Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 10 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 69), December 25, 2012 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1012 
 
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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Design, fabrication and testing of hydraulic crane

 

Muhammadu Masin MUHAMMADU

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University Technology P.M.B. 65, Minna, Nigeria

muhammadmasin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, design, fabrication and testing of hydraulic crane is intended to replace the local or traditional method of lifting heavy load with hand with emphasis being laid on performance, safety and reliability. Also, hydraulic crane is capable of carrying load up to 1000kg at a time was developed using locally available materials. The crane is comprised of six primary load-carrying members that are joined together in a particular fashion, actuator, oil tank, hose, pipe and a pump that is powered by a D.C. motor. The principle of operation, fabrication details and methods were critically analyzed, calculations were clearly laid out and material selection and costing were also discussed. The machine Factor of Safety (FOS) is 2 and in the performance evaluation, it indicated 81.2% efficiency.

[Muhammadu Masin MUHAMMADU. Design, fabrication and testing of hydraulic crane. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.01

 

Keywords: Pump, actuator, hydraulic crane, reliability, load, hose and efficiency

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2

Enaminones in heterocyclic syntheses: part 5: isoniazid-enaminone a new organic synthon and tuberculostatic candidate.

 

Faida H. Ali Bamanie1, A. S. Shehata2, M. A. Moustafa3, 4 and M. M. Mashaly*2

 

1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science at (New) Damietta, Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

4Department of PharmaceuticalChemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

mashaly54321@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract:condensation of nicotinic, isonicotinic acid hydrazides 1a,bwith1,3-cyclohexanedione 2, in water, using acetic acid as catalyst, afforded enaminone derivatives 3a,b.

[Faida H. Ali Bamanie, A. S. Shehata, M. A. Moustafa and M. M. Mashaly. Enaminones in heterocyclic syntheses: part 5: isoniazid-enaminone a new organic synthon and tuberculostatic candidate. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):7-10]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.02

 

Keywords:hydrazine, nicotinic hydrazide, isoniazid, isoniazid-enaminone, tuberculosis

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3

Study the effect of coffee and cardamom on the viability of some probiotic strains and their cytotoxicity

 

Amnah A. H. Rayes

 

Biology Department - Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 Mehanna2006@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this research was studying the effect of coffee and cardamom on the viability of some probiotic strains and their cytotoxicity, also determining the optimal percentage for use of each of them. 5% coffee inhibits the growth of all probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium bifidum; Bifidobacterium breve; Bifidobacterium infantis; Lactobacillus acidophilus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; Lactobacillus reuteri and Enterococcus faecium). No growth was observed at 7.5% coffee or more except Ent. faecium. 1% cardamom had moderate effect on the viability of probiotic strains. While 3% or more completely inhibit all probiotic strains. Also, cardamom extract at different concentrations had inhibitory activity on E. coli, Salmonella typhi , S. aureus, and Bacillus cereuss and the coffee extract had inhibitory activity on all strains at 5%, however no inhibitory activity was observed against E. coli, or Salmonella typhi at 2.5%. S. aureus has been identified as the most sensitive strain against cardamom and coffee. Cardamom and coffee have a strong influence as anticancer cells in the liver and acceptable effect in the colon.

[Amnah A. H. Rayes Study the effect of coffee and cardamom on the viability of some probiotic strains and their cytotoxicity. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):11-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.03

 

Key words: cardamom, coffee, probiotic, and cytotoxicity

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4

Immunohistochemical analyses of Survivin expression in patients with Oral Lichen Planus

 

Manar M. El-Sholkamy1; Nagwa Osman1; Heba Ahmad Farag2 and Noha Ayman Ghallab1

 

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University.

2Deprtment Oral Pathology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

manarSholkamy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), is a chronic, inflammatory disease of immunological disorder. The most important complication of OLP is the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis gene and encourages the continued proliferation and survival of tumors. The aim of this study was to detect the level of Survivin as a molecular indicator of malignancy in control, reticulo-papular and bollous-erosive OLP patients using immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects participated in this study,10 reticulo-papular, 5 bollous–erosive OLP patients and 10 healthy controls. All subjects were non-smokers and systemically free to standardize their medical condition. All patients and controls were subjected to biopsy procedures from the buccal mucosa for histopathological examination and immunostained with Survivin using the Ultra Vision System. Results: This study showed a highly significant difference (P<0.001), in mean Survivin optical density between the control group and OLP groups. The highest values were observed in the bullous-erosive group. Mean Survivin area % was nearly 30 % in the reticulo-papular group, 90% in the bollous-erosive group, but only around 10% in the control group. Conclusion: Survivin levels are higher in OLP than in healthy tissue and highest in bullous-erosive forms of OLP compared to the reticulo-papular form. Bullous-erosive forms of OLP are hence more liable to turn malignant than reticulo-papular forms. Diagnosis of OLP patients histopathologically together with molecular profiling and localization of their Survivin levels, can be therefore used as an early biomarker for malignant transformation, before the appearance of tissue abnormalities.

[Manar M. El-Sholkamy;Nagwa Osman; Heba Ahmad Farag and Noha Ayman Ghallab. Immunohistochemical analyses of Survivin expression in patients with Oral Lichen Planus] Nature and Science 2012;10(12):16-22]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.04

 

Key Words: Oral lichen planus, Survivin, Malignant transformation.

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5

 

Evolution of Low Temperature Stress Tolerant Mulberry genotype for Eastern and North-Eastern plains of India

 

M.K. GHOSH1, S.K. DUTTA1, SHIV NATH2, P.K. GHOSH1 and B.B.BINDROO1

 

1Central Sericultural Research & Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Berhampore (West Bengal), India

2 National Silkworm Seed Organization, Basic Seed Farm,Karnasubarna,West Bengal, India

drmrinalghosh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Eastern and north-eastern part of India, which is sericulturally important zone, suffers from low temperature conditions from November to January with temperature below 15C. Out of 5 commercial silkworm rearings in a year in this zone, two seasons fall during this period. This period is favourable for silkworm rearing but is unfavourable for mulberry growth resulting into quantitatively and qualitatively poor leaf yield due to prevailing low temperature and humidity. To overcome this problem, a programme was taken up to develop low temperature stress tolerant mulberry genotype(s) through conventional method of breeding. To identify suitable parents study of a total of 120 Germplasm, elite and pipeline mulberry genotypes was made for relevant economic (leaf yield, leaf fall% and days to sprout), anatomical (number of chloroplast per guard cell) and physiological traits [net photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and electrical conductivity (EC)]. Character association was determined through correlation / regression analysis between important economical characters and physiological, anatomical and biochemical traits. Correlation between winter leaf yield and days to sprout with three physiological parameters (NPR, NRA and EC) and number of chloroplast/ guard cell, it was found that a positive correlation existed between winter leaf yield and the aforesaid four parameters whereas a negative correlation existed with days to sprout. From sericultural point of view it has been observed that leaf yield suffers mainly due to delayed sprouting or no sprouting during winter season. In this investigation it was found that EC has the highest negative correlation with days to sprout i.e., higher the EC value lesser the days to sprout. On the basis of above investigation EC has been identified as the most important physiological parameter to select the prospective parents to develop low temperature stress tolerant mulberry genotypes. As such, a total of 36 parents were selected and grouped into three categories on the basis of EC values viz., high (6 parents), medium (13 parents) and low (17 parents) for further breeding programme.

[M.K. GHOSH, S.K. DUTTA, SHIV NATH, P.K. GHOSH and B.B.BINDROO. Evolution of Low Temperature Stress Tolerant Mulberry genotype for Eastern and North-Eastern plains of India. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):23-32]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.05

 

Key words: Mulberry, low temperature stress tolerant, EC, NPR, NRA

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Less Known Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Orchids by the Tribal inhabitants of Amarkantak Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, India

 

Arjun Prasad Tiwari*, Bhavana Joshi & A.A Ansari

 

Botanical Survey of India, Central Regional Centre, Allahabad – 211002, Uttar Pradesh, India

*arjuntiwari2007@gmail.com;

 

Abstract: The present paper deals with the less known ethnomedicinal uses of 15 species of orchids belonging to 11 genera, consisting of 6 epiphytes and 9 terrestrials, which are used by the tribal inhabitants of Amarkantak Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, India. The study reveals that tubers are most frequently used (7 species), followed by roots (6 species) and leaves (3 species) for the treatment of 14 different kinds of ailments/diseases. This paper also discusses about threats to the orchids of this region, as well as some very serious problems relating to their conservation. [Tiwari AP, Joshi B, Ansari AA. Less Known Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Orchids by the Tribal inhabitants of Amarkantak Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, India. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):33-37]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.06

 

Keywords: Less known; Ethnomedicinal uses; Orchids; Tribes; Amarkantak Plateau.

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Litter fall and soil nutrient returns in community managed forest in Lamgara block of Uttarakhand

 

Vardan Singh Rawat

 

Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand

E-mail-: singhvardan@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The litter biomass is needed to quantify the annual return of elements and organic matter to the soil. The tree species that covers the largest area in the present studied community managed forests are the common banj oak and chir pine. The mean annual litter fall in Anriyakot Van Panchayat forest was 6.250.26 t ha-1. The mean litter fall value was higher in the summer season (2.860.39 t ha-1) and minimum in winter season (1.530.04 t ha-1). The mean annual litter fall in Bhatkholi Van Panchayat forest was 6.080.50 t ha-1. The mean litter fall value was higher in the summer season (2.550.32 t ha-1) followed by rainy (1.840.24 t ha-1) and winter season (1.680.26 t ha-1). The soil organic carbon percentage of the Anriyakot Van Panchayat ranged from 1.000.29% to 2.730.51%, while on Bhatkholi Van Panchayat it ranged from 1.410.54% to 2.970.46%.

[Rawat, V.S. Litter fall and soil nutrient returns in community managed forest in Lamgara block of Uttarakhand. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):38-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.07

 

Keywords: Community managed forest, Van Panchayat, litter fall

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8

[Nat Sci 2012;10(12):43-50]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

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9

Approaches to Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity- A Review

 

Aramde Fetene1, Kumlachew Yeshitela2 and Hayal Desta2

 

1Department of Natural Resource Management, Debre Markos University, P.O.Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia; Email: aramde74@gmail.com

2Chair of Ecosystem Planning and Management, EiABC, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 518, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

 

Abstract: Biodiversity holds multiple values which include direct (subsistence and tradable) and indirect (watershed protection, nutrient recycling, climate regulation and many other ecosystem services). These resources often act as an economic "buffer" supplying alternative biological resources for the rural and urban community. However, in recent time very little of the world's biodiversity remains unaffected by human activity. Loss of biodiversity directly affects the stability of the ecosystem. This indicates the demand of urgent intervention to readdress the many negative impacts of biodiversity manipulation, and move away from focusing on short-term gains, to prevent those who are subsistence dependent, or derive income from trading biodiversity. Therefore it is important to review and analyse an approaches for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity for the benefits of the community and the nature itself. The aim of this paper was to review different articles related to the conservation of biodiversity and select the best options and approaches that can help to maintain the potential of biological resources while keeping the needs and aspiration of the community. In this regard, based on the site condition different biodiversity conservation approaches were identified which include: in-situ conservation, ex-situ conservation, circa-situ conservation and complementary conservation. Conservation based on the biodiversity components was also another approaches used to analyse and identify the appropriate conservation approach at a larger scale. This component based biodiversity conservation approach includes: the genetic-based conservation, species-based conservation, ecosystem-based conservation and landscape level conservation approach. From this synthesis it has been learnt that, the ecosystem approach has been remarked as the best approach for the conservation of biodiversity. Because, ecosystem approach is operated based on (i) the application of scientific methodologies, (ii) human beings are an integral part of many ecosystems, and (iii) using adaptive management to deal with the complex and dynamic nature of ecosystems. Therefore, because of its holistic nature, the ecosystem approach has the potential to mainstream conservation into general human affairs and used as the best option for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

[Aramde Fetene, Kumlachew Yeshitela, and Hayal Desta. Approaches to Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity- A Review. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):51-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.09

 

Keywords: Approaches, biodiversity, components, conservation, ecosystem, sustainable use

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10

Modeling African Trypanosomiasis Control Program Using Schematic Drawings

 

Yatta S. Lukaw

 

University of Juba, College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies-South Sudan.

Contact address: E-mail: yattalukaw2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Schematic models have long been used to provide vital information on tropical diseases control programs. Recently schematic mathematical models found their application in predicting about the output of intervention of several diseases, for example mathematical schematic modeling has been successfully applied to model Onchocerciasis Control Program output in West Africa. This gives strong evidence that schematic models are really robust and can be widely applied to model diseases intervention program out comes. The proposed model in this study is a modification of the Ross Macdonald Schematic Model in a way that it might be used to predict the control program outcome of African Trypanosomiasis. The schematic model has therefore been successful in demonstrating that African Trypanosomiasis % Prevalence Rate might drop as a function of increasing % coverage by the control program.

[Yatta S. Lukaw. Modeling African Trypanosomiasis Control Program Using Schematic Drawings. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):63-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.10

 

Key words: Schematic modeling; African Trpanosomiasis; intervention program.

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Evaluation of Profenofos Intoxication In White Rats

 

Nashwah Ismail Zaki

 

Department of Physiology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Egypt.

nashwahizaki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Profenofos is an organophosphorous insecticide which extensively used in agriculture and household. The present work is under taken to evaluate acute, subchronic and withdrawal effects of profenofos intoxication on some lipid metabolism indices and cytotoxicity enzymes biomarkers as well as on total non-specific esterase in blood of male white rats. Adult male white rats weighing 20020 g were orally administered with Profenofos at single dose of 47.5mg/kg body weight or repeated dose of 23.75mg/kg body weight. Exposure to single or repeated doses of Profenofos elicited significant increase in TC, TG and LDL-C levels parallel to a decrease in HDL-C level. Also, induction of AcP, ALP, LDH and CK activities were recorded throughout most of the experiments periods as compared to corresponding controls at confidence interval 95% or P >0.05 respectively. Pointed to the withdrawal effect; all the parameters under investigation restored near the control values except for HDL-C and LDL-C. The present data also explored that acute and subchronic Profenofos intoxication induced significant induction in the total non-specific esterase (NSE) activity and exhibited marked changes in its fractional activity and electrophoretic mobility. Signs of recovery were seen in fractional activity to Profenofos withdrawal. Conclusion: Continuous exposure to Profenofos alters lipid metabolism; increase the activities of cytotoxicity enzymes biomarkers, thereby it may be a causative factor for multiple organs dysfunction as liver, kidney, heart and muscles. Also, the present investigation supports the idea that the estimation of fractional rather than the total activity of NSE is more reliable in reflecting the molecular consequences of acute and chronic oxidative stress induced by single oxidant.

[Nashwah I. Zaki. Evaluation of Profenofos Intoxication In White Rats. Forests. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):67-77]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.11

 

Keywords: Acute; subchronic; Organophosphorous intoxication; Cytotoxicity enzymes; oxidative stress lipid and protein

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Carbon Sequestration Potential of Indian Forestry Land Use Systems - A Review

 

Akhlaq A Wani1, 2, P K Joshi3, Ombir Singh1 and Rajiv Pandey4

 

1Silviculture Division, Forest Research Institute (FRI) Dehradun 248 006, India

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pombay, P.O. Gopalpora, Kulgam, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir J&K-192233, India

3Department of Natural Resources, TERI University New Delhi 110 070, India

4Department of Forestry Post Box No: 59, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar Garhwal Uttarahand-246174, India

akhlaqwani@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Growing demand of land for crop production, commercial cattle rearing, fuel wood, charcoal, construction timber, urbanization and industrialization have resulted in loss of forests in the past. Forests being recognized as an important component of Carbon (C) cycle have gained importance owing to its potential to sequester C. As a result large-scale forest conservation and land developmental programmes have come up at regional, national and world level besides afforestation and reforestation activities are eligible in CDM and REDD plus. This requires development of baseline scenario and estimation of C stocks with periodic monitoring of carbon stock changes to address climate change. This paper aims at presenting an overview of estimates on C sequestration potential of varied forestry land use systems in India for country level and site-specific assessments.

[Akhlaq A Wani, P K Joshi, Ombir Singh and Rajiv Pandey. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Indian Forestry Land Use Systems - A Review. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):78-85]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.12

 

Keywords: Carbon sequestration potential, carbon pool, biomass carbon, soil organic carbon

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Improving the nutritive value of ensiled green rice straw 2- In vitro gas production

 

Elmenofy, E.K.1; M.I. Bassiouni1; E.B. Belal2; H.M.A. Gaafar3; E.M. Abdel-Raouf1 and S.A. Mahmoud1

 

1. Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agricultural, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

2. Department of Agricultural Botany (Agricultural Microbiology), Faculty of Agricultural, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

3. Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Nadi Elsaid St., Dokki, Egypt.

hamedgaafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fresh green rice straw of Sakha 101 variety treated for silage making with Cellulomonas sp. as cellulolytic bacteria (CB) and Lactobacillus sp. as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as follows, 1) control, 2) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at 108 cfu/g, 3) cellulolytic bacteria (CB) at 108 cfu/g and 4) LAB+CB at 108 cfu/g per type of bacteria. The different treatments were addition with or without 5% molasses and ensiled for 60 days. Bacterial inoculants and molasses addition increased in vitro gas production volume, gas production fractions (a&b) and gas production rate (c) and CB more effective than LAB and the LAB+CB combination had the higher values. Gas production from the fermentation of soluble fraction (GPSF) and insoluble fraction (GPNSF), short chain fatty acids concentration (SCFA), DM intake (DMI), organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabilizable (ME) and net energy (NE) and in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) increased significantly (P<0.05) with bacterial inoculants and molasses addition and the LAB+CB had the higher values.

[Elmenofy, E.K; M.I. Bassiouni; E.B. Belal; H.M.A. Gaafar; E.M. Abdel-Raouf and S.A. Mahmoud. Improving the nutritive value of ensiled green rice straw 2- In vitro gas production. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):86-91]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.13

 

Keywords: green rice straw silage, bacterial inoculants, in vitro gas production.

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Distribution and Diversity of Bacteria in a Small Tropical Freshwater Body (Aiba Reservoir) in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.

 

Atobatele, O.E.*and Owoseni, A.A.

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. tosine.ben@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Environmentalists have become increasingly concerned about the pollution of surface waters. The Aiba reservoir is the second oldest impoundment of Osun river basin and provides potable water to Iwo community. The diversity of bacteria in the Aiba Reservoir was studied by collecting water samples from four locations within the reservoir to reflect human impacts during three different seasons. The most probable number (MPN) of bacteria at the different sampling locations during the sampling seasons, the total non-specific bacteria count, total coliform and Escherichia coli count were measured using the tube dilution and pour plate techniques. Significant differences were observed in various parameters of bacterial diversity. Water samples from all sampling points were contaminated with coliforms, the highest being 1100+ MPN/100ml in location D. the highest number of bacteria was isolated in June at all sampling locations. Seventy-nine bacteria belonging to sixteen genera and twenty-three species were isolated. The genus Bacillus was the most diverse with thirty-one isolates and eight species. Other genera isolated were Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Listeria, Proteus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium, Lactobacillus, Edwardsiella, Flavobacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Acinetobacter. Of the 23 genera isolated 10 (43.5%) were Gram negative bacteria, 60% of which are coliform bacteria. Eight (61.5%) of the Gram positive bacteria belonged to the Genus Bacillus. The high bacteria count and the type/genera of bacteria isolated are indicative of contamination of the system with soil from agricultural runoff, domestic sewage and fish remains. This on the long run could lead to spread of infective diseases to the populace.

[Atobatele, OE and Owoseni, AA. Distribution and Diversity of Bacteria in a Small Tropical Freshwater Body (Aiba Reservoir) in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):92-97]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.14

 

Keywords: Aiba reservoir, anthropogenic influence, bacterial count, coliforms, MPN.

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Rate expression for unimolecular gas-phase reaction

 

Manjunath. R

 

#16/1, 8th Main Road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar, Bangalore560010, Karnataka, India

 Email : manjunath5496@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The prime purpose of this article is to establish a rate equation for unimolecular gas-phase reaction.

[Manjunath.R. Rate expression for unimolecular gas-phase reaction. Nat Sci 2012; 10(12):98-99]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.15

 

Keywords: unimolecular gas-phase reaction; Lindemann mechanism; transition state theory; rate equation.

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Diatom composition in relation to water quality characteristics in Porto-Novo creek, Lagos.

 

I. C. Onyema

 

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. iconyema@unilag.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The diatoms of the Porto-Novo creek in Lagos were investigated in relation to water quality characteristics for 2 years at 4 stations. The effect of tidal sea water inflow from the Lagos habour via the Badagry creek largely controlled the hydrodynamics of the area particularly in the dry season. In the wet season rainfall induced flood water were implicated. Water quality characteristics reflected an environmental gradient from Station 1 (with greater proximity to the sea) through to Station 4 (located further inland). A total of 77 diatom species (34 centric and 43 pennate forms) were recorded. There were clear differences in the diatom assemblages recorded in the fresh and brackish water situations within the creek. The diatom spectrum reflected influence from the salinity gradient linked to tidal influence and rainfall distribution. Comparatively higher species composition were recorded in the dry (46) than in the wet (31) season. Additionally, higher species diversity was recorded for Station 4, through Stations 3, 2 and Station 1. Notable species in the wet season were Aulacoseira granulata, Aulacoseira granulata var. angstissima, Aulacoseira granulata var. curvata, Aulacoseira granulata var. angstissima f. spiralis, Diatoma elongatum, Diatoma hyalinum and Eunotia glacialis whereas the dry season was better represented by Coscinodiscus centralis, Actinoptychus splendens, Amphiprora alata, Bacillaria paxillifer, Synedra crystallina and Pleurosigma angulatum. Water quality changes continuum directly reflected on the diatom composition within the creek.

[I. C. Onyema. Diatom composition in relation to water quality characteristics in Porto-Novo creek, Lagos. Nat Sci 2012; 10(12):100-107]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.16

 

Keywords: Diatom, creek, lagoon, Lagos, Porto-Novo, water quality.

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[Nat Sci 2012;10(12):108-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

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[Nat Sci 2012;10(12):121-127]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18

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Assessment of Psychological Feelings and Quality Of Life in Renal Failure and Dialysis Patients

 

1Zubida alsherif and 2Alshara Mohammad

 

1Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Irbid National University, Irbid, Jordan

2Pharmacology, Faculty of Nursing Irbid National University, Irbid, Jordan

Faculty of Nursing, Irbid National University, Irbid, Jordan

alsherifzobida@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The patients suffering from renal failure often present with unusual psychological problems where treatment methods vary on an individualized basis and drug therapy is often needed in the management of such problems. The present study was conducted; to assess the Psychological Feelings and Quality Of Life in Renal Failure and Dialysis Patients. Methods: Data were collected from renal dialysis patients (80 male and female )were chosen to share in this study from prince Basmah hospital in Irbid and El-Eman hospital in Ajlon -Jordan during the year of 2010 was interviewed retrospectively. Results: the study shows that feelings of annoyance affect feeling of mental competency by 59% and of new stress from disease affect on feeling of mental competency by 71.6 % Conclusion; Psychosocial nursing interventions should attempt to facilitate adjustment to changes in the course of the illness and to normalize social interaction and lifestyle by preventing medical crises, controlling symptoms

[Zubida alsherif and Alshara Mohammad. Assessment of Psychological Feelings and Quality Of Life in Renal Failure and Dialysis Patients. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):128-132]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.19

 

Keywords: Renal failure, dialysis, psychiatric disorders, quality of life.

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Endotracheal Tube Biofilm and its Relationship to Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Neonatal ICU

 

Iman Shehata1, Marwa Shabban 1, Rania Ibrahim 2 and Youssef Shoukry 3

 

Departments of 1 Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2 Pediatrics, 3 Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

marshabban@yahoo.com; emanhussein_68@hotmail.com; marshabban@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common healthcare associated infections in critical care settings. Endotracheal tube (ETT) is an independent risk factor for developing VAP. This study aimed to investigate biofilm formation on the luminal and external surfaces of ETTs of neonates in ICU on mechanical ventilation and study its relation to VAP. The presence of biofilm on the surface of ETTs and biofilm stage were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), meanwhile, bacteria harvested from the surface of ETTs and the secretions of lower respiratory tract were isolated, identified and assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility. Twenty ETTs from 20 neonates who were intubated and mechanically ventilated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Ain Shams University Hospital were obtained. Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation was observed on 80% of inner and outer surfaces of collected ETTs using SEM. Staging of biofilm revealed that 50% of the biofilms were grade III, 31.25% were grade II, and 18.75% were grade I. Bacterial colonization and biofilm grading was shown to be time dependent (p value=0.006). Inner and outer endotracheal tube surfaces yielded 80% and 75% positive aerobic cultures, respectively. The most prevalent isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by coagulase negative Staph (CoNS), Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Candida and normal flora . Thirteen samples had the same pathogen both on the surface of ETTs and in the secretions of lower respiratory tract which accounted for 81.25% of the positive cultures from ETTs. All Gram negative isolates were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin. We can conclude that endotracheal tube colonization and biofilm formation are frequently observed in neonates undergoing mechanical ventilation, increases with the duration of intubation and is correlated with occurrence of VAP. Bacteria implicated in VAP showed multi-resistance towards most antibiotics used in the study.

[Iman Shehata, Marwa Shabban, Rania Ibrahim and Youssef Shoukry. Endotracheal Tube Biofilm and its Relationship to Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Neonatal ICU. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):133-140]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.20

 

Keywords: biofilm, endotracheal tube, neonates, scanning electron microscopy, ventilator associated pneumonia.

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Impacts of Sowing Date, Cultivar, Irrigation Regimes and Location on Bread Wheat Production in Egypt under Climate Change Conditions

 

Hassanein M. K.; M. Elsayed and A.A. Khalil

 

1Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR), Egypt

alaa_armka@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Impacts of climate change will have significant reflections on field practices of wheat growers. The present work is mainly directed to discuss sensitivity of climate change upon the wheat production in Egypt. Field experiments were conducted at three different agroclimatic locations (Sakha, Sids and Shandaweel) at winter season of 2009/2010 to study the effects of two sowing dates and three irrigation levels (60, 80 and 100% of the full water requirements) on grain yield and its attributes of four bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, cultivars (Gemmeiza 9, Giza 168, Sakha 93 and Misr 1). Experimental conditions and results obtained from those locations were used as a database for calibration of CERES-Wheat model under DSSAT4.5 package to study the sensitivity of climate change on wheat growth and yield. Two climate change scenarios have been employed with changes in temperature. The first scenario supposed that increasing in temperature of 1.5C would happen, and the second scenario supposed that increasing of 3.5C would happen. The results showed that by comparing results obtained from CERES-Wheat model and actual observations in the field enabled us to reach very good calibration and validation of the model for predicting phonological stages as well as grain yield at different locations using different treatments. The future impacts of climate change on wheat showed that increasing in temperature will reduce length of growing cycle and the time needed to full tillering in addition to the final yield. This subsequently will reduce the amount of grain yield; accelerate time for maturity and harvesting. For +1.5C scenario, reduction in grain yield, as predicted by the model, will be in average among cultivars of 12% at Sakha location, 9% at Sids location and 11% at Shandaweel location. Scenario of +3.5C will reduce grain yield within an average of 27% at both Sakha , Sids locations, and 31% at Shandaweel location. We can conclude that reduction in wheat grain yield at the three locations has high probability in the future with accelerating growing cycle, especially at +3.5C, which needs to define earlier sowing suitable dates and adaptive agronomical practices.

[Hassanein M. K.; M. Elsayed and A.A. Khalil. Impacts of Sowing Date, Cultivar, Irrigation Regimes and Location on Bread Wheat Production in Egypt under Climate Change Conditions. Nat Sci 2012; 10(12):141-150]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.21

 

Keywords: Bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, crop simulation, calibration, validation, climate scenarios, impacts.

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Effects of Jatropha curcas leaves on common Dermatophytes and causative agent of Pityriasis versicolor in Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Mbakwem – Aniebo C, Okoyomo EP, Ogugbue CJ, Okonko IO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +234-80-3538-0891

 

ABSTRACT: The antifungal activity of Jatropha curcas leaves used by traditional medicine practitioners against the three major Dermatophytes – Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton together with Malassezia furfur [the causative agent of Pityriasis versicolor (Eczema)], was studied by well-in-agar diffusion technique using different concentrations of ethanolic extracts. Isolates from the scalp, skin, toes and feet of forty individuals (mainly children) were obtained in four locations namely Aluu, Choba, Rumuosi and Emohua areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. The study revealed a significant inhibitory effect of Jatropha curcas leaves on the fungal isolates at five different concentrations of 250mg/ml, 200mg/ml, 150mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 50mg/ml used. Assessment of the various minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) showed that Jatropha curcas leaves have the most potential for use as an antidermatophytic agent. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract was between 19.95 and 79.43 mg/ml. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extracts against the test fungal species ranged between 0 and 20mm. The ability of the crude stem extracts of J. curcas to inhibit the growth of fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antifungal potential which may be employed in the management of fungal infections. The implications of these findings in the use of Jatropha curcas in traditional medicine are discussed.

[Mbakwem – Aniebo C, Okoyomo EP, Ogugbue CJ, Okonko IO. Effects of Jatropha curcas leaves on common Dermatophytes and causative agent of Pityriasis versicolor in Rivers State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2012; 10(12):151-157]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.22

 

Keywords: antidermatophytic agent, Jatropha curcas, Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Malassezia furfur

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Effects of Hypoestes forskalei Schult Roem leaf extract on the behavior of Clarias gariepinus.

 

Ubaha G.A1 , Idowu B. A 1. and Omoniyi I.T 2

 

1.Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture Abeokuta.

2.Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta.

E mail: gaubahamrs@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The effects of Hypoestes forskalei Schult Roem leaf extract with piscicidal activity on Clarias gariepinus used for fishing was studied. Fingerlings, juvenile and adult of the African mud cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) were collected and kept at 270 C to acclimatize, and their standard length and weight were taken. Hypoestes forskalei extract was obtained by water extraction method from its leaves and stem. Various concentrations of the plant extract were prepared as bioassay media and water qualities parameters were determined before and after the experiment. Freshly prepared concentrations of the plant extract were introduced into the water containing 10 fishes each while the haematological analysis of the fish were also determined accordingly. The temperature of the control water was the least at 270C while water sample treated with the highest concentration of plant extract recorded the highest value of 28.80C with significant reduction of the pH of the water and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water medium significantly decrease as concentration of the plant increase. All the fishes were rendered immotile for about 8 seconds followed by irrational behaviours. Mortality decrease with decreasing concentration of the plant extract in all the stages of the treated fishes. Haemoglobin concentration, PCV and RBC count of treated fishes irrespective of their developmental stages were markedly lower when compared to the control while the WBC count recorded in most of the treated adult fishes were lower than those recorded in juvenile and fingerlings. Hypoestes forskalei is a plant with high piscicidal properties and highly toxic to aquatic lives and can induce long term health hazards on the internal organs of the fish consumers.

[Ubaha G.A, Idowu B. A. and Omoniyi I.T. Effects of Hypoestes forskalei Schult Roem leaf extract on the behavior of Clarias gariepinus. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):158-162]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.23

 

Key word: Hypoestes forskalei, extract behaviour, Clarias gariepinus

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Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Bypass Surgery

 

Mohamed S. Elbaz, Yasser E. Mohammed, Ahmed H. Mowafy, Abdelmohsen M. Abo Alia and Ahmed F. Abd Elhamed

 

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar and Cairo University

 

Abstract: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), with a rate of occurrence of 17% to 33% in different studies. Post-CABG AF is known to be a potential risk for systemic thromboembolism, CABG and combined valve surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative AF than do patients having CABG alone. We studied sixty patients with ischemic heart disease diagnosed by coronary angiography and underwent coronary artery bypass surgery,30 patients had post operative AF and another 30 patients didn’t have post operative AF. The results of this study as regard preoperative assessment of studied groups showed increased age, body mass index, presence of hypertension, dyslipedemiam, reduced ejection fraction, increased left atrial dimension and increased number af affected vessels were statistically significant while intraoperative failed RCA grafting was statistically significant and lastly postoperative increased duration of positive inotrope, decreased magnesium level, reduced ejection fraction and increased left atrial size were statistically significant. The conclusion from our results suggested that preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative Assessment of the surgical patients may be useful in risk stratification for the occurrence of post CABG AF

[Mohamed S. Elbaz, Yasser E. Mohammed, Ahmed H. Mowafy, Abdelmohsen M. Abo Alia and Ahmed F. Abd Elhamed. Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Bypass Surgery. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):163-171]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 24

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.24

 

Keywords: Predictors; Atrial; Fibrillation; Coronary Bypass Surgery

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Leaching and Mechanical Properties of Cement- Polyacrylamide Composite Developed as Matrices for Immobilization of 137Cs and 60Co Radionuclides.

 

M. I. El- Dessouky1, E. H. El- Masry*1, A. M. El- Kamash1 and M. F. El- Shahat2

 

 1Hot Labs, Atomic Energy Authority Inshas, Kaliobia,

2Faculty of Science, Chemistry Dept., Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*emanelmasry74@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are produced from diverse applications of radionuclides in industry, medicine, radioisotope production facilities and fuel processing plants. These wastes need treatment to reduce the quantities of radioactive contaminants to the level, which allows safe discharge of the decontaminated liquid to the environment and safe disposal of the concentrated radionuclides according to the international requirements and national regulations. The objectives of the liquid waste processing are to immobilize the radioactive elements and to reduce the volume to be stored. The solidified product must be non-dispersible, insoluble and with good mechanical and structural stability. Portland cements are met the acceptance criteria for immobilizing radioactive wastes because of their low cost, high density, durability and amenability to simple processing techniques. In the present study, immobilization of spent polyacrylamide- zeolite and polyacrylamide- bentonite composites loaded with cesium and/or cobalt radionuclides with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been carried out. Several factors affecting the characteristics of the final solidified waste product towards safe disposal such as mechanical strength and leaching behavior of the radioisotopes have been studied. The obtained results showed that the presence of polyacrylamide composites in the cemented wastes improve the mechanical characteristics of the solidified cement matrix towards the safety requirements and reduce considerably the radionuclides leach rates.

[M. I. El- Dessouky, E. H. El- Masry, A. M. El- Kamash and M. F. El- Shahat. Leaching and Mechanical Properties of Cement- Polyacrylamide Composite Developed as Matrices for Immobilization of 137Cs and 60Co Radionuclides. Nat Sci 2012; 10(12):172-177]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 25

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.25

 

Key Words: Immobilization / Radioactive wastes / Portland cement / polyacrylamide/ Zeolite/ Bentonite.

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Bleeding study of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2 (Composite as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100% Dark Polyester Fabric

 

Abd El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud1, Emad El-Deen Allam2 and Raafat Hassan Morsy Azzam2

 

1Consultant of textile printing & finishing. CEO of SPI Company2 , Textile Printing, Dyeing and Finishing Department.

Faculty of applied arts. Helwan University. ceo@spi-eg.com

 

Abstract: Bleeding is a dye migration from the dyed poly ester fabric into the printed or coated film, to avoid this problem different additive were studied as ESO, metal-metal stabilizer “CaZn “and Nano form calcium carbonate ,in this study ESO react with the liable chlorine of PVC and minimize the liberation of HCl in presence of CaZn as heat stabilizer, calcium carbonate has high efficiency as heat stabilizer and showing good filling properties reducing the ink cost, Nano-form titanium dioxide used in different ratios to achieve suitable whiteness. Suitable recipe PVC/DEHP composite which achieves high bleed resist printing and coating film reported in this study, the maximum whiteness achieved was 78.2. whiteness and particle size of all recipes were measured.

[Abd El-Moniem Abd El-Moniem Mahmoud, Emad El-Deen Allam and Raafat Hassan Morsy Azzam. Bleeding study of Nano-form (PVC/DEHP-TiO2 (Composite as Coating Substance and Printing Inks on 100% Dark Polyester Fabric. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):178-183]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 26

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.26

 

Keywords: ESO (epoxy soy bean oil), DEHP (diethyl hexyl phthalate),ATBC (acetyl tri butyl citrate)

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Performance of Centre Pivot irrigation Systems in River Nile State

 

Osama Osman Ali

 

 Department of Agricultural Engineering, Alneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

 osamaosamaosamash@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during the period December 2007 – July 2008, to evaluate water distribution under centre pivot irrigation systems in three projects in River Nile State and one project in Khartoum State (Sudan). Water distribution coefficients used in the evaluation were: Christiansen's coefficient of uniformity (CU%), distribution uniformity (DU%) and scheduling coefficient (Sc%). Values for the coefficient of uniformity ranged from 78 to 85%, for distribution uniformity the values ranged from 68 to 78, and the values for scheduling coefficient ranged from 1.3 to 1.47. Measured values were below or at the lower limits reported in reviewed research works.

[Osama Osman Ali. Performance of Centre Pivot irrigation Systems in River Nile State. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):184-187]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 27

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.27

 

Keywords: centre pivot irrigation, uniformity coefficient, distribution uniformity, scheduling coefficient

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Ecological studies and evaluation of some aggregation pheromone types with measuring the potential of female reproductive system in red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier).

 

Mohamed, k. Abbass1 and Abir, S. Al- Nasser2

 

1Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

*2Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Um Al Qura University, KSA.

Email: al-nasser.abir@hotmail.com, asnasser@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus(Coleoptera:Curculionidae) (Oliv.) is the most serious and destructive insect pest for date palm trees. The relative weevil-attracting potential of the aggregation pheromones procured from different countries and used in trapping the red palm weevil, R. ferrugineus Olivier, was evaluated in date plantations of Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Results of this study indicated that high release rate pheromone obtained from Chemtica Natural, Costa Rica type pheromone was more attractive than France and Spain types pheromone. Moreover, ecological studies have clearly showed that the adult stage of red palm weevil, R. ferrugineus has two peaks of swarming activity on date palm trees throughout the year, one of them during October 2011 whereas, the other during March 2012. Results also, appeared that the female captured contains numbers of eggs not laid. The mean number of egg per female attractive and newly female were 220.2 and 261.8 eggs, respectively. No significant differences were found between numbers of eggs for the newly female and the female attractive.

[Mohamed, k. Abbass and Abir, S. Al- Nasser. Ecological studies and evaluation of some aggregation pheromone types with measuring the potential of female reproductive system in red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Nat Sci 2012;10(12):188-193]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 28

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.28

 

Keywords: red palm weevil, aggregation pheromone, ecological, ovaries

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Tobacco rattle Tobravirus: Occurrence in Flax Plants (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Egypt

 

Salwa N. Zein1, A. H. Hamed1and Hanaa S. Zawam2

 

1Virus and Phytoplasma Res. Dept., Plant Patho .Res. Inst., ARC., Giza, Egypt

2Nematode Res. Dept., Plant Patho. Res. Inst., ARC., Giza, Egypt

salwaelhiti2006@yahoo.com, ali_hamed65@yahoo.com and hn_zawam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This is the first report of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolated from naturally infected flax (Linum usitatissimum ) crop growing in the Agriculture Research Experimental Station (ARES) in Egypt. Naturally infected flax plants showed symptoms of TRV i.e. yellowing, systemic mosaic and leaf deformation. Symptoms were collected and subjected to isolation and identification by indirect ELISA. Presence of the virus isolate in different cultivars, all florets, flower parts was confirmed by using DAS- ELISA. ELISA was also used to confirm the modes of transmission (mechanical inoculation, seed and nematodes transmission). The obtained results indicated that DBIA test was useful to confirm the identification of the virus isolated from flax crop. The percentages of seeds transmission ranged between 2.8 - 19.7 %. Paratrichodorus nematodes was successfully transmitted TRV by16.6%.

[Salwa N. Zein, A. H. Hamed and Hanaa S. Zawam Tobacco rattle Tobravirus: Occurrence in Flax Plants (Linum usitatissimum L. ) in Egypt] Nature and Science 2012; 10(12):194-199]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 29

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.29

 

Keywords: flax, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Paratrichodorus, production, Mechanical, seed and Nematodes transmission, Serological detection and DBIA.

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The Consequences of Darfur conflict on the dynamics of livestock ownership and migratory routes in West Darfur

 

Ali Ahmed Dawoud1 and Omer Ibrahim Ahmed Hamid2*

 

1- Technical Field Officer, FAO Zalingei field Office, West Darfur state.

2- Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Animal Production Science and Technology - Department of Dairy Science and Technology

omerhi30@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:The study of impact of Darfur conflict on the dynamics of livestock ownership and migratory routes was conducted in two localities (Zalingei and Wadi Salih) in West Darfur State during the period from August 2007 to March 2009. The objectives of the study are to find out the effects of the conflict on the dynamic of livestock ownership, and migratory routes.The methods applied for data collection in this study were the participatory approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal PRA & Rapid Rural Appraisal RRA) through which the questionnaire was developed of twenty six questions covering animal water resources, pasture and migratory routes before and during the course of the conflict in the two localities. Two hundreds and fifteen questionnaires were distributed to one hundred and twenty one villages and Damras within eight administrative units of the two localities. Data collected from twenty seven tribes comprising the pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, sedentary herders and IDPs. The results showed that The increase in the nomads’ livestock percentage from 64% before the conflict to 93% currently and the drop on percentage of livestock owned by IDPs from 32% before the conflict to 0% could be due to raiding and looting from other categories, natural growth and /or migration from insecure areas and accumulation at safer areas for the increase, and for the decrease might be attributed to the raiding , looting of livestock and displacement of the IDPs to the camps which let to shift on ownership from category to category.

(Dawoud A A,Hamid,O I A, The Consequences of Darfur conflict on the dynamics of livestock ownership and migratory routes in West Darfur. NatSci2012;10(12):200-204]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 30

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.30

 

Key words: Conflict, Darfur, Livestock, Migratory routes, Ownership

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Fatty acid composition and Lipid content in Muscle Tissue of Ghost crab (Ocypode rotundata ) in Bushehr Coastal Zone in Persian Gulf

 

Keivandokht Samiee1, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan2, Soheila Shahbazi3

 

1Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Chemistry, Science & Research branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775,Tehran, Iran

3Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, North Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

k.samiee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:This study was aimed to gain knowledge on fatty acid composition and lipid content in muscle tissues of Ocypode rotundata in the Bushehr Coastal Zone, Iran in Aug 2012 using the method of Blight & Dyer (1959).The compounds were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS). The components detected in both male and female species, including saturated fatty acids (SFA) Palmitic acid and Stearic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) Oleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alpha- Linoleic acid, two methyl esters of fatty acids including Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Cholesterol (Cholest-5-en-3-ol (3β) and Alkane including Hexadecane, Heptadecane and Octadecane. The dominant fatty acid identified in both sexes was Omega-3 alpha- Linoleic acid (ALA).

[Keivandokht Samiee, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Soheila Shahbazi. Fatty acid composition and Lipid content in Muscle Tissue of Ghost crab (Ocypode rotundata ) in Bushehr Coastal Zone in Persian Gulf. . NatSci2012;10(12):205-208]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 31

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.31

 

Key words: Fatty acid composition, Lipid content, muscle tissue, Ocypode rotundata.

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The Possible Ameliorative Effect of Propolis in Rat’s Liver Treated with Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)

 

Madiha, A. Ashry 1, Hala, F. Abd.Ellah 1 and Ebtesam M. M. Gheth 1,2

 

Zoology Department, Girls College for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University1

Zoology Department, Science Faculty, Omar Al-mukhtar University, El-Beida-Libya2

somamuftah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food additive and there is growing concern that excitotoxins such as MSG play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Propolis, a resinous wax-like beehive product has been used as a traditional remedy for various diseases due to a variety of biological activities of this folk medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the protective and curative effect of propolis against MSG on the rat liver. Fifty male albino rats weighting 75- 95 g. were used to study the biochemical analysis of liver function parameters, including ALAT, ASAT, ALP activities, total proteins, albumin in the blood sera, MDA, GSH and electrophoresis in liver tissue. 1) Rats received distilled water for 4 and 8 weeks (Control group); 2) rats received 200 mg propolis /kg b. w. for 8 weeks (Propolis group); 3) rats received 1 g MSG /kg. b. w. for 8 weeks (MSG group); 4) rats received 200 mg propolis /kg. b. w. for 8 weeks + 1 g MSG /kg. b. w. during the last 4 weeks (protective group); 5) rats received 1 g MSG /kg. b. w. for 8 weeks + 200 mg propolis / kg. b. w. during the last 4 weeks (therapeutic group). Rats were received their respective doses daily by oral gavage and sacrificed 24 hrs after the last dose of different treatments. The results of the present study in MSG group reveal that the mean body weight, absolute and relative liver weight was increased and a highly significant increase in ALAT, ASAT, ALP and MDA activities in serum and decrease in total proteins, albumin and GSH. In electrophoresis study, there was decrease in fractions 1, 2, 5 and fraction 6 and increase in fractions 3 and 4. In protective group, propolis extract in the protective group showed significant improvement in the activity of ALAT, ASAT, ALP, total protein, albumin, MDA, GSH and the mean body weight, absolute and liver relative weight, electrophoresis. In therapeutic group, the results indicated that propolis extract was found to be less effective in restoring MSG induced biochemical and electrophoresis alteration. It may be concluded that propolis extract possess the ability to reverse MSG induced liver oxidative injury as well as to regulate the metabolic enzymatic activities for maintaining proper functioning of the cells and may be considered as hepatoprotective agent against MSG induced toxic effects in the protective role but propolis as therapy was of only limited value.

[Madiha, A. Ashry, Hala, F. Abd.Ellah and Ebtesam M. M. Gheth. The Possible Ameliorative Effect of Propolis in Rat’s Liver Treated with Monosodium Glutamate (MSG). Nat Sci 2012;10(12):209-219]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 32

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.32

 

Key Words: Liver, Monosodium glutamate, Propolis, Biochemistry, Oxidative stress, Electrophoresis.

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Molecular characterization of humic acids isolated from farmyard manure and vermicompost used under a long-term fertilizer experiment on mulberry (Morus alba L.)

 

R. Kar1, B. B. Bindroo1, M. K. Ghosh1, S. K. Majumder2 and P. C. Bose1

 

1Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore, West Bengal, India

2National Silkworm Seed Organization, Basic Seed Farm,Dhubulia, West Bengal, India

ranjitkr4@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A long-term fertilizer experiment on mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been continuing for more than five years at Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore (West Bengal), India with different combinations of organic as well as inorganic sources of nutrients. The natural humic acids were extracted and fractioned from the farmyard manure (FYM) and the vermicompost (VC) used under the said experiment. Both the acid samples were characterized in terms of important properties, namely, charge characteristics through pH-potentiometry, ‘aliphatic-aromatic balance’ based coiling properties through visible spectrophotometry as well as structural characteristics through infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Attempts have also been made to evaluate the performance of mulberry in terms of productivity and nutrients mobilization after completion of 25 crop cycles under the said experimentation in relation to different soil attributes induced by humic acid mediated organics.

[R. Kar, B. B. Bindroo, M. K. Ghosh, S. K. Majumder and P. C. Bose. Molecular characterization of humic acids isolated from farmyard manure and vermicompost used under a long-term fertilizer experiment on mulberry (Morus alba L.). Nat Sci 2012;10(12):220-226]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 33

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.33

 

Key words: Farm yard manure, Humic acid, Infrared spectroscopy, Long-term fertilization, Mulberry, Potentiometry, Vermicompost, Visible spectrophotometry.

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[Nat Sci 2012;10(12):227-232]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 34

Withdrawn

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Effect of Cyanobacteria Inoculation Associated With Different Nitrogen Levels on Some Sandy and Calcareous Soils Properties and Wheat Productivity

 

1Y. M. El-Ayouty.; 2F. M. Ghazal; 2Wafaa T. El-Etr and 2Hanaa A. Zain EL-Abdeen

 

1Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University

2Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

Fekry_ghazal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recently, a great attention is paid in establishing concept of the associations between wheat plants and a variety of N2-fixing microorganisms. This phenomenon has entered the scientific scene arising from the prospects and the possibilities of their potentially application. . In this work, cyanobacteria inoculation (SBCI) was applied to wheat in a greenhouse experiment under different levels of nitrogen to explore its influence on wheat yield and its components as well as on some soil properties of both sandy and calcareous soils. Results revealed that inoculation with cyanobacteria generally enhanced the growth of wheat plants. Also, 70 % N + SBCI gave the highest wheat grain and straw yields, highest total NPK contents for both grains and straw. These results were not significantly differed from those recorded by 100 % N treatment. Regarding soil physical characteristics the results indicate that inoculation with cyanobacteria increased the proportion of macro-aggregates with a corresponding decrease in the micro-aggregates in both tested soils. Inoculation with cyanobacteria increased both soil organic matter and water holding capacity percentages, while decreased the soil bulk density for both tested soils. Generally, it is of preliminarily prediction that cyanobacteria inoculation can save 30 % of the mineral nitrogen required for wheat cultivation. Also, it can ameliorate and improve the physical properties of the marginal and poor soils such as those of sandy and calcareous soils applied in the present study.

[Y. M. El-Ayouty., F. M. Ghazal, Wafaa T. El-Etr and Hanaa A. Zain EL-Abdeen. Effect of Cyanobacteria Inoculation Associated With Different Nitrogen Levels on Some Sandy and Calcareous Soils Properties and Wheat Productivity. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):233-240]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 35

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.35

 

Keywords: Cyanobacteria Inoculation; Nitrogen Level; Sandy; Calcareous; Wheat

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The Impact of Body Weight on Blood Pressure and Some Laboratory Tests among Females at Different Ages in Cairo

 

Sahar A. Khairy1; Hala M. Abdelsalam2; Wafaa A. Fahmy3; Sahar A. Ibrahim1and Maysa A.Samy3

 

1Paediatrics; 2Clinical Pathology and 3Public Health Departments, National Nutrition Institute

dr_ms_mrs@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Micronutrient deficiencies have been found in obese individuals across age groups worldwide. Objective: To examine the effect BMI on blood pressure and various laboratory parameters among females at different ages in Cairo. Methods: Subjects of our study were females living in Cairo governorate from 6 years up to 60 years. The data was collected as cross sectional study from 21 randomly selected elementary & secondary schools of Cairo governorate, and clinics of NNI for adult females. Weight and height were determined and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each age category according to the World Health Organization classification (WHO). Blood hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, Total blood lipids which include (serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein), and vitamin A & E were determined for each participants. Results: Among all age groups the mean levels of systolic & diastolic blood pressure increased with increased body weight categories. The mean glucose level showed higher statistical level among obese females aged 12-18 years compared to normal body weight. Lipid profile mean levels showed no statistical differences in relation to body weight categories among age groups 6-12 and12-18years. Among age >18years the level of Cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (L.D.L) showed statistical rise among obese compared to overweight females. Triglycerides levels were found to increase with the increase in body weight category although not significant. While the mean levels of vitamin A and vitamin E showed no statistical differences in relation to body weight categories among age groups 6-12yand12-18years, the mean levels of vitamin A and vitamin E among age >18years showed lower serum levels among over weights compared to normal body weight females which was statistically significant with vitamin A but not with vitamin E. Conclusion: Obesity increase morbidity and affect the quality of life among females of different ages and that effect increased with increasing the age. This ranks obesity among the major determinants of health care costs.

[Sahar A. Khairy; Hala M. Abdelsalam; Wafaa A. Fahmy; Sahar A. Ibrahim and Maysa A.Samy. The Impact of Body Weight on Blood Pressure and Some Laboratory Tests among Females at Different Ages in Cairo. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):241-246]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 36

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.36

 

Key words: obesity, Females, Children, Adults, Adolescents, Cairo, Vitamin A & E, Blood pressure, Anaemia

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Some Studies on the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum in Chicken

 

*Lamyaa M. Reda and **L.K. Abd El-Samie

 

*Central Lab., Vet. Hospital, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ., Egypt

**Vet. Hospital, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ., Egypt

Tota.16@live.com

 

Abstract: Avian mycoplasmosis are considered one of the most important economic problems for chicken industry. The current research aims to obtain complete picture of (M. gallisepticum). One hundred and eighty specimens were collected from sixty naturally infected chicken of different age, sex and breed from different localities in El-Sharkia Governorate. Bacteriological examination of the samples revealed that, the total incidence of mycoplasma were14.4% .The results of serelogical identification by SPA test for detecting M. gallisepticum antibodies showed that 31 isolates (51.6%) were positive and 29 isolates (48.3%) were negative,while the ELISA test revealed that 29 isolates (48.3%) were positive and 22 isolates (36.3%) were negative.The antibiotic sensitivity test of M. gallisepticum showed that all the isolates were sensitive to lincospectin, spectinomycin and tylosin, but all examined isolates were resistant to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol.

[Lamyaa M. Reda and L.K. Abd El-Samie. Some Studies on the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum in Chicken. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):247-251]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 37

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.37

 

Keywords: Mycoplasma Gallisepticum-chicken-SPA-ELIZA

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Responses of Celosia argentea L. to simulated drought and exogenous salicylic acid

 

Victor Johwo Odjegba, Adeola Mary Adeniyi

 

Department of Botany, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

jodjegba@unilag.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Salicylic acid (SA), which is known as a signal molecule in the induction of defense mechanisms in plants, could be a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity. The present study investigated the possible protective role of SA against simulated drought effects in Celosia argentea. Seedlings were raised from seeds and were grouped into four categories, each representing a treatment and replicated 10 times. Category 1 (W) which served as the control received 200 ml of water every 2 days throughout the experiment period; category 2 (SA) received 200 ml 500 M salicylic acid every 2 days throughout the study period; category 3 (W+DT) received 200 ml of water every 2 days for 3 weeks before subjecting them to 10 days of simulated drought; while the 4th category (SA+DT) received 200 ml 500 M salicylic acid every 2 days for 3 weeks before subjecting them to 10 days of simulated drought. Physiological and biochemical, as well as metabolic parameters representative of oxidative damage and antioxidant activity were evaluated after the treatments. The results showed that drought caused a decrease in plant biomass, chlorophyll, relative water content (RWC) and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in seedlings that were not pretreated with SA. The negative effects of drought were however alleviated by the exogenously applied SA thereby underscoring the beneficial role of this signal molecule in mediating defense response in plants under stress.

[Odjegba VJ, Adeniyi AM. Responses of Celosia argentea L. to simulated drought and exogenous salicylic acid. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):252-258]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 38

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.38

 

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; drought; salicylic acid; oxidative stress; Celosia argentea

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Fortification Of Sorghum With Legumes Using Lactobacillus Plantarum As Starter For ”Ori-Ese” Production.

 

Olonila Omolola Toyin, Adebayo-Tayo Bukola Christianah and Akinola Gbemisola Elizabeth

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.

bukola_tayo@yahoo.com, damselinioluwa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is one of the most important food crops in Africa but due to the deficient in certain amino acids there is a need for fortification of these cereals with legumes to improve the nutritional quality and acceptability. “Ori-ese”, a traditional fermented Sorghum, tough porridge prepared by the Yoruba’s in Ekiti state, western Nigeria.“Ori ese” was produced using Sorghum (brown and white varieties) with different blends: Sorghum only (WC and BC) Sorghum-Bambara-nut (WBO and BBO), Sorghum-Soybeans (WSO and BSO), Sorghum-Cowpea (WCO and BCO), and Sorghum-groundnut (WGO and BGO), with Lactobacillus plantarum as a starter. The pH, lactic acid, diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide production during slurry fermentation ranged from 3 - 7, 0.125 - 6.125 g/l, 0.042 - 0.85g/l and 1.0 - 6.4g/l respectively. There was a significant difference in protein content of the samples, It ranged from 10.0h - 13.3a % in which BBO had the highest and WC sample had the least. The crude fat ranged from 2.08e - 3.03a % in which BSO had the highest while WGO had the least. Samples from WBO had the highest crude fiber (3.22%a) while WC has the least (2.26f%). There was a significant difference (P ≥0.05) in mineral composition of the blends, BSO had the highest Na content (0.108a mg/kg) and K content (0.1221a mg/kg) while WBO had the highest Fe content (2.5a mg/kg) and Ca content(0.15a mg/kg). There was a significant difference in P content of the samples except for WGO and WSO. Fortification and the use of starter for “Ori-ese” production enhanced the nutritional quality of the food. Fortification with Bambara-nut is highly recommended and it will be suitable in the total amelioration of protein –energy –malnutrition in the developing countries.

[ Olonila O.T, Adebayo-Tayo B.C, Akinola G.E. Fortification of Sorghum with legumes using lactobacillus plantarum as starter for ”Ori-ese” production. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):259-264]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 39

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.39

 

Keywords: Sorghum, Fortification, L. plantarum, “Ori-ese”, Proximate

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40

Screening and Production of β-galactosidase by Trichoderma species.

 

Akinola Gbemisola Elizabeth, Adebayo-Tayo Bukola, Olonila Omolola Toyin

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

bukola_tayo@yahoo.com, gbemiakinola@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Twelve Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma harzarium, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma arundinaceum, Trichoderma konnigii, Trichoderma pseudokonnigii, Trichoderma ciroviride, Trichoderma fertile, Trichoderma polysporum and Trichoderma crassum) were isolated from soil samples collected from different locations in Ibadan metropolis. Among the strains Trichoderma crassum (12.6%) has the highest frequency of occurrence. All the isolates were screened for β–galactosidase production using X-gal (5-bromo-4-chloroindolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) and IPTG solution as an inducer. Six isolates were selected as the best producer of β–galactosidase. β–galactosidase production ranged from 0.3476 - 2.2369 U/ml in which Trichoderma crassum has the highest production. On submerged fermentation, static condition gave a profound increase in β-galactosidase production. The best yield of β-galactosidase production was obtained at 35oC, pH 4, Tween80 at 0.15ml concentration and 6 days of incubation. Among the carbon and nitrogen sources tested manitol and casein supported β–galactosidase production (2.7666 - 6.9888 U/ml) by Trichoderma crassum.

[Akinola GE, Adebayo-Tayo BC, Olonila OT. Screening and Production of β-galactosidase by Trichoderma species. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):265-270]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 40

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.40

 

Keywords: β-galactosidase; Trichoderma; IPTG; Temprature; pH

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The effects of an eight-week aerobic exercise on serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen in middle-aged women

 

Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi1, Ladan Hosseini Abrishami2, Farnaz Aminian2, Vahdat Boghrabadi1, Mehrdad Jalalian 3

 

1 Assistant professor in sport physiology, Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 MA in sport physiology, Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

3 Editor In-Chief, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran

 Email: ladan.abrishami@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Inflammatory markers increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Predicting the risk of coronary artery disease, serves an important role in treating and preventing the progression of the disease. Aerobic exercise decreases the risk of coronary artery disease by reducing inflammation. The current study investigated the effect of a period of selective aerobic exercise on the serum levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and IL-6 among the middle-aged women. Twenty-four middle-aged women were equally split into two groups, control and experimental. The experimental group underwent 30-min exercise sessions with the increasing intensity of 50-75% maximum heart rate, three times a week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken from both groups twice (24 hours before and 24 hours after the training) in order for the measurement of the intended factors. A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pre-test and post-test data. In order to test the difference between the two groups, independent t-test was used at a significant level (P<05/0). Normality of the data was checked by using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. The results of the study revealed that 8 weeks of aerobic exercise induced a significant difference in the levels of CRP (p = 0.001), fibrinogen (p = 0.004), and IL-6 (p = 0.022) between the two groups. According to current research results, performing a period of regular aerobic exercise, while applying the overload principle and intensity, can cause the reduction of inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease, which along with aging can be a determining factor in the atherosclerosis, especially in sedentary people.

[Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi, Ladan Hosseini Abrishami, Farnaz Aminian, Vahdat Boghrabadi, Mehrdad Jalalian. The effects of an eight-week aerobic exercise on serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen in middle-aged women. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):271-276]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 41

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.41

 

Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Women, CRP; IL-6; Fibrinogen

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The effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise on serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen in middle-aged women

 

Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi1, Ladan Hosseini Abrishami2, Vahdat Boghrabadi1 Farnaz Aminian2

 

1. Assistant professor in sport physiology, Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad

University, Mashhad, Iran

2. MA in sport physiology, Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

ladan.abrishami@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Inflammatory markers increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Predicting the risk of coronary artery disease, serves an important role in treating and preventing the progression of the disease. Aerobic exercise decreases the risk of coronary artery disease by reducing inflammation. The current study investigated the effect of a period of selective aerobic exercise on the serum levels of CRP, fibrinogen, and IL-6 among the middle-aged women. Methods: Twenty-four middle-aged women were equally split into two groups, control and experimental. The experimental group underwent 30-min exercise sessions with the increasing intensity of 50-75% maximum heart rate, three times a week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken from both groups twice (24 hours before and 24 hours after the training) in order for the measurement of the intended factors. A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pre-test and post-test data. In order to test the difference between the two groups, independent t-test was used at a significant level (P<05/0). Normality of the data was checked by using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Results: The results of the study revealed that 8 weeks of aerobic exercise induced a significant difference in the levels of CRP (p = 0.001), fibrinogen (p = 0.004), and IL-6 (p = 0.022) between the two groups. Conclusion: According to current research results, performing a period of regular aerobic exercise, while applying the overload principle and intensity, can cause the reduction of inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease, which along with aging can be a determining factor in the atherosclerosis, especially in sedentary people.

 [Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi, Ladan Hosseini Abrishami, , Vahdat Boghrabadi ,Farnaz Aminian. The effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise on serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen in middle-aged women. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):277-282]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 42

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.42

 

Keywords: aerobic exercise; cardiovascular aerobic exercise; middle-aged women

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Water Quality Of River Kunda, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh (India) With Special Reference to Physico-Chemical Parameters

 

Shailendra Sharma1, Sudha Dubey2, Rajendra Chaurasia2, Vibha Dave3

 

1Department of Biotechnology, Adarsh Institute of Management & Science, Dhamnod (M.P.)

2Department of Zoology, Govt. Holkar Science College Indore- 452017, India

3Department of Zoology, P.M.B. Gujarati Science College Indore- 452001, India

 

Abstract: The study on some physico-chemical characteristics of River Kunda at its source has been calculated for the period of one year (August 2010 to July 2011). The sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance. For surface water determination of water quality index becomes essential and pre-requisite. Analysis of some physico-chemical characteristics like water temperature, pH, transparency, dissolved oxygen, BOD, total hardness, alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate and Phosphate has been done during the investigation period. Increase in temperature, pH, Transparency, Chlorides and Phosphates values were higher in Siptan Station, whereas the increase in Total Hardness and Nitrates values were higher in Khargone station to the intensity of expulsion of contamination. The Total Alkalinity, Dissolved oxygen and BOD values higher in Confluence with Undri River station owing to unpolluted water. The Kunda River has been facing severe anthropogenic activities, mostly due to municipal sewage and industrial waste and dense population etc.

[Shailendra Sharma, Sudha Dubey, Rajendra Chaurasia, Vibha Dave. Water Quality Of River Kunda, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh (India) With Special Reference to Physico-Chemical Parameters. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):283-291]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 43

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.43

 

Keywords: Water quality, DO, BOD, Kunda River, Anthropogenic activity

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Efficacy of some living classical and variant infectious bronchitis vaccines against local variant isolated from Egypt.

 

Susan, S. El- Mahdy; Ekram, Salama and Amal, Ahmed

 

Central Lab. for Evaluation of Vet. Biol. Abb. Cairo (CLEVB).

Prof.s.elmahdy@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the protection induced by different living classical and variant infectious bronchitis vaccines (IB vaccines) against local variant isolated from Egypt at 2012. Two hundred and fourty one day old Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were divided into eight groups. Groups (1-3) were vaccinated with three different variant infectious bronchitis living vaccine and group (4-6) with three different classical one. Groups (7&8) did not receive IBV vaccine and served as (+ve and –ve) controls respectively. Three weeks post vaccination, the chickens in groups (1-7) were individually challenged with 10 4.0EID50 of IB (IS/885).The protection was evaluated at 7 days post-inoculation. The results of this study showed that we can use IB-88; IB primers (variant) and Ma5 (classical) vaccines as a method for controlling IB infection in Egypt.

[Susan, S. El- Mahdy; Ekram, Salama and Amal, Ahmed. Efficacy of some living classical and variant infectious bronchitis vaccines against local variant isolated from Egypt. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):292-299]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 44

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.44

 

Key words: Infectious bronchitis vaccines; chickens; local variant strain.

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Pesticidal Potency of a Newly Chlorinated Paraffin Mineral Oil CLPMO as Emulsifiable Concentrate and Mayonnaise with Reference to KZ 95% EC and Alboleum 80% Mayonnaise

 

El-Sawah, M. H .A.1; Abd El-Lateef, M. F.2; Helalia, A. A. R.2 and El-Shiekh, Y. W. A.1

 

 1Pesticides Formulation Research Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory,Agricultural Research Center

2 Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University

yasserwahied@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The physical properties of chlorinated paraffin mineral oil (CLPMO) were measured according to The American Chemical Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). CLPMO was formulated as Emulsifiable Concentrate and Mayonnaise to be CLPMO 85% EC and CLPMO 80% mayonnaise. Their physic-chemical properties were measured with reference to KZ 95% EC and Alboleum 80% mayonnaise. The data appeared that, the physical properties of CLPMO 80% EC was more effective than KZ 95% EC. Also, the formulated mayonnaise was more effective than Alboleum 80% mayonnaise. The physical properties of spray solutions, foaming, emulsion stability, viscosity, surface tension, pH, conductivity, salinity and TDS for EC and mayonnaise were studied. The phytotoxicity of newly formulated mineral oils at 1.5% for both EC and mayonnaise were recorded. The pesticidal activity of CLPMO as EC and mayonnaise were evaluated against Aphis fabea with reference to KZ 95% EC and Alboleum 80% mayonnaise which appeared that, the efficiency of every oil were approximately equal its reference oil. The outdoor experiment against Parlatoria ziziphi appeared that, the efficiency of CLPMO 85% EC was more effective than KZ 95% EC where it was vise versa in case of mayonnaise mineral oil.

[El-Sawah, M. H .A.; Abd El-Lateef, M. F.; Helalia, A. A. R. and El-Shiekh, Y. W. A. Pesticidal Potency of a Newly Chlorinated Paraffin Mineral Oil CLPMO as Emulsifiable Concentrate and Mayonnaise with Reference to KZ 95% EC and Alboleum 80% Mayonnaise. Nat Sci 2012;10(12):300-311]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 45

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.45

 

Key words: Chlorinated paraffins, mineral oils, physical properties, cold storage, phytotoxicity, accelerated hot storage, spray solutions, emulsifiable concentrates, mayonnaise.

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46

Relationship between Obesity and Mental Health among Females Attending The National Nutrition Institute Clinic (Cairo)

 

Wafaa.A.Fahmy1, Mona.S.Mohamed 2, Omima.K.El Salamony 2, Kholoud Rashed Saeid1

 

1 Growth and Nutrition Requirement Department, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Community Health Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

drwafaa.fahmi@gmail.com

 

Abstract : Objective: To evaluate mental health profile among overweight and obese adult females. Methods: Analytical retrospective, case control study comparing two parallel groups. The target group included cases (n=100) who were overweight and obese adult females attending the National Nutritional Institute, Cairo (NNI) weight reduction clinic. The control group (n=100) were normal weight adult females attending with their relatives weight reduction clinic or with their infants and children the pediatrics clinic (NNI). Results: There were statistically significant differences between cases and controls as regards stress and depression severity (P=0.018 - P<0.001, respectively ).Stress and depression tends to be more among cases. Regarding anxiety there was no statistically significant differences between cases and controls (p=0.197). There was statistically significant differences between cases and controls regarding snaking to different types of foods (p<0.05).Cases tends to snake regularly versus controls.Regarding daily activity, walking and walking regularity, showed no significant differences between cases and controls. Conclusions: Stress and depression symptoms are mental health problems among overweight and obese adult females. Frequent snaking is among the risk factors to develop overweight and obesity regardless of the daily activity.

[Wafaa.A.Fahmy, Mona.S.Mohamed, Omima. K. El Salamony and Kholoud Rashed Saeid. Relationship between Obesity and Mental Health among Females Attending The National Nutrition Institute Clinic (Cairo). Nat Sci 2012;10(12):312-320]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 46

doi:10.7537/marsnsj101212.46

 

Key words: Mental health, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, obesity

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 26, 2012

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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