Science Journal


Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 10 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 68), November 25, 2012 
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Response of Sunflowers Cultivar Giza- 102 (Helianthus annuus, L) Plants to Spraying Some Antioxidants


Al- Qubaie, A. I.


Dept. of Arid Land Agric. Fac. of Meteorology Environment & Arid Land Agric. King Abdulaziz Univ. Jaddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Abstract: During 2009 and 2010 seasons, plants of sunflower cv. Giza 102 were sprayed thrice with three antioxidants namely vitamin E at 50 ppm, citric acid at 500 ppm and amino acids (tryptophan, methionene and cystein) at 500 ppm either singly/ or in all possible combinations. Growth characters yield and its components as well as plant pigments (chlorophylls a & b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids) in response to the present antioxidant treatments were investigated. Results showed that single and combined applications of the three antioxidants vitamin E, citric acid and the three amino acids) was very effective in improving growth characters namely plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant and leaf area per plant, diameter and weight of head, seed yield/ plant, straw yield/ plant, oil yield/ fed, biomass/ plant, seed index; number of seeds/ head, percentages of proteins and oil and plant pigments in relative to the check treatment. This promotion was associated with using E vitamin, citric acid and amino acids, in ascending order. Combined application of these antioxidants were favourable than using each antioxidant alone. In general, the maximum yield per fed. (seed and oil) of sunflower cv. Giza 102 was recorded by spraying the plants thrice with a mixture of antioxidants contains citric acid at 500 ppm, E vitamin at 50 ppm and the three amino acids (tryptophan, methionene and cystein) at 500 ppm.

[Al- Qubaie, A. I. Response of Sunflowers Cultivar Giza- 102 (Helianthus annuus, L) Plants to Spraying Some Antioxidants. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 1



Key words: Sunflower; Cultivar Giza-102 (Helianthus annuus, L); Plant; Antioxidant

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James. A. Ndako1, Obinna O. Nwankiti2, Ezekiel B. Kwari1, Bob-manuel C.Echeonwu1, Adekunle M.Adekeye1, John Agbontale3, Joshua Gyang1, Adanma R. Uzoechina 1, Ekaete Akwaowo1, Nathaniel Olawuyi1, Alice K.Dalyop1


1Federal College of Veterinary and Medical laboratory Technology, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

2National veterinary Research Institute,Vom-Nigeria.

3National Institute,for fisheries& fresh water Research New-Bussa,Nigeria.


 ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems, with its attendant risks especially among the young adults. Worldwide an estimated two billion people are infected with Hepatitis B virus out of which more than 350 million ends up with chronic infection; life style among young adults further predisposes them to infection. As a result the prevalence of HBV infection was carried out among adolescents using four secondary schools in a Community. Two hundred (200) sera samples were screened using the standard ELISA Techniques. Overall result showed that 59 (30%) were Seropositive for the HBsAg. Gender distribution showed that male volunteers recorded 27(13.5%)positivity compared to 32(16%) in female subjects. Considering age group, male subjects aged 15-17years recorded 8% Seropositivity compared to Females with 11%. Considering risks factors, based on lifestyle subjects with history of sharing sharp instruments recorded a prevalence of 5% compared to those with history of cuts from shared razor blade with 23% Seropositivity, lack of awareness among the subjects studied recorded 21%.The Alaninaminotransferase (ALT) result obtained showed that 4 (6.8%) of positive subjects had elevated ALT. This study therefore emphasizes the public health importance of HBV in the Community and suggests a prompt public awareness among the youths in these localities, while a well designed vaccination schedule is promptly advocated.

[James. A. Ndako, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Ezekiel B. Kwari, Bob-manuel C. Echeonwu, Adekunle M.Adekeye, John Agbontale, Joshua Gyang, Adanma R. Uzoechina, Ekaete Akwaowo, Nathaniel Olawuyi, Alice K.Dalyop. Serological evidence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among young adults. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):7-12]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 2



KEY WORD: Prevalence, HBsAg, Young adults

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Aghughu, O1; F A. Akpobome2; E. E. Omo-Ikerodah2 and K. O. Omokhafe4


1. Plant Breeding Division, 2.Biotechnology Division 3. Crop Improvement and Biotechnology Department

Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Iyanomo, Benin City


Abstract: Fruit set was evaluated in six crosses of Hevea brasisliensis clones in Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo, Benin City with the objective to evaluate variation for fruit set among the crosses. Hand pollination was carried out in 2008 and 2009 using diallel crossing technique with three replications. Analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and mean separation were the statistical tools applied. There was significant variation for crosses in 2008, 2009 and combined analysis. Interaction between crosses and year was significant. The implications of these results are discussed.

[Aghughu, O., Akpobome F A., Omo-Ikerodah E. E., and Omokhafe K. O. Effect of genetic diversity on fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Nat Sci 2012;10(11):13-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 3



Key words: Fruit set, Hevea brasiliensis

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In vitro Study on Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani Isolates Causing the Damping Off and Root Rot Diseases in Tomatoes


Karima, H.E. Haggag1 and Nadia, G. El-Gamal2


1Department of Pest Rearing, Central Agricultural Pesticides Library, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: Isolation from nautrally infected tomato roots and rhizosphere revealed that Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani, the causal organism of damping off and/or root rot diseases, were the most common pathogenic fungi in the tomato plants. F. solani was commonly isolated from all surveyed Governorates, than R. solani. Results of pathogencity revealed that the Ace, Bromodro, Castle-Rock and Super- Marmande tomato cultivars showed the different percentages of damping off and root rot diseases incidence. The cultivar of Ace was susceptible to F. solani and R. solani infection, Super-Marmande was highly tolerant, while Boromodro and Castle-Rock were moderate tolerant cultivars. The tested fungal isolates were different in their production of polygolaturonase (PG) and pectin methylestrase (PME), while no clear differences in their cellulolytic (Cx) enzymes production. Bacillus subtilis and Pesudomonas fluorescens were sensitive to culture filtrates of F. solani isolates, while no reaction with R. solani metabolites was recorded. In vitro, the highest antagonistic effect against the mycelial growth of F. solani and R. solani was found with Trichoderma harizianum, followed by Trichoderma viride, B. subtilis and P.fluorescens, respectively. Results also revealed that the highest reduction of mycelial growth of two pathogens was found with fungicide of Tachigaren 30%, followed by Monceren 25%, Aracur 72.2%, Topsin M 70%, Hymexate 30% and Moncut 25% at tested concentrations.

[Karima, H.E. Haggag and Nadia, G. El-Gamal. In vitro Study on Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani Isolates Causing the Damping Off and Root Rot Diseases in Tomatoes. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):16-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 4



Key words: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Fungicides, Tomato, Biological control, Enzymes

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Influence of storage time on biodeterioration, aflatoxin contamination and food values of onion (Allium cepa )


*Jonathan SG1 ,Olawuyi OJ 1,Aina DA 2 ,Dada HG1 and Oyelakin AO 3


1Departmentof Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan , Ibadan.Oyo State. Nigeria

2Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State. Nigeria

3College of Agriculture, Igbo-Ora.Oyo State.Nigeria

 Corresponding author:


Abstract: Investigations were conducted on the onions (Allium cepa ) stored for 1, 3 , 9 and 12months respectively. The parameters studied include the proximate analysis and shelf life evaluation of the spice, mineral elements compositions, level of fungal and aflatoxin contamination on fresh and stored onion bulbs. Aspergillus and Fusarium specis were detected in all the samples while Penicillum sp was found in the 1 year old onion bulb sample. Proximate analysis showed variation in their nutrient contents. The moisture content, dry matter, ascorbic acid, starch, glucose, amino acid, protein and mineral nutrients were of significant values in all the samples. The results also showed that the aflatoxin level in the 1st , 3rd and 9th months were statistically insignificant(P>0.05), while those of 12 month old samples were relatively high.

[Jonathan SG, Olawuyi OJ, Aina DA, Dada HG and Oyelakin AO. Influence of storage time on biodeterioration, aflatoxin contamination and food values of onion (Allium cepa ). Nat Sci 2012;10(11):26-32]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 5



Keywords: Onion, aflatoxin, fungi, biodeterioration.

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Harnessing Nigeria’s Abundant Lead Ore Deposits for the Development of Lead-Acid Battery Materials


Oji John Ogheneortega 1,2, Biliaminu Kareem 2


1.Prototype Engineering Development Institute Ilesa, Osun State. Nigeria

2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Nigeria


Abstract: This project work presents the development potentials for the production of lead acid battery materials from selected Nigerian lead ores. This is predicated on the need for a growing awareness to achieve a more sustainable societal use of materials. The selection of the ore was based on economic quantity, economy of refining, and proximity to a refining and development (centre) plant. Chemical compositions of existing lead acid battery terminal materials were determined so that they can be used as controls. The results show that the selected ores naturally contains high percentage of lead with sufficient percentage (although less than 0.01%) of residual elements which are requisite elements (tin and copper) in the control samples inferring that there is large amount of recoverable lead with little quantity of disposable elements in the form of slag when the ore is smelted. Fortunately, Nigeria provides a veritable and safe ground for investors, thus the need to develop the nation’s God given resources to meet developmental challenges cannot be overemphasized.

[Oji J O, Kareem B. Harnessing Nigeria’s Abundant Lead Ore Deposits for the Development of Lead-Acid Battery Materials. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):33-37]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 6



Keywords: National Development, growth, Benue Trough, solid minerals, Lead-Acid Battery Terminal, Material, Nigeria, Lead Ore Deposits.

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Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) to estimate the available rainwater harvested for crop production in Kinoni watershed, Kirehe District, Rwanda


Alphonse Nahayo1,* Clement Ntandayera1, 2, Adrie Mukashema3


1. Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)-Busogo; Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation; P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda;

2. Department of Soil and Water management

3. National University of Rwanda, CGIS, P.O.Box 117 Butare, Rwanda


Abstract: The purpose of this study conducted in 2011 was to assess the available rainwater harvested in Kinoni catchment area located in Kirehe district, Eastern Province in Rwanda in order to improve crop production. In this area, large proportion of the arable land is located in areas with water shortage subject to recurrent dry spells. This region also experiences long periods of drought leading to the decline of crop and animal productivity. The Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing tools were used to delineate catchment areas. Data on land use types and soil characteristics were analysed and Soil Conservation Service- Curve Number method were applied to estimate the runoff to be harvested. The daily rainfall record of Nyarubuye station for 30 years was also used. The results revealed that Kinoni catchment was delineated in two sub-catchments with a surface area equal to 759.7 ha. The water area and command catchment area, as sub-catchments were 580.5 ha and 179.2 ha respectively. The expected runoff yield was 5,515.94 m3 per day for the whole catchment while the Water area catchment had runoff potential equal to 139.8 Ha.m per year. There is a need to assess the quantity of water required for irrigation and stored in the irrigation structure.

 [Nahayo A., Ntandayera C., Mukashema A. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) to estimate the available rainwater harvested for crop production in Kinoni watershed, Kirehe District, Rwanda. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):38-52]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 7



Keywords: Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing, Kinoni watershed, Rwanda.

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Potential Role of Withania somnifera on Human Breast Cancer


Osman M1; Wafaa A2; Nadia E.2; Amany A1 and Doaa E2


1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt

2 Department of Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt


Abstract: Background: One of the most versatile plants used in the traditional Indian medicine system (Ayurveda) is Withania somnifera (Ashwaghandha). Western research supports its polypharmaceutical use as antioxidant, immune-modulating, antistress, a geriatric tonic and in traditional remedies for inflammations and improve overall physical and mental health. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Withania somnifera on breast cancer cell line. .Material & Methods: The McF7 cells treated by different doses of W.S. root extract. The viability and cytotoxicity were measured by Trypane blue and MTT assay. The flow cytometery was used for cell cycle analysis and the follow up of morphological change was observed by inverted microscope. The DNA fragmentation test was done. Results & Discussion: The present study has demonstrated that W.S. can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. .. The results showed that W.S inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 at high concentration rich to 50% with IC50 0.86%. The flow cytometeric analysis showed changes in cell cycle phases in treated cells with IC50 dose compared with control untreated cells. The morphology of cells is changed according to dose uptake. DNA damaged was measured by DNA fragmentation test and results showed sever damage of treated cells when compared with control untreated cells. From these results we concluded that W.S can inhibit the proliferation and have cytotoxic effect on human cancer cells through its selective bioactivity.

[Osman M; Wafaa A; Nadia E.; Amany A and Doaa E. Potential Role of Withania somnifera on Human Breast Cancer. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):53-59]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 8



Keywords: Withania somnifera, Breast cancer, antitumor activity.

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Surabhi Yadav 1 and T. K. Sharma 2


1 Department of Chemistry, Bipin Bihari College, Jhansi, U.P.284001, India.

2 Department of Microbiology, Bipin Bihari College, Jhansi, India.

Corresponding author1 91-9451937171.;


ABSTRACT: Water is an extraordinary natural phenomenon, as it is a valuable resource to mankind from nature. It is impossible to substitute for most of its uses, difficult to depollute, expensive to transport. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate pollution load of Laxmi talab, by examining the various physicochemical and bio chemical parameters. It was found temperature ,pH, conductivity, hardness, Ca, Mg, although not follow desirable limit ,but results are with in the permissible limit. Total dissolve solid(TDS), total suspended solid(TSS) and alkalinity exceeds the permissible limits. Low value of DO and high value of BOD and COD as well as total coaliform suggested highly contamination of organic pollutant.




KEYWORDS- Physicochemical, Biochemical parameter, Hydrobiology, Limnology

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Antimicrobial Activity of Orchid. Root Eastern Peninsular Flora in India.


*A.Kalaiyarasan1, S.Ahmed john2, A.Edward3


1, P.G & Research Department of Botany Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli- 620 020. Tamilnadu. India.

2, P.G & Research Department of Botany Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli- 620 020. Tamilnadu. India.

3, Department of Biotechnology, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli- 620 020 Tamilnadu, India.


Abstract: Medicinal plants are potential of antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical screening and antimicrobial investigation was made from root extracts of Bulbophyllum Kaitense. The plant material were collected and shade dried. The petroleum ether, chloroform. Ethanol and queous extracts were prepared using with soxhlet apparatus. The various extracts revealed that presence of phytocomponeds of terpenoids, sponins, Tanins, Courmarin, quinine, Glycosides, Carbohydrates and sugar. The antibacierial activity was studied by using agar-wee diffusion method. The results showed that ethanol and chloroform extracts inhibit the growth of organisms. The maximum zone of inhitition was observed in salmonalla typhi (20mm) salmonalla paratyphi (20 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20mm) and micrococcus Sp., (23mm) ethanolic root extracrt. Shigella flaxineri, streptococcus and Bacillus subtilis indicate moderate activity is both extracts. Antifungal activity was studied the result showed that petroleum ether. Chloroform. Ethanol and aqueous extracts. Inhibit the growth of all organisms. Antifungal organisms more or less activity. It is the first investigation of Bulbophyllum kaitense.

[A. Kalaiyarasan, S.Ahmed john, A.Edward. Antimicrobial Activity of Orchid. Root Eastern Peninsular Flora in India. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):63-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 10



Keywords: Bulphyllum kaitense, Antimicrobial activity, Phytochemicals, Extract.

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Serological and Molecular Studies on the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis


Amin. M. M.1, Ahmed, S. A1., Zaki, H. M2 and Ismail, R. I2


1Dept.of Vet. Medicine & Inf. Diseases,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Department of Brucellosis Research, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: The animals included in this study were180 naturally infected non vaccinated cows in governmental farm (group 1), 125 brucella free cows in which strain 19 vaccination had never been practiced (group 2) and 530 strain 19 vaccinated cows (group3). Sera from these animals were examined for brucellosis using RBPT, BAPAT, Riv.T, TAT, CFT. For cows suspected to be infected with brucellosis, the results revealed that the percentage of positive reactors for RBPT, BAPAT, Riv.T, TAT and CFT were 139(77.2%), 143(79.4%), 130(72.2%), 146(81.1%) and 131(72.8%) respectively. While for brucella free cows, the percentage of positive reactors were 2(1.6%), 4(3.2%), 1(0.8%), 5(4%) and 1(0.8%) respectively. cows vaccinated with s19 vaccine using RBPT, BAPAT, Riv.T, TAT, and CFT revealed that agglutinins were quite evidenced 2 weeks post vaccination. The number of animals positive for Brucella antibodies reached maximum at 4 weeks post vaccination. The incidence of isolation from supramamary and retropharyngeal L.n, liver , spleen and milk samples were 54%, 48%, 50% , 38%4and 30.3% respectively. the obtained results indicate that brucella melitensis biovar 3 still the prevalent type affecting cattle in Egypt. In the present study the results revealed that PCR assay able to differentiate S19 vaccinated animals from those infected ones.

[Amin. M. M., Ahmed, S. A., Zaki, H. M and Ismail, R. I. Serological and Molecular Studies on the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):68-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 11



Keywords: Brucellosis, Serodiagnosis, Molecular studies, Bacterial isolation.

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Microwave Mediated Facile Synthesis of Some Novel Pyrazole, Pyrimidine, Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine and Pyrimido[1,2-a] benzimidazole Derivatives Under Solventless Condition


El-Kateb, A.A. a,* ; Abd El-Rahman, N.M. a; Saleh, T.S. a; Ali, M. Hassanb; Elhaddad, A. S. b and El-Dosoky, A.Y.a


a Green Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt

b Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al -Azhar University, Egypt.


Abstract: Ssynthesis of some new pyrazole, pyrimidine, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives using E-1-(4-(1-(4-aminophenyl)ethylideneamino)phenyl)-3-(dimethylamino)prop-2-ene-1-one as building block via solventless reaction system under microwave irradiations or in presence of solvent under reflux conditions were undertaken. In general improvement in yields and reduction of the reaction time were observed when the reactions were carried out under microwave irradiation compared with classical method.

[El-Kateb, A.A.; Abd El-Rahman, N.M.; Saleh, T.S. ; Ali, M. Hassan; Elhaddad, A. S. and El-Dosoky, A.Y. . Microwave Mediated Facile Synthesis of Some Novel Pyrazole, Pyrimidine, Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine and Pyrimido[1,2-a] benzimidazole Derivatives Under Solventless Condition. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):77-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 12



Keywords: Microwave, solventless, enaminone, pyrazole, pyrimidine, benzimidazole

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Malaria Vaccine: Hope in the Future


Benson Otarigho


Cellular Parasitology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan


Abstract: Malaria has been eating deep into the heart of mankind from time immemorial. This disease affects 10 percent of the world’s population. Every year about 2 million children are reported dead. In an attempt to control this disease since the late 1940s till date, many control measures had been put in place to reduce human suffering due to malaria. However many of these measures, if not all, had proved abortive in an effective control of this disease. Even though control, most measures are not effective, medicine will never leave mankind to her fate. The one and only hope for this human suffering to reduce or completely end, was the invention of malaria vaccine and since then, hundreds of vaccine had been developed, more than 80 had been tried at the preclinical stage, many are at the clinical phase and yet no success. However, the only one vaccine the world is waiting to be the first malaria vaccine to be licensed is the RTS, S vaccine. The RTS, S vaccine is in phase 3 presently, a clinical trial in 11 sites in seven sub-Saharan African countries. If this phase 3 clinical trial is successful, by first quarter of 2015 the world will celebrate the first successful vaccine against malaria.

[Benson Otarigho. Malaria Vaccine: Hope in the Future. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):87-95]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 13



Keywords: Malaria, Control measures, Vaccine, RTS, S vaccine, Clinical and Preclinical phase

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Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Streptococci and Staphylococci Isolated from Cases Of Bovine Clinical Mastitis in Nigeria.


Amosun Elizabeth Adesola.


Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria


 Abstract: Streptococci and staphylococci are frequently isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy cows. Limited information is available on the antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms in Nigeria. A total of 130 Streptococci and 177 Staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis from three states in Nigeria namely; Oyo, Kwara and Kaduna states for a period of one year were used in this study. Overall, 55.38% of the strains tested were Streptococcus uberis, 24.62% were Streptococcus agalactiae, 12.31% were Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 3.85% were Streptococcus zooepidemicus, 2.31% were Streptococcus bovis and 1.54% were for Streptococcus equines, 25 coagulase negative staphylococcus and 152 Staphylococci aureus. The antimicrobial susceptibility for these organisms was determined for the following antimicrobial agents: Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Sulphadimidine, Nalidixic acid, Neomycin and Streptomycin. Results demonstrated substantial differences in their resistance patterns for the various organisms. The resistance patterns revealed 10 distinct resistance groups. All the streptococci isolate showed resistance to Ampicillin and tetracycline while 98.46%, 86.15%, 48.46%, 24.62%, and of the Streptoccoci species were resistance to sulphadimidine, Neomycin, Streptomycin and Nalidixic acid respectively while Staphyloccocus aureus had 100% for tetracyclin and sulphadimidine respectively while 97.37%, 88.16%, 69.08% and 67.11% showed resistance to ampicillin, neomycin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin respectively. However, Staphylococcus coagulase negative showed 100% resistance to tetracycline and sulphadimidine while 72%, 68%, 68%, and 32% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, neomycin, ampicillin and streptomycin respectively. The result of this study revealed that dairy farmers misused these antibiotics by treating cows several times per case. This study point to the fact that dairy farmers should take caution in the use of antibiotics for the dairy cows on the farms.

[Amosun Elizabeth Adesola. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Streptococci and Staphylococci Isolated from Cases Of Bovine Clinical Mastitis in Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):96-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 14



Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, bovine, clinical mastitis.

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[Nat Sci 2012;10(11):102-108]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 15


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[Nat Sci 2012;10(11):109-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 16


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[Nat Sci 2012;10(11):115-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 17


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Studies on bio-deterioration, aflatoxin contamination and food values of fermented, dried and stored ipomoea batatas chips


*Jonathan SG1, Abdul-Lateef MB 1 , Olawuyi OJ2 and 3Oyelakin AO


1Mycology & Biotechnology Unit, 2Genetics & Molecular Biology unit,

1,2Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria


Abstract: Four samples of both fresh and stored sweet potato chips were analyzed for proximate composition, presence of bio-deteriorating fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2) contamination. Results of food values of the samples revealed that the percentage moisture content increased with storage from 60.8% to 78.6% in fresh and nine-month stored sweet potato samples respectively. Carbohydrate content reduced significantly from 19.5% to 9.9% while, crude protein was from 9.7% to 7.4%) and fat 1.5% to 0.7%.Generally, it was observed that the nutrient contents decreased with increasing period of storage in all of the samples. Mycobiological examinations carried out on the test samples showed the presence of Aspergillus tamari, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium compacticum and Saccharomyces spp. The study further revealed that the presence of bio-deteriorating fungi stimulated the production of aflatoxins especially in the long stored Ipomea batatas flours .Observation on mycotoxin detection showed that aflatoxin B1 had the highest concentration of 0.0023ug/kg in the 9 month stored samples, representing 21.1% of the total aflatoxin detected in the samples. These results were discussed in relation to the nutritional quality and health implication of consuming fresh and stored ipomoea batatas chips in Nigeria.

[Jonathan SG, Abdul-Lateef MB, Olawuyi OJ and Oyelakin AO. Studies on bio-deterioration, aflatoxin contamination and food values o f ferment ed, dried and stored ipomoea batatas chips. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):123-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 18



Keywords: Ipomea batatas chips, fermentation, storage, biodeterioration, nutrient values,

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Reaction Kinetics for Nitrosation of DAF-2 in Air Saturated Nitric Oxide Solution


Olasehinde, E. F.1, 2, Ogunsuyi, H.O. 2, Abata, E. O.2 Sakugawa, H.1


1. Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan

2 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


Abstract: Understanding the reaction rate constant of a probe compound with its target molecule is essential for its selection and use in biological and non-biological systems. Over the past decade, the probe, 4, 5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) has been widely employed for the detection and imaging of nitric oxide (NO•) in various media. However, the rate constant for the nitrosation of DAF-2 in air-saturated nitric oxide solution is far from being understood. For the first time, we have determined the second order rate constant for the reaction of DAF-2 with NO• (k2) in air-saturated solution using competition kinetics method. An alternative competition kinetics method which involves a reciprocal plot of the reactant (DAF-2) and triazolofluorescein (DAF-2T), the product formed from the reaction of DAF-2 with NO• was developed and compared to the standard competition kinetics method. Our particular approach in this system is based on the use of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2), a potent scavenger of NO• against the DAF-2 which serves as the detector molecule. The product, DAF-2T, is separated from the reaction mixture by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and its fluorescence intensity signals were measured at excitation and emission of 495 and 515 nm respectively. The results showed that the second order reaction rate constant of DAF-2 with NO• in air-saturated aqueous solution are comparable, with the average value of (6.28 0.45) 10 6 M-1s-1. Also, DAF-2 can react with NO• directly thereby by-passing the N2O3-mediated formation of DAF-2T at low NO• formation rates.

[Olasehinde, EF, Ogunsuyi, HO, Abata, OE, Sakugawa, H. Reaction Kinetics for Nitrosation of DAF-2 in Air Saturated Nitric Oxide Solution. Nat Sci 2012;10 (11):129-136]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 19



Keywords: Rate constant; Competition kinetics; Nitric oxide; DAF-2; DAF-2T; HPLC

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Comparison of ELISA with traditional methods used for evaluation of blackleg and gas gangrene vaccine


El-Helw, H.A.; Elham F El-Sergany; Taha, M.M.; Abdella, Y.A.; El-Sehemy, M. M.


Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: Potency test for bivalent clostridial vaccine against Blackleg and Gas gangrene mainly based on challenge test for estimation of bacterial immunogenicity of Clostridium chauvoei, and on serum neutralization test or hemolysin test for the Clostridium septicum toxigenicity. In this study, ELISA was done for evaluation of immunogenicity of Blackleg and Gas gangrene vaccine; three batches of vaccine were evaluated in guinea pigs, rabbits, and sheep. Challenge test; plate agglutination test, and indirect ELISA were done for Clostridium chauvoei, on the other hand, serum neutralization test; Hemolysin test, and Indirect ELISA were carried out for Clostridium septicum. The results obtained by ELISA pass parallel with challenge test, plate agglutination test, and Hemolysin test and there is no significant difference between them. Also there is great reproducibility in the results obtained in three batches. Also alpha toxoid of Clostridium septicum containing vaccine can be evaluated in guinea pigs, and there is great correlation between units obtained in sera of guinea pigs and that obtained in rabbits. So it concluded that the batch potency for C. chauvoei and C. septicum could be done by ELISA and replaced the traditional methods for evaluation due to precision, sensitivity, rapid, and save animals used.

 [El-Helw, H.A.; Elham F El-Sergany; Taha, M.M.; Abdella, Y.A.; El-Sehemy, M. M. Comparison of ELISA with traditional methods used for evaluation of blackleg and gas gangrene vaccine. Nat Sci 2012;10 (11):137-144]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 20



Key words: Clostridial vaccine, ELISA, Potency.

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Comparison of PetrifilmTM and Standard Pour Plate method for the Analysis of Fruit Juices in Guyana


Kurup, R & Persaud, L


Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Guyana, Turkeyen Campus, Georgetown, Guyana, South America



Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the quality of fruit juices using conventional pour plate method and Petrifilm method. The Petrifilm aerobic plate count developed by 3MTM Laboratories is a ready to use system for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in different foods. A total of 31 unpasteurized juices, 31 pasteurized juices and 31 water samples were analyzed to correlate the methods independently. The total viable bacteria count ranged from >300 to 1 CFU/ml by both pour plate method and Petrifilm method in the unpasteurized juices samples. The comparison of water sample with pour plate method against the Petrifilm method showed a significant correlation (0.998, p-value < 0.05). Mean microbial count in pour plate method was 126.5CFU/ml and mean microbial count in petrifilm method was 129.9CFU/ml. Brix, pH and total acidity of the juice didn’t show any effect on the method of analysis. Regardless of the type of juice, the Petrifilm was found to be comparable with the conventional method in analyzing total aerobic bacteria from fruit juices and method can be used widely in Guyana or other countries.

[Kurup, R & Persaud, L. Comparison of PetrifilmTM and Standard Pour Plate method for the Analysis of Fruit Juices in Guyana. Nat Sci 2012;10 (11):145-149]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 21



Key words: Petrifilm method, Pour plate method, pasteurized, unpasteurized, fruit juices, water

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Vector abundance and Prevalence of Malaria Parasites among hostel Residential Students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Southeastern Nigeria.


1Onyido A.E., 1Ikpo A.U. , 1Obiukwu M.O and 2Amadi, E.S


1.Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

2. Department of Microbiology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.


Abstract: This study determined the abundance of mosquitoes in the environment and hostels of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. It also investigated the prevalence of malaria parasites among students residing in the hostels. Mosquito larvae were collected from the hostel surroundings while adult mosquitoes were collected from hostel A, B, D and postgraduate blocks respectively using standard technique. A total of 149 students were examined for malaria parasite. The result of the study showed that 720 mosquito larvae and 201 adult mosquitoes were respectively obtained from the hostel environments. Anopheles mosquitoes constituted 18.19% of the total mosquito collected. Malaria parasites were detected in the blood of 58 (38.9%) out of the 149 students studied. The prevalence rate was highest among students residing in block D (43.59%) while those of postgraduate block (12.11%) had the least. 3 (5.58%) students had high intensity infection, 16 (27.58%) medium intensity and 39 (67.24%) had low level infection. The male students (43.33%) yielded more malaria parasites than their female counterparts. The result suggests that hostel residential students of the target institution are exposed to malaria infection due to the terrain and environmental conditions around the hostels. The need to maintain good sanitary conditions in school hostels and its surroundings is hereby emphasized.

[Onyido A.E, Ikpo A.U, Obiukwu M.O, Amadi, E.S. Vector abundance and Prevalence of Malaria Parasites among hostel Residential Students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Southeastern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10 (11):150-155]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 22



Keywords: Mosquito larvae, Malaria parasite, Students hostel

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Cephalometric evaluation of Age-dependent Craniofacial Skeleton Changes in children of 7-17 years age group: Assessment of Gender Impact


Esam M. Mehlab* and Gamal Abdel Salam**


Faculty of Public Health & Health Informatics, Um-El Qurra University, Mekkah* and Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, ArAr, KSA**


Abstract: This study was conducted at Faculty of Public Health & Health Informatics, Um-El Qurra University, Mekkah and Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, ArAr, KSA. The study aimed to evaluate the age and sex dependent changes of the craniofacial skeleton during the age period of 7-17 years old. Two hundred 200 children and adolescents (100 males and 100 females) were categorized according to age into 5 equal groups and underwent postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms using a high resolution (600 dpi), after digitizing the PA landmarks. The landmark co-ordinates were used to calculate the cranial, bifrontotemporal, bizygomatic, mid-facial, maxillary skeletal base, bigonial, biantegonial and nasal widths. Measurements of the maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths were made directly on plaster models with a dial caliper. There was a progressive age-dependent increase of cranial width with a significant increase in males compared to females and the difference was highly significant in age group 9-11 years. Bifrontotemporal width despite showed progressive increase with age in both sexes, which was significant only in older male children compared to females. Bizygomatic width showed a progressive significant difference with advance of age to peak at 15-17 years old children. Both mid-facial width and maxillary skeletal base width showed progressive increase with age, which was significant in all age strata being most significant in older age groups for both variables. Bigonial and biantegonial widths showed non-significant differences between males and females in all age groups, whereas, nasal width showed progressive significant difference, between males and females. Both maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths showed progressive significant difference, between males and females with age. Conclusion: there was a significant change in the transverse craniofacial skeleton with age that was significantly evident in male measurements compared to female ones.

[Esam M. Mehlab and Gamal Abdel Salam. Cephalometric evaluation of Age-dependent Craniofacial Skeleton Changes in children of 7-17 years age group: Assessment of Gender Impact. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):156-162]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 23



Keywords: Brucellosis, Serodiagnosis, Molecular studies, Bacterial isolation

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Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) for mapping land use types in Musanze district, Rwanda


Alphonse Nahayo1,*Concorde Nsengumuremyi1, Isaac Ekise1


1. Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)-Busogo; Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation; P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda; Email:


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to apply Geographic Information System (GIS) for mapping different land use types. This study was conducted in Sahara, Gisesero and Kavumu cells of Busogo Sector from May to June 2012. In this area, land use management practices are not well applied and therefore, the natural environment is being degraded and this is illustrated by the cropping on hills and mountains with high slope area while they are appropriate for forest plantations. This study provides the information on how forests and other land use types should be managed in order to sustain the environment. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to collect data and Arc map GIS 9.2 software was used for data analysis. Results showed that forestland occupies 42.5 ha (3.15 % of total study area), the area covered by crops while it is more appropriate to grow forests occupies 45.7 ha (3.45 %), the total area that must be occupied by the forest is 6.6% and the area covered by human settlement, city and institutions is 116.5 ha (8.79 %). The remaining 1045 ha (84 % of study area) is used in agricultural activities, agroforestry and infrastructure. Forest managers should advocate for planting trees in all areas with steep slope on hills and mountains and in areas where agriculture has no potential with good sylvicultural practices and expanding the agriculture in lowland where the erosion risk is minimum.

[Nahayo A, Nsengumuremyi C, Ekise I. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) for mapping land use types in Musanze district, Rwanda. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):163-167]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 24



Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), land use types, Musanze district, Rwanda

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Seasonal Influence of Physicochemical Variables on Phytoplankton Abundance in Jebel Aulia Reservoir in Khartoum – Sudan


Yatta S. LUKAW1, 2; John Leju Celestino LADU2,3; Denis D. KENYI4


1. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Basic Sciences, University of Juba, South Sudan.

2. School of Energy and Environment, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China.

3. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies. Dept. of Environmental Studies, University of Juba, South Sudan.

4. College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Fisheries, University of Juba, South Sudan.;


Abstract: Seasonal influence of physiochemical variables on the phytoplankton abundance was studied for one year from January 2003 to December 2003 in Jebel Aulia reservoir in Khartoum, Sudan. Selected physicochemical variables such as water temperature, rainfall, sechi depth, water discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic matter; nitrate, phosphate and silicate were measured at the time of phytoplankton collection. All raw data were log transformed Log10(X+1) for normality and parametric statistical test requirements were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16 for windows. Generally, the reservoir and its surrounding water was alkaline (pH- 7.99 0.09 μgl-l-1). The mean water temperature was (28.05 2.22oC); rainfall, (26.58 9.64mm); discharge, (65.75 7.10 (106m3) and the mean sechi depth measured was (120.59 23.77cm). Dissolved oxygen level was generally (7.98 0.303 mg/l); dissolved organic matter, (14.280.58 mgO2/l); nitrate, (3858.50 1087.37 μgl-1); phosphate, (340.83 12.44 μgl-1) and silicate level was (29716.672621.47 μgl-1). A total phytoplankton biomass of 13275.5 cells L-1 was recorded in the reservoir of which 8397.5 cells L-1 occurred in the rainy season, 4898 cell L-1 in the dry season. All the physicochemical variables did not vary (P>0.05) between the rainy and the dry seasons, water temperature, transparency and rainfall varied significantly between the rainy and the dry seasons. All the phytoplankton classes indicated positive correlations ( P < 0.05) with the nutrients PO4 and SiO2 , no correlation with NO3; positive correlation ( P < 0.05 ) with rainfall, negative correlations with water temperature and transparency and were not correlated with water discharge. A total of 33 phytoplankton genera were recorded, the phytoplankton classes dominated by Bacillariophyceae >Chlorophyceae> Cyanophyceae>Zygnemataphyceae>Dinophyceae >Oedogoniophyceae. Phytoplankton Density is influenced by both physicochemical variables and biotic, hydrobiological and hydrographic features of the reservoir.

[Yatta S. LUKAW; Denis D. KENYI; John Leju Celestino LADU. Seasonal Influence of Physicochemical Variables on Phytoplankton Abundance in Jebel Aulia Reservoir in Khartoum – Sudan. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):168-175]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 25



Keywords: phytoplankton; biomass; biotic; physicochemical variables; sechi depth; hydrobiological.

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Microbial Oxidation of Elemental Sulphur as a Means of Increasing Sulphate Availability and Combating Alkalinity in Soils


Chibuike, G. U., Agbim, N. N., and Asadu, C. L. A.


Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: Chibuike, G. U.


Abstract: Microbial oxidation of elemental sulphur was studied using three different soils and three different organic materials in order to assess sulphate production. The three soils were either amended with only elemental sulphur or with elemental sulphur and one of the organic materials at any of two different rates (5% and 20%). The experiment was laid out in a 3 x 3 x 8 Factorial in Completely Randomized Design and the treatments were replicated three times. They were brought to their field capacities and incubated at room temperature. At the end of each incubation period, a set of the treatment was sampled and analysed for the amount of sulphate formed. The change in pH in the various samples was also measured. The net sulphate formed increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increases in incubation period in each of the three soils. The treatments amended with organic materials significantly produced more sulphate with time compared with the treatments without organic amendments. Higher rates (20%) of each organic material were significantly better than their lower rates (5%) with the plantain peels treatments producing the highest amounts of sulphates than the other organic materials in all the soils. Loam soil was significantly better than the other two soils in terms of sulphate formation with time while sandy soil produced the least amount of sulphate with time. The change in pH decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increases in incubation period for all the treatments. Loam soil samples showed the greatest amounts of pH reduction with time. Soils amended with organic materials also showed higher amounts of pH reduction than the soils without additional organic materials. Microbial oxidation of elemental sulphur using appropriate organic materials such as plantain peels is therefore recommended as a means of ameliorating sulphur deficiency and alkalinity in soils.

[Chibuike, G. U., Agbim, N. N., and Asadu, C. L. A. Microbial Oxidation of Elemental Sulphur as a Means of Increasing Sulphate Availability and Combating Alkalinity in Soils. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):176-181]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 26



Keywords: microbial oxidation, elemental sulphur, sandy soil, loamy soils, organic materials.

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Ultrasonographic assessment of Body Fat Distribution in Obese Children


Soheir B Fayed1, Ateyat A Ateya1, Hala M Thorya1 and Mohamed A El Shazly2


Department of 1Pediatrics and 2Radiology, Faculty of Medicine for girls, Faculty of Medicine for Boys, Al-Azhar University


Abstract: Objective: Pattern of fat distribution rather than obesity is of importance for metabolic disorders and for cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess body fat distribution by ultrasound (US) and to compare between ultrasonographic finding and the anthropometric findings .Patients and Methods : This study is a cross-sectional comparative study. The study included 40 obese children (21 males and 19 females), with ages ranged from 4 to 16 years , and 40 non-obese children (20 males and 20 females), with ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Ultrasonographic assessment of body fat were performed for all participants, including ; abdominal preperitoneal (P), subcutaneous (S) fat at their maximum (max) and minimum (min) thickness sites, visceral (V), triceps (TrUS) and subscapular (SsUS) fat thicknesses .Also anthropometric measurements were taken for all children, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), triceps (Tr) and subscapular (Ss) skin fold thickness. Results: There was a highly significant difference between obese and control group in both US measurements and anthropamtric measurements except waist to hip ratio (WHR). BMI and WC were significantly correlated to all US measurements. No relation was found between WHR and US measurements. Multiple regression analysis using (V) as the dependent variable and anthropometric parameters and gender as the independent variables, reveled that BMI was the best single predictor of visceral fat thickness (V). In the obese children, 92.5% were found to have central obesity. Conclusion: From this study, Ultrasound has been proposed as an alternative non-invasive technique to measure subcutaneous and visceral fat thickness. In this study, BMI provided the best estimate of body fat. On the contrary to that in adults, WHR was not a good index to show intra-abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents. WC and WHtR were more reliable in this clinical study.

[Soheir B Fayed1, Ateyat A Ateya, Hala M Thorya and Mohamed A El Shazly. Ultrasonographic assessment of Body Fat Distribution in Obese Children. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):182-187]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 27



Keywords: Ultrasonographic; Body; Fat; Distribution; Obese; Children

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Investigation about maximum rise of trajectory of 30 and 45 inclined dense jets


Fariborz Mohammadi1; Heydar Ali Kashkuli1; Saied Boroomand nasab1; Abd Ali Naseri1; Javad Ahadian1


1- Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Water Science faculty, Chamran university of Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran.


Abstract: This paper reports experimental and mathematical results of an investigation of inclined round buoyant jets in a stationary ambient. The experiments were conducted in a glass-walled channel 7 m long by 0.72 m wide by 0.7 m deep. The visual dimensionless maximum height of trajectory rise and the relatively horizontal location as a function of densimetric Froude number is investigated at brine jet angles 45 and 60 towards the horizon. The various results of previous studies has caused confusion arise in this field. Using different methods to capturing the trajectory properties and choose different range of Froude number in various studies are two main reasons for this problem. The range of Froude number in this study was 5.3 to 15.6. The dimensionless Zmax/D number changes as a function of Froude number is fairly linear. Slope of The trend line is the same at both jet angle 45 and 60. This suggests that changes in Froude value have the same effect on the dimensionless Zmax/FrD number at both jet angles. The results of mathematical model are shown that the Flow-3D has a good Capability to simulate the maximum rise and the horizontal distance of it.

[Mohammadi F, Kashkuli HA, Boroomand nasab S, Naseri AA, Ahadian J. Investigation about maximum rise of trajectory of 30 and 45 inclined dense jets. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):188-194]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 28



Key words: round buoyant jet, terminal of trajectory, brine disposal, stagnant ambient.

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Efficiency of Sewage treatment Plant, Hazratbal, Srinagar,Jammu and Kashmir,India.


Uzma jan*and S.K.Rafiq**


* P.G Department of Environment S.P. Post Graduate College, Srinagar, 190006, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

 **Hydrobiology research lab. S.P. Post Graduate College, Srinagar, 190006, Jammu & Kashmir, India.


Abstract: The current study was undertaken at Sewage treatment plant (STP) Hazratbal, Srinagar located at the shores of world famous Dal lake. Comparative analyses were undertaken for raw sewage entering the STP and treated sewage discharged into the Dal Lake at aforesaid site. The parameters which were analyzed during the study included Temperature, pH, Electrical conductance , Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Chloride (Cl), Sodium, Potassium, Total dissolved solids(TDS), Total suspended solids(TSS), Total solids(TS), Nitrogen (as nitrate-nitrogen and ammonical-nitrogen), and Phosphorous (as ortho-phosphate and total phosphate).It was observed that the parameters namely TS(9.3%), TSS(25%), Am.Nitrogen(27%), Na(28%), K(23%), Ca(25%), Mg(32%), BOD(57%) and COD(60%) showed reduction in their concentration during treatment at STP while as that of TDS(31%),Cl (72%),NO3(82%),PO4(4%),and TP(35%) showed increase in their concentration respectively after treatment at STP.

[Uzma jan and S.K.Rafiq. Efficiency of Sewage treatment Plant, Hazratbal, Srinagar,Jammu and Kashmir,India. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):195-198]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 29



Keyword: Sewage treatment, Plant, Hazratbal, Srinagar,Jammu, Kashmir.

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Exploring the Water Quality of El-Salam Canal


Reham M. Elkorashey


Researcher, Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water Research Center (NWRC), Egypt


 Abstract: This study explores the water quality of El-Salam canal resulting from using the mixed Nile water and agricultural drainage water (ADW) for irrigation purposes. Over the period from February through September 2010, 64 water samples were collected from eight sites. By comparing the chemical values obtained with Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and Water Environment Federation (WEF) guidelines on use for irrigation purposes and the bacteriological values obtained to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, it was found that there is no restriction on use for irrigation purposes for pH, COD, BOD and heavy metals while slight to moderate restriction on use for irrigation for EC, TDS, alkalinity, Na, Cl and fecal coliform. It was concluded that the concentration of most of measured parameters increased after mixing with Bahr Hadous drain which may be attributed to the inorganic salts and organic loads of the drain due to the disposal of sewage, urban and agricultural runoff as well as industrial wastewater into the drain before mixing with El Salam canal freshwater. The study emphasized the urgent need for effective strategies for the treatment of the drainage water resources before mixing with the Nile water and introducing on-site treatment technologies of drainage water to help improve water quality along El-Salam canal. It also recommended studying the impact of changing the drainage water – freshwater mixing ratios at Bahr Hadous pump station, in addition to predicting the best ratio that improves the water quality.

[Reham M. Elkorashey. Exploring the Water Quality of El-Salam Canal. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):199-205]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 30



Keywords: Water quality, El-Salam canal, Damietta branch, Irrigation criteria

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Bleeding study of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2 (Composite as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100% Dark Polyester Fabric


Abd El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud1, Emad El-Deen Allam2 and Raafat Hassan Morsy Azzam2


1Consultant of textile printing & finishing. CEO of SPI Company.

2Textile Printing, Dyeing and Finishing Department, Faculty of applied arts. Helwan University


Abstract:Bleeding is a dye migration from the dyed poly ester fabric into the printed or coated film, to avoid this problem different additive were studied as ESO, metal-metal stabilizer “CaZn “and Nano form calcium carbonate ,in this study ESO react with the liable chlorine of PVC and minimize the liberation of HCl in presence of CaZn as heat stabilizer, calcium carbonate has high efficiency as heat stabilizer and showing good filling properties reducing the ink cost, Nano-form titanium dioxide used in different ratios to achieve suitable whiteness. Suitable recipe PVC/DEHP composite which achieves high bleed resist printing and coating film reported in this study, the maximum whiteness achieved was 78.2.whiteness and particle size of all recipes were measured.

[Abd El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud, Emad El-Deen Allam and Raafat Hassan Morsy Azzam. Bleeding study of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2 (Composite as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100% Dark Polyester Fabric. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):206-211]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 31



Keywords: ESO (epoxy soy bean oil), DEHP (diethyl hexyl phthalate),ATBC (acetyl tri butyl citrate).

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Enhance Soil Quality and Increasing Yield of Wheat Crop Followed by Maize Crop Grown on Calcareous Soils


Azza R. Ahmed; M. M. Abbass and M. E. EL-Fayoumy


Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt


Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in two successive years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at the farm of Nubaria Agriculture Research Station (Calcareous soil). Two seasons in each year were carried out during winter 2009 /2011 and summer 2010 and winter 2010/2011 and summer 2011 season. To study the effect and residual effect of farmyard manure (FM) application under two different sources of nitrogen mineral fertilizers on some soil hydro-physical properties and wheat and maize yields and yield components.. Also, to assess and compare of farm profitability of all tested variables. The obtained results revealed that the addition of FYMat rates of 0, 30, 40 m3/Fed-1 compared with mineral nitrogen fertilizer sources [ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium sulfate (AS)] at levels of zero, 75% and 100% of the recommended dose has a positive effect on hydro-physical properties. Whereas the highest level of (FYM 40 m3.Fed-1) reduced the unconfined compressive strength (USC) by about 33% for 2009/2010 and 43.9% in 2010 /2011 compared to the control. The mean values for Hydraulic conductivity (Khcmhr-1) and Infiltration rate (IRcmhr-1) for the highest rate of FYM (40m3.Fed-1) were arranged in ascending order Kh = (3.87 cm h-1and 4.01 cm h-1) and I.R (8.18 cmh-1and8.27 cmh-1) for AN and AS in 2009 / 2010 respectively. While, in season 2010/ 2011 at the highest rate of FYM (40m3. Fed-1) was arranged as Kh= 4.19 cm h-1 and 4.44 cm h-1, while for I.R = 8.42 cm h-1 and 8.4 cm h-1 for AN and AS respectively. The total porosity increased by increasing the rate of FYM while at the highest rate of FYM (40 m3. Fed-1) the mean value of E% increased by about 9% than the control in the first season 2009/2010 and increased by about 9.8% in the second season (residual effect) for both different sources of mineral nitrogen fertilizers over the control. As well as, the mean value of soil available water ( W.A) at the highest rate of FYM was increased by about 45% in the first and second season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 over the control. On the other hand, the dose 75% of mineral nitrogen fertilizers ascertain an improvement for the first winter season on wheat plants for each of the following 1000 seed weight, grain yield and RIY%. Where, the 1000 seed weight increased by 29% and 33% than the control but in the second year, the mean values of 1000 seed weight percentage decreased at a level 75% by 3% and 2% for AN and AS than the first season. While the mean values of grain yield increased by150% and 185.5% for AN and AS respectively over the control. As well as, the mean values of the relative increasing in yield% (RIY%) for grain which obtained at level 75% for both AN and AS were increased by about 34.78 and 32.84 respectively over the control. Similarly, for the dose 75% in corn yield for summer season, the mean values of 100-seed weight (g) for the highest rate of FYM (40 m3. Fed-1) increased at level 75 by about 38.13 and 38.19g for AN and AS, respectively than the control. The mean values of relative increasing yield %RIY could be arranged in the ascending order 26.99%-28.11% at level 75% for Am and AS levels respectively. While the RIY %was increased at a level 75%by2. 13% and 4.59% than the first season for both ANand AS respectively. Comparison between the data in first and second season for corn yield in two summer seasons, there is no significant effect on the mean values of 100 seed weighs, seed yield and RIY%.

[Azza R. Ahmed; M. M. Abbass and M. E. EL-Fayoumy. Enhance Soil Quality and Increasing Yield of Wheat Crop Followed by Maize Crop Grown on Calcareous Soils. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):212-220]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 32



Keywords: Soil Quality; Wheat Crop; Maize Crop; Grown; Calcareous Soil

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Comparative Study on Bacterial Quality of Fresh and Frozen Shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) Sold in Retail Markets in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.


Solomon, Leera and Ibe, Stella. Nwabuogo


Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.


Abstract: Fresh and frozen shrimp sold in retail markets in Port Harcourt were examined for bacterial quality using standard plate count, total coliform count and pH value. A total of ten fresh and frozen shrimp samples were purchased and tenfold serial dilution were spread plated in duplicates on nutrient and MacConkey agar plates and incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Fresh samples had average pH of 7. 210.16 and gave total plate counts of 1.89 x105 to 3.1x107 cfu/g and total coliform counts of 2.72 x105 to 3.1 x 105 cfu/g. The frozen samples had average pH value of 8.550.28 and total plate counts of 8.00x106 to 9.9x106 cfu/g and total coliform counts of 8.50x104 to 1.00x105 cfu/g. All isolates were sub-cultured onto nutrient agar and identified based on standard biochemical tests. The following isolates were identified from fresh samples, Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Serratia sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Escherichia coli, while the frozen samples had Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus sp., Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus sp., and Micrococcus sp. Bacterial contaminants of shrimp is a reflection of the harvesting environment, the quality of the overlaying waters and post-process contamination through unhygienic handling, processing, packaging and storage as well as the filthy environment of the market place. The various bacterial isolates are potential pathogens and spoilage organisms. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) is extremely potent with as little as 100ng sufficient to cause intoxication. Hence shrimp marketed in Nigeria are mainly smoked or dried to make the product less hazardous. The International Commission on the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF) recommended total bacterial count for shrimp as 1x107 cfu/g. The results revealed that both fresh and frozen shrimp sold in Port Harcourt retail markets did not meet the recommended ICMSF bacteriological standards for shrimp quality and so cannot be exported.

[Solomon, L. and Ibe, S. N. Comparative Study on Bacterial Quality of Fresh and Frozen Shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) Sold in Retail Markets in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):221-224]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 33



Key words: ICMSF, Intoxication, Bacteriological standards, Potential pathogens, Port Harcourt.

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The Role of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) & B-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (BHCG) in the Early Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy


Amina AbdEfattah Mohamed1, Hanaa Farouk Ahmad1, Doaa Mahmoud Effat1and Zeinab El-Sayed2


Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology1 &Community Department2, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, AlAzhar University.,


Abstract: Introduction: Despite advanced detection methods, ectopic pregnancy may be missed in 40% to 50% of patients on an initial visit.' Most women with Ectopic pregnancy have no risk factors and the classic triad of a history of amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and irregular vaginal bleeding is absent in more than half of cases. Early diagnosis not only decreases maternal mortality and morbidity; it also helps preserve future reproductive capacity--only one third of women with ectopic pregnancy have subsequent live births. Top of Form Bottom of Form. Objective: to discover the role of creatinine phosphokinase in early diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy & integrity of tube [intact or rupture]. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Aim of the work: Decrease maternal mortality and morbidity. Place and Duration: Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine AL-Azhar University from February to June 2011. Patients and Methods: Thirty women with ectopic pregnancy were enrolled in this study, for all patients' complete history taking and physical examination was done. A venous blood sample was collected for serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) & serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin followed by routine investigations and ultrasongraphy of abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound. Results: 10 patients had ruptured ectopic pregnancy (42.6%), 14 patients had intact Ectopic pregnancy (58.2%), mean of BHCG ratio was 1.428.The mean of CPK was 111.182 IU/l in the intact tube and 440.625 IU/L in ruptured tube . The mean of BHCG was 1146.20IU/L in intact tube and 1667.66 IU/L in ruptured tube. Conclusion: Maternal serum level of CPK was significantly higher in women with tubal pregnancy particularly if it is ruptured ectopic pregnancy.CPK is consider an important adjuvant in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. So CPK not useful for the primary diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. only serum -hCG assays were used to exclude ectopic pregnancy.

[Amina AbdEfattah Mohamed, Hanaa Farouk Ahmad, Doaa Mahmoud Effat and Zeinab El-Sayed. The Role of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) & B-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (BHCG) in the Early Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy. Nat Sci 2012;10(11):225-230]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). 34



Keywords: creatinine phosphokinase (CPK); B-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (BHCG); Ectopic Pregnancy

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