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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 11 - Number 01 (Cumulated No. 70), January 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1101 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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No.

1

Antimicrobial Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic) Extract against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

 

Akintobi OA1, Nwanze JC2, Ogele JO1, Idowu AA3, Onianwa O4, Okonko IO4

 

1Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Medical Microbiology & Virology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

Abstract: This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on six pathogenic microorganisms using the agar well diffusion method. These bacteria include; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Four different extracts were obtained from the bulbs of garlic (water-soluble and ethanol-soluble extracts). There were zones of inhibitions around the wells which indicate that the organisms were sensitive to both water and ethanol extract of garlic. The result showed that the isolates behaved differently in their sensitivity to the different extracts added to their growth medium. Ethanol extracts of the garlic was absolutely effective against four pathogenic bacteria. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were resistant to the extracts. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the extracts with both gram-positive and gram-negative antibiotics revealed that gentamycin and chloramphenicol has the highest zone of inhibition against the susceptible bacterial strains used. Gram-negative antibiotic discs used recorded significantly higher activity antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi when compared to the ethanol and water extracts of the plant. The quantitative and qualitative phytochemical analysis indicates that the extract of Allium sativum (garlic) constitutes antimicrobial activity. This investigation indicates that though plant had antimicrobial and greater inhibitory effect thus confirming its use in folk medicine.

[Akintobi OA, Nwanze JC, Ogele JO, Idowu AA, Onianwa O, Okonko IO. Antimicrobial Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic) Extract against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacteria. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.01

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, inhibitory effect, Garlic, Water, Ethanol

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2

Antimicrobial Activity Of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) Extract Against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

 

Akintobi OA1, Onoh CC2, Ogele JO1, Idowu AA3, Ojo OV1, Okonko IO3

 

1Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Medical Microbiology & Virology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

Abstract: This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on six pathogenic microorganisms using the agar well diffusion method. These bacteria include; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Four different extracts were obtained from the rhizomes of ginger (water-soluble and ethanol-soluble extracts). There were zones of inhibitions around the wells which indicate that the organisms were sensitive to both water and ethanol extracts of ginger. The result showed that the isolates behaved differently in their sensitivity to the different extracts added to their growth medium. Water extract of Zingiber officinale produced the highest zone of inhibition on Salmonella typhi (13mm) and a slightly inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus (9mm) and Proteus mirabilis (11mm). Water extract of Zingiber officinale was ineffective against Escherichia coli (0mm), Bacillus subtilis (0mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0mm). The result also showed that ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale produced the highest zone of inhibition on Proteus mirabilis (17mm) and a slightly inhibitory effect on Salmonella typhi (10mm), Staphylococcus aureus (13mm), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14mm). Ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale were ineffective against Escherichia coli (0mm) and Bacillus subtilis (0mm). Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to Zingiber officinale extracts. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the Zingiber officinale extracts with both gram-positive and gram-negative antibiotics revealed that gentamycin and chloramphenicol has the highest zone of inhibition against the susceptible bacterial strains used. Gram-negative antibiotic discs showed significantly higher antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi when compared to the ethanol and water extracts of ginger. The quantitative and qualitative phytochemical tests indicate that the extract of Zingiber officale (ginger) constitutes antimicrobial activity. This study shows that the extracts of Zingiber officinale possess antimicrobial compounds which could be used as substitutes for the antibiotics.

[Akintobi OA, Onoh CC, Ogele JO, Idowu AA, Ojo OV, Okonko IO. Antimicrobial Activity of Zingiber Officinale Extract against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacteria. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):7-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.02

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Ginger, Garlic, Water, Ethanol

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3

Effects Of Processing Variables On The Production Of ‘Burukutu’, A Nigerian Fermented Beverage

 

Adewara, A. O 1 and Ogunbanwo S. T*2

 

1&2Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Corresponding Author*: Name of Corresponding Author: Ogunbanwo S.T.

Complete Postal Address: Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan UI P.O. Box21422, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Tel:+2-8110-11004; Fax:+2-8103-043/8103-118; E-mail: topzybanwo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of some processing variables (fermentation temperature, steeping periods, particle sizes, variety of sorghum grains, and the use of germinated and ungerminated grains) on the proximate, mineral composition, anti nutritional components and sensory attributes were investigated during the production of burukutu. A total of thirty-four isolates were obtained from fermentation of sorghum grains for produced burukutu, twenty were lactic acid bacteria and fourteen were yeasts. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum I, Pediococcus pentosaceus II, L. brevis I, L. pentosus I, L. plantarum II, L. fermentum I, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. chavelieria, Candida sphaerica and C. utilis. The entire processing variable evaluated during fermentation recorded a lowering of pH from 6.18 to pH range of 4.62-2.89 in 72 h and a corresponding increase in the total titratable acidity from 0.02% to 0.35%. Burukutu produced at the fermentation temperature of 300C had the highest alcohol content (2.55%) compared to burukutu produced at 250C and 400C which recorded alcohol content of 2.05% and 2.05% respectively. Higher alcohol content were also observed in burukutu produced at 24 h steeping periods (2.40%), the use of red sorghum grains (2.05%), fine particle size (2.05%) and germinated grains (2.05%) compared to burukutu produced at 12 h steeping period, the use of white sorghum grains, coarse particle size and ungerminated grains. The various processing variables considered during the production of burukutu showed varying mineral composition, but burukutu produced with the use of germinated grains, fine particle size and at fermentation temperature of 300C recorded a better mineral composition. Notable reduction in the anti nutritional components was observed in burukutu produced using germinated grains (Polyphenols 9.15mg/100l, Phytate 3.75mg/100l, Tannins 6.40mg/100l) than in burukutu produced using ungerminated grains (Polyphenols 12.75mg/100l, Phytate 6.45mg/100l, Tannins 9.05mg/100l). Similar reduction in the anti nutritional components were recorded in burukutu produced at fermentation temperature of 300C,  24 h steeping period, the use of red sorghum grains and fine particle size. Evaluation of the sensory attributes of burukutu produced with the different processing variables showed that all the samples had a sour-like vinegary flavor, however, the highest overall acceptability was observed in burukutu produced at fermentation temperature of 300C, the use of 24 h steeped grains, red sorghum grains, fine particle size and germinated grains.

[Adewara AO, Ogunbanwo ST. Effects of processing variables on the production of ‘burukutu’, a Nigerian fermented beverage. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):16-28]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.03

 

Keywords: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L). Monech), fermentation, processing variables, burukutu.

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4

Sero-prevalence of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Sheep and Goats in Greater Kapoeta Eastern Equatoria State South Sudan.

 

Jacob M. KOROK¹   and Erneo B. OCHI²

 

¹ʼ²National Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries, P.O. Box 126 Juba South Sudan

jacobkorok@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: A sero-prevalence study on Rift Valley Fever (RVF) was conducted in sheep and goats in three Counties of Greater Kapoeta, Eastern Equatoria State, South Sudan. Of the 333 collected serum samples, three samples (0.9%) revealed RVF virus immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies in sheep only (1.1%) indicating a recent infection of RVF in the vicinity of Kapoeta. No IgG antibodies revealed in all samples on enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) indicating no previous exposure of the stock to RVF virus. This study is of paramount importance in formulating a control strategy against RVF among sheep, goats and cattle herds in South Sudan.

[Korok,JM. and Ochi, EB. Sero-prevalence of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Sheep and Goats in Greater Kapoeta Eastern Equatoria State South Sudan. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):29-30]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.04

 

Key words: Sero-prevalence; Rift Valley Fever; Sheep and Goats; Greater Kapoeta ; South Sudan

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5

Cytomorphological and antifungal analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana , Moringa oleifera extracts, and sodium hypochlorite on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench. treated seeds

 

Nwangburuka Cyril C. 1*, Ezekiel N. Chibundu.. 2, Oyekale K.1, Anokwuru, C. Prosper 2 and Evbuomwan K. Ivie 2

 

1Department of Agriculture, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

2Bioscience and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

 

Abstract: The effects of 1%, 2% and 3% concentrations of Acalypha wilkesiana and Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts, and sodium hypochlorite on the germinability, radicle extension, cytology of meristematic cells and inhibition of seed mycoflora of two okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) accessions (BAB 002 and BAB 003) were determined. Data obtained for the examined parameters were compared with those from seeds treated in sterile distilled water (control). Acalypha and Moringa extracts improved germination, radicle length and mitotic index better than sodium hypochlorite in the two accessions of okra seeds although significant (p<0.05) differences among the pre-treatments were not high. Acalypha, however, gave a more consistent data for all tested parameters at all concentration levels while Moringa performed best when overall effect was considered. Notwithstanding the enhanced germination and mitotic index of seeds pre-treated with Acalypha and Moringa, chromosomal aberrations were observed but at lower levels than in sodium hypochlorite treated seeds. Acalypha extracts had the best inhibitory activity towards seed-borne fungi, inhibiting all moulds at 2% and 3% pre-treatment concentrations. This study has therefore shown that Acalypha and Moringa may be alternatives for post-harvest storage of okra seeds as compared to the widely used chemical preservatives.

[Nwangburuka C. Cyril, Ezekiel, N. Chibundu, Oyekale K., Anokwuru, C. Prosper, and Evbuomwan, K. Ivie. Cytomorphological and antifungal analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana , Moringa oleifera extracts, and sodium hypochlorite on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench. treated seeds. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):31-39]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.05

 

Key words: Acalypha, fungi, mitosis, Moringa, Okra, seed preservation, seed pre-treatment.

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6

The Clinical relevance of Aspergillus isolation from respiratory tract samples & detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in serum of patients with acute exacerbation of COPD

Lamia Fouad1, Marwa S. Fathi1, Ashraf A. ElMaraghy2

 

1. Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

lamiaazzam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Acute invasive aspergillosis is a devastating opportunistic infection in the severely immunocompromised. Patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis include those with prolonged neutropenia (e.g., following cytotoxic regimens for acute leukemia), hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, solid organ transplant recipients (particularly lung transplant recipients), and advanced AIDS. There is also a growing appreciation of invasive aspergillosis in persons with less severe levels of immunocompromise. For example, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) generally occurs in with patients pre-existing structural lung diseases such as prior tuberculosis or lung abscess or modest immune impairment, as occurs with diabetes, poor nutrition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or low-dose corticosteroids. This study aimed at finding an approximate incidence of IPA in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD and whether a combination of two tests, serological detection and mycological culture yielded a more specific diagnosis of IPA.

[Lamia Fouad, Marwa S. Fathi, Ashraf A. ElMaraghy. The Clinical relevance of Aspergillus isolation from respiratory tract samples & detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in serum of patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):40-43]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.06

 

Key words: Aspergillus, COPD, bronchoalveolar lavage, Invasive aspergillosis

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7

Coping With University Life and its Relationship with Academic Achievement for the Students of Menofia University

 

Ali O. M. Abdelatife

 

Department of House and Establishments Management, Faculty of Specific Education, Menofia University, Egypt

 

Abstract: This research aims at studying coping with university life and its relationship with academic achievement for the student of Menofia University .The research was conducted on a sample of Menofia University students including 144 mal and female students in four faculties (Specific Education, Engineering, Commerce and Home Economics) during the second term .Students, marks in four the First term were taveu and the scale for coping with university life was applied to students and the socio-economic information form . The research concluded the following results: 1)There is no relationship between the socio-economic standard and coping with university life , 2)There are statistically significant difference between the socio-economic factor and academic achievement, 3)There are statistically significant difference between coping with university life and academic achievement, 4)There is no a relationship between parents, work and coping with university life, 5)There is a relationship between parents, work and academic achievement, 6)There are statistically significant difference between the educational level for the parents, educational and coping with university and 7)There are statistically significant difference between the parents, educational level and coping with university. The study recommended the necessity of coping with university life early and helping new Students to cope in order to achieve academic adjustment and excellence and facilitating hardships in front of Students since the Start of the academic year. 

[Ali O. M. Abdelatife. Coping with University Life and its Relationship with Academic Achievement for the Students of Menofia University. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):44-51]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.07

 

Keywords: university; life academic; students

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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children suffered from Otitis media with effusion

 

Soad Yehia ¹, Enas Tawfek², Mahasen Ibrahimª and Iman Mohamed.

 

Otorhinolaryngology¹, Pediatric ², Community Medicine³ and Clinical Pathology Departments Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al Azhar University.

soaad201231@gmail.com

           

Abstract: Objective: To determine  the   risk of  metabolic syndrome(MetS) development  in children with  recurrent otitis media with effusion  as determined by adiponectin, interleukin10(IL10),body mass index(BMI), serum total cholesterol(TC) and triglyceride(TG). Design: A prospective nonrandomized case control study. Setting: Al-Zahraa hospital, Al-Azhar University. Subjects: the study group comprised 30 children aged 4-10 years who received bilateral ventilation tube insertion as surgical operation for the treatment of otitis media with effusion. The control group comprised 20 children with no history of otitis media normal children age and sex matched. Main outcome measures: we determined the difference between the studied and control groups in BMI, serum TC, TG, adeponectin and IL10 concentrations and the difference between both groups. Results: BMI mean values were higher among cases (18.1±2.6 for male &18.1±4.4 for female) than the control subjects (14.8±1.2 for male &15.23±1.3 for females). The mean value of interleukin 10(IL10) was highly significant (P0.05) among patients (12.31±2.59 for male&13.78±4.44 for female) than control group (6.43±1.83 in male&6.12±1.8 for female), while the serum level of adiponectin mean value were significantly lower (P0.05) among patients (2.63±0.6 in male&2.26±0.49 in female) than control group (12.72±2.82 for male and11.57±3.03 for female). Conclusion: there are a relation between occurrence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children suffered from recurrent otitis media with effusion.

[Soad Yehia, Enas Tawfek, Mahasen Ibrahim and Iman Mohamed. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children suffered from Otitis media with effusion. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):52-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.08

 

Keywords: metabolic syndrome in children, otitis media, adiponectin, interleukin10

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Humoral Immunity and Audiological Findings in Children with Vertigo

 

Enas Tawfik1, Soad Yehia2, Amal El- Sebaie³, Fatma Mohamed2, Hoda Ali2, Mahasen Ibrahim4 and Iman Mohamed

 

Pediatric1, Otolaryngology2, Audiology unit³, Public Health4 and Clinical Pathology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Soaad201231@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In a study of a school aged population 15% of children were found to have experienced at least 1 episode of vertigo in the previous year, the differential diagnostic process is extensive in children with vertigo and correct diagnosis requires otologic examination, audiological evaluation as well as neurological and general physical examination. There are numerous hypotheses regarding the etiology and pathology of vertigo, including a suggested role for immune disfunction. While immune system abnormalities have been reported in children with vertigo with reduced immune function. Objective: To determine the main cause of vertigo in those children they visited Pediatric and ENT clinics during 2011 and evaluate humoral immunity of children through evaluation of serum antibody level of immunoglobulin (IgG-IgM-IgA) and compared with the healthy control children. Methods: The study was carried out in the ENT, audiology and pediatric departments in El- Zahraa hospital on 30 children with vertigo (18 males and 12 females) the age range (5– 12 years) and 20 healthy children as control group, age range (4-13years) to evaluate hearing and determine the serum level of IgG, IgM and IgA by ELISA method. Results: Otitis media with effusion, migraine- associated dizziness, vestibular neuronitis and Benign paroxysmal  vertigo of childhood,  all causes of vertigo had significantly lower serum level of IgG, IgM and IgA compared to control children (p<0.001). Conclusion: Children with vertigo had significantly reduced level of serum IgG, IgA and IgM compared to control children suggesting the defect in the immune function. So we recommend farther investigations to detect the level of immunoglobulin in the middle ear effusion.

[Enas Tawfik, Soad Yehia, Amal El- Sebaie, Fatma Mohamed, Hoda Ali, Iman Mohamed and Mahasen Ibrahim. Humoral Immunity and Audiological Findings in Children with Vertigo. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):58-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.09

 

Key Words: Vertigo in children, immunoglobulin, humoral immunity.

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Responses of Zea mays seedlings to salinity stress and exogenous nitrogen supply.

 

Victor Johwo Odjegba

 

Department of Botany, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

jodjegba@unilag.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The present study investigated the physiological responses of Zea mays seedlings to short-term salinity stress, foliar supply of nitrogen and their interaction. Seedlings were grouped into four categories, each representing a treatment and replicated 6 times. Category 1 (W) which served as the control received 350 ml of water every 3 days throughout the experiment period; category 2 (N) received 350 ml of water every 3 days and a weekly foliar spray of 100 ml 0.1 M ammonium nitrate solution throughout the study period; category 3 (S) received 350 ml of 0.1 M NaCl solution every 3 days throughout; while the 4th category (S+N) received 350 ml of 0.1 M NaCl solution every 3 days and a weekly foliar spray of 100 ml 0.1 M ammonium nitrate. Growth and physiological parameters were evaluated after the treatments. The results showed that salinity caused a decrease in plant biomass, relative growth rate, relative water content (RWC), protein and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and activities of catalase enzyme. It was observed that foliar application of nitrogen significantly increased the growth parameters, protein content and nitrate reductase activity. The data presented in this work underscored the positive effects of foliar nitrogen supply on Z. mays exposed to salinity stress.

[Odjegba VJ. Responses of Zea mays seedlings to salinity stress and exogenous nitrogen supply. Nat Sci 2013; 11(1):63-69]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.10

 

Keywords: Environment, mineral nutrients, salt stress, responses, growth

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The different themes of Morphogenesis of yeasts; regulation & processing

 

Marwa S.Fathi

 

Medical Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

dr.marwasaad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: From the outstanding forestry of fungi, thousands of members are pathogenic to humans; among which stands the genus Candida by its various species, especially albicans, as the most common pathogen. Candida albicans may exist, both in vivo & in vitro, in different morphologies including budding yeast, hyphae, & pseudohyphae, thus gaining more ability to adapt to many environmental conditions, in addition to its virulence. Important structural molecules undergo many changes in order to achieve the goal of interchanging morphology & orchestrating the series of events during the yeast, hyphae or pseudohyphae formation. These molecules such as Septins, Actins & Microtubules require further detailed studies to clarify the genetic backgrounds of them & their related ligands. Yeast cell cycle regulation & control either by external regulators, internal or genetic regulators play a pivotal role in the machinery of products along with the morphogenesis of such cell. Further prospective studies are essential to elucidate the signal transduction pathways controlling cell cycle & molecular regulatory mechanisms driving fungal cell growth & consequently its virulence starting from biofilm formation, passing through quorum sensing molecules & reaching the basic evidence of genetic facts beyond the cellular & molecular behaviors.

[Fahi ,Marwa S. The different themes of Morphogenesis of yeasts; regulation & processing. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):70-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.11

 

Key Words: Yeast, Candida, true hyphae, pseudohyphae

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Theoretical Study on Substituent’s Effect on the Properties of Benzofused thieno [3, 2-b] Furan and its Isomeric Form

 

Isaiah A. Adejoro, Collins U. Ibeji*, A. Endurance Aigbe

 

Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Email: ibejicollins@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The theoretical study on the ground state properties of isomeric benzofused thieno[3,2-b]furans was carried out using semi-emperical AM1 and Density functional theory/B3LYP 6-31G* /6-31G* basis set. This was used in order to determine the effect of substituent; Br2, I2, OH-, on the stability, reactivity and other properties of the isomers. From the calculated values of E, μ, η, ω, ΔH-L obtained, it can be inferred that thieno[3,2-b]benzofuran is more aromatic, more stable and less reactive than isomeric benzothieno[3,2-b]furan. These results agree with the experimental result concerning the different reactivity and stability of both heterocyclic systems. The study of bond order uniformity, local ionization energy and electrostatic potential energy surfaces analysis revealed structural differences of isomeric thieno[3,2-b]furans that explains their reactivity features. Benzothieno[3,2-b]furan could be an analogue of aromatic benzothiophene substituted with C(2)=C(3) vinylic moiety. This evidently points out therefore that the electrophilic substitution reaction for benzothieno[3,2-b]furan goes via addition-elimination mechanism at the C(2).

[Isaiah A. Adejoro, Collins U. Ibeji, A. Endurance Aigbe. Theoretical Study on Substituent’s Effect on the Properties of Benzofused thieno [3, 2-b] Furan and its Isomeric Form. Nat Sci 2012;11(12):75-82]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.12

 

Key words: Density functional theory; Semi-empirical AM1; ab-initio; BLYP/6-31G*; order uniformity, local ionization energy and electrostatic potential energy

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Inhibitory Action of Nicotiana tabacum Extracts on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl:

Adsorption and Thermodynamics Study

 

Olasehinde, E. F.1, Olusegun S. J. 2, Adesina, A. S.1, Omogbehin, S. A.3, Momoh-Yahayah, H.4

 

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory and Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin kebbi, Nigeria

4Department of Chemistry and Centre for Agrochemical Technology, University of Agriculture, Markudi, Nigeria

folasemb2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The toxic effects of synthetic corrosion inhibitors have led to the search for naturally occurring substances which are not only readily available but are also environmentally friendly. Therefore, this study investigates the inhibition efficacy of acid extract of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on mild steel in 1M HCl using weight loss method. Experiments are performed by varying immersion period, concentration of the inhibitor and temperature. The inhibition efficiency is markedly higher on the addition of Nicotiana tabacum leaves extract in acidic medium compared with those in the absence of inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration but decreased with rise in temperature and exposure time. Thermodynamic studies revealed that corrosion inhibition may be due to the spontaneous physical adsorption of the plant constituents on the surface of mild steel. Experimental data fitted with the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherms. Kinetic treatment of the data followed a first order reaction. Calculated half-lives increase as the concentration of the extracts increases suggesting that inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the concentration of the extracts. Preliminary investigation of the phytochemical constituents showed that Nicotiana tabacum contains tannin, flavonoid, terpenoid and some other compounds in trace constituents.

[Olasehinde, EF, Olusegun, SJ, Adesina, AS, Omogbehin, SA, Momoh-Yahayah, H. Inhibitory Action of Nicotiana tabacum Extracts on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl: Adsorption and Thermodynamics Study. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):83-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.13

 

Keywords: Steel Corrosion; Inhibition; Nicotiana tabacum; Adsorption; Thermodynamics; Kinetics

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Identification of Natural Compounds in Muscle Tissue of pickhandle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) in Bander Abbas in the south of Iran (Closed to the Persian Gulf)

 

Abdolhossein Rustaiyan 1, Keivandokht Samiee 2, Maryam Sadat Bagheri 3

 

1Department of Chemistry, Science & Research branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

2Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, North Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

arustaiyan@yahoo.it

 

Abstract: Fish is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, natural compounds from muscle tissue of pickhandle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) from the port of Bandar Abbas in the south of Iran closed to the Persian Gulf in Oct 2012 were extracted using the method of Blight & Dyer. The compounds were identified using a combination of GC and GC/MS. Components were also identified in both male and female species. Ten compound reperesenting 96.00% of the extract of Muscle Tissue of Sphyraena jello. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (20.60%), Palmitic acid (15.24%) and Squalene (13.50%) were the main constituents Muscle Tissue. The other main components was Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (12.01%), Oleic acid (11.30%) and Octadecanoic acid (10.65%).

[Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Keivandokht Samiee, Maryam Sadat Bagheri. Identification of Natural Compounds in Muscle Tissue of pickhandle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) in Bander Abbas in the south of Iran (Closed to the Persian Gulf). Nat Sci 2013;11(1):91-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.14

 

Keywords: Pickhandle barracuda, Sphyraena jello, Muscle Tissue, Compositions, Persian Gulf

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The Utilization of Milk Protein in Antimicrobial Coatings and Films Production

 

1H.E. Aboul-Anean; 2B.A.Abdelsalam and 3A.A. Alhadidi

 

1 Food Engineering and Packaging Dept, food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

2 Dairy Science Dept., Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

3 Dairy Science Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University

Hosam.ftri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The inhibitory effect of casein–based film and coating emulsions supplemented with nisin, propolis, zeolite and potassium sorbet as antimicrobial substances at different concentrations(0.1,0.2 and 0.3%) against some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria was examined .The casein- based film and coating emulsions supplemented with 0.3% nisin or propolis showed the highest inhibition effect toward the indicator bacteria. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of the selected antimicrobial coating and films were determined. The thickness, Tensile strength, elongation, elasticity and yield of casein-based film supplemented with propolis was higher than those of casein-based film supplemented with nisin. Also, the results revealed that the same film showed the highest Tg value. Therefore, casein films incorporated with propolis or nisin have the potential to provide a safe packaging system to decrease microbial growth in foods.  

[H.E. Aboul-Anean; B.A.Abdelsalam and A. A. alhadidi. The Utilization of Milk Protein in Antimicrobial Coatings and Films Production. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):95-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.15

 

Key words: casein, film, coating,, inhibitory effect, nisin, propolis, rheological ,mechanical and thermal properties

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Molecular Markers for Orobanche Crenata Resistance in Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA)

 

Azza F. El-Sayed1; S.S.A. Soliman2; T.A. Ismail2 and Sabah M. Attia1

 

1Food Legumes Res. Section, Field Crops Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt

2Genetics Dept. Fac. Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt.

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to discovery the molecular markers for Orobanche tolerant and susceptible in faba bean by using Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA) using RAPD and ISSR techniques. A cross between x-1722 (tolerant) and Giza-40 (susceptible) was chosen for molecular analysis. DNA isolated from the two parents; F1 and the two extreme groups of F2 plants using bulked Segregant analysis (BSA) technique. Six RAPD primers (A09, B05, B11, B17, B18 and B20) and four ISSR primers (HB11, HB12, HB13 and 17899B) were used in this study. The results showed that, Primer B20 released four positive molecular markers with molecular size of 766, 557,419 and 281 bp), these four positive and three negative RAPD markers could be considered as a reliable markers for Orobanche tolerance in faba bean. While there were three negative molecular with molecular sizes 949, 355 bp for primer A09 and 441bp for primer B18. On the other hand, Primer B05 exhibited unique band for tolerant parent (x-1722) with molecular size 400 bp, as well as primer B11 showed three unique bands with molecular size 1278, 773 and 437 bp. While primer B17 exhibited unique band for sensitive parent (Giza 40) with molecular size 421bp. For ISSR primers, Primer HB12 showed one negative molecular marker which was found only in the sensitive parent (Giza 40), F1 and the sensitive F2 bulk with molecular size of 880bp. Only one unique band for sensitive parent (Giza 40) released in primer HB12 with molecular size 106.

[Azza F. El-Sayed; S.S.A. Soliman; T.A. Ismail and Sabah M. Attia. Molecular Markers for Orobanche Crenata Resistance in Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA). Nat Sci 2013;11(1): 102-109]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.16

 

Key Words: Molecular Markers - Orobanche Crenata - Faba Bean - Bulked Segregant Analysis – RAPD – ISSR.

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Application of selected Bioinsecticides in management of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvaridae) on Phoenix dactylifera (Date fruits)

 

Popoola K.O.K.

 

Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.  Nigeria.

kok.popoola@ui.edu.ng, taiwo_kok@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The boinsecticidal potency of three botanicals, namely: Allium sativum (Garlic), Allium cepa (Onion) and Capsicum annum (Red pepper) were tested on Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Saw- toothed grain beetle) infested with Phoenix dactylifera (Date fruits) at exposure periods of three weeks and six weeks in the Department of Zoology,  Entomology Laboratory. The boinsecticides used were in powered and whole forms at three different concentrations of 1.25g, 2.50g and 5.00g. Potency was determined through, fecundity, emergence and mortality rate of the pest under study. At three and six weeks of exposure, mortality between 5.00g concentration of garlic and the control, onion and control respectively were significantly different at p>0.05. Application of whole red pepper as boinsecticide was more potent than powdered form, which was significant different at p>0.05. From the study it could be deduced that the tree botanicals have insecticidal potentials which reduced in potency with increase in time and that garlic was more potent than the onion and red pepper.

[Popoola K.O.K. Application of selected Bioinsecticides in management of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvaridae) on Phoenix dactylifera (Date fruits). Nat Sci 2013;11(1):110-115]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.17

 

Keywords: Bioinsecticides, Potency, Date fruit, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Emergence and  Mortality

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Processing and Characteristics of African Breadfruit Tempe-Fortified Lafun

 

Njoku Ho, Ibe Sn, Odu Nn And Oyeyipo Oo

 

Department of Microbiology (Food and Industrial Division), University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: Cassava cultivar, TME 1 was fermented for 3days to produce lafun and supplemented with African Breadfruit 'tempe' flour in the ratio 70:30 to formulate 'lafun-tempe' that requires minimal cooking. The pH of lafun and lafun-tempe were 4.70 ± 0.32 and 5.61 ± 0.22 respectively. Total cyanide was 1.40 ± 0.70mg HCN/100g for lafun-tempe and 1.70 ± 0.32mg HCN/100g for lafun. The crude protein content of lafun-tempe was 9.78 ± 0.37 much higher than the unfortified lafun (2.96 ± 0.44). Lafun recorded higher scores in visual appearance and texture while lafun-tempe was superior in taste and aroma (p<0.05). In contrast, lafun had higher crude carbohydrate (82.29 ± 3.77) vs (75.84 ± 1.55) for the lafun-tempe. Animal feeding trial show that weaning wistar rats fed on lafun-tempe had normal growth comparable to the control commercial feed. Fortification of lafun with African breadfruit tempe flour gave values of improved nutritional quality and is recommended for use in areas were cassava is consumed and protein intake is inadequate.

[Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Keivandokht Samiee, Maryam Sadat Bagheri. Identification of Natural Compounds in Muscle Tissue of pickhandle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) in Bander Abbas in the south of Iran (Closed to the Persian Gulf). Nat Sci 2013;11(1):116-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.18

 

Key words: Cassava, Lafun, Cyanide, African breadfruit, Tempe, Fortification

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Land Degradation Assessment of the Irrigated Lands in the Middle Nile Delta, Egypt

 

A. Shalaby

 

National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS), Egypt

adel_shalaby@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to assess the land degradation risk of the irrigated lands in Middle Nile Delta. The physiographic map of the area was produced by using remote sensing and land surveying data. The study area comprises river terraces of various elevation (55.82 %), decantation and overflow basin (37.49 %), river levees (5.31 %) and swales (1.38 %). The landforms were delineated using satellite data, land surveying and laboratory analyses. A GIS model was designed to use these data for assessing the chemical and physical risk of land degradation using Arc-GIS 9.2 software. The obtained results indicate that severe risk to soil degradation affect 11.81 % of the study area. The current status of soil salinity, sodicity and water table indicate that most of soils (42.17%) are actually slightly degraded by salinization, sodification and waterlogging. The results of degradation risk and the actual hazard indicate that the human activities are not sufficient to overcome the degradation processes in 34.38% of the area.

 [A. Shalaby.  Land Degradation Assessment of the Irrigated Lands in the Middle Nile Delta, Egypt. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):121-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.19

 

Keywords: soil degradation, landforms, remote sensing, GIS, middle Delta, Egypt

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The Physico-Chemical Characteristics And Phytoplankton Of The Onijedi Lagoon, Lagos.

 

Onyema, I. C.

 

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. iconyema@gmail.com, iconyema@unilag.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The physico-chemical characteristics and phytoplankton of the Onijedi Lagoon, Lagos were investigated (September, 2009 to April, 2010). The physical and chemical factors showed monthly variations linked with seawater beach overflow especially at high tide and rainfall dynamics in the area. The result showed prevalent low nutrients, high salinity and alkaline pH among others.  Physico-chemical conditions varied mainly between high brackish and sea conditions. The phytoplankton recorded 14 species from three groups. The dominant group was the Blue-green algae followed by Diatoms and Chlorophytes. Whereas the Blue-green algae recorded 57.3%, Diatoms, reported 46.6% (Centric - 13.9% and Pennate diatoms - 22.7%) and the Chlorophytes recorded 5.5% in terms of diversity. Total number of species recorded were between 6 and 11 through out the months and station. In terms of distribution and diversity, the dry season (Dec. 2009 – Apr. 2010) recorded a relatively higher phytoplankton diversity (S), and abundance of species (N) than the wet season. In terms of distribution, whereas the blue-green algae were more notable in the wet season, the diatoms were more diverse and relatively increased in terms of number in the dry season. In terms of abundance, the month of September (after the August break) recorded higher outcomes, while diversity (S) was relatively higher in the dry season for both stations. The biological indices such as Shannon-Wiener (Hs), Menhinicks (D), Margalef (d) and Equitability (j) reflected a similar trend of occurrence. Notable species for the study were Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis flos-aquae. Scopulonema minus a synonym of Pleurocapsa minor recorded in this study is a first report for Lagos, Nigeria.

[Onyema, I. C. The Physico-Chemical Characteristics And Phytoplankton Of The Onijedi Lagoon, Lagos. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):127-135]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.20

 

Keywords: Onijedi lagoon, Apese lagoon, Kuramo lagoon Blue-green algae, Diatoms

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Analysis of some Physico chemical parameters of soil from a protected forest in Uttarakhand

 

P.C. Joshi 1, P. Pandey 1, B.R. Kaushal 2

 

1 Department of Zoology & Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University Haridwar

2Department of Zoology, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital

 prakash127@yahoo.com, pandey.pradeep34@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study focuses on analysis of physico chemical parameters of soil in a protected forest ecosystem of Askot Wild Life Sanctuary in the district of Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India. The soil moisture showed fixed seasonal trend with maximum in rainy season (20.55% ± 3.90) (Aug) and minimum in summer season (8.84% ± 3.96) (May). The mean values of Water holding capacity was maximum during January (50.95%) and minimum during November (42.1%). The soil pH was acidic in nature and ranged from 5.3 to 6.5. The soil organic matter was maximum (5.68 %) in high altitude forest at site V (Kanar) (2000-2300m) and minimum (3.76%) in low altitude forest at site II (Baram) (900-1000m).

[Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Keivandokht Samiee, Maryam Sadat Bagheri. Identification of Natural Compounds in Muscle Tissue of pickhandle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) in Bander Abbas in the south of Iran (Closed to the Persian Gulf). Nat Sci 2013;11(1):136-140]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.21

 

Keywords: Forest ecosystem; soil; Physico chemical parameter

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Standardization of propagation method in drumstick cv. PKM-1

 

Swati Barche, Kamal S. Kirad A.K. Sharma and P.K.Mishra

 

AICRP  MAP & Betelvine, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Jabalpur. College of Agric. (JNKVV) Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh, India

E-mail: sbkdap07@rediffmail.com, DFWAD, Govt. of M.P. India

 

Abstract:Drumstick (Moringa olifera Lank.) is well known for its multipurpose attributes, wide adaptability and ease of establishment. It is largely been grown by seeds which have provided variability. The vegetative propagation is a necessity to obtain true-to-type plants with uniformity in yield and quality. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the standardization of propagation method in drumstick cv. PKM-1on sandy clay loam soil of Research Farm, College of Agric, Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh, India.Four methods of propagation viz., seed, limb cuttings, half uprooted tree and fully uprooted trees were compared in Randomized Block Design with three replications in the pit at 2.5 meter spacing. The results showed that the crop performance with respect to the tree growth, yield and yield components were significantly influenced by propagation methods tested. Maximum number of primary inflorescence (26), secondary inflorescence (54), number of flowers per inflorescence (199),number of pod set/inflorescence (15),pod length (132cm), pod weight (319g), pod girth (21.8cm), number of seeds per pod (30), number of pods per plant (90) and pod yield per plant (28.71kg) received with limb cuttings. The higher yields were mainly due to higher number of pods produced per tree rather than fruit size.

[Swati Barche, Kamal S. Kirad A.K. Sharma and P.K. Mishra. Standardization of propagation method in drumstick cv. PKM-1. Nat Sci 2013;11(1):141-143]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.22

 

Key words: propagation,drumstick,cultivars

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Applicability of solar photo-Fenton process to the remediation of water polluted with pesticides.

 

Hiroshi Sakugawa1, Nahed Hasan2, Emmanuel F. Olasehinde1, 3, Kazuhiko Takeda1, Hiroaki Kondo1

 

1Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan

2Pesticide Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Egypt

3 Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

hsakuga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

 

Abstract: The applicability of solar photo-Fenton process to the degradation of three pesticides in pure and natural waters was investigated in Fe(III)/H2O2/UV–Vis and Fe(III)/H2O2 UV–Vis oxidation systems at pH 2.8 and 7.2. The pesticides concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis. Furthermore, total mineralization of the pesticides in these systems was evaluated by monitoring the decreases in DOC concentrations with solar simulator irradiation time by TOC analysis. The results obtained indicate that the spontaneous degradation due to solar illumination by Fe3+/H2O2/UV–Vis system is more effective than Fe2+/ H2O2/UV–Vis system in Milli-Q water and river water at pH 2.8. This great enhancement in the pesticides degradation rate in the photo-Fenton reaction system Fe3+/H2O2/UV–Vis compared to Fe2+/H2O2/UV–Vis systems at pH 2.8 is due to the higher rate of ·OH generation in this system in Milli-Q water and river water (4.01 and 5.26 uM/min) compared to Fe2+/H2O2/UV–Vis systems 2.44 and 2.90 uM/min. respectively. At both pH values, the order of pesticides degradation was diuron > fenitrothion > fenarimol which seems to be related with their solubility. Results obtained from this study makes it plausible to apply the photo-Fenton process to the remediation of water polluted with toxic pesticides.

[Sakugawa H, Nahed H, Olasehinde EF, Takeda K, Hiroaki K. Applicability of Solar Photo-Fenton Process to the Remediation of Water Polluted with Pesticides. NatSci 2013;11(1):144-152]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110113.23

 

Keywords: Solar photo-Fenton; degradation; hydroxyl radicals; total mineralization; pesticides

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from December 8, 2012
 
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