Nature and Science
Volume 10 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 69), December 25, 2012
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Titles / Abstracts / Authors
Design, fabrication and testing of hydraulic crane
Muhammadu Masin MUHAMMADU
Mechanical Engineering, Federal University
Technology P.M.B. 65, Minna, Nigeria
In this paper, design, fabrication and testing of hydraulic
crane is intended to replace the local or traditional method of
lifting heavy load with hand with emphasis being laid on
performance, safety and reliability. Also, hydraulic crane is
capable of carrying load up to 1000kg at a time was developed
using locally available materials. The crane is comprised of six
primary load-carrying members that are joined together in a
particular fashion, actuator, oil tank, hose, pipe and a pump
that is powered by a D.C. motor. The principle of operation,
fabrication details and methods were critically analyzed,
calculations were clearly laid out and material selection and
costing were also discussed. The machine Factor of Safety (FOS)
is 2 and in the performance evaluation, it indicated 81.2%
Design, fabrication and testing of hydraulic crane.
2012;10(12):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Pump, actuator, hydraulic crane, reliability, load, hose and
heterocyclic syntheses: part 5: isoniazid-enaminone a new
organic synthon and tuberculostatic candidate.
Faida H. Ali
Bamanie1, A. S. Shehata2, M. A. Moustafa3,
4 and M. M. Mashaly*2
of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz
of Chemistry, Faculty of Science at (New) Damietta, Mansoura
of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura
University, Mansoura, Egypt.
of PharmaceuticalChemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz
of nicotinic, isonicotinic acid hydrazides 1a,bwith1,3-cyclohexanedione
2, in water, using acetic acid as catalyst, afforded
enaminone derivatives 3a,b.
[Faida H. Ali
Bamanie, A. S. Shehata, M. A. Moustafa and M. M. Mashaly.
Enaminones in heterocyclic syntheses: part 5:
isoniazid-enaminone a new organic synthon and tuberculostatic
candidate. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):7-10].
nicotinic hydrazide, isoniazid, isoniazid-enaminone,
Study the effect of coffee and
cardamom on the viability of some probiotic strains and their
Amnah A. H. Rayes
Biology Department - Faculty of
Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University - Kingdom of Saudi
The aim of this
research was studying
the effect of coffee and cardamom on the viability of some
probiotic strains and their cytotoxicity, also determining the
optimal percentage for use of each of them. 5% coffee inhibits
the growth of all probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium bifidum;
Bifidobacterium breve; Bifidobacterium infantis; Lactobacillus
acidophilus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; Lactobacillus reuteri and
Enterococcus faecium). No growth was observed at 7.5%
coffee or more except Ent. faecium.
1% cardamom had moderate effect on the viability of probiotic
strains. While 3% or more completely inhibit all probiotic
strains. Also, cardamom extract at different
had inhibitory activity on E. coli, Salmonella typhi , S. aureus, and Bacillus cereuss and the coffee extract had inhibitory activity on all strains at 5%, however no inhibitory
activity was observed against E. coli, or Salmonella
typhi at 2.5%. S. aureus has been identified as the
most sensitive strain against cardamom and coffee. Cardamom and
coffee have a strong influence as anticancer cells in the liver
and acceptable effect in the colon.
A. H. Rayes Study the
effect of coffee and cardamom on the viability of some probiotic
strains and their cytotoxicity.
2012;10(12):11-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Key words: cardamom, coffee, probiotic, and cytotoxicity
of Survivin expression in patients with Oral Lichen Planus
Manar M. El-Sholkamy1;
Heba Ahmad Farag2 and Noha Ayman Ghallab1
Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of
Dentistry, Cairo University.
Oral Pathology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo
Oral Lichen Planus (OLP),
is a chronic, inflammatory disease of immunological disorder.
The most important complication of OLP is the development of
oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Survivin is an inhibitor of
apoptosis gene and encourages the continued proliferation and
survival of tumors. The aim of this study was to detect the
level of Survivin as a molecular indicator of malignancy in
control, reticulo-papular and bollous-erosive OLP patients using
immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects
participated in this study,10 reticulo-papular, 5
bollous–erosive OLP patients and 10 healthy controls. All
subjects were non-smokers and systemically free to standardize
their medical condition. All patients and controls were
subjected to biopsy procedures from the buccal mucosa for
histopathological examination and immunostained with Survivin
using the Ultra Vision System. Results: This study showed a
highly significant difference (P<0.001), in mean Survivin
optical density between the control group and OLP groups. The
highest values were observed in the bullous-erosive group. Mean
Survivin area % was nearly 30 % in the reticulo-papular group,
90% in the bollous-erosive group, but only around 10% in the
control group. Conclusion:
Survivin levels are higher in
OLP than in healthy tissue and highest in bullous-erosive forms
of OLP compared to the reticulo-papular form. Bullous-erosive
forms of OLP are hence more liable to turn malignant than
reticulo-papular forms. Diagnosis of OLP patients
histopathologically together with molecular profiling and
localization of their Survivin levels, can be therefore used as
an early biomarker for malignant transformation, before the
appearance of tissue abnormalities.
Osman; Heba Ahmad Farag and Noha Ayman Ghallab.
Immunohistochemical analyses of
Survivin expression in patients with Oral Lichen Planus]
and Science 2012;10(12):16-22]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Oral lichen planus,
Survivin, Malignant transformation.
Low Temperature Stress Tolerant Mulberry
genotype for Eastern and
North-Eastern plains of India
M.K. GHOSH1, S.K.
DUTTA1, SHIV NATH2, P.K. GHOSH1
Sericultural Research & Training Institute, Central Silk Board,
Berhampore (West Bengal), India
National Silkworm Seed
Basic Seed Farm,Karnasubarna,West Bengal,
Eastern and north-eastern part of India, which is sericulturally
important zone, suffers from low temperature conditions from
November to January with temperature below 15°C. Out of 5
commercial silkworm rearings in a year in this zone, two seasons
fall during this period. This period is favourable for silkworm
rearing but is unfavourable for mulberry growth resulting into
quantitatively and qualitatively poor leaf yield due to
prevailing low temperature and humidity.
To overcome this problem, a programme was taken up to
develop low temperature stress tolerant mulberry genotype(s)
through conventional method of breeding. To identify suitable
parents study of a total of 120 Germplasm, elite and pipeline
mulberry genotypes was made for relevant economic (leaf yield,
leaf fall% and days to sprout), anatomical (number of
chloroplast per guard cell) and physiological traits [net
photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and
electrical conductivity (EC)]. Character association was
determined through correlation / regression analysis between
important economical characters and physiological, anatomical
and biochemical traits. Correlation between winter leaf yield
and days to sprout with three physiological parameters (NPR, NRA
and EC) and number of chloroplast/ guard cell, it was found that
a positive correlation existed between winter leaf yield and the
aforesaid four parameters whereas a negative correlation existed
with days to sprout. From sericultural point of view it has been
observed that leaf yield suffers mainly due to delayed sprouting
or no sprouting during winter season. In this investigation it
was found that EC has the highest negative correlation with days
to sprout i.e., higher the EC value lesser the days to
sprout. On the basis of above investigation EC has been
identified as the most important physiological parameter to
select the prospective parents to develop low temperature stress
tolerant mulberry genotypes. As such, a total of 36 parents were
selected and grouped into three categories on the basis of EC
values viz., high (6 parents), medium (13 parents) and low (17
parents) for further breeding programme.
GHOSH, S.K. DUTTA, SHIV NATH, P.K. GHOSH and B.B.BINDROO.
Evolution of Low Temperature Stress Tolerant Mulberry
genotype for Eastern and
North-Eastern plains of India.
Key words: Mulberry, low
temperature stress tolerant, EC, NPR, NRA
Less Known Ethnomedicinal Uses
of Some Orchids by the Tribal inhabitants of Amarkantak Plateau,
Madhya Pradesh, India
Arjun Prasad Tiwari*, Bhavana
Joshi & A.A Ansari
Botanical Survey of India,
Central Regional Centre, Allahabad – 211002, Uttar Pradesh,
The present paper
deals with the less known ethnomedicinal uses of 15 species of
orchids belonging to 11 genera, consisting of 6 epiphytes and 9
terrestrials, which are used by the tribal inhabitants of
Amarkantak Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, India. The study reveals
that tubers are most frequently used (7 species), followed by
roots (6 species) and leaves (3 species) for the treatment of 14
different kinds of ailments/diseases. This paper also discusses
about threats to the orchids of this region, as well as some
very serious problems relating to their conservation.
[Tiwari AP, Joshi B, Ansari AA. Less Known
Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Orchids by the Tribal inhabitants of
Madhya Pradesh, India.
Less known; Ethnomedicinal uses;
Orchids; Tribes; Amarkantak Plateau.
Litter fall and soil nutrient
returns in community managed forest in Lamgara block of
Vardan Singh Rawat
Department of Botany, D.S.B.
Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand
The litter biomass is needed to
quantify the annual return of elements and organic matter to the
soil. The tree species
that covers the largest area in the present studied community
managed forests are the common banj oak and chir pine.
The mean annual litter fall in
Anriyakot Van Panchayat forest was 6.25±0.26 t ha-1.
The mean litter fall value was higher in the summer season
(2.86±0.39 t ha-1)
and minimum in winter season (1.53±0.04 t ha-1).
The mean annual litter fall in Bhatkholi Van Panchayat forest
was 6.08±0.50 t ha-1.
The mean litter fall value was higher in the summer season
(2.55±0.32 t ha-1)
followed by rainy (1.84±0.24 t ha-1)
and winter season (1.68±0.26 t ha-1).
The soil organic carbon percentage of the Anriyakot Van
Panchayat ranged from 1.00±0.29% to
2.73±0.51%, while on Bhatkholi Van Panchayat it ranged
from 1.41±0.54% to
Litter fall and soil nutrient returns in
community managed forest in Lamgara block of Uttarakhand.
Community managed forest,
Van Panchayat, litter fall
Approaches to Conservation and
Sustainable Use of
Biodiversity- A Review
Fetene1, Kumlachew Yeshitela2 and Hayal
of Natural Resource Management, Debre Markos University, P.O.Box
269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia; Email:
of Ecosystem Planning and Management, EiABC, Addis Ababa
University, P.O.Box 518, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
multiple values which include direct (subsistence and tradable)
and indirect (watershed protection, nutrient recycling, climate
regulation and many other ecosystem services). These resources
often act as an economic "buffer" supplying alternative
biological resources for the rural and urban community. However,
in recent time very little of the world's biodiversity remains
unaffected by human activity. Loss of biodiversity directly
affects the stability of the ecosystem.
This indicates the demand of urgent intervention to readdress
the many negative impacts of biodiversity manipulation, and move
away from focusing on short-term gains, to prevent those who are
subsistence dependent, or derive income from trading
biodiversity. Therefore it is important to review and analyse an
approaches for the conservation and sustainable use of
biodiversity for the benefits of the community and the nature
itself. The aim of this paper was to review different articles
related to the conservation of biodiversity and select the best
options and approaches that can help to maintain the potential
of biological resources while keeping the needs and aspiration
of the community. In this regard, based on the site condition
different biodiversity conservation approaches were identified
which include: in-situ conservation, ex-situ
conservation, circa-situ conservation
and complementary conservation. Conservation based on the
biodiversity components was also another approaches used to
analyse and identify the appropriate conservation approach at a
larger scale. This component based biodiversity conservation
approach includes: the genetic-based conservation,
species-based conservation, ecosystem-based conservation and
landscape level conservation approach. From this synthesis it
has been learnt that, the ecosystem approach has been remarked
as the best approach for the conservation of biodiversity.
Because, ecosystem approach is operated based on (i) the
application of scientific methodologies, (ii) human beings are
an integral part of many ecosystems, and (iii) using adaptive
management to deal with the complex and dynamic nature of
ecosystems. Therefore, because of its holistic nature, the
ecosystem approach has the potential to mainstream conservation
into general human affairs and used as the best option for the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Fetene, Kumlachew Yeshitela, and Hayal Desta. Approaches to
Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity- A
components, conservation, ecosystem, sustainable use
African Trypanosomiasis Control Program Using Schematic Drawings
University of Juba, College of
Natural Resources and Environmental Studies-South Sudan.
Contact address: E-mail:
Schematic models have long been
used to provide vital information on tropical diseases control
programs. Recently schematic mathematical models found their
application in predicting about the output of intervention of
several diseases, for example mathematical schematic modeling
has been successfully applied to model Onchocerciasis Control
Program output in West Africa. This gives strong evidence that
schematic models are really robust and can be widely applied to
model diseases intervention program out comes. The proposed
model in this study is a modification of the Ross Macdonald
Schematic Model in a way that it might be used to predict the
control program outcome of African Trypanosomiasis. The
schematic model has therefore been successful in demonstrating
that African Trypanosomiasis % Prevalence Rate might drop as a
function of increasing % coverage by the control program.
Modeling African Trypanosomiasis Control Program Using Schematic
Drawings. Nat Sci
Key words: Schematic
modeling; African Trpanosomiasis; intervention program.
Evaluation of Profenofos
Intoxication In White
Nashwah Ismail Zaki
Department of Physiology,
National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR),
Profenofos is an organophosphorous insecticide which extensively
used in agriculture and household. The present work is under
taken to evaluate acute, subchronic and withdrawal effects of
profenofos intoxication on some lipid metabolism indices and
cytotoxicity enzymes biomarkers as well as on total non-specific
esterase in blood of male white rats. Adult male white rats
weighing 200±20 g were orally administered with Profenofos at
single dose of 47.5mg/kg body weight or repeated dose of
23.75mg/kg body weight. Exposure to single or repeated doses of
Profenofos elicited significant increase in TC, TG and LDL-C
levels parallel to a decrease in HDL-C level. Also, induction of
AcP, ALP, LDH and CK activities were recorded throughout most of
the experiments periods as compared to corresponding controls at
confidence interval 95% or P >0.05 respectively. Pointed to the
withdrawal effect; all the parameters under investigation
restored near the control values except for HDL-C and LDL-C. The
present data also explored that acute and subchronic Profenofos
intoxication induced significant induction in the total
non-specific esterase (NSE) activity and exhibited marked
changes in its fractional activity and electrophoretic mobility.
Signs of recovery were seen in fractional activity to Profenofos
withdrawal. Conclusion: Continuous exposure to Profenofos alters
lipid metabolism; increase the activities of cytotoxicity
enzymes biomarkers, thereby it may be a causative factor for
multiple organs dysfunction as liver, kidney, heart and muscles.
Also, the present investigation supports the idea that the
estimation of fractional rather than the total activity of NSE
is more reliable in reflecting the molecular consequences of
acute and chronic oxidative stress induced by single oxidant.
[Nashwah I. Zaki. Evaluation
of Profenofos Intoxication In White Rats.
Acute; subchronic; Organophosphorous intoxication; Cytotoxicity
enzymes; oxidative stress lipid and protein
Carbon Sequestration Potential
of Indian Forestry Land Use Systems - A Review
Akhlaq A Wani1, 2, P
K Joshi, Ombir Singh1
and Rajiv Pandey4
Division, Forest Research Institute (FRI) Dehradun 248 006,
Growing demand of land for crop production, commercial cattle
rearing, fuel wood, charcoal, construction timber, urbanization
and industrialization have resulted in loss of forests in the
past. Forests being recognized as an important component of
Carbon (C) cycle have gained importance owing to its potential
to sequester C. As a result large-scale forest conservation and
land developmental programmes have come up at regional, national
and world level besides afforestation and reforestation
activities are eligible in CDM and REDD plus. This requires
development of baseline scenario and estimation of C stocks with
periodic monitoring of carbon stock changes to address climate
change. This paper aims at presenting an overview of estimates
on C sequestration potential of varied forestry land use systems
in India for country level and site-specific assessments.
A Wani, P K Joshi, Ombir Singh and Rajiv Pandey.
Carbon Sequestration Potential of Indian Forestry Land Use
Systems - A Review.
Carbon sequestration potential,
carbon pool, biomass carbon, soil organic carbon
Improving the nutritive value
of ensiled green rice straw 2- In vitro gas production
Elmenofy, E.K.1; M.I.
Bassiouni1; E.B. Belal2; H.M.A. Gaafar3;
E.M. Abdel-Raouf1 and S.A. Mahmoud1
Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agricultural,
Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.
Department of Agricultural Botany (Agricultural Microbiology),
Faculty of Agricultural, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.
Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research
Center, Nadi Elsaid St., Dokki, Egypt.
Fresh green rice straw of Sakha
treated for silage making with
sp. as cellulolytic bacteria (CB) and Lactobacillus sp.
as lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
as follows, 1) control, 2)
lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at
108 cfu/g, 3)
cellulolytic bacteria (CB) at
108 cfu/g and
4) LAB+CB at
108 cfu/g per type of bacteria.
The different treatments were addition with or without 5%
molasses and ensiled for 60 days. Bacterial inoculants
and molasses addition increased in vitro gas production
volume, gas production fractions (a&b) and gas production
rate (c) and CB more effective than LAB and the LAB+CB
combination had the higher values. Gas production from the
fermentation of soluble fraction (GPSF) and insoluble fraction
(GPNSF), short chain fatty acids concentration (SCFA), DM intake
(DMI), organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabilizable (ME)
and net energy (NE) and in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD)
increased significantly (P<0.05) with bacterial inoculants and
molasses addition and the LAB+CB had the higher values.
E.K; M.I. Bassiouni; E.B. Belal; H.M.A. Gaafar; E.M. Abdel-Raouf
and S.A. Mahmoud.
Improving the nutritive value of ensiled green rice straw 2-
In vitro gas production.
green rice straw silage,
bacterial inoculants, in vitro gas production.
Distribution and Diversity of
Bacteria in a Small Tropical Freshwater Body (Aiba Reservoir) in
Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.
Atobatele, O.E.*and Owoseni, A.A.
Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun
have become increasingly concerned about the pollution of
surface waters. The Aiba reservoir is the second oldest
impoundment of Osun river basin and provides potable water to
Iwo community. The diversity of bacteria in the Aiba Reservoir
was studied by collecting water samples from four locations
within the reservoir to reflect human impacts during three
different seasons. The most probable number (MPN) of bacteria at
the different sampling locations during the sampling seasons,
the total non-specific bacteria count, total coliform and
Escherichia coli count were measured using the tube
dilution and pour plate techniques. Significant differences were
observed in various parameters of bacterial diversity. Water
samples from all sampling points were contaminated with coliforms, the highest being 1100+ MPN/100ml in
location D. the highest number of bacteria was isolated in June
at all sampling locations. Seventy-nine bacteria belonging to
sixteen genera and twenty-three species were isolated. The genus
Bacillus was the most diverse with thirty-one isolates
and eight species. Other genera isolated were Aeromonas,
Citrobacter, Listeria, Proteus,
Escherichia, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes,
Enterobacter, Corynebacterium, Lactobacillus,
Edwardsiella, Flavobacterium, Staphylococcus,
Streptococcus and Acinetobacter. Of the 23 genera
isolated 10 (43.5%) were Gram negative bacteria, 60% of which
are coliform bacteria. Eight (61.5%) of the Gram positive
bacteria belonged to the Genus Bacillus. The high
bacteria count and the type/genera of bacteria isolated are
indicative of contamination of the system with soil from
agricultural runoff, domestic sewage and fish remains. This on
the long run could lead to spread of infective diseases to the
OE and Owoseni, AA. Distribution and Diversity of Bacteria in
a Small Tropical Freshwater Body (Aiba Reservoir) in Iwo, Osun
Aiba reservoir, anthropogenic influence, bacterial count,
Rate expression for
#16/1, 8th Main Road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar,
Bangalore560010, Karnataka, India
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
The prime purpose of this article
is to establish a rate equation for
Rate expression for
unimolecular gas-phase reaction.
gas-phase reaction; Lindemann mechanism; transition state
theory; rate equation.
Diatom composition in relation
to water quality characteristics in Porto-Novo creek, Lagos.
I. C. Onyema
Department of Marine Sciences,
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.
Abstract: The diatoms of the
Porto-Novo creek in Lagos were investigated in relation to water
quality characteristics for 2 years at 4 stations. The effect of
tidal sea water inflow from the Lagos habour via the Badagry
creek largely controlled the hydrodynamics of the area
particularly in the dry season. In the wet season rainfall
induced flood water were implicated. Water quality
characteristics reflected an environmental gradient from Station
1 (with greater proximity to the sea) through to Station 4
(located further inland). A total of 77 diatom species (34
centric and 43 pennate forms) were recorded. There were clear
differences in the diatom assemblages recorded in the fresh and
brackish water situations within the creek. The diatom spectrum
reflected influence from the salinity gradient linked to tidal
influence and rainfall distribution. Comparatively higher
species composition were recorded in the dry (46) than in the
wet (31) season. Additionally, higher species diversity was
recorded for Station 4, through Stations 3, 2 and Station 1.
Notable species in the wet season were Aulacoseira granulata,
var. angstissima f. spiralis,
Diatoma elongatum, Diatoma hyalinum
Eunotia glacialis whereas the dry season was better
represented by Coscinodiscus centralis, Actinoptychus
splendens, Amphiprora alata, Bacillaria paxillifer, Synedra
crystallina and Pleurosigma angulatum. Water quality
changes continuum directly reflected on the diatom composition
within the creek.
[I. C. Onyema.
Diatom composition in relation to water quality characteristics
in Porto-Novo creek, Lagos.
Diatom, creek, lagoon, Lagos, Porto-Novo, water quality.
[Nat Sci 2012;10(12):108-120].
2012;10(12):121-127]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Psychological Feelings and Quality Of Life in Renal Failure and
alsherif and 2Alshara Mohammad
Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Irbid National University, Irbid,
Faculty of Nursing Irbid National University, Irbid, Jordan
Faculty of Nursing, Irbid
National University, Irbid, Jordan
The patients suffering from renal failure often present with
unusual psychological problems where treatment methods vary on
an individualized basis and drug therapy is often needed in the
management of such problems.
The present study was conducted; to assess the
Psychological Feelings and
Quality Of Life in Renal Failure and Dialysis Patients.
Data were collected from renal dialysis patients (80 male and
female )were chosen to share in this study from prince Basmah
hospital in Irbid and El-Eman hospital in Ajlon
-Jordan during the year of 2010
was interviewed retrospectively.
Results: the study shows that feelings of
annoyance affect feeling of mental competency by 59% and of new
stress from disease affect on feeling of mental competency by
Psychosocial nursing interventions should attempt to facilitate
adjustment to changes in the course of the illness and to
normalize social interaction and lifestyle by preventing medical
crises, controlling symptoms
[Zubida alsherif and
Assessment of Psychological
Feelings and Quality Of Life in Renal Failure and Dialysis
Patients. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):128-132].
quality of life.
Endotracheal Tube Biofilm and
its Relationship to Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a
Iman Shehata1, Marwa
Shabban 1, Rania Ibrahim 2 and Youssef
Departments of 1
Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2 Pediatrics,
3 Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University,
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common
healthcare associated infections in critical care settings.
Endotracheal tube (ETT) is an independent risk factor for
developing VAP. This study aimed to investigate biofilm
formation on the luminal and external surfaces of ETTs of
neonates in ICU on mechanical ventilation and study its relation
to VAP. The presence of biofilm on the surface of ETTs and
biofilm stage were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope
(SEM), meanwhile, bacteria harvested from the surface of ETTs
and the secretions of lower respiratory tract were isolated,
identified and assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility. Twenty
ETTs from 20 neonates who were intubated and mechanically
ventilated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Ain
Shams University Hospital were obtained. Bacterial colonization
and biofilm formation was observed on 80% of inner and outer
surfaces of collected ETTs using SEM. Staging of biofilm
revealed that 50% of the biofilms were grade III, 31.25% were
grade II, and 18.75% were grade I. Bacterial colonization and
biofilm grading was shown to be time dependent (p value=0.006).
Inner and outer endotracheal tube surfaces yielded 80% and 75%
positive aerobic cultures, respectively. The most prevalent
isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by
coagulase negative Staph (CoNS),
Candida and normal
flora . Thirteen samples had the same pathogen both on the
surface of ETTs and in the secretions of lower respiratory tract
which accounted for 81.25% of the positive cultures from ETTs.
All Gram negative isolates were resistant to
ampicillin-sulbactam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and
piperacillin. We can conclude that endotracheal tube
colonization and biofilm formation are frequently observed in
neonates undergoing mechanical ventilation, increases with the
duration of intubation and is correlated with occurrence of VAP.
Bacteria implicated in VAP showed multi-resistance towards most
antibiotics used in the study.
[Iman Shehata, Marwa Shabban,
Rania Ibrahim and Youssef Shoukry.
Endotracheal Tube Biofilm and
its Relationship to Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a
biofilm, endotracheal tube, neonates, scanning electron
microscopy, ventilator associated pneumonia.
of Sowing Date, Cultivar, Irrigation Regimes and Location on
Bread Wheat Production in Egypt under Climate Change Conditions
Hassanein M. K.; M.
Elsayed and A.A. Khalil
Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural
Research Center (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land
Reclamation (MALR), Egypt
Impacts of climate change will
have significant reflections on field practices of wheat
growers. The present work is mainly directed to discuss
sensitivity of climate change upon the wheat production in
Egypt. Field experiments were conducted at three different
agroclimatic locations (Sakha, Sids and Shandaweel) at winter
season of 2009/2010 to study the effects of two sowing dates and
three irrigation levels (60, 80 and 100% of the full water
requirements) on grain yield and its attributes of four bread
(Gemmeiza 9, Giza 168, Sakha 93 and Misr 1). Experimental
conditions and results obtained from those locations were used
as a database for calibration of CERES-Wheat model under
DSSAT4.5 package to study the sensitivity of climate change on
wheat growth and yield. Two climate change scenarios have been
employed with changes in temperature. The first scenario
supposed that increasing in temperature of 1.5°C would happen,
and the second scenario supposed that increasing of 3.5°C would
happen. The results showed that by comparing results obtained
from CERES-Wheat model and actual observations in the field
enabled us to reach very good calibration and validation of the
model for predicting phonological stages as well as grain yield
at different locations using different treatments. The future
impacts of climate change on wheat showed that increasing in
temperature will reduce length of growing cycle and the time
needed to full tillering in addition to the final yield. This
subsequently will reduce the amount of grain yield; accelerate
time for maturity and harvesting. For +1.5°C scenario, reduction
in grain yield, as predicted by the model, will be in average
among cultivars of 12% at Sakha location, 9% at Sids location
and 11% at Shandaweel location. Scenario of +3.5°C will reduce
grain yield within an average of 27% at both Sakha , Sids
locations, and 31% at Shandaweel location. We can conclude that
reduction in wheat grain yield at the three locations has high
probability in the future with accelerating growing cycle,
especially at +3.5°C, which needs to define earlier sowing
suitable dates and adaptive agronomical practices.
M. K.; M. Elsayed and A.A. Khalil.
Impacts of Sowing
Date, Cultivar, Irrigation Regimes and Location on Bread Wheat
Production in Egypt under Climate Change Conditions.
2012; 10(12):141-150]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
simulation, calibration, validation, climate scenarios, impacts.
Jatropha curcas leaves on common Dermatophytes and causative
agent of Pityriasis versicolor in Rivers State, Nigeria
Mbakwem – Aniebo C,
Okoyomo EP, Ogugbue CJ, Okonko IO
Department of Microbiology,
University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba,
Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;
email@example.com; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891
activity of Jatropha curcas leaves used by traditional
medicine practitioners against the three major Dermatophytes –
Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton together with
Malassezia furfur [the causative agent of Pityriasis
versicolor (Eczema)], was studied by well-in-agar diffusion
technique using different concentrations of ethanolic extracts.
Isolates from the scalp, skin, toes and feet of forty
individuals (mainly children) were obtained in four locations
namely Aluu, Choba, Rumuosi and Emohua areas of Rivers State,
Nigeria. The study revealed a significant inhibitory effect of
Jatropha curcas leaves on the fungal isolates at five
different concentrations of 250mg/ml, 200mg/ml, 150mg/ml,
100mg/ml and 50mg/ml used. Assessment of the various minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MIC) showed that Jatropha curcas
leaves have the most potential for use as an antidermatophytic
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract
was between 19.95 and 79.43 mg/ml. The zones of inhibition
exhibited by the extracts against the test fungal species ranged
between 0 and 20mm. The ability of the crude stem extracts of
inhibit the growth of fungi is an indication of its broad
spectrum antifungal potential which may be employed
in the management
of fungal infections.
implications of these findings in the use of Jatropha curcas
in traditional medicine are discussed.
– Aniebo C, Okoyomo EP, Ogugbue CJ, Okonko IO. Effects of
Jatropha curcas leaves on common Dermatophytes and causative
agent of Pityriasis versicolor in Rivers State, Nigeria.
2012; 10(12):151-157]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
agent, Jatropha curcas, Trichophyton, Microsporum,
Epidermophyton, Malassezia furfur
Effects of Hypoestes
forskalei Schult Roem leaf extract on the behavior of Clarias
Ubaha G.A1 , Idowu B.
A 1. and Omoniyi I.T 2
1.Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Agriculture Abeokuta.
2.Department of Aquaculture and
Fisheries Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta.
The effects of Hypoestes forskalei Schult Roem
leaf extract with piscicidal activity on
Clarias gariepinus used for fishing was studied.
Fingerlings, juvenile and adult of the African mud cat
fish (Clarias gariepinus) were collected and kept at 270
C to acclimatize, and their standard length and weight were
taken. Hypoestes forskalei extract was obtained by water
extraction method from its leaves and stem. Various
concentrations of the plant extract were prepared as bioassay
media and water qualities parameters were determined before and
after the experiment. Freshly prepared concentrations of the
plant extract were introduced into the water containing 10
fishes each while the haematological analysis of the fish were
also determined accordingly. The temperature of the
control water was the least at 270C while water
sample treated with the highest concentration of plant extract
recorded the highest value of 28.80C with significant
reduction of the pH of the water and the dissolved oxygen
concentration in the water medium significantly decrease as
concentration of the plant increase. All the fishes were
rendered immotile for about 8 seconds followed by irrational
behaviours. Mortality decrease with decreasing concentration of
the plant extract in all the stages of the treated fishes.
Haemoglobin concentration, PCV and RBC count of treated fishes
irrespective of their developmental stages were markedly lower
when compared to the control while the WBC count recorded in
most of the treated adult fishes were lower than those recorded
in juvenile and fingerlings. Hypoestes forskalei is a
plant with high piscicidal properties and highly toxic to
aquatic lives and can induce long term health hazards on the
internal organs of the fish consumers.
G.A, Idowu B. A. and Omoniyi I.T. Effects of Hypoestes
forskalei Schult Roem leaf extract on the behavior of Clarias
gariepinus. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):158-162].
Hypoestes forskalei, extract behaviour, Clarias
Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Bypass Surgery
Mohamed S. Elbaz, Yasser E.
Mohammed, Ahmed H. Mowafy, Abdelmohsen M. Abo Alia and Ahmed F.
Cardiology Department, Faculty of
Medicine, Al-Azhar and Cairo University
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation
is the most common arrhythmia after coronary artery bypass
grafting (CABG), with a rate of occurrence of 17% to 33% in
different studies. Post-CABG
AF is known to be a potential risk for systemic
thromboembolism, CABG and combined valve surgery have a higher
incidence of postoperative AF than do patients having CABG
alone. We studied sixty patients with ischemic heart disease
diagnosed by coronary angiography and underwent coronary artery
bypass surgery,30 patients had post operative AF and another 30
patients didn’t have post operative AF. The results of this
study as regard preoperative assessment of studied groups showed
increased age, body mass index, presence of hypertension,
dyslipedemiam, reduced ejection fraction, increased left atrial
dimension and increased number af affected vessels were
statistically significant while intraoperative failed RCA
grafting was statistically significant and lastly postoperative
increased duration of positive inotrope, decreased magnesium
level, reduced ejection fraction and increased left atrial size
were statistically significant. The conclusion from our results
suggested that preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative
Assessmentof the surgical patients may be useful in risk
stratification for the occurrence of post CABG AF
S. Elbaz, Yasser E. Mohammed, Ahmed H. Mowafy, Abdelmohsen M.
Abo Alia and Ahmed F. Abd
Elhamed. Predictors of
Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Bypass Surgery. Nat
Fibrillation; Coronary Bypass Surgery
Leaching and Mechanical
Properties of Cement- Polyacrylamide Composite Developed as
Matrices for Immobilization of 137Cs
and 60Co Radionuclides.
M. I. El- Dessouky1,
E. H. El- Masry*1, A. M. El- Kamash1 and
M. F. El- Shahat2
Atomic Energy Authority Inshas, Kaliobia,
of Science, Chemistry Dept., Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Low and intermediate level
radioactive wastes are produced from diverse applications of
radionuclides in industry, medicine, radioisotope production
facilities and fuel processing plants. These wastes need
treatment to reduce the quantities of radioactive contaminants
to the level, which allows safe discharge of the decontaminated
liquid to the environment and safe disposal of the concentrated
radionuclides according to the international requirements and
national regulations. The objectives of the liquid waste
processing are to immobilize the radioactive elements and to
reduce the volume to be stored. The solidified product must be
non-dispersible, insoluble and with good mechanical and
structural stability. Portland cements are met the acceptance
criteria for immobilizing radioactive wastes because of their
low cost, high density, durability and amenability to simple
processing techniques. In the present study, immobilization of
spent polyacrylamide- zeolite and polyacrylamide- bentonite
composites loaded with cesium and/or cobalt radionuclides with
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been carried out. Several
factors affecting the characteristics of the final solidified
waste product towards safe disposal such as mechanical strength
and leaching behavior of the radioisotopes have been studied.
The obtained results showed that the presence of polyacrylamide
composites in the cemented wastes improve the mechanical
characteristics of the solidified cement matrix towards the
safety requirements and reduce considerably the radionuclides
[M. I. El- Dessouky, E. H. El-
Masry, A. M. El- Kamash and M. F. El- Shahat.
Leaching and Mechanical Properties of Cement- Polyacrylamide
Composite Developed as Matrices for
Immobilization of 137Cs and 60Co
Radionuclides. Nat Sci 2012;
10(12):172-177]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Immobilization / Radioactive wastes / Portland cement /
polyacrylamide/ Zeolite/ Bentonite.
Bleeding study of Nano-form
as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100% Dark Polyester
Abd El-Moniem Abd
El-Moniem Mahmoud1, Emad El-Deen Allam2
Hassan Morsy Azzam2
of textile printing & finishing. CEO of SPI Company2
, Textile Printing, Dyeing and Finishing Department.
Faculty of applied
arts. Helwan University.
Bleeding is a dye migration from
the dyed poly ester fabric into the printed or coated film, to
avoid this problem different additive were studied as ESO,
metal-metal stabilizer “CaZn “and Nano form calcium carbonate
,in this study ESO react with the liable chlorine of PVC and
minimize the liberation of HCl in presence of CaZn as heat
stabilizer, calcium carbonate has high efficiency as heat
stabilizer and showing good filling properties reducing the ink
cost, Nano-form titanium dioxide used in different ratios to
achieve suitable whiteness. Suitable recipe PVC/DEHP composite
which achieves high bleed resist printing and coating film
reported in this study, the maximum whiteness achieved was 78.2.
whiteness and particle
size of all recipes were measured.
El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud, Emad El-Deen Allam
Hassan Morsy Azzam.
Bleeding study of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2
(Composite as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100%
Dark Polyester Fabric.
ESO (epoxy soy bean oil),
DEHP (diethyl hexyl phthalate),ATBC (acetyl tri butyl
Performance of Centre Pivot
irrigation Systems in River Nile State
Osama Osman Ali
Department of Agricultural
Engineering, Alneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
This study was carried out during
the period December 2007 – July 2008, to evaluate water
distribution under centre pivot irrigation systems in three
projects in River Nile State and one project in Khartoum State
(Sudan). Water distribution coefficients used in the evaluation
were: Christiansen's coefficient of uniformity (CU%),
distribution uniformity (DU%) and scheduling coefficient (Sc%).
Values for the coefficient of uniformity ranged from 78 to 85%,
for distribution uniformity the values ranged from 68 to 78, and
the values for scheduling coefficient ranged from 1.3 to 1.47.
Measured values were below or at the lower limits reported in
reviewed research works.
[Osama Osman Ali.
Performance of Centre Pivot irrigation Systems in River Nile
irrigation, uniformity coefficient, distribution uniformity,
Ecological studies and evaluation of some aggregation pheromone
types with measuring the potential of female reproductive system
in red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier).
Abbass1 and Abir, S. Al- Nasser2
Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center,
of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Um Al Qura University,
(Oliv.) is the most serious and destructive insect pest for date
palm trees. The
relative weevil-attracting potential of the aggregation
pheromones procured from different countries and used in
trapping the red palm weevil, R.
was evaluated in date plantations of Ismailia Governorate,
Egypt. Results of this study indicated that high release rate
pheromone obtained from Chemtica Natural, Costa Rica type
pheromone was more attractive than
Spain types pheromone. Moreover, ecological
studies have clearly showed that
stage of red palm weevil,
has two peaks of swarming activity on date palm trees throughout
the year, one of them during October 2011 whereas, the other
during March 2012. Results also, appeared that the female
captured contains numbers of eggs not laid. The mean number of
egg per female attractive and newly female were 220.2 and 261.8
eggs, respectively. No significant differences were found
between numbers of eggs for the newly female and the female
k. Abbass and Abir, S. Al- Nasser.
Ecological studies and evaluation of some aggregation pheromone
types with measuring the potential of female reproductive system
in red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier).
pheromone, ecological, ovaries
Tobacco rattle Tobravirus:
Occurrence in Flax Plants (Linum
usitatissimum L.) in
Salwa N. Zein1, A. H.
Hamed1and Hanaa S. Zawam2
and Phytoplasma Res. Dept., Plant Patho .Res. Inst., ARC., Giza,
Res. Dept., Plant Patho. Res. Inst., ARC., Giza, Egypt
Abstract: This is the first report of
Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolated from naturally
infected flax (Linum usitatissimum ) crop growing in the
Agriculture Research Experimental Station (ARES) in Egypt.
Naturally infected flax plants showed symptoms of TRV i.e. yellowing, systemic mosaic and leaf deformation.
Symptoms were collected and subjected to isolation and
identification by indirect ELISA. Presence of the virus isolate
in different cultivars, all florets, flower parts was confirmed
by using DAS- ELISA. ELISA was also used to confirm the modes of
transmission (mechanical inoculation, seed and nematodes
transmission). The obtained results indicated that DBIA test was
useful to confirm the identification of the virus isolated from
flax crop. The percentages of seeds transmission ranged between
2.8 - 19.7 %.
Paratrichodorus nematodes was successfully transmitted TRV
N. Zein, A. H. Hamed and Hanaa S. Zawam
Tobacco rattle Tobravirus: Occurrence
in Flax Plants (Linum
usitatissimum L. ) in
Nature and Science 2012; 10(12):194-199]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
flax, Tobacco rattle virus
(TRV), Paratrichodorus, production, Mechanical, seed and
Nematodes transmission, Serological detection and DBIA.
The Consequences of
Darfur conflict on the dynamics of livestock ownership and
migratory routes in West Darfur
Ali Ahmed Dawoud1
and Omer Ibrahim Ahmed Hamid2*
1- Technical Field Officer,
FAO Zalingei field Office, West Darfur state.
2- Sudan University of
Science and Technology, College of Animal Production Science
and Technology - Department of Dairy Science and Technology
study of impact of Darfur conflict on the dynamics of
livestock ownership and migratory routes was
conducted in two localities (Zalingei and Wadi Salih) in
West Darfur State during the period from August 2007 to
of the study are to find out the effects of the conflict on
the dynamic of livestock ownership,
and migratory routes.The
methods applied for data collection in this study were the
participatory approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal PRA
& Rapid Rural Appraisal RRA) through which the questionnaire
was developed of twenty six questions covering animal water
resources, pasture and migratory routes before and during
the course of the conflict in the two localities. Two
hundreds and fifteen questionnaires were distributed to one
hundred and twenty one villages and Damras within eight
administrative units of the two localities. Data collected
from twenty seven tribes comprising the pastoralists,
agro-pastoralists, sedentary herders and IDPs. The results
showed that The
increase in the nomads’ livestock percentage from 64% before
the conflict to 93% currently and the drop on percentage of
livestock owned by IDPs from 32% before the conflict to 0%
could be due to raiding and looting from other categories,
natural growth and /or migration from insecure areas and
accumulation at safer areas for the increase, and for the
decrease might be attributed to the raiding , looting of
livestock and displacement of the IDPs to the camps which
let to shift on ownership from category to category.
(Dawoud A A,Hamid,O I A,
The Consequences of Darfur conflict on the dynamics of
livestock ownership and migratory routes in West Darfur.
Conflict, Darfur, Livestock,
Migratory routes, Ownership
composition and Lipid content in Muscle Tissue
of Ghost crab (Ocypode rotundata
) in Bushehr Coastal Zone
in Persian Gulf
of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
of Chemistry, Science & Research branch, Islamic Azad
University, P.O. Box 14515-775,Tehran, Iran
of Marine Sciences and Technology, North Tehran branch, Islamic
Azad University, Tehran, Iran
was aimed to gain knowledge on fatty acid composition and lipid
content in muscle tissues of Ocypode rotundata in
the Bushehr Coastal Zone, Iran
in Aug 2012
using the method of Blight & Dyer
(1959).The compounds were determined by Gas
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS). The
components detected in both male and female species, including
saturated fatty acids (SFA) Palmitic acid and Stearic acid,
monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) Oleic acid, polyunsaturated
fatty acids (PUFA) alpha- Linoleic acid, two methyl esters of
fatty acids including Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester and
Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester,
(Cholest-5-en-3-ol (3β) and Alkane including Hexadecane,
Heptadecane and Octadecane. The dominant fatty acid identified
in both sexes was Omega-3 alpha- Linoleic acid (ALA).
[Keivandokht Samiee, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Soheila
Shahbazi. Fatty acid composition and Lipid content in
Muscle Tissue of Ghost crab (Ocypode rotundata )
in Bushehr Coastal Zone in Persian Gulf. .
Fatty acid composition, Lipid content, muscle tissue,
The Possible Ameliorative
Effect of Propolis in Rat’s Liver Treated with Monosodium
Madiha, A. Ashry 1,
Hala, F. Abd.Ellah 1 and Ebtesam M. M. Gheth 1,2
Zoology Department, Girls College
for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University1
Zoology Department, Science
Faculty, Omar Al-mukhtar University, El-Beida-Libya2
Abstract: Monosodium glutamate
(MSG) is a commonly used food additive and there is growing
concern that excitotoxins such as MSG play a critical role in
the development of several hepatic disorders. Propolis, a
resinous wax-like beehive product has been used as a traditional
remedy for various diseases due to a variety of biological
activities of this folk medicine. The present study aimed to
investigate the protective and curative effect of propolis
against MSG on the rat liver. Fifty male albino rats weighting
75- 95 g. were used to study the biochemical analysis of liver
function parameters, including ALAT, ASAT, ALP activities, total
proteins, albumin in the blood sera, MDA, GSH and
electrophoresis in liver tissue. 1) Rats received distilled
water for 4 and 8 weeks (Control group); 2) rats received 200 mg
propolis /kg b. w. for 8 weeks (Propolis group); 3) rats
received 1 g MSG /kg. b. w. for 8 weeks (MSG group); 4) rats
received 200 mg propolis /kg. b. w. for 8 weeks + 1 g MSG /kg.
b. w. during the last 4 weeks (protective group); 5) rats
received 1 g MSG /kg. b. w. for 8 weeks + 200 mg propolis / kg.
b. w. during the last 4 weeks (therapeutic group). Rats were
received their respective doses daily by oral gavage and
sacrificed 24 hrs after the last dose of different treatments.
The results of the present study in MSG group reveal that the
mean body weight, absolute and relative liver weight was
increased and a highly
significant increase in ALAT, ASAT, ALP and MDA activities in
serum and decrease in total proteins, albumin and GSH. In
electrophoresis study, there was
decrease in fractions 1, 2, 5 and
fraction 6 and increase
in fractions 3 and 4. In
protective group, propolis extract in the protective group
showed significant improvement in the activity of ALAT, ASAT,
ALP, total protein, albumin, MDA, GSH and the mean body weight,
absolute and liver relative weight, electrophoresis. In
the results indicated
that propolis extract was found to be less effective in
restoring MSG induced biochemical
and electrophoresis alteration.
It may be concluded that
propolis extract possess the ability to reverse MSG induced
liver oxidative injury as well as to regulate the metabolic
enzymatic activities for maintaining proper functioning of the
cells and may be considered as hepatoprotective agent against
MSG induced toxic effects in the protective role but propolis as
therapy was of only limited value.
A. Ashry, Hala, F. Abd.Ellah and Ebtesam M. M. Gheth. The
Possible Ameliorative Effect of Propolis in Rat’s Liver Treated
with Monosodium Glutamate (MSG).
Liver, Monosodium glutamate, Propolis, Biochemistry, Oxidative
characterization of humic acids isolated from farmyard manure
and vermicompost used under a long-term fertilizer experiment on
mulberry (Morus alba L.)
R. Kar1, B. B. Bindroo1,
M. K. Ghosh1, S. K. Majumder2 and P. C.
Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore, West
Silkworm Seed Organization, Basic Seed Farm,Dhubulia, West
Abstract: A long-term
fertilizer experiment on mulberry (Morus alba L.) has
been continuing for more than five years at Central Sericultural
Research and Training Institute, Berhampore (West Bengal), India
with different combinations of organic as well as inorganic
sources of nutrients. The natural humic acids were extracted and
fractioned from the farmyard manure (FYM) and the vermicompost
(VC) used under the said experiment. Both the acid samples were
characterized in terms of important properties, namely, charge
characteristics through pH-potentiometry, ‘aliphatic-aromatic
balance’ based coiling properties through visible
spectrophotometry as well as structural characteristics through
infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Attempts have also been made to
evaluate the performance of mulberry in terms of productivity
and nutrients mobilization after completion of 25 crop cycles
under the said experimentation in relation to different soil
attributes induced by humic acid mediated organics.
Kar, B. B. Bindroo, M. K. Ghosh, S. K. Majumder and P. C. Bose.
Molecular characterization of humic acids isolated from farmyard
manure and vermicompost used under a long-term fertilizer
experiment on mulberry (Morus alba L.).
Farm yard manure, Humic acid, Infrared spectroscopy, Long-term
fertilization, Mulberry, Potentiometry, Vermicompost, Visible
Cyanobacteria Inoculation Associated With
Nitrogen Levels on Some Sandy and
Calcareous Soils Properties and Wheat Productivity
M. El-Ayouty.; 2F. M. Ghazal; 2Wafaa T.
El-Etr and 2Hanaa A. Zain EL-Abdeen
Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Water and Environment Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
great attention is paid in establishing concept of the
associations between wheat plants and a variety of N2-fixing
microorganisms. This phenomenon has entered the scientific scene
arising from the prospects and the possibilities of their
potentially application. . In this work, cyanobacteria
inoculation (SBCI) was applied to wheat in a greenhouse
experiment under different levels of nitrogen to explore its
influence on wheat yield and its components as well as on some
soil properties of both sandy and calcareous soils. Results
revealed that inoculation with cyanobacteria generally enhanced
the growth of wheat plants. Also, 70 % N + SBCI gave the highest
wheat grain and straw yields, highest total NPK contents for
both grains and straw. These results were not significantly
differed from those recorded by 100 % N treatment. Regarding
soil physical characteristics the
results indicate that
inoculation with cyanobacteria increased the proportion of
macro-aggregates with a corresponding decrease in the
micro-aggregates in both tested soils.
both soil organic matter and water holding capacity percentages,
while decreased the soil bulk density for both tested soils.
Generally, it is of preliminarily prediction that cyanobacteria
inoculation can save 30 % of the mineral nitrogen required for
wheat cultivation. Also, it can ameliorate and improve the
physical properties of the marginal and poor soils such as those
of sandy and calcareous soils applied in the present study.
M. El-Ayouty., F. M. Ghazal, Wafaa T. El-Etr and Hanaa A. Zain
EL-Abdeen. Effect of Cyanobacteria Inoculation Associated
Nitrogen Levels on Some
Sandy and Calcareous Soils Properties and Wheat Productivity.
Nitrogen Level; Sandy; Calcareous; Wheat
The Impact of Body Weight on
Blood Pressure and Some Laboratory Tests among Females at
Different Ages in Cairo
Sahar A. Khairy1;
Hala M. Abdelsalam2; Wafaa A. Fahmy3;
Sahar A. Ibrahim1and Maysa A.Samy3
2Clinical Pathology and 3Public Health
Departments, National Nutrition Institute
Obesity is a medical
condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent
that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced
life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Micronutrient
deficiencies have been found in obese individuals across age
groups worldwide. Objective:
To examine the effect BMI on blood pressure and various
laboratory parameters among females at different ages in Cairo.
Subjects of our
study were females living in
Cairo governorate from 6 years up to 60 years. The data was
collected as cross sectional study from 21 randomly selected
elementary & secondary schools of Cairo governorate, and clinics
of NNI for adult females.
Weight and height
determined and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each age
category according to the World Health Organization classification (WHO). Blood hemoglobin,
fasting blood glucose, Total blood lipids which include (serum
cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and
low density lipoprotein), and vitamin A & E were determined for
each participants. Results: Among all age groups the mean
levels of systolic & diastolic blood pressure increased with
increased body weight categories. The mean glucose level showed
higher statistical level among obese females aged 12-18
years compared to normal
body weight. Lipid profile mean levels showed no statistical
differences in relation to body weight categories among age
groups 6-12 and12-18years. Among age >18years the level of
Cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (L.D.L) showed
statistical rise among obese compared to overweight females.
Triglycerides levels were found to increase with the increase in
body weight category although not significant. While the mean
levels of vitamin A and vitamin E showed no statistical
differences in relation to body weight categories among age
groups 6-12yand12-18years, the mean levels of vitamin A and
vitamin E among age >18years showed lower serum levels among
over weights compared to normal body weight females which was
statistically significant with vitamin A but not with vitamin E.
morbidity and affect the quality of life among females of
different ages and that effect increased with increasing the
age. This ranks
among the major determinants of health care costs.
A. Khairy; Hala M. Abdelsalam; Wafaa A. Fahmy; Sahar A. Ibrahim
and Maysa A.Samy. The Impact of Body
Weight on Blood Pressure and Some Laboratory Tests among Females
at Different Ages in Cairo.
obesity, Females, Children, Adults, Adolescents, Cairo, Vitamin
A & E, Blood pressure, Anaemia
Avian mycoplasmosis are considered one of the most important
economic problems for chicken industry. The current research
aims to obtain complete picture of (M. gallisepticum).
One hundred and eighty specimens were collected from sixty
naturally infected chicken of different age, sex and breed from
different localities in El-Sharkia Governorate. Bacteriological
examination of the samples revealed that, the total incidence of
mycoplasma were14.4% .The results of serelogical identification
by SPA test for detecting M. gallisepticum antibodies
showed that 31 isolates (51.6%) were positive and 29 isolates
(48.3%) were negative,while the ELISA test revealed that 29
isolates (48.3%) were positive and 22 isolates (36.3%) were
negative.The antibiotic sensitivity test of M. gallisepticum
showed that all the isolates were sensitive to lincospectin,
spectinomycin and tylosin, but all examined isolates were
resistant to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, ampicillin,
oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol.
Responses of Celosia argentea L. to simulated drought and
exogenous salicylic acid
Victor Johwo Odjegba, Adeola Mary
Department of Botany, University
of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.
Salicylic acid (SA), which is known as a signal molecule in the
induction of defense mechanisms in plants, could be a promising
compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity. The present
study investigated the possible protective role of SA against
simulated drought effects in Celosia argentea. Seedlings
were raised from seeds and were grouped into four categories,
each representing a treatment and replicated 10 times. Category
1 (W) which served as the control received 200 ml of water every
2 days throughout the experiment period; category 2 (SA)
received 200 ml 500 µM salicylic acid every 2 days throughout
the study period; category 3 (W+DT) received 200 ml of water
every 2 days for 3 weeks before subjecting them to 10 days of
simulated drought; while the 4th category (SA+DT)
received 200 ml 500 µM salicylic acid every 2 days for 3 weeks
before subjecting them to 10 days of simulated drought.
Physiological and biochemical, as well as metabolic parameters
representative of oxidative damage and antioxidant activity were
evaluated after the treatments. The results showed that drought
caused a decrease in plant biomass, chlorophyll, relative water
content (RWC) and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation,
and activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in seedlings
that were not pretreated with SA. The negative effects of
drought were however alleviated by the exogenously applied SA
thereby underscoring the beneficial role of this signal molecule
in mediating defense response in plants under stress.
[Odjegba VJ, Adeniyi AM. Responses of Celosia argentea
L. to simulated drought and exogenous salicylic acid. Nat Sci
Antioxidant enzymes; drought; salicylic acid; oxidative stress;
Fortification Of Sorghum With
Legumes Using Lactobacillus Plantarum As Starter For
Olonila Omolola Toyin, Adebayo-Tayo
Bukola Christianah and
Akinola Gbemisola Elizabeth
Department of Microbiology,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.
bicolor) is one of the most important food crops in Africa
but due to the deficient in certain amino acids there is a need
for fortification of these cereals with legumes to improve the
nutritional quality and acceptability.
traditional fermented Sorghum, tough porridge prepared by the
Yoruba’s in Ekiti state, western Nigeria.“Ori ese” was produced
using Sorghum (brown
and white varieties) with different blends: Sorghum only (WC and
BC) Sorghum-Bambara-nut (WBO and BBO), Sorghum-Soybeans (WSO and
BSO), Sorghum-Cowpea (WCO and BCO), and Sorghum-groundnut (WGO
and BGO), with Lactobacillus plantarum as a starter. The
pH, lactic acid, diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide production
during slurry fermentation ranged from 3 - 7, 0.125 - 6.125
g/l, 0.042 - 0.85g/l and 1.0 - 6.4g/l respectively. There
was a significant difference in protein content of the samples,
It ranged from 10.0h - 13.3a % in which
BBO had the highest and WC sample had the least. The crude fat
ranged from 2.08e - 3.03a % in which BSO
had the highest while WGO had the least. Samples from WBO had
the highest crude fiber (3.22%a) while WC has the
least (2.26f%). There was a significant difference (P
≥0.05) in mineral composition of the blends, BSO had the highest
Na content (0.108a mg/kg) and K content (0.1221a
mg/kg) while WBO had the highest Fe content (2.5a
mg/kg) and Ca content(0.15a mg/kg). There was a
significant difference in P content of the samples except for
WGO and WSO. Fortification and the use of starter for “Ori-ese”
production enhanced the nutritional quality of the food.
Fortification with Bambara-nut is highly recommended and it will
be suitable in the total amelioration of protein –energy
–malnutrition in the developing countries.
Adebayo-Tayo B.C, Akinola G.E.
Fortification of Sorghum with legumes using lactobacillus
plantarum as starter for ”Ori-ese” production.
Sorghum, Fortification, L. plantarum, “Ori-ese”,
Screening and Production of
β-galactosidase by Trichoderma species.
Akinola Gbemisola Elizabeth, Adebayo-Tayo Bukola, Olonila
Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo
Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma
harzarium, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma longibrachiatum,
Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma arundinaceum, Trichoderma
konnigii, Trichoderma pseudokonnigii, Trichoderma ciroviride,
Trichoderma fertile, Trichoderma polysporum and
Trichoderma crassum) were isolated from soil samples
collected from different locations in Ibadan metropolis. Among
the strains Trichoderma crassum (12.6%) has the highest
frequency of occurrence. All the isolates were screened
for β–galactosidase production using X-gal
(5-bromo-4-chloroindolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) and IPTG
solution as an inducer. Six isolates were selected as the best
producer of β–galactosidase. β–galactosidase
production ranged from
0.3476 - 2.2369 U/ml
has the highest production. On submerged fermentation, static
condition gave a profound increase in β-galactosidase
production. The best yield of β-galactosidase production was
obtained at 35oC, pH 4, Tween80 at 0.15ml
concentration and 6 days of incubation. Among the carbon and
nitrogen sources tested manitol and casein supported
β–galactosidase production (2.7666
- 6.9888 U/ml) by Trichoderma crassum.
GE, Adebayo-Tayo BC, Olonila OT. Screening and Production of
β-galactosidase by Trichoderma species.
Trichoderma; IPTG; Temprature; pH
The effects of an eight-week
aerobic exercise on serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen in
Assistant professor in sport physiology, Department of physical
education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad,
MA in sport physiology, Department of physical education,
Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Editor In-Chief, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran
Inflammatory markers increase the risk of cardiovascular
disease. Predicting the risk of coronary artery disease, serves
an important role in treating and preventing the progression of
the disease. Aerobic exercise decreases the risk of coronary
artery disease by reducing inflammation. The current study
investigated the effect of a period of selective aerobic
exercise on the serum levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and IL-6 among
the middle-aged women. Twenty-four middle-aged women were
equally split into two groups, control and experimental. The
experimental group underwent 30-min exercise sessions with the
increasing intensity of 50-75% maximum heart rate, three times a
week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken from both groups
twice (24 hours before and 24 hours after the training) in order
for the measurement of the intended factors. A paired sample
t-test was used to compare the pre-test and post-test data. In
order to test the difference between the two groups, independent
t-test was used at a significant level (P<05/0). Normality of
the data was checked by using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. The
results of the study revealed that 8 weeks of aerobic exercise
induced a significant difference in the levels of CRP (p =
0.001), fibrinogen (p = 0.004), and IL-6 (p = 0.022) between the
two groups. According to current research results, performing a
period of regular aerobic exercise, while applying the overload
principle and intensity, can cause the reduction of inflammatory
markers of cardiovascular disease, which along with aging can be
a determining factor in the atherosclerosis, especially in
Mahmoud Hejazi, Ladan Hosseini Abrishami, Farnaz Aminian, Vahdat
Boghrabadi, Mehrdad Jalalian.
The effects of an eight-week aerobic exercise on serum levels of
CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen in middle-aged women.
Aerobic exercise; Women, CRP; IL-6; Fibrinogen
of an 8-week aerobic exercise on serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and
fibrinogen in middle-aged women
Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi1,
Ladan Hosseini Abrishami2, Vahdat Boghrabadi1
1. Assistant professor in sport
physiology, Department of physical education, Mashhad branch,
University, Mashhad, Iran
2. MA in sport physiology,
Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad
University, Mashhad, Iran
Inflammatory markers increase
the risk of cardiovascular disease. Predicting the risk of
coronary artery disease, serves an important role in treating
and preventing the progression of the disease. Aerobic exercise
decreases the risk of coronary artery disease by reducing
inflammation. The current study investigated the effect of a
period of selective aerobic exercise on the serum levels of CRP,
fibrinogen, and IL-6 among the middle-aged women. Methods:
Twenty-four middle-aged women were equally split into two
groups, control and experimental. The experimental group
underwent 30-min exercise sessions with the increasing intensity
of 50-75% maximum heart rate, three times a week for 8 weeks.
Blood samples were taken from both groups twice (24 hours before
and 24 hours after the training) in order for the measurement of
the intended factors. A paired sample t-test was used to compare
the pre-test and post-test data. In order to test the difference
between the two groups, independent t-test was used at a
significant level (P<05/0).
Normality of the data was checked by using the Kolmogorov
Smirnov test. Results: The results of the study revealed
that 8 weeks of aerobic exercise induced a significant
difference in the levels of CRP (p = 0.001), fibrinogen (p =
0.004), and IL-6 (p = 0.022) between the two groups.
Conclusion: According to current research results,
performing a period of regular aerobic exercise, while applying
the overload principle and intensity, can cause the reduction of
inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease, which along with
aging can be a determining factor in the atherosclerosis,
especially in sedentary people.
Mahmoud Hejazi, Ladan Hosseini Abrishami, , Vahdat Boghrabadi ,Farnaz
Aminian. The effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise on serum
levels of CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen in middle-aged women.
aerobic exercise; cardiovascular
aerobic exercise; middle-aged women
Quality Of River Kunda, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh
(India) With Special Reference to Physico-Chemical Parameters
Sudha Dubey2, Rajendra Chaurasia2, Vibha
of Biotechnology, Adarsh Institute of Management & Science,
of Zoology, Govt. Holkar Science College Indore- 452017, India
of Zoology, P.M.B. Gujarati Science College Indore- 452001,
The study on some physico-chemical
characteristics of River Kunda at its source has been calculated
for the period of one year (August 2010 to July 2011). The
sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance.
For surface water determination of water quality index becomes
essential and pre-requisite. Analysis of some physico-chemical
characteristics like water temperature, pH, transparency,
dissolved oxygen, BOD, total hardness, alkalinity, Chloride,
Nitrate and Phosphate has been done during the investigation
period. Increase in temperature, pH, Transparency, Chlorides and
Phosphates values were higher in Siptan Station, whereas the
increase in Total Hardness and Nitrates values were higher in
Khargone station to the intensity of expulsion of contamination.
The Total Alkalinity, Dissolved oxygen and BOD values higher in
Confluence with Undri River station owing to unpolluted water.
The Kunda River has been facing severe anthropogenic activities,
mostly due to municipal sewage and industrial waste and dense
Sharma, Sudha Dubey, Rajendra Chaurasia, Vibha Dave. Water
Quality Of River Kunda, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh
(India) With Special Reference to Physico-Chemical Parameters.
Water quality, DO, BOD,
Kunda River, Anthropogenic activity
Efficacy of some living
classical and variant infectious bronchitis vaccines against
local variant isolated from Egypt.
Susan, S. El- Mahdy; Ekram,
Salama and Amal, Ahmed
Central Lab. for Evaluation of
Vet. Biol. Abb. Cairo (CLEVB).
This study was
designed to evaluate the protection induced by different living
classical and variant infectious bronchitis vaccines (IB
vaccines) against local variant isolated from Egypt at 2012. Two
hundred and fourty one day old
(SPF) chicks were divided into eight groups. Groups (1-3) were
vaccinated with three different variant infectious bronchitis
living vaccine and group (4-6) with three different classical
one. Groups (7&8) did not receive IBV vaccine and served as (+ve
and –ve) controls respectively. Three weeks post vaccination,
the chickens in groups (1-7) were individually challenged with
10 4.0EID50 of IB (IS/885).The protection
was evaluated at 7 days post-inoculation. The results of this
study showed that we can use IB-88; IB primers (variant) and Ma5
(classical) vaccines as a method for controlling IB infection in
S. El- Mahdy; Ekram, Salama and Amal, Ahmed. Efficacy of some
living classical and variant infectious bronchitis vaccines
against local variant isolated from Egypt.
Infectious bronchitis vaccines;
chickens; local variant strain.
Pesticidal Potency of a Newly
Chlorinated Paraffin Mineral Oil CLPMO as Emulsifiable
Concentrate and Mayonnaise with Reference to KZ 95% EC and Alboleum
El-Sawah, M. H .A.1;
Abd El-Lateef, M. F.2; Helalia, A. A. R.2
and El-Shiekh, Y. W. A.1
Formulation Research Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides
Laboratory,Agricultural Research Center
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar
The physical properties of
chlorinated paraffin mineral oil (CLPMO) were measured according
to The American Chemical Society of Testing and Materials
(ASTM). CLPMO was formulated as Emulsifiable Concentrate and
Mayonnaise to be CLPMO 85% EC and CLPMO 80% mayonnaise. Their
physic-chemical properties were measured with reference to KZ
95% EC and Alboleum 80% mayonnaise. The data appeared that, the
physical properties of CLPMO 80% EC was more effective than KZ
95% EC. Also, the formulated mayonnaise was more effective than Alboleum 80% mayonnaise. The physical properties of spray
solutions, foaming, emulsion stability, viscosity, surface
tension, pH, conductivity, salinity and TDS for EC and
mayonnaise were studied. The phytotoxicity of newly formulated
mineral oils at 1.5% for both EC and mayonnaise were recorded. The pesticidal activity of CLPMO as EC and mayonnaise were
evaluated against Aphis fabea with reference to KZ 95% EC
and Alboleum 80% mayonnaise which appeared that, the efficiency
of every oil were approximately equal its reference oil. The
outdoor experiment against
appeared that, the efficiency of
CLPMO 85% EC was more effective than KZ 95% EC where it was vise
versa in case of mayonnaise mineral oil.
M. H .A.; Abd El-Lateef, M. F.; Helalia, A. A. R. and El-Shiekh,
Y. W. A. Pesticidal
Potency of a Newly Chlorinated Paraffin Mineral Oil CLPMO as
Emulsifiable Concentrate and Mayonnaise with Reference to KZ 95%
EC and Alboleum 80% Mayonnaise.
Chlorinated paraffins, mineral
oils, physical properties, cold storage, phytotoxicity,
accelerated hot storage, spray solutions, emulsifiable
Relationship between Obesity
and Mental Health among Females Attending The National Nutrition
Institute Clinic (Cairo)
Mona.S.Mohamed 2, Omima.K.El Salamony 2,
Kholoud Rashed Saeid1
Growth and Nutrition Requirement
Department, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
Community Health Departments,
Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
Abstract : Objective:
To evaluate mental health profile among overweight and obese
Analytical retrospective, case control study comparing
two parallel groups. The target group included cases (n=100) who
were overweight and obese adult females attending the National
Nutritional Institute, Cairo (NNI) weight reduction clinic. The
control group (n=100) were normal weight adult females attending
with their relatives weight reduction clinic or with their
infants and children the pediatrics clinic (NNI).
There were statistically significant differences between cases
and controls as regards stress and depression severity (P=0.018
- P<0.001, respectively ).Stress and depression tends to be more
among cases. Regarding anxiety there was no statistically
significant differences between cases and controls (p=0.197).
There was statistically significant differences between cases
and controls regarding snaking to different types of foods
(p<0.05).Cases tends to snake regularly versus
controls.Regarding daily activity, walking and walking
regularity, showed no significant differences between cases and
controls. Conclusions: Stress and depression symptoms are
mental health problems among overweight and obese adult females.
Frequent snaking is among the risk factors to develop overweight
and obesity regardless of the daily activity.
Mona.S.Mohamed, Omima. K. El Salamony and Kholoud
Rashed Saeid. Relationship between Obesity and Mental Health
among Females Attending The National Nutrition Institute Clinic
Mental health, Stress,
Depression, Anxiety, obesity
in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review
starting from September 26, 2012.
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