Nature and Science
Volume 10 - Number 11 (Cumulated No. 68), November 25, 2012
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1011
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Titles / Abstracts / Authors
Sunflowers Cultivar Giza- 102 (Helianthus annuus, L)
Plants to Spraying Some Antioxidants
Al- Qubaie, A. I.
Dept. of Arid Land
Agric. Fac. of Meteorology
Environment & Arid Land Agric. King Abdulaziz Univ. Jaddah,
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
During 2009 and 2010 seasons, plants of sunflower cv. Giza 102
were sprayed thrice with three antioxidants namely vitamin E at
50 ppm, citric acid at 500 ppm and amino acids (tryptophan,
methionene and cystein) at 500 ppm either singly/ or in all
possible combinations. Growth
characters yield and its components as well as plant pigments
(chlorophylls a & b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids) in
response to the present antioxidant treatments were
investigated. Results showed that single and combined
applications of the three antioxidants vitamin E, citric acid
and the three amino acids) was very effective in improving
growth characters namely plant height, stem diameter, number of
leaves per plant and leaf area per plant, diameter and weight of
head, seed yield/ plant, straw yield/ plant, oil yield/ fed,
biomass/ plant, seed index; number of seeds/ head, percentages
of proteins and oil and plant pigments in relative to the check
treatment. This promotion was associated with using E vitamin,
citric acid and amino acids, in ascending order. Combined
application of these antioxidants were favourable than using
each antioxidant alone. In general, the maximum yield per fed.
(seed and oil) of sunflower cv. Giza 102 was recorded by
spraying the plants thrice with a mixture of antioxidants
contains citric acid at 500 ppm, E vitamin at 50 ppm and the
three amino acids (tryptophan, methionene and cystein) at 500
Qubaie, A. I. Response of Sunflowers Cultivar Giza- 102 (Helianthus
annuus, L) Plants to Spraying
Sunflower; Cultivar Giza-102 (Helianthus annuus, L);
SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS
SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBsAg) AMONG YOUNG ADULTS.
James. A. Ndako1, Obinna O. Nwankiti2,
Ezekiel B. Kwari1, Bob-manuel C.Echeonwu1,
Adekunle M.Adekeye1, John Agbontale3,
Adanma R. Uzoechina 1,
Ekaete Akwaowo1, Nathaniel Olawuyi1, Alice
College of Veterinary and Medical laboratory Technology, Vom,
Plateau State, Nigeria
veterinary Research Institute,Vom-Nigeria.
Institute,for fisheries& fresh water Research New-Bussa,Nigeria.
Hepatitis B virus
(HBV) is one of the major global public health problems, with
its attendant risks especially among the young adults. Worldwide
an estimated two billion people are infected with Hepatitis B
virus out of which more than 350 million ends up with chronic
infection; life style among young adults further predisposes
them to infection. As a result the prevalence of HBV infection
was carried out among adolescents using four secondary schools
in a Community. Two hundred (200) sera samples were screened
using the standard ELISA Techniques. Overall result showed that
59 (30%) were Seropositive for the HBsAg. Gender distribution
showed that male volunteers recorded 27(13.5%)positivity
compared to 32(16%) in female subjects. Considering age group,
male subjects aged 15-17years recorded 8% Seropositivity
compared to Females with 11%. Considering risks factors, based
on lifestyle subjects with history of sharing sharp instruments
recorded a prevalence of 5% compared to those with history of
cuts from shared razor blade with 23% Seropositivity, lack of
awareness among the subjects studied recorded 21%.The
Alaninaminotransferase (ALT) result obtained showed that 4
(6.8%) of positive subjects had elevated ALT. This study
therefore emphasizes the public health importance of HBV in the
Community and suggests a prompt public awareness among the
youths in these localities, while a well designed vaccination
schedule is promptly advocated.
A. Ndako, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Ezekiel B. Kwari, Bob-manuel C.
Echeonwu, Adekunle M.Adekeye, John Agbontale, Joshua Gyang,
Adanma R. Uzoechina,
Ekaete Akwaowo, Nathaniel Olawuyi, Alice K.Dalyop.
Serological evidence of Hepatitis B
surface antigen (HBsAg) among young adults.
2012;10(11):7-12]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Prevalence, HBsAg, Young adults
EFFECT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ON FRUIT SET IN HEVEA BRASILIENSIS.
Aghughu, O1; F A. Akpobome2;
E. E. Omo-Ikerodah2 and K. O. Omokhafe4
1. Plant Breeding Division, 2.Biotechnology Division 3. Crop
Improvement and Biotechnology Department
Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Iyanomo, Benin City
Fruit set was evaluated in six crosses of Hevea
brasisliensis clones in Rubber Research Institute of
Nigeria, Iyanomo, Benin City with the objective to evaluate
variation for fruit set among the crosses. Hand pollination was
carried out in 2008 and 2009 using diallel crossing technique
with three replications. Analysis of variance using randomized
complete block design and mean separation were the statistical
tools applied. There was significant variation for crosses in
2008, 2009 and combined analysis. Interaction between crosses
and year was significant. The implications of these results are
[Aghughu, O., Akpobome F A., Omo-Ikerodah E. E., and Omokhafe K.
O. Effect of genetic diversity on fruit set in Hevea
brasiliensis Nat Sci 2012;10(11):13-15].
Fruit set, Hevea brasiliensis
In vitro Study on
Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani Isolates
Causing the Damping Off and Root Rot Diseases in Tomatoes
Karima, H.E. Haggag1
and Nadia, G. El-Gamal2
Pest Rearing, Central Agricultural Pesticides Library,
Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
Plant Pathology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
Isolation from nautrally
infected tomato roots and rhizosphere revealed that Fusarium
solani and Rhizoctonia solani, the causal organism of
damping off and/or root rot diseases, were the most common
pathogenic fungi in the tomato plants. F. solani
was commonly isolated from all surveyed Governorates, than R.
solani. Results of pathogencity revealed that the
Ace, Bromodro, Castle-Rock and Super- Marmande tomato
cultivars showed the different percentages of damping off and
root rot diseases incidence. The cultivar of Ace was susceptible
to F. solani and R. solani infection,
Super-Marmande was highly tolerant, while Boromodro and
Castle-Rock were moderate tolerant cultivars. The tested fungal
isolates were different in their production of
polygolaturonase (PG) and pectin
methylestrase (PME), while
no clear differences in their
enzymes production. Bacillus subtilis and Pesudomonas
fluorescens were sensitive to culture filtrates of F.
solani isolates, while no reaction with R. solani
metabolites was recorded.
vitro, the highest antagonistic effect against the
mycelial growth of F. solani and R. solani was
found with Trichoderma harizianum, followed by
Trichoderma viride, B. subtilis and P.fluorescens,
respectively. Results also revealed that the highest reduction
of mycelial growth of two pathogens was found with fungicide of
Tachigaren 30%, followed by Monceren 25%, Aracur 72.2%, Topsin M
70%, Hymexate 30% and Moncut 25% at tested concentrations.
H.E. Haggag and Nadia, G. El-Gamal. In vitro Study on
Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani Isolates
Causing the Damping Off and Root Rot Diseases in Tomatoes.
2012;10(11):16-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Fungicides,
Tomato, Biological control, Enzymes
Influence of storage time on
biodeterioration, aflatoxin contamination and food values of
onion (Allium cepa )
,Olawuyi OJ 1,Aina DA 2 ,Dada HG1
and Oyelakin AO 3
Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan , Ibadan.Oyo
2Department of Biosciences
and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State.
3College of Agriculture, Igbo-Ora.Oyo State.Nigeria
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Investigations were conducted on the onions (Allium cepa
) stored for 1, 3 , 9 and 12months respectively. The parameters
studied include the proximate analysis and shelf life evaluation
of the spice, mineral elements compositions, level of fungal and
aflatoxin contamination on fresh and stored onion bulbs.
Aspergillus and Fusarium specis were detected in all
the samples while Penicillum sp was found in the 1 year
old onion bulb sample. Proximate analysis showed variation in
their nutrient contents. The moisture content, dry matter,
ascorbic acid, starch, glucose, amino acid, protein and mineral
nutrients were of significant values in all the samples. The
results also showed that the aflatoxin level in the 1st , 3rd
and 9th months were statistically insignificant(P>0.05), while
those of 12 month old samples were relatively high.
[Jonathan SG, Olawuyi OJ, Aina DA, Dada HG
and Oyelakin AO.
Influence of storage time on biodeterioration, aflatoxin
contamination and food values of onion (Allium cepa ).
Sci 2012;10(11):26-32]. (ISSN:
Onion, aflatoxin, fungi, biodeterioration.
Nigeria’s Abundant Lead Ore Deposits for the Development of
Lead-Acid Battery Materials
Oji John Ogheneortega 1,2,
Biliaminu Kareem 2
1.Prototype Engineering Development Institute Ilesa, Osun State.
2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of
Technology, Akure. Nigeria
This project work presents the
development potentials for the production of lead acid battery
materials from selected Nigerian lead ores. This is predicated
on the need for a growing awareness to achieve a more
sustainable societal use of materials. The selection of the ore
was based on economic quantity, economy of refining, and
proximity to a refining and development (centre) plant. Chemical
compositions of existing lead acid battery terminal materials
were determined so that they can be used as controls. The
results show that the selected ores naturally contains high
percentage of lead with sufficient percentage (although less
than 0.01%) of residual elements which are requisite elements
(tin and copper) in the control samples inferring that there is
large amount of recoverable lead with little quantity of
disposable elements in the form of slag when the ore is smelted.
Nigeria provides a
veritable and safe ground for investors, thus the need to
develop the nation’s God given resources to meet developmental
challenges cannot be overemphasized.
[Oji J O, Kareem B.
Nigeria’s Abundant Lead Ore Deposits for the Development of
Lead-Acid Battery Materials.
Development, growth, Benue Trough, solid minerals, Lead-Acid
Battery Terminal, Material, Nigeria, Lead Ore Deposits.
Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) to
available rainwater harvested for crop production in Kinoni
watershed, Kirehe District, Rwanda
Clement Ntandayera1, 2,
1. Higher Institute
of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)-Busogo; Department of
Forestry and Nature Conservation; P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda;
2. Department of
Soil and Water management
University of Rwanda, CGIS, P.O.Box 117 Butare, Rwanda
The purpose of this study conducted in 2011 was to
available rainwater harvested in Kinoni catchment area located
in Kirehe district, Eastern Province in
Rwanda in order to improve crop production. In this area, large
proportion of the arable land is located in areas with water
shortage subject to recurrent dry spells. This region also
experiences long periods of drought leading to the decline of
crop and animal productivity.
Information System and Remote Sensing tools were used to
delineate catchment areas. Data on land use types and soil
characteristics were analysed and Soil Conservation Service-
Curve Number method were applied to estimate the runoff to be
harvested. The daily rainfall record of Nyarubuye station for 30
years was also used. The results revealed that Kinoni catchment
was delineated in two sub-catchments with
a surface area equal to 759.7 ha.
The water area and command catchment area, as sub-catchments
were 580.5 ha and 179.2 ha respectively.
The expected runoff yield
was 5,515.94 m3 per day for the whole catchment while
the Water area catchment had runoff potential equal to 139.8
Ha.m per year. There is a need to assess the quantity of water
required for irrigation and stored in the irrigation structure.
[Nahayo A., Ntandayera C.,
Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote
Sensing (RS) to estimate the available rainwater harvested for
crop production in Kinoni watershed, Kirehe District, Rwanda.
Information System, Remote Sensing, Kinoni watershed, Rwanda.
Potential Role of
on Human Breast Cancer
Osman M1; Wafaa A2;
Nadia E.2; Amany A1 and Doaa E2
of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Helwan
Department of Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo
Background: One of the most versatile plants used in the
traditional Indian medicine system (Ayurveda) is Withania
somnifera (Ashwaghandha). Western research supports its
polypharmaceutical use as antioxidant, immune-modulating,
antistress, a geriatric tonic and in traditional remedies for
inflammations and improve overall physical and mental health.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Withania
somnifera on breast cancer cell line.
.Material & Methods:
The McF7 cells treated by different doses of W.S. root extract.
The viability and cytotoxicity were measured by Trypane blue and
MTT assay. The flow cytometery was used for cell cycle analysis
and the follow up of morphological change was observed by
inverted microscope. The DNA fragmentation test was done.
Results & Discussion: The present study has demonstrated
that W.S. can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in
vitro. .. The results showed that W.S inhibited the
proliferation of MCF7 at high concentration rich to 50% with IC50
0.86%. The flow cytometeric analysis showed changes in cell
cycle phases in treated cells with IC50 dose compared
with control untreated cells. The morphology of cells is
changed according to dose uptake. DNA damaged was measured by
DNA fragmentation test and results showed sever damage of
treated cells when compared with control untreated cells. From
these results we concluded that W.S can inhibit the
proliferation and have cytotoxic effect on human cancer cells
through its selective bioactivity.
M; Wafaa A; Nadia E.; Amany A and Doaa E.
Potential Role of
on Human Breast
Withania somnifera, Breast cancer, antitumor activity.
POLLUTION ASSESSMENT THROUGH COMPARATIVE HYDROBIOLOGICAL
STUDIES OF POND LAXMI TALAB LOCATED AT JHANSI
1 and T. K. Sharma
Department of Chemistry, Bipin Bihari College, Jhansi, U.P.284001, India.
Department of Microbiology, Bipin Bihari College, Jhansi, India.
Water is an extraordinary natural phenomenon, as it is a
valuable resource to mankind from nature. It is impossible to
substitute for most of its uses, difficult to depollute,
expensive to transport. A laboratory study was conducted to
evaluate pollution load of Laxmi talab, by examining the various
physicochemical and bio chemical parameters. It was found
temperature ,pH, conductivity, hardness, Ca, Mg, although not
follow desirable limit ,but results are with in the permissible
limit. Total dissolve solid(TDS), total suspended solid(TSS) and
alkalinity exceeds the permissible limits. Low value of DO and
high value of BOD and COD as well as total coaliform suggested
highly contamination of organic pollutant.
[Surabhi Yadav and T. K. Sharma. POLLUTION
ASSESSMENT THROUGH COMPARATIVE HYDROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF POND
LAXMI TALAB LOCATED AT JHANSI.
KEYWORDS- Physicochemical, Biochemical parameter, Hydrobiology,
Antimicrobial Activity of Orchid. Root Eastern Peninsular Flora
S.Ahmed john2, A.Edward3
1, P.G &
Research Department of Botany Jamal Mohamed College,
Tiruchirappalli- 620 020. Tamilnadu. India.
2, P.G &
Research Department of Botany Jamal Mohamed College,
Tiruchirappalli- 620 020. Tamilnadu. India.
Biotechnology, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli- 620 020
Medicinal plants are potential of antimicrobial activity. The
phytochemical screening and antimicrobial investigation was made
from root extracts of Bulbophyllum Kaitense. The plant material
were collected and shade dried. The petroleum ether,
chloroform. Ethanol and queous extracts were prepared using
with soxhlet apparatus. The various extracts revealed that
presence of phytocomponeds of terpenoids, sponins, Tanins,
Courmarin, quinine, Glycosides, Carbohydrates and sugar. The
antibacierial activity was studied by using agar-wee diffusion
method. The results showed that ethanol and chloroform extracts
inhibit the growth of organisms. The maximum zone of inhitition
was observed in salmonalla typhi (20mm) salmonalla paratyphi (20
mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20mm) and micrococcus Sp., (23mm)
ethanolic root extracrt. Shigella flaxineri, streptococcus and
Bacillus subtilis indicate moderate activity is both extracts.
Antifungal activity was studied the result showed that petroleum
ether. Chloroform. Ethanol and aqueous extracts. Inhibit the
growth of all organisms. Antifungal organisms more or less
activity. It is the first investigation of Bulbophyllum
Kalaiyarasan, S.Ahmed john, A.Edward. Antimicrobial Activity
of Orchid. Root Eastern Peninsular Flora in India.
Bulphyllum kaitense, Antimicrobial activity,
Serological and Molecular
Studies on the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis
Amin. M. M.1, Ahmed,
S. A1., Zaki, H. M2 and Ismail, R. I2
Vet. Medicine & Inf. Diseases,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Cairo University, Egypt.
of Brucellosis Research, Animal Health Research Institute,
Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
included in this study were180 naturally infected non vaccinated
cows in governmental farm (group 1), 125 brucella free cows in
which strain 19 vaccination had never been practiced (group 2)
and 530 strain 19 vaccinated cows (group3). Sera from these
animals were examined for brucellosis using RBPT, BAPAT, Riv.T,
TAT, CFT. For cows suspected to be infected with brucellosis,
the results revealed that the percentage of positive reactors
for RBPT, BAPAT, Riv.T, TAT and CFT were 139(77.2%), 143(79.4%),
130(72.2%), 146(81.1%) and 131(72.8%) respectively. While for
brucella free cows, the percentage of positive reactors were
2(1.6%), 4(3.2%), 1(0.8%), 5(4%) and 1(0.8%) respectively. cows
vaccinated with s19 vaccine using RBPT, BAPAT, Riv.T, TAT, and
CFT revealed that agglutinins were quite evidenced 2 weeks post
vaccination. The number of animals positive for Brucella
antibodies reached maximum at 4 weeks post vaccination. The
incidence of isolation from supramamary and retropharyngeal L.n,
liver , spleen and milk samples were 54%, 48%, 50% , 38%4and
30.3% respectively. the obtained results indicate that
brucella melitensis biovar 3 still the prevalent type
affecting cattle in Egypt. In the present study the results
revealed that PCR assay able to differentiate S19 vaccinated
animals from those infected ones.
M. M., Ahmed, S. A., Zaki, H. M and Ismail, R. I. Serological
and Molecular Studies on the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis.
Molecular studies, Bacterial isolation.
Microwave Mediated Facile
Synthesis of Some Novel Pyrazole, Pyrimidine,
Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine and
Pyrimido[1,2-a] benzimidazole Derivatives Under Solventless
El-Kateb, A.A. a,* ;
Abd El-Rahman, N.M. a; Saleh, T.S. a; Ali,
M. Hassanb; Elhaddad, A. S. b and
Green Chemistry Department,
National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
Chemistry Department, Faculty of
Science, Al -Azhar University, Egypt.
Ssynthesis of some new pyrazole,
pyrimidine, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine
and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives using
as building block via solventless reaction system under
microwave irradiations or in presence of solvent under reflux
conditions were undertaken. In general improvement in yields and
reduction of the reaction time were observed when the reactions
were carried out under microwave irradiation compared with
A.A.; Abd El-Rahman, N.M.; Saleh, T.S.
; Ali, M. Hassan; Elhaddad, A. S. and El-Dosoky, A.Y.
Microwave Mediated Facile Synthesis of Some Novel Pyrazole,
Pyrimidine, Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine
and Pyrimido[1,2-a] benzimidazole Derivatives Under Solventless
enaminone, pyrazole, pyrimidine, benzimidazole
Malaria Vaccine: Hope in the
Cellular Parasitology Unit,
Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan
Malaria has been eating deep
into the heart of mankind from time immemorial. This disease
affects 10 percent of the world’s population. Every year about 2
million children are reported dead. In an attempt to control
this disease since the late 1940s till date, many control
measures had been put in place to reduce human suffering due to
malaria. However many of these measures, if not all, had proved
abortive in an effective control of this disease. Even though
control, most measures are not effective, medicine will never
leave mankind to her fate. The one and only hope for this human
suffering to reduce or completely end, was the invention of
malaria vaccine and since then, hundreds of vaccine had been
developed, more than 80 had been tried at the preclinical stage,
many are at the clinical phase and yet no success. However, the
only one vaccine the world is waiting to be the first malaria
vaccine to be licensed is the RTS, S vaccine. The RTS, S vaccine
is in phase 3 presently, a clinical trial in 11 sites in seven
sub-Saharan African countries. If this phase 3 clinical trial is
successful, by first quarter of 2015 the world will celebrate
the first successful vaccine against malaria.
Malaria Vaccine: Hope in the Future.
2012;10(11):87-95]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Malaria, Control measures, Vaccine, RTS, S vaccine, Clinical and
Pattern of Streptococci and Staphylococci Isolated from Cases Of
Bovine Clinical Mastitis in Nigeria.
Amosun Elizabeth Adesola.
Department of Veterinary
Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.
University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria
are frequently isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy cows.
Limited information is available on the antimicrobial
susceptibility of these organisms in Nigeria. A total of 130
Streptococci and 177
isolated from cases of bovine mastitis from three states in
Nigeria namely; Oyo, Kwara and Kaduna states for a period of one
year were used in this study. Overall, 55.38% of the strains
tested were Streptococcus uberis, 24.62% were Streptococcus
agalactiae, 12.31% were Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 3.85% were
Streptococcus zooepidemicus, 2.31% were Streptococcus bovis and
1.54% were for Streptococcus equines,
25 coagulase negative staphylococcus and 152 Staphylococci
The antimicrobial susceptibility for these organisms was
determined for the following antimicrobial agents: Ampicillin,
Tetracycline, Sulphadimidine, Nalidixic acid, Neomycin and
Streptomycin. Results demonstrated substantial differences in
their resistance patterns for the various organisms. The
resistance patterns revealed 10 distinct resistance groups. All
the streptococci isolate showed resistance to Ampicillin and
tetracycline while 98.46%, 86.15%, 48.46%, 24.62%, and of the
Streptoccoci species were resistance to sulphadimidine,
Neomycin, Streptomycin and Nalidixic acid respectively while
Staphyloccocus aureus had 100% for tetracyclin and
sulphadimidine respectively while 97.37%, 88.16%, 69.08% and
67.11% showed resistance to ampicillin, neomycin, nalidixic acid
and streptomycin respectively. However, Staphylococcus coagulase
negative showed 100% resistance to tetracycline and
sulphadimidine while 72%, 68%, 68%, and 32% showed resistance to
nalidixic acid, neomycin, ampicillin and streptomycin
respectively. The result of this study revealed that dairy
farmers misused these antibiotics by treating cows several times
per case. This study point to the fact that dairy farmers should
take caution in the use of antibiotics for the dairy cows on the
[Amosun Elizabeth Adesola.
Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Streptococci and
Staphylococci Isolated from Cases Of Bovine Clinical Mastitis
2012;10(11):96-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
resistance, bovine, clinical mastitis.
[Nat Sci 2012;10(11):102-108]. (ISSN:
2012;10(11):109-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
2012;10(11):115-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Studies on bio-deterioration,
aflatoxin contamination and food values of fermented, dried and
Abdul-Lateef MB 1 ,
Olawuyi OJ2 and
& Biotechnology Unit, 2Genetics &
Molecular Biology unit,
of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria
Four samples of both fresh and stored sweet potato chips were
analyzed for proximate composition, presence of
bio-deteriorating fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1,
B2, G1 and G2) contamination.
Results of food values of the samples revealed that the
percentage moisture content increased with storage from 60.8% to
78.6% in fresh and nine-month stored sweet potato samples
respectively. Carbohydrate content reduced significantly from
19.5% to 9.9% while, crude protein was from 9.7% to 7.4%) and
fat 1.5% to 0.7%.Generally, it was observed that the nutrient
contents decreased with increasing period of storage in all of
the samples. Mycobiological examinations carried out on the test
samples showed the presence of Aspergillus tamari,
Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus,
Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium compacticum and
Saccharomyces spp. The study further revealed that the
presence of bio-deteriorating fungi stimulated the production of
aflatoxins especially in the long stored Ipomea batatas
flours .Observation on mycotoxin detection showed that aflatoxin
B1 had the highest concentration of 0.0023ug/kg in
the 9 month stored samples, representing 21.1% of the total
aflatoxin detected in the samples. These results were discussed
in relation to the nutritional quality and health implication of
consuming fresh and stored
Olawuyi OJ and Oyelakin
Studies on bio-deterioration,
aflatoxin contamination and food values of fermented,
dried and stored
Ipomea batatas chips, fermentation, storage,
biodeterioration, nutrient values,
Reaction Kinetics for
Nitrosation of DAF-2 in Air
Saturated Nitric Oxide Solution
Olasehinde, E. F.1, 2,
Ogunsuyi, H.O. 2, Abata,
Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University,
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology,
Understanding the reaction rate
constant of a probe compound with its target molecule is
essential for its selection and use in biological and
non-biological systems. Over the past decade, the probe, 4,
5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) has been widely employed for the
detection and imaging of nitric oxide (NO•) in various media.
However, the rate constant for the nitrosation of DAF-2 in
air-saturated nitric oxide solution is far from being
understood. For the first time, we have determined the second
order rate constant for the reaction of DAF-2 with NO• (k2)
in air-saturated solution using competition kinetics method.
An alternative competition kinetics
method which involves a reciprocal plot of the reactant (DAF-2)
and triazolofluorescein (DAF-2T), the product formed from the
reaction of DAF-2 with NO• was
developed and compared to the standard competition kinetics
method. Our particular approach in this system is based
on the use of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2), a potent
scavenger of NO• against the DAF-2 which serves as the detector
molecule. The product, DAF-2T, is
separated from the reaction mixture by reversed-phase high
performance liquid chromatography and its fluorescence intensity
signals were measured at excitation and emission of 495 and 515
nm respectively. The results showed that the second order
reaction rate constant of DAF-2 with NO• in
air-saturated aqueous solution are comparable, with the average
value of (6.28 ± 0.45) × 10 6 M-1s-1.
Also, DAF-2 can react with NO• directly thereby by-passing the N2O3-mediated
formation of DAF-2T at low NO• formation rates.
EF, Ogunsuyi, HO, Abata, OE, Sakugawa, H.
Reaction Kinetics for Nitrosation of DAF-2 in Air
Saturated Nitric Oxide
Rate constant; Competition
kinetics; Nitric oxide; DAF-2; DAF-2T; HPLC
Comparison of ELISA with
traditional methods used for evaluation of blackleg and gas
El-Helw, H.A.; Elham F
El-Sergany; Taha, M.M.; Abdella, Y.A.; El-Sehemy, M. M.
Veterinary Serum and Vaccine
Research Institute, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.
Potency test for bivalent
clostridial vaccine against Blackleg and Gas gangrene mainly
based on challenge test for estimation of bacterial
immunogenicity of Clostridium chauvoei, and on serum
neutralization test or hemolysin test for the Clostridium
septicum toxigenicity. In this study, ELISA was done for
evaluation of immunogenicity of Blackleg and Gas gangrene
vaccine; three batches of vaccine were evaluated in guinea pigs,
rabbits, and sheep. Challenge test; plate agglutination test,
and indirect ELISA were done for Clostridium chauvoei, on
the other hand, serum neutralization test; Hemolysin test, and
Indirect ELISA were carried out for Clostridium
septicum. The results obtained by ELISA pass parallel with
challenge test, plate agglutination test, and Hemolysin test and
there is no significant difference between them. Also there is
great reproducibility in the results obtained in three batches.
Also alpha toxoid of Clostridium septicum containing
vaccine can be evaluated in guinea pigs, and there is great
correlation between units obtained in sera of guinea pigs and
that obtained in rabbits. So it concluded that the batch potency
for C. chauvoei and C. septicum could be done by
ELISA and replaced the traditional methods for evaluation due to
precision, sensitivity, rapid, and save animals used.
H.A.; Elham F El-Sergany; Taha, M.M.; Abdella, Y.A.; El-Sehemy,
M. M. Comparison of ELISA with traditional methods used for
evaluation of blackleg and gas gangrene vaccine.
Clostridial vaccine, ELISA,
Comparison of PetrifilmTM and
Standard Pour Plate method for the Analysis of Fruit Juices in
Kurup, R & Persaud, L
Faculty of Health Sciences,
University of Guyana, Turkeyen Campus, Georgetown, Guyana, South
The aim of this study was to
analyze the quality of fruit juices using conventional pour
plate method and Petrifilm method. The Petrifilm aerobic plate
count developed by 3MTM Laboratories is a ready to use system
for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in different foods. A
total of 31 unpasteurized juices, 31 pasteurized juices and 31
water samples were analyzed to correlate the methods
independently. The total viable bacteria count ranged from >300
to 1 CFU/ml by both pour plate method and Petrifilm method in
the unpasteurized juices samples. The comparison of water sample
with pour plate method against the Petrifilm method showed a
significant correlation (0.998, p-value < 0.05). Mean microbial
count in pour plate method was 126.5CFU/ml and mean microbial
count in petrifilm method was 129.9CFU/ml. Brix, pH and total
acidity of the juice didn’t show any effect on the method of
analysis. Regardless of the type of juice, the Petrifilm was
found to be comparable with the conventional method in analyzing
total aerobic bacteria from fruit juices and method can be used
widely in Guyana or other countries.
R & Persaud, L.
Comparison of PetrifilmTM and Standard Pour Plate method for the
Analysis of Fruit Juices in Guyana.
Petrifilm method, Pour plate method, pasteurized, unpasteurized,
fruit juices, water
Vector abundance and Prevalence
of Malaria Parasites among hostel Residential Students of Nnamdi
Azikiwe University Awka, Southeastern Nigeria.
A.E., 1Ikpo A.U. , 1Obiukwu M.O and 2Amadi,
1.Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of
Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra
2. Department of Microbiology, School of Science, Federal
University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
This study determined the abundance of mosquitoes in the
environment and hostels of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,
Nigeria. It also investigated the prevalence of malaria
parasites among students residing in the hostels. Mosquito
larvae were collected from the hostel surroundings while adult
mosquitoes were collected from hostel A, B, D and postgraduate
blocks respectively using standard technique. A total of 149
students were examined for malaria parasite. The result of the
study showed that 720 mosquito larvae and 201 adult mosquitoes
were respectively obtained from the hostel environments.
Anopheles mosquitoes constituted 18.19% of the total mosquito
collected. Malaria parasites were detected in the blood of 58
(38.9%) out of the 149 students studied. The prevalence rate was
highest among students residing in block D (43.59%) while those
of postgraduate block (12.11%) had the least. 3 (5.58%) students
had high intensity infection, 16 (27.58%) medium intensity and
39 (67.24%) had low level infection. The male students (43.33%)
yielded more malaria parasites than their female counterparts.
The result suggests that hostel residential students of the
target institution are exposed to malaria infection due to the
terrain and environmental conditions around the hostels. The
need to maintain good sanitary conditions in school hostels and
its surroundings is hereby emphasized.
[Onyido A.E, Ikpo A.U, Obiukwu
M.O, Amadi, E.S. Vector
abundance and Prevalence of Malaria Parasites among hostel
Residential Students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka,
Mosquito larvae, Malaria parasite, Students hostel
Cephalometric evaluation of
Age-dependent Craniofacial Skeleton Changes in children of 7-17
years age group: Assessment of Gender Impact
Esam M. Mehlab*
and Gamal Abdel Salam**
Faculty of Public Health & Health
Informatics, Um-El Qurra University, Mekkah* and Faculty of Medicine,
Northern Border University, ArAr, KSA**
This study was
Faculty of Public Health & Health
Informatics, Um-El Qurra University, Mekkah and Faculty of
Medicine, Northern Border University, ArAr, KSA. The study aimed
the age and sex dependent changes of the craniofacial skeleton
during the age period of 7-17 years old. Two hundred 200
children and adolescents (100 males and 100 females) were
categorized according to age into 5 equal groups and underwent
postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms using a high resolution (600
dpi), after digitizing the PA landmarks. The landmark
co-ordinates were used to calculate the cranial,
bifrontotemporal, bizygomatic, mid-facial, maxillary skeletal
base, bigonial, biantegonial and nasal widths. Measurements of
the maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths were made
directly on plaster models with a dial caliper. There was a
progressive age-dependent increase of cranial width with a
significant increase in males compared to females and the
difference was highly significant in age group 9-11 years.
Bifrontotemporal width despite showed progressive increase with
age in both sexes, which was significant only in older male
children compared to females. Bizygomatic width showed a
progressive significant difference with advance of age to peak
at 15-17 years old children. Both mid-facial width and maxillary
skeletal base width showed progressive increase with age, which
was significant in all age strata being most significant in
older age groups for both variables. Bigonial and biantegonial
widths showed non-significant differences between males and
females in all age groups, whereas, nasal width showed
progressive significant difference, between males and females.
Both maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths showed
progressive significant difference, between males and females
with age. Conclusion: there was a significant change in the
transverse craniofacial skeleton with age that was significantly
evident in male measurements compared to female ones.
M. Mehlab and Gamal Abdel Salam.
Cephalometric evaluation of Age-dependent Craniofacial Skeleton
Changes in children of 7-17 years age group: Assessment of
Molecular studies, Bacterial isolation
Application of Geographic
Information System (GIS) for mapping land use types in Musanze
Nsengumuremyi1, Isaac Ekise1
Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
(ISAE)-Busogo; Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation;
P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda; Email:
The purpose of this study was to apply Geographic Information
System (GIS) for mapping different land use types. This study
was conducted in Sahara, Gisesero and Kavumu cells of Busogo
Sector from May to June 2012. In this area, land use management
practices are not well applied and therefore, the natural
environment is being degraded and this is illustrated by the
cropping on hills and mountains with high slope area while they
are appropriate for forest plantations. This study provides the
information on how forests and other land use types should be
managed in order to sustain the environment. Global Positioning
System (GPS) was used to collect data and Arc map GIS 9.2
software was used for data analysis. Results showed that
forestland occupies 42.5 ha (3.15 % of total study area), the
area covered by crops while it is more appropriate to grow
forests occupies 45.7 ha (3.45
%), the total area that must be occupied by the forest is 6.6%
and the area covered by human settlement, city and institutions
is 116.5 ha
(8.79 %). The remaining 1045 ha (84 % of study area) is used in
agricultural activities, agroforestry and infrastructure. Forest
managers should advocate for planting trees in all areas with
steep slope on hills and mountains and in areas where
agriculture has no potential with good sylvicultural practices
and expanding the agriculture in lowland where the erosion risk
A, Nsengumuremyi C, Ekise I.
Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) for mapping
land use types in Musanze district, Rwanda.
Geographic Information System (GIS), land use types, Musanze
Seasonal Influence of
Physicochemical Variables on Phytoplankton Abundance in Jebel
Aulia Reservoir in Khartoum – Sudan
Yatta S. LUKAW1,
2; John Leju Celestino LADU2,3;
Denis D. KENYI4
College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies,
Department of Basic Sciences, University of Juba, South Sudan.
School of Energy and Environment, Dept. of Environmental
Science and Engineering Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P.
College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies.
Dept. of Environmental Studies, University of Juba, South Sudan.
College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies,
Department of Fisheries, University of Juba, South Sudan.
Seasonal influence of physiochemical variables on the
phytoplankton abundance was studied for one year from January
2003 to December 2003 in Jebel Aulia reservoir in Khartoum,
Sudan. Selected physicochemical variables such as water
temperature, rainfall, sechi depth, water discharge, pH,
dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic matter; nitrate, phosphate
and silicate were measured at the time of phytoplankton
collection. All raw data
were log transformed Log10(X+1) for normality
and parametric statistical test requirements were statistically
analyzed using SPSS 16 for windows. Generally, the reservoir and
its surrounding water was alkaline (pH- 7.99 ± 0.09 μgl-l-1).
The mean water temperature was (28.05 ±2.22oC);
rainfall, (26.58 ±9.64mm); discharge, (65.75 ±7.10 (106m3)
and the mean sechi depth measured was (120.59 ±23.77cm).
Dissolved oxygen level was generally (7.98 ±0.303 mg/l);
dissolved organic matter, (14.28±0.58 mgO2/l);
nitrate, (3858.50 ±1087.37 μgl-1); phosphate, (340.83
±12.44 μgl-1) and silicate level was
(29716.67±2621.47 μgl-1). A total phytoplankton
biomass of 13275.5 cells L-1 was recorded in the
reservoir of which 8397.5
cells L-1 occurred in the rainy season, 4898 cell L-1
in the dry season. All
the physicochemical variables did not vary (P>0.05) between the
rainy and the dry seasons, water temperature, transparency and
rainfall varied significantly between the rainy and the dry
seasons. All the phytoplankton classes indicated positive
correlations ( P < 0.05) with the nutrients PO4
and SiO2 , no correlation with NO3;
positive correlation ( P < 0.05 ) with rainfall,
negative correlations with water temperature and transparency
and were not correlated with water discharge. A total of 33
phytoplankton genera were recorded, the phytoplankton classes
dominated by Bacillariophyceae >Chlorophyceae>
Phytoplankton Density is influenced by both physicochemical
variables and biotic, hydrobiological and hydrographic features
of the reservoir.
S. LUKAW; Denis D. KENYI; John Leju Celestino LADU.
Seasonal Influence of
Physicochemical Variables on Phytoplankton Abundance in Jebel
Aulia Reservoir in Khartoum – Sudan.
phytoplankton; biomass; biotic; physicochemical variables; sechi
Oxidation of Elemental Sulphur as a Means of Increasing Sulphate
Availability and Combating Alkalinity in Soils
Chibuike, G. U.,
Agbim, N. N., and Asadu, C. L. A.
Department of Soil
Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
Author: Chibuike, G. U.
oxidation of elemental sulphur was studied using three different
soils and three different organic materials in order to assess
sulphate production. The three soils were either amended with
only elemental sulphur or with elemental sulphur and one of the
organic materials at any of two different rates (5% and 20%).
The experiment was laid out in a 3 x 3 x 8 Factorial in
Completely Randomized Design and the treatments were replicated
three times. They were brought to their field capacities and
incubated at room temperature. At the end of each incubation
period, a set of the treatment was sampled and analysed for the
amount of sulphate formed. The change in pH in the various
samples was also measured. The net sulphate formed increased
significantly (P < 0.05) with increases in incubation
period in each of the three soils. The treatments amended with
organic materials significantly produced more sulphate with time
compared with the treatments without organic amendments. Higher
rates (20%) of each organic material were significantly better
than their lower rates (5%) with the plantain peels treatments
producing the highest amounts of sulphates than the other
organic materials in all the soils. Loam soil was significantly
better than the other two soils in terms of sulphate formation
with time while sandy soil produced the least amount of sulphate
with time. The change in pH decreased significantly (P <
0.05) with increases in incubation period for all the
treatments. Loam soil samples showed the greatest amounts of pH
reduction with time. Soils amended with organic materials also
showed higher amounts of pH reduction than the soils without
additional organic materials. Microbial oxidation of elemental
sulphur using appropriate organic materials such as plantain
peels is therefore recommended as a means of ameliorating
sulphur deficiency and alkalinity in soils.
G. U., Agbim, N. N., and Asadu, C. L. A. Microbial Oxidation
of Elemental Sulphur as a Means of Increasing Sulphate
Availability and Combating Alkalinity in Soils. Nat
2012;10(11):176-181]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
microbial oxidation, elemental sulphur, sandy soil, loamy soils,
Ultrasonographic assessment of
Body Fat Distribution in Obese Children
Soheir B Fayed1,
Ateyat A Ateya1, Hala M Thorya1 and
Mohamed A El Shazly2
Department of 1Pediatrics
and 2Radiology, Faculty of Medicine for girls,
Faculty of Medicine for Boys, Al-Azhar University
Pattern of fat distribution rather than obesity is of importance
for metabolic disorders and for cardio- vascular morbidity and
mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess body fat
distribution by ultrasound (US) and to compare between
ultrasonographic finding and the anthropometric findings .Patients
and Methods : This study is a cross-sectional comparative
study. The study included 40 obese children (21 males and 19
females), with ages ranged from 4 to 16 years , and 40 non-obese
children (20 males and 20 females), with ages ranged from 3 to
16 years. Ultrasonographic assessment of body fat were performed
for all participants, including ; abdominal preperitoneal (P),
subcutaneous (S) fat at their maximum (max) and minimum (min)
thickness sites, visceral (V), triceps (TrUS) and subscapular (SsUS)
fat thicknesses .Also anthropometric measurements were taken for
all children, including body mass index (BMI), waist
circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height
ratio (WHtR), triceps (Tr) and subscapular
(Ss) skin fold thickness. Results: There was a highly
significant difference between obese and control group in both
US measurements and anthropamtric measurements except waist to
hip ratio (WHR). BMI and WC were significantly correlated to all
US measurements. No relation was found between WHR and US
measurements. Multiple regression analysis using (V) as the
dependent variable and anthropometric parameters and gender as
the independent variables, reveled that BMI was the best single
predictor of visceral fat thickness (V). In the obese children,
92.5% were found to have central obesity. Conclusion:
From this study, Ultrasound has been proposed as an alternative
non-invasive technique to measure subcutaneous and visceral fat
thickness. In this study, BMI provided the best estimate of body
fat. On the contrary to that in adults, WHR was not a good index
to show intra-abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents.
WC and WHtR were more reliable in this clinical study.
[Soheir B Fayed1, Ateyat A Ateya,
Hala M Thorya and Mohamed A El Shazly.
Ultrasonographic assessment of Body Fat Distribution in Obese Children.
2012;10(11):182-187]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Body; Fat; Distribution; Obese; Children
about maximum rise of trajectory of 30° and 45°
inclined dense jets
Fariborz Mohammadi1; Heydar Ali Kashkuli1;
Saied Boroomand nasab1; Abd Ali Naseri1;
of Irrigation and
Drainage, Water Science faculty, Chamran university of Ahwaz,
This paper reports
experimental and mathematical results of an investigation of
inclined round buoyant jets in a stationary ambient. The
experiments were conducted in a glass-walled channel 7 m long by
0.72 m wide by 0.7 m deep. The visual dimensionless maximum
height of trajectory rise and the relatively horizontal location
as a function of densimetric Froude number is investigated at
brine jet angles 45° and 60° towards the horizon. The various
results of previous studies has caused confusion arise in this
field. Using different methods to capturing the trajectory
properties and choose different range of Froude number in
various studies are two main reasons for this problem. The
range of Froude number in this study was 5.3 to 15.6. The
dimensionless Zmax/D number changes as a function of
Froude number is fairly linear. Slope of The trend line is the
same at both jet angle 45° and 60°. This suggests that changes
in Froude value have the same effect on the dimensionless Zmax/FrD
number at both jet angles. The results of mathematical model are
shown that the Flow-3D has a good Capability to simulate the
maximum rise and the horizontal distance of it.
[Mohammadi F, Kashkuli HA, Boroomand nasab S, Naseri AA, Ahadian J.
Investigation about maximum rise of trajectory of
30° and 45° inclined dense jets.
round buoyant jet, terminal of
trajectory, brine disposal, stagnant ambient.
Sewage treatment Plant,
Hazratbal, Srinagar,Jammu and Kashmir,India.
* P.G Department of Environment
S.P. Post Graduate College, Srinagar, 190006, Jammu & Kashmir,
research lab. S.P. Post Graduate College, Srinagar, 190006,
Jammu & Kashmir, India.
The current study was undertaken
at Sewage treatment plant (STP) Hazratbal, Srinagar located at
the shores of world famous Dal lake. Comparative analyses were
undertaken for raw sewage entering the STP and treated sewage
discharged into the Dal Lake at aforesaid site. The parameters
which were analyzed during the study included Temperature, pH,
Electrical conductance , Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),
Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Chloride (Cl¯), Sodium, Potassium,
Total dissolved solids(TDS), Total suspended solids(TSS), Total
solids(TS), Nitrogen (as nitrate-nitrogen and
ammonical-nitrogen), and Phosphorous (as ortho-phosphate and
total phosphate).It was observed that the parameters namely
TS(9.3%), TSS(25%), Am.Nitrogen(27%), Na(28%), K(23%), Ca(25%),
Mg(32%), BOD(57%) and COD(60%) showed reduction in their
concentration during treatment at STP while as that of
TP(35%) showed increase in their concentration respectively
after treatment at STP.
[Uzma jan and S.K.Rafiq.
Efficiency of Sewage treatment Plant, Hazratbal, Srinagar,Jammu
2012;10(11):195-198]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Sewage treatment, Plant,
Hazratbal, Srinagar,Jammu, Kashmir.
the Water Quality of El-Salam Canal
Reham M. Elkorashey
Researcher, Central Laboratory
for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water
Research Center (NWRC), Egypt
This study explores the water quality of El-Salam canal
resulting from using the mixed Nile water and agricultural
drainage water (ADW) for irrigation purposes. Over the period
from February through September 2010, 64 water samples were
collected from eight sites. By comparing the chemical values
obtained with Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and Water
Environment Federation (WEF) guidelines on use for irrigation
purposes and the bacteriological values obtained to World Health
Organization (WHO) guidelines, it was found that there is no
restriction on use for irrigation purposes for pH, COD, BOD and
heavy metals while slight to moderate restriction on use for
irrigation for EC, TDS, alkalinity, Na, Cl and fecal coliform.
It was concluded that the concentration of most of measured
parameters increased after mixing with Bahr Hadous drain which
may be attributed to the inorganic salts and organic loads of
the drain due to the disposal of sewage, urban and agricultural
runoff as well as industrial wastewater into the drain before
mixing with El Salam canal freshwater. The study emphasized
the urgent need for
effective strategies for the treatment of the drainage water
resources before mixing with the Nile water and introducing
on-site treatment technologies of drainage water to help improve
water quality along El-Salam canal. It also recommended studying
the impact of changing the drainage water – freshwater mixing
ratios at Bahr Hadous pump station, in addition to predicting
the best ratio that improves the water quality.
[Reham M. Elkorashey.
Exploring the Water Quality of El-Salam Canal.
quality, El-Salam canal, Damietta branch, Irrigation criteria
Bleeding study of Nano-form
as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100% Dark Polyester
Abd El-Moniem Abd
El-Moniem Mahmoud1, Emad El-Deen Allam2
Hassan Morsy Azzam2
of textile printing & finishing. CEO of SPI Company.
Printing, Dyeing and Finishing Department, Faculty of applied
arts. Helwan University
is a dye migration from the dyed poly ester fabric into the
printed or coated film, to avoid this problem different additive
were studied as ESO, metal-metal stabilizer “CaZn “and Nano form
calcium carbonate ,in this study ESO react with the liable
chlorine of PVC and minimize the liberation of HCl in presence
of CaZn as heat stabilizer, calcium carbonate has high
efficiency as heat stabilizer and showing good filling
properties reducing the ink cost, Nano-form titanium dioxide
used in different ratios to achieve suitable whiteness. Suitable
recipe PVC/DEHP composite which achieves high bleed resist
printing and coating film reported in this study, the maximum
whiteness achieved was 78.2.whiteness and particle size of all
recipes were measured.
El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud, Emad El-Deen Allam
Hassan Morsy Azzam. Bleeding
study of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2
(Composite as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100%
Dark Polyester Fabric.
ESO (epoxy soy bean oil),
DEHP (diethyl hexyl phthalate),ATBC (acetyl tri butyl
Soil Quality and Increasing Yield of Wheat Crop Followed by
Maize Crop Grown on Calcareous Soils
Azza R. Ahmed; M. M. Abbass and
M. E. EL-Fayoumy
Soils, Water and Environ. Res.
Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt
A field experiment was conducted in two successive years
2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at the farm of Nubaria Agriculture
Research Station (Calcareous soil). Two seasons in each year
were carried out during winter 2009 /2011 and summer 2010 and
winter 2010/2011 and summer 2011 season. To study the effect and
residual effect of farmyard manure (FM) application under two
different sources of nitrogen mineral fertilizers on some soil
hydro-physical properties and wheat and maize yields and yield
components.. Also, to assess and compare of farm profitability
of all tested variables. The obtained results revealed that the
addition of FYMat rates of 0, 30, 40 m3/Fed-1
compared with mineral nitrogen fertilizer sources
[ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium sulfate (AS)] at levels of
zero, 75% and 100% of the recommended dose has a positive effect
on hydro-physical properties. Whereas the highest level of (FYM
40 m3.Fed-1) reduced the unconfined
compressive strength (USC) by about 33% for 2009/2010 and 43.9%
in 2010 /2011 compared to the control. The mean values for
Hydraulic conductivity (Khcmhr-1)
and Infiltration rate (IRcmhr-1) for the
highest rate of FYM (40m3.Fed-1) were
arranged in ascending order Kh = (3.87 cm h-1and
4.01 cm h-1) and I.R (8.18 cmh-1and8.27
cmh-1) for AN and AS in 2009 / 2010 respectively.
While, in season 2010/ 2011 at the highest rate of FYM (40m3.
Fed-1) was arranged as Kh= 4.19 cm h-1 and
4.44 cm h-1, while for I.R = 8.42 cm h-1
and 8.4 cm h-1 for AN and AS respectively. The total
porosity increased by increasing the rate of FYM while at the
highest rate of FYM (40 m3. Fed-1) the mean value of
E% increased by about 9% than the control in the first season
2009/2010 and increased by about 9.8% in the second season
(residual effect) for both different sources of mineral nitrogen
fertilizers over the control. As well as, the mean value of soil
available water ( W.A) at the highest rate of FYM was increased
by about 45% in the first and second season 2009/2010 and
2010/2011 over the control. On the other hand, the dose 75% of
mineral nitrogen fertilizers ascertain an improvement for the
first winter season on wheat plants for each of the following
1000 seed weight, grain yield and RIY%. Where, the 1000 seed
weight increased by 29% and 33% than the control but in the
second year, the mean values of 1000 seed weight percentage
decreased at a level 75% by 3% and 2% for AN and AS than the
first season. While the mean values of grain yield increased
by150% and 185.5% for AN and AS respectively over the control.
As well as, the mean values of the relative increasing in yield%
(RIY%) for grain which obtained at level 75% for both AN and AS
were increased by about 34.78 and 32.84 respectively over the
control. Similarly, for the dose 75% in corn yield for summer
season, the mean values of 100-seed weight (g) for the highest
rate of FYM (40 m3. Fed-1) increased at level 75 by
about 38.13 and 38.19g for AN and AS, respectively than the
control. The mean values of relative increasing yield %RIY could
be arranged in the ascending order 26.99%-28.11% at level 75%
for Am and AS levels respectively. While the RIY %was increased
at a level 75%by2. 13% and 4.59% than the first season for both
ANand AS respectively. Comparison between the data in first and
second season for corn yield in two summer seasons, there is no
significant effect on the mean values of 100 seed weighs, seed
yield and RIY%.
R. Ahmed; M. M. Abbass and M. E. EL-Fayoumy.
Enhance Soil Quality and Increasing Yield of Wheat Crop
Followed by Maize Crop Grown on Calcareous Soils.
Nat Sci 2012;10(11):212-220].
Soil Quality; Wheat Crop; Maize
Crop; Grown; Calcareous Soil
Comparative Study on Bacterial Quality of Fresh and Frozen
Shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) Sold in Retail Markets in Port
Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
and Ibe, Stella. Nwabuogo
Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323, Port
Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Fresh and frozen shrimp sold in retail markets in Port Harcourt
were examined for bacterial quality using standard plate count,
total coliform count and pH value. A total of ten fresh and
frozen shrimp samples were purchased and tenfold serial dilution
were spread plated in duplicates on nutrient and MacConkey agar
plates and incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Fresh
samples had average pH of 7. 21±0.16 and gave total plate counts
of 1.89 x105 to 3.1x107 cfu/g and total
coliform counts of 2.72 x105 to 3.1 x 105
cfu/g. The frozen samples had average pH value of
8.55±0.28 and total plate counts of 8.00x106 to
9.9x106 cfu/g and total coliform counts of 8.50x104
to 1.00x105 cfu/g. All isolates were sub-cultured
onto nutrient agar and identified based on standard biochemical
tests. The following isolates were identified from fresh
samples, Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Serratia
sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., and
Escherichia coli, while the frozen samples had
Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus sp., Alcaligenes
sp., Bacillus sp., and Micrococcus sp. Bacterial
contaminants of shrimp is a reflection of the harvesting
environment, the quality of the overlaying waters and
post-process contamination through unhygienic handling,
processing, packaging and storage as well as the filthy
environment of the market place. The various bacterial isolates
are potential pathogens and spoilage organisms.
Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) is extremely
potent with as little as 100ng sufficient to cause intoxication.
Hence shrimp marketed in Nigeria are mainly smoked or dried to
make the product less hazardous. The International Commission on
the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF) recommended
total bacterial count for shrimp as 1x107 cfu/g. The
results revealed that both fresh and frozen shrimp sold in Port
Harcourt retail markets did not meet the recommended ICMSF
bacteriological standards for shrimp quality and so cannot be
[Solomon, L. and Ibe, S. N. Comparative Study on
Bacterial Quality of Fresh and Frozen Shrimp (Palaemonetes
spp.) Sold in Retail Markets in Port Harcourt, Rivers State,
ICMSF, Intoxication, Bacteriological standards, Potential
pathogens, Port Harcourt.
of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) & B-Human Chorionic
Gonadotropin (BHCG) in the Early Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy
Amina AbdEfattah Mohamed1,
Hanaa Farouk Ahmad1, Doaa Mahmoud Effat1and
Department of Obstetrics
&Gynecology1 &Community Department2,
Faculty of Medicine for Girls, AlAzhar University.
Despite advanced detection methods, ectopic pregnancy may be
missed in 40% to 50% of patients on an initial visit.' Most
women with Ectopic pregnancy have no risk factors and the
classic triad of a history of amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and
irregular vaginal bleeding is absent in more than half of cases.
Early diagnosis not only decreases maternal mortality and
morbidity; it also helps preserve future reproductive
capacity--only one third of women with ectopic pregnancy have
subsequent live births. Top of Form
Bottom of Form.
discover the role of creatinine phosphokinase in early diagnosis
of tubal ectopic pregnancy & integrity of tube [intact or
rupture]. Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Aim of the work:
Decrease maternal mortality and morbidity.
Place and Duration:
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine AL-Azhar
University from February to June 2011.
Patients and Methods:
Thirty women with ectopic pregnancy were enrolled in this study,
for all patients' complete history taking and physical
examination was done. A venous blood sample was collected for
serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) & serum beta
human chorionic gonadotropin
followed by routine investigations and ultrasongraphy of
abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound.
10 patients had ruptured ectopic pregnancy (42.6%), 14 patients
had intact Ectopic pregnancy (58.2%), mean of BHCG ratio was
1.428.The mean of CPK was 111.182 IU/l in the intact tube and
440.625 IU/L in ruptured tube . The mean of BHCG was 1146.20IU/L
in intact tube and 1667.66 IU/L in ruptured tube.
Maternal serum level of CPK was significantly higher in women
with tubal pregnancy particularly if it is ruptured ectopic
pregnancy.CPK is consider an important adjuvant in the early
diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.
So CPK not useful for the primary
diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. only serum ß-hCG assays were
used to exclude ectopic pregnancy.
[Amina AbdEfattah Mohamed, Hanaa
Farouk Ahmad, Doaa Mahmoud Effat and Zeinab El-Sayed.
The Role of creatinine
phosphokinase (CPK) & B-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (BHCG) in
the Early Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy.
Nat Sci 2012;10(11):225-230].
creatinine phosphokinase (CPK); B-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (BHCG);
in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review
starting from July 23, 2012.
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