmed that triacylglycerols were the only significant predictor of visfatin concentrations . We observed that there is inversely relationship between visfatin and glucose, insulin levels and insulin resistance in both fatty and restricted groups and the feeding models play an important mediator in the role of the effect of visfatin on glucose and insulin homeostasis through regulating triacylglycerol metabolism. Further study of visfatin's physiological role may lead to new insights into glucose and insulin homeostasis and or new therapies for metabolic disorders such as diabetes.

[Mohammad Abulhasan Zoair. Role of Visfatin in Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Fatty Albino Rats. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):172-177]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 25

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.25

 

Keywords: visfatin; glucose; insulin; overfeeding ; metabolic syndrome; diabetes

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Comparative Studies of Antibacterial Properties of Three Pleurotus Species (Oyster Mushroom)

 

Nirmalendu Das1, Birja Pasman1, Sweta Mishra1,Banhi Bhattacharya2, Chandan Sengupta3

 

1Post Graduate Department of Botany, Barasat Govt. College, Barasat, West Bengal, India, 700112.

nirmalendus@yahoo.co.uk

2Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, W.B., India, 736165

3 Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia, W.B. India, 741235

 

Abstract: P. sajorcaju, P. florida and P. floridanus three oyster mushroom were taken for studying their antibacterial activities. Fruiting bodies, mycelium and 10 days grown extracellular culture filtrate were taken for these study. All the three species efficiently grown on rice straw. The biological efficiency of P. sajorcaju was maximum followed by P. florida and P. floridanus. Both the 70% alcohol extract and aqueous extract of fruiting body and mycelium of P. floridanus showed antibacterial activities. Extracellular culture filtrate of P. floridanus showed antibacterial properties only against S. aureus. 70% alcohol extract of P. florida fruiting bodies showed the antibacterial properties whereas the aqueous fruiting body extract or the mycelial extract (both alcohol or aqueous) did not show any antibacterial property. P. sajorcaju on the other hand showed its inefficiency as a source of antibacterial agent in the present experimental conditions.

[Das N, Pasman B, Mishra S, Bhattacharya B, Sengupta C. Comparative Studies of Antibacterial Properties of Three Pleurotus Species (Oyster Mushroom). Nat Sci 2012;10(10):178-183]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 26

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.26

 

Key Words: Antibiotics; antibacterial activity; oyster mushroom; Pleurotus

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Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Orchid in Kolli hills

 

*A.Kalaiyarasan1, S.Ahmed john2, A.Edward3

 

1, P.G & Research Department of Botany Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli- 620 020. Tamilnadu. India.

2, P.G & Research Department of Botany Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli- 620 020. Tamilnadu. India.

3, Department of Biotechnology, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli- 620 020 Tamilnadu, India.

myla_kalai@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Eastern penisular floras in Indian medicinal plants are potaantiasl of antimicrobial compounds. The present study deals with the phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity were conducted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves of bulbophyllum kaitense rechib. Orchid an attempt has been made together the information about the traditional use of herbs in the local healer’s .the leaves in used to anticancer, cancer preventive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and many more people used in to increase sex hormone activity. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of different extracts. The ethanol, aqueous extracts showed abundant occurance of phenolic the compounds, coumarin, quinine and carbohydrate. But the complete absence of petroleum ether and chloroform was observed. the antimicrobial activity of the various solvent extracts are screened for the samples of human pathogenic organism studied streptococcus pneumonia, bacillus subtilis, salmonella typhi, salmonella paratyphi, pseudomonas aeruginosa, eschericha coli, klebsilla pneumonia, entrobacter facalis, shigella flexneri, micrococcus species are found to be sensitive to leaf extracts. The fungi human pathogen organisms are fond to be higher sensitive to ethanolic extracts. The concentration of ethanolic extract had inhibitory effects against the fungus strains namely trichophyton rubrum and mucor species. The inhibition was higher in concentration 50µl/mg than high concentrations. High dose of extract was very effective against the tested human pathogens. It is the world first report antimicrobial activity of bulbophyllum kaitense, leaves part

[A.Kalaiyarasan, S.Ahmed john, A.Edward. Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Orchid in Kolli hills. Nat Sci 2012;10(10):184-188]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 27

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.27

 

Keywords: Bulphyllum kaitense, Leaves, Antimicrobial activity, Phytochemicals, Extract.

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Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Lagerstroemia tomentosa

 

1Khaled Rashed, 2Monica Butnariu

 

1Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Tel. 01003642233-E-mail: khalednabih2005@yahoo.com

2Chemistry and Vegetal Biochemistry, Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, Calea Aradului, Timisoara 300645, Romania.

 

Abstract: Background: Some Pathogens are resistance to various antimicrobial agents. Many plants parts contain primarily polyphenols and terpenes which can combat with the problem of resistance bacteria and drug residue hazards. Materials and Methods: Methanol (70%) extract of Lagerstroemia tomentosa aerial parts was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract was determined. Results and Discussions: The results showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and also it was highly active against Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections, and it showed a moderate antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, it has shown high values of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and polyphenol content while it has shown a lower value of the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins and this clarify the high content of total polyphenol in the extract.

[Khaled Rashed, Monica Butnariu. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Lagerstroemia tomentosa. Nat Sci 2012; 10(10):189-192]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 28

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.28

 

Key words: Lagerstroemia tomentosa, aerial parts, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, phytopchemical analysis.

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Enaminones in heterocyclic syntheses: part 5: isoniazid-enaminone a new organic synthon and tuberculostatic candidate.

 

Faida H. Ali Bamanie1, A. S. Shehata2, M. A. Moustafa3, 4 and M. M. Mashaly*2

 

1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science at (New) Damietta, Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

4Department of PharmaceuticalChemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.
mashaly54321@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract: condensation of nicotinic, isonicotinic acid hydrazides 1a,b with1,3-cyclohexanedione 2, in water, using acetic acid as catalyst, afforded enaminone derivatives 3a,b.

[Faida H. Ali Bamanie, A. S. Shehata, M. A. Moustafa and M. M. Mashaly. Enaminones in heterocyclic syntheses: part 5: isoniazid-enaminone a new organic synthon and tuberculostatic candidate. Nat Sci 2012; 10(10):193-196]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 29

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101012.29

 

Keywords: hydrazine, nicotinic hydrazide, isoniazid, isoniazid-enaminone, tuberculosis.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 10, 2012

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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