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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci)
 ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 11 - Number 02 (Cumulated No. 71), February 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1102 

 

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CONTENTS  

 

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Assessment the Effects of Transgenic Egyptian Bt Cotton that Contain Two Genes Expressing Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab Delta-Endotoxin on the Abundance of the Non Target Organisms Community

 

Hassan Farag Dahi

 

Plant Protection Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

hassandahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of Bt cotton, i.e. genetically modified cotton that contain genes Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab  expressing delta-endotoxin, on non-target pest arthropods and non target beneficial arthropods populations was determined  by  field study at Giza 80 Egyptian cotton variety. Although Bt-cotton is lepidopteran specific, non-lepidopteran arthropod populations may be indirectly influenced by the endotoxin. Abundance of non target pest arthropods (Aphids, whiteflies, leafhopper green bugs, and spider mites) and non-target beneficial arthropods (green lacewing, ladybird coccinella, rove beetle, Orius bugs and true spider) were used as measures to determine possible effects on the populations under investigation. The present study is the first attempt in Egypt which devoted to assessment the effects of transgenic Bt cotton Gossypium barbadense L. (Giza 80), which was genetically modified (GM)- during the co-ordinate  project between Monsanto company and Ministry of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Center (ARC) including Cotton Research Institute (CRI),  Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI) and Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI)  by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes against cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis and bollworms, (pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella and spiny bollworm Earias insulana) on the function of the non target organisms community (pests and natural enemies). However, no variety of Bt cotton has yet been approved for commercial planting in Egypt. Tow genes (Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were introduced to the American cotton Gossypium hirsutum by the particle bombardment, then crossed and back crossed with Egyptian cotton variety Giza 80 to transfer those two genes to the Egyptian cotton variety Giza 80.The Scouting was conducted on a weekly basis from 7th weeks of the plant emergence and continued until the cotton bolls started to open (10 weeks of data).The statistical analysis cleared that, no significant different between the abundance of non-target pest arthropods and non-target beneficial arthropods on Bt cotton and non Bt. These attempts were elucidate to evaluate the effect of  Bt cotton on non target organisms in cotton fields to release the Egyptian Bt cotton as a new commercial product at large scale for rationalize the using of insecticides via IPM program on cotton crop in Egypt.

[Hassan Farag Dahi. Assessment the Effects of Transgenic Egyptian Bt Cotton that Contain Two Genes Expressing Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab Delta-Endotoxin on the Abundance of the Non Target Organisms Community. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.01

 

Key words: Bt cotton, GM Crops, non-target pest arthropods, non target beneficial arthropods, Cry1Ac, Cry 2Ab, Delta-Endotoxin and seasonal abundance.

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2

Chemical, Nutritional and Biochemical Studies of Garden Cress Protein Isolate

 

1Ahmed, M. Gaafar; 2Azza, A. Morsi and 3Heba, E. Elghamry

 

1 Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

2Faculty of Education, Hail University, Saudi

3Department of Nutrition and Food Science Faculties of Science and Home Economics, King Khalid University

ahmad_gafaar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Garden cress or "hab arachad" seeds are considered one of the popular medicinal herbs used in Arabian countries Garden cress meal (Lepidium sativum) is a by-product remaining after the extraction of the oil from seeds. Protein represents the most abundant nutrient in this product, which contains 34.15% protein, 1.86% crude oil, 9.85% crude fiber, 5.89% ash and 48.25% nitrogen free extract (NFE), on a dry weight basis. The garden cress meal protein isolate was prepared using the isoelectric point technique. The chemical composition of this isolate was 92.43% protein, 0.34% crude oil, 1.46% crude fiber, 1.39% ash and 5.56% NFE, on a dry weight basis. The minerals and amino acids of garden cress meal and the protein isolate were also determined. The results of the biological experiment indicated that the isolate had a high PER value, being 1.35, as compared to a value of 1.46 in the case of rats fed on a diet containing 15% casein. The biochemical parameters of kidney function of the rats fed on a diet containing 15% of garden meal and garden isolate were normal.

[Ahmed, M. Gaafar; Azza, A. Morsi and Heba, E. Elghamry. Chemical, Nutritional and Biochemical Studies of Garden Cress Protein Isolate. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):8-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.02

 

Key word: garden cress, "hab arachad", protein isolate, mineral content, amino acid and PER.

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3

Extraction, analysis and study of antioxidant activity and total phenolic of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil from four different regions of Iran (Yazd, Saveh, Kashan and Varamin)

 

Abdolhossein Rustaiyan1, Keivandokht Samiee2, Somayeh Elahi Kurabaslu3, Massoud Taghizadeh4

 

1. Department of Chemistry, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3. Faculty of Chemistry, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4. Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahed Unversity, Tehran, Iran

arustaiyan@yahoo.it

 

Abstract: In this study varieties of pomegranates were collected from four different regions of Iran (Yazd, Saveh, Kashan and Varamin) and the oils were extracted in Soxhlet by using Hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids composition of the seed oil of pomegranate varieties (Punica granatum L.) was determined by GC-MS. The results showed 6.8-9.0 % saturated fatty acid, 8.1-34.5% monounsaturated, 0-8.7% diunsaturated and 50.9-78.2% poly unsaturated fatty acids. Antimicrobial properties were studied the disc diffusion method on four microbial samples of Saccharomyces cerevisae (ATCC 2365), Basilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Esherichiacoli (ATCC 25922). None of the samples showed antimicrobial effects. The samples were also subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using DPPH as a stable free radical, Ravand Kashan variety showed the most antioxidant activity of about 90% while the Shirin Saveh variety had the least activity of 50% compared with trolox as a control sample with 94% antioxidant activity. Four oil samples from different regions of Iran were studied for their total phenolic compounds according to Folin-Ciocalteau method. The Ravand Kashan variety had the highest amount of approximately 37.97 μg/mg and the Shirin Saveh variety had the least amount, 22.61 μg/mg.

[Rustaiyan A, Samiee K, Elahi Kurabaslu S, Taghizadeh M. Extraction, analysis and study of antioxidant activity and total phenolic of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil from four different regions of Iran (Yazd, Saveh, Kashan and Varamin). Nat Sci 2013;11(2):14-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.03

 

Keywords: Extraction, analysis, antioxidant activity, pomegranate, Punica granatum L., seed oil.

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4

Biodegradation of Three Agricultural Wastes by a White-rot Fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quetlet

 

C. O. Adenipekun, O. J. Dada

 

 Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

oyinpek@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Studies were carried out on the degradation of cotton waste, rice straw and cocoa pod husks using Pleurotus pulmonarius in cultures incubated for 0-60 days. The proximate composition, percentages of nitrogen, carbon, potassium and phosphorus, pH, lignin contents, organic matter and enzyme production were determined using the substrates degraded by P. pulmonarius.  Crude protein increased significantly throughout the incubation period from 1.27% in the control to 12.63% in cotton waste, 6.65% to 14.82% in rice straw and in cocoa pod husk from 7.04% to 13.82%. Crude fibre decreased significantly in cotton waste and cocoa husk from 5.88% to 5.31% and from 39.88% to 34.95% respectively but an increase was observed in rice straw from 18.42% in control to 28.08% after 60days of incubation period. The nutrient contents, pH values, organic matter showed significant differences of (P≤0.05) in the three substrates as the days of fermentation increased. Lignin contents of treated cotton waste and cocoa husk were degraded by Pleurotus pulmonarius but an increase was observed in the rice straw. Cellulase activities decreased significantly in contrast to the lignase activities where a consistent increase was observed on the degraded substrates as the incubation period increased.

[Adenipekun CO, Dada OJ. Biodegradation of Three Agricultural Wastes by a White-rot Fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quetlet. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):19-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.04

 

Key words:  Degradation; Cotton waste; Rice straw; Cocoa pod husks; Pleurotus pulmonarius.

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5

Antimicrobial Effect of Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite on Some Microorganisms in the Root Canals of Non Vital Teeth - In Vivo Study

 

Fadia M. A. Own(1), Sherine B. Y. Badr(2), Fatma A. H. El-Shehaby(2) and Mona G. Nada(3)

 

(1) B. D. S Faculty of Dentistry, Tripoli University. Libya.

(2) Pediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

 (3) Lecturer of Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

fadia0405@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study is to clinically evaluate and compare the antimicrobial effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation solutions on some microorganisms in human root canals containing necrotic pulp tissue. Methodology: Forty five root canals of necrotic upper incisors and lateral incisors of 41 patients were included and divided into 3 groups according to irrigant to be used. After accessing the canal, the first root canal sample was collected using two sterile paper points. One paper point was placed in a tube containing Brain hurt infusion medium to transfer E.faecalis and Streptococcus species and the other paper point was placed in a tube containing thioglycolate broth for Gram positive anaerobes . The root canal was irrigated using 2%chlorhexidine solution or 1% sodium hypochlorite or normal saline. Immediately after irrigation at the end of the first visit the second sample was taken as before. A small sterile cotton pellet was placed at the root canal entrance and the cavity was sealed with zinc oxide-eugenol cement. After 48hrs third sample was obtained. All the samples were submitted to bacterial evaluation. Results showed that both 2% CHX and 1% NaOCl irrigation solutions showed statistically significant reduction in mean log10 CFU values of all target bacteria immediately and after 48 hrs. except for E faecalis after48 hrs. Conclusions: 2% CHX and 1% NaOCl were effective against all the types of tested bacteria at the end of first visit. E. Faecalis was the most resistant bacteria to both 2% CHX and 1% NaOCl irrigants after 48 hrs.

[Fadia M. A. Own, Sherine B. Y. Badr, Fatma A. H. El-Shehaby and Mona G. Nada. Antimicrobial Effect of Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite on Some Microorganisms in the Root Canals of Non Vital Teeth - In Vivo Study. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):26-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.05

 

Key Words: Antimicrobial Effect; Chlorhexidine; Sodium Hypochlorite; Microorganism; Root Canal

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6

Seasonal activity of the white date palm scale insect, Parlatoria blanchardii (Targioni-Tozzetti) infesting date palm trees at Esna district, Luxor Governorate, Egypt.

 

Salman, A.M.A.1, S.F.M. Moussa2 and M.M.S. Bakry 2

 

1 Plant Protection Dept., Fact. Agric. Sohag Univ., Sohag, Egypt.

2 Scale Insects and Mealybugs Research Dept., Plant Protection Research Institute, A.R.C, Dokii, Giza, Egypt.

1 a26s26@yahoo.com 2 md.md_sabry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present work was carried out throughout two successive years (2010/2011 and 2011/2012) at Esna district, Luxor Governorate. As a basic study for developing future management of the white date palm scale insect, Parlatoria blanchardii (Targioni-Tozzetti), to determine the seasonal activity of this insect. The obtained results showed that half monthly observations of this insect had four peaks of seasonal activity per year, which was recorded in the mid-October, mid-November, mid-April and mid-June in the first year (2010/2011) and during the mid-October, mid- December, mid-April and mid-June during the 2nd year (2011/2012). Also, the least total population density of P. blanchardii was recorded in February during the two years of investigation. As well as, the first year of study cleared that the total population of this insect was higher in comparison to the second year of investigation. Concerning, the monthly variation rate in the population (R.M.V.P), the obtained results showed that the favourable times for this insect were from October to June of the first year and October to July of the second year. Climatic conditions of autumn and spring months during the first year and autumn and summer months during the second year were the optimal for the insect multiplication and build up, since the highest R.M.V.P value was achieved during both years. The obtained results showed that, effect of minimum temperature and dew point through the first year and maximum temperature and mean relative humidity during the second year were the most important weather factors affecting on the population changes of P. blanchardii in the field. The results showed that the combined effect of these climatic factors such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity and dew point and mean percentage of parasitism during the 1st and 2nd years was highly significant and significant effect of total population for the two years of study, respectively. The percentages of explained variance (E.V.) indicate that all tested variables were responsible for 59.4 and 52.1% of the population changes during the 1st and 2nd years of (2010/2011 and 2011/2012), respectively.

 [Salman, A.M.A., S.F.M. Moussa and M.M.S. Bakry. Seasonal activity of the white date palm scale insect, Parlatoria blanchardii (Targioni-Tozzetti) infesting date palm trees at Esna district, Luxor Governorate, Egypt. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):32-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.06

 

Keywords: Parlatoria blanchardii, Seasonal activity, environmental conditions and date palm trees.

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Detection of Citrus Yellow Mosaic Virus Infection in Different Species of Citrus by PCR

 

Muneesh Kumar Barman

 

Assistant Professor, School of Studies in Biotechnology, Bastar Vishwavidyalaya, Jagdalpur, Chhattisgarh, India. PIN: 494005

E-mail: muni_1502@yahoo.co.in; Contact: +919907476510

 

Abstract: Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) is a double stranded rod shaped DNA virus of genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae. Its complete genome has been sequenced and characterized by Hang et al., (2001). It comprises of six putative open reading frames (ORF) and an intergenic sequence all lying on the plus strand of DNA and each capable of encoding proteins with a molecular mass of greater than 10 kDa. ORF 3, the largest ORF, encodes a putative polyprotein for functions involved in virus movement, assembly and replication. The other ORFs encode proteins whose exact functions are not completely understood. The genome also contains a plant tRNAmet binding site, which may serve as a primer for minus-strand DNA synthesis, in its intergenic region. In this study five samples of three different species of Citrus including C. sinensis (CS+ve, CSa and CSb), C. raticulate (CR) and C. aurentifolia (CA) (selected at random) were diagnosed for CYMV infection by PCR using sequence specific primer. The DNA was extracted from leaves of the plants by three protocols viz. sodium sulfite method, CTAB method and Dellaporta et al., (1983) method, to standardize the DNA extraction protocol for Citrus. Sodium sulfite method gave the best results. The PCR protocol was standardized and the temperature profile for PCR comprised of denaturation at 94șC, primer annealing at 56șC and primer extension at 72șC. The PCR product was visualized under UV trans-illuminator at 260nm wavelength after electrophoresis on 2.5% agarose gel. In detection of CYMV, out of five samples, including C. sinensis (CS+ve, CSa and CSb), C. raticulata (CR) and C. aurentifolia (CA), two samples of Citrus sinensis (CS+ve and CSa) and one sample of Citrus reticulate (CR) were found infected by CYMV.

[Muneesh Kumar Barman. Detection of Citrus Yellow Mosaic Virus Infection in Different Species of Citrus by PCR. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):41-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.07

 

Keywords: Citrus Yellow Mosaic Virus, Citrus, Polymerase Chain Reaction

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Crude oil induced oxidative stress in Capsicum annum L.

 

Victor Johwo Odjegba, John Omotoyosi Badejo

 

Department of Botany, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

jodjegba@unilag.edu.ng

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bonny light crude oil on the malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes activity in Capsicum annum. Seedlings were grown for 5 weeks in nursery bags filled with sandy-loam soil amended with crude oil to achieve 0, 1, 3 and 5% v/w. Metabolic parameters representative of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes activity were evaluated after the treatments. The results showed that crude oil caused a significant decrease in the relative water content (RWC) of the plant and a significant increase in MDA level, and activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. It was observed that the effects were concentration dependent. It was concluded that crude oil in soil made water absorption by plants difficult and also induced oxidative stress in plants. 

[Odjegba VJ, Badejo JO. Crude oil induced oxidative stress in Capsicum annum L. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):46-50]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.08

 

Keywords: Crude oil; pollution; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; Capsicum annum

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Prime Number 19, The Vedic Zero And The Fall Of Western Mathematics By Theorem

 

Vinoo Cameron MD

 

Hope Research, Athens, Wisconsin, USA

E Mail: Hope9900@frontier.com

 

Abstract: This manuscript in its primitive expression mocks the understanding of prime numbers and numbers by current mathematics, western mathematics, and including its “suspect zero” which is in error. It is obvious that the Vedic zero and gaps of 10, at 1:3 divergences is the correct zero, but the matter is too complex, and needs review of the prime number distribution as brought out in the published papers.

[Vinoo Cameron. Prime Number 19, The Vedic Zero And The Fall Of Western Mathematics By Theorem. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):51-52]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.09

 

 Key words: Prime number 19, numbers theorem, Vedic zero (-1)

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Solar House Design with Focus on Sustainability Goals

 

Reza Mirzaei

 

Department of Architecture, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

Aspiran0080@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Considering the impact of climatic and environmental factors in creation of residential spaces is not a new debate. From the beginning, human has tried to create a desirable living place based on the temperature and climatic conditions of his living area. The anthropogenic impact of urban housing on the biosphere can be traced back 6,000 years. It is proposed to study this impact through time and contemplate on the near future by examining the relationship between housing and architecture. The inter-related dynamic forces of culture, technology, and ecology that form the context for housing will be the backdrop framing the analysis. The influences that shape choices of habitation patterns that have evolved as the resultant equilibrium of culture, technology, and economy are examined to understand what has led us to this currently unsustainable situation. Paying attention to the sustainable elements in the building is one of the approaches of the sustainable architecture in which greenhouse is discussed as one of the mentioned factors. First, passive solar design, its importance and specifications are analyzed. Then, its related factors such as passive solar design elements, socio-cultural influences, multi-scale ordering principles and etc. are analyzed. Finally, the implementation and scale ordering principles of greenhouse passive heating are discussed.

[Reza Mirzaei. Solar House Design with Focus on Sustainability Goals. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):53-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.10

 

Keywords: Solar House, Passive Solar Design, Energy Rebalance, Solarium

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Antioxidant and trace metals levels in Anemia

 

Saira Baloch, Naila Masood2, Imran Ali Shaikh2, and Ali Raza Memon3 

 

1 Medical Research Centre (MRC) Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.

3Department of Biochemistry, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.

saira_dr01@yahoo.ocm, saira.baloch@lumhs.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Anemia is a disorder characterized by reduction in hemoglobin concentration of blood below the normal level. It is a global problem, mainly affecting poor people in developing countries. For the determination of these metals fifty intravenous blood samples anemic patients and normal subjects were collected and immediately centrifuged to obtain the supernatant liquid, serum of both the groups for analysis. The mean serum levels of magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron and antioxidant activity in anemic patients were 16.05±1.14ppm, 4.33±0.28 ppm, 2.5±0.2ppm, 1.50±0.28ppm and 1.27±0.05ppm   respectively. Serum magnesium, zinc, iron and antioxidant levels were significantly lower whereas, the higher level of Copper was observed in anemic patients as compared to the controls. Supplementation with deficient trace elements may reduce the severity of symptoms and complications associated with anemia.

[Saira Baloch, Naila Masood, Imran Ali Shaikh, and Ali Raza Memon. Antioxidant and trace metals levels in Anemia. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):63-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.11

 

Key Words: Anemia, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Magnesium, Antioxidant Activity.

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Fertilizer management in Drumstick under semidry condition of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh.

 

Swati Barche, Kamal S. Kirad and B.K.Dixit

 

AICRP on MAP & Betelvine, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Jabalpur  Madhya Pradesh, India

E-mail: sbkdap07@rediffmail.com

DFWAD, Govt. of M. P. India

College of Agric. (JNKVV) Tikamgarh. M.P.

 

Abstract:Drumstick (Moringa olifera Lank.) is well known for its multipurpose attributes, wide adaptability and ease of establishment. Maximum farmers of the region cultivating unknown perennial drumstick crop without any nutrient management, the present investigation was carried out to study the Fertilizer management in Drumstick under semidry condition of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh sandy clay loam soil of Research Farm, College of Agric, Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh, India.. The results showed that the crop performance with respect to the tree growth, yield and yield components were significantly higher in 50% Fertilizer+25% FYM+25%Vermicompost+Biofertilizers The higher yields were mainly due to higher number of pods produced per tree rather than fruit size.

[Swati Barche, Kamal S. Kirad and B.K. Dixit. Fertilizer management in Drumstick under semidry condition of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):67-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.12

 

Key words:nutrients,drumstick,cultivars

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Bandwidth Enhancement of Rectangular Patch Microstrip Array Antenna by Micromachining Technique

 

R. K. Verma, N. K. Saxena and P. K. S. Pourush

 

Microwave Lab, Department of Physics, Agra College Agra, PIN 282002 (U.P), India.

Emails: nav3091@rediffmail.com, rkvaca1976@gmail.com, ppourush@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Study of micromachining technique for bandwidth enhancement of sixteen elements microstrip array antenna of rectangular patches printed on the RT-duroid substrate. The radiation patterns for E-plane, H-plane and array geometry has been plotted and presented here. The radiation parameters of this array antenna are also compared with the same array antenna configuration without using electromagnet coupled technique. Comparison shows that the micromachined technique used for bandwidth enhancement has provided around 74% compare to simple patch antenna. This technique is quite complicated but very effective. The bandwidth enhancement percentage of this technique is highest compare to others.

[R.K. Verma, N.K. Saxena and P.K.S. Pourush. Bandwidth Enhancement of Rectangular Patch Microstrip Array Antenna by Micromachining Technique. Nat Sci 2013; 11(2):69-72]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.13

 

Key Words: Bandwidth enhancement; Rectangular patch microstrip antenna; RT-duroid; Micromachined Technique.

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Bacterial analysis of urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women having urinary tract infection (UTI), attending the General Out-Patient (GOP) clinic of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Olubiyi Akinsoji Akintobi, Bukola Ayodeji Bamkefa, Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon, C.E. Ejionueme

 

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria. adejuwon_ao@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant and non-pregnant women with a view of identifying the uropathogens responsible for infection and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Clean void mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile universal bottles from fifty pregnant and fifty non-pregnant women within age range of 18 to 40 years attending the General Outpatient Clinic of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. The average ages of pregnant and non-pregnant women were thirty-four years and twenty-seven years respectively. Approximately 70% of pregnant women in the study group were infected while 75% of the non-pregnant women were also infected. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated in both groups. However, Escherichia coli was predominant in the groups of women. Of the antibiotics used in the study, amikacin followed by nitrofurantoin were most effective. Cefuroxine was least effective.  

[Akintobi OA, Bamkefa BA, Adejuwon AO, Ejionueme CE. Bacterial analysis of urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women having urinary tract infection (UTI), attending the General Out-Patient (GOP) clinic of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):73-77]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.14

 

Keywords: urinary tract infection; uropathogens; pregnant women; non-pregnant women.

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Composition of fatty acids and lipid content of liver and muscle tissues of Sepia pharaonis in the Persian Gulf

 

Keivandokht Samiee1, Maryam Darvish2, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan 3, Nahid Naghdi4

 

1Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Chemistry, Science & Research branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

4Faculty of Marine Sciences, Science & Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

k.samiee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this investigation, the liver and muscle tissues of Sepia pharaonis in the Persian Gulf, Iran in Dec 2012 were separately extracted for their fatty acids composition and lipid content using the method of Blight & Dyer (1959). The compounds were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS). The components were detected in the liver and muscle tissues, including saturated fatty acids Palmitic acid and Stearic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and two methyl esters of fatty acids including Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester. The results showed that the dominant fatty acids in muscle tissue were Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Also, the dominant fatty acid in liver tissue was Palmitic acid.  

[Samiee K, Darvish M, Rustaiyan A, Naghdi N. Composition of fatty acids and lipid content of liver and muscle tissues of Sepia pharaonis in Persian Gulf. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):78-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.15

 

Keywords: fatty acids, lipid content, liver, muscle, Sepia pharaonis, Persian Gulf.

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Assessment of Fish diversity of Tunga River, Karnataka, India

 

A.S. Kumar Naik; Jitendra Kumar; V. Mahesh; S. Benakappa

 

College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Mangalore – 575002, India.

Emails: kumarasnaik@rediffmail.com, benakappasarathy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, an effort has been made to investigate the fish resources quantitatively by studying the ichthyofaunal biodiversity of Tunga River stretch from Gajanoor fishing village to Kudali of Shivamogga district. Monthly sampling was conducted at three centres during July 2010-June 2012 by using gill nets. A total of 45491 kg fishes from three landing centres were collected and Gondichatnalli recorded maximum followed by Shivamogga and Honnapura. The most abundant fish species was Calta catla (28%) followed by Labeo rohita (17%) and Clarias gariepinus (11%). During present investigation a total of 37 species belonging to 11 families and 4 orders were recorded. The order Cypriniformes found to be dominant with 23 fish species followed by Siluriformes 11 species and Perciformes 2 species. Although, 37 species were recorded, the family Cyprinidae recorded 19 fish species (51.35%) followed by Bagridae, 4 fish species (10.81%) and Claridae with 3 fish species (8.10%) each. The Simpson’s index of diversity (1- Lambda') was highest in Gondichatnalli (0.8802) followed by Shivamogga (0.8580) and Honnapura (0.8523). This indicated the greater fish biodiversity in Gondichatnalli when compared to other two centres. The biomass of fish species was more in Gondichatnalli (S= 36, N=19014) followed by Shivamogga (S =31, N= 14671), and Honnapura (S =37, N= 11806). Further, the other indices such as Pielou's evenness (J’), Shannon H'(loge) and Simpson 1- Lambda' were also used to assess the richness of biodiversity of all the three fish landing centres. In this study an attempt has been made to evaluate the ichthyofaunal diversity in the region and suggests mitigating measures.

[A.S. Kumar Naik; Jitendra Kumar; V. Mahesh; S. Benakappa. Assessment of Fish diversity of Tunga River, Karnataka, India. Nat Sci 2013; 11(2):82-87]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.16

 

Keywords: Assessment, Fish diversity, Tunga River, Karnataka.

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Enhancement of the Performance of Stepped Solar Still Using Humidification-Dehumidification Processes

 

Mostafa M. Awad1 and S. A. El-Agouz2

 

1 Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

2 Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt.

mostawad100@yahoo.com; elagouz2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, a stepped solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. To investigate the performance of the solar still with humidification- dehumidification system, an experimental setup has been designed, constructed and assembled. A set of experimental runs have been carried out through out this study. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect on improving the solar still performance. Each solar still has its own optimal value of water flow rate which gives the highest productivity and maximum efficiency. This optimal value is depending on the solar still configuration. Working at flow rates below or above this value leads to decrease the still performance. By increasing the air flow rate, the solar still performance is increased. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

[Mostafa M. Awad and S. A. El-Agouz. Enhancement of the Performance of Stepped Solar Still Using Humidification-Dehumidification Processes. Nat Sci 2013; 11(2):88-98]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.17

 

Keywords: Solar still, solar radiation, humidification, dehumidification, desalination.

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Surface Temperature Effect on Surface Erosion in Heat Exchangers

 

Mostafa M. Awad

 

Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt

E-mail: mostawad100@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: A theoretical approach showing the effect of surface temperature on surface erosion in heat exchangers has been developed. This approach is based on the basic fouling deposition and removal processes. As a result of this study, for each working condition, there was a specific surface temperature, defined as critical surface temperature. Below this critical temperature, i.e. the working temperature is less than the critical one, the fouling rate increases with increasing surface temperature and it has the maximum value nearest the critical temperature. Above the critical temperature, i.e. the working temperature is greater than critical one, the fouling rate has a negative sign, and it means that some erosion of the heat transfer surface will be occurred. This erosion has maximum value nearest the critical temperature and decreases with surface temperature. At the critical temperature no fouling and no erosion will be occurred. A new formula describing the critical surface temperature in such process with the concealing affecting parameters has been presented.

[Mostafa M. Awad. Surface Temperature Effect on  Surface Erosion in Heat Exchangers. Nat Sci 2013; 11(2):99-106]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.18

 

Keywords: Heat exchangers, surface erosion, surface temperature, wear.

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Antibiotic Resistant Profile of Bacteria isolated from Septicaemia Cases in a Tertiary Health Care in Abeokuta, Nigeria

 

1Akingbade OA, 1Ojo DA, 2Okerentugba PO, 3Adejuwon OA, 2Okonko IO

 

1 Department of Microbiology.  Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk 08063529234

2Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

3Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT: The term septicaemia is often used in describing severe bacteraemic infections or a condition in which the blood serves as a site of bacteria multiplication. A total of 120 blood culture samples were collected during year 2011 to 2012. Bacteria isolated were characterized and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns were determined.  The antibiotic sensitivity was carried out using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Bacteria isolated include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The highest number of bacteria was found among patient age ≤ 10 years. Escherichia coli accounted for 12(46.2%) of the bacteria isolated while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp and Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 6(23.1%), 6(23.1%) and 2(7.6%) respectively. The least prevalent isolate Streptococcus pneumoniae was found only in age group ≤ 10. Ceftazidime and Levoxin showed high sensitivity rate to most of the bacterial isolates. From this study, the uncontrolled use of antibiotics may have implication for emerging resistance of bacteria to commonly - used antibiotics.

[Akingbade OA, Ojo DA, Okerentugba PO, Adejuwon OA, Okonko IO. Antibiotic Resistant Profile of Bacteria isolated from Septicaemia Cases in a Tertiary Health Care in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):107-112]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.19

 

Keywords: Antibiotic resistant profile, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Septicaemia, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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Review of gray water treatment and reuses for Irrigation

 

Bagher Yousefi 1, Hadi Moazed 1, Mohsen Pouladgar 1, Sahar Rahi2

 

1 Irrigation and drainage Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Agricultural Mechanization Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

bagher.yousefi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Regarding the population increase and incoming water crisis, the need to efficiency technologies and economizing water consumption is more and more seen necessary. One of these technologies is to use Gray water. Gray water is part of the home sewage which is produced by the bathroom, the toilet, the laundry and the kitchen and contains soil, oil and soap etc. depending on its quality, Gray Water can be used to irrigate green campuses by the process of treatment or without it. To achieve this goal, all kinds of physical, chemical and biological methods are used. In addition to study the advantages and restrictions of using Gray Water, this article presents matters which should be observed in irrigating green campuses using Gray Water.

[Yousefi B, Moazed H, Pouladgar M, Rahi S. Review of gray water treatment and reuses for Irrigation. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):113-116]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.20

 

Key words: Gray water, treatment, Irrigation.

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Assessment the Effects of Transgenic Egyptian Bt Cotton that Contain Two Genes Expressing Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab Delta-Endotoxin on the Abundance of the Non Target Organisms Community

 

Hassan Farag Dahi

 

Plant Protection Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

hassandahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of Bt cotton, i.e. genetically modified cotton that contain genes Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab expressing delta-endotoxin, on non-target pest arthropods and non target beneficial arthropods populations was determined  by  field study at Giza 80 Egyptian cotton variety. Although Bt-cotton is lepidopteran specific, non-lepidopteran arthropod populations may be indirectly influenced by the endotoxin. Abundance of non target pest arthropods (Aphids, whiteflies, leafhopper green bugs, and spider mites) and non-target beneficial arthropods (green lacewing, ladybird coccinella, rove beetle, Orius bugs and true spider) were used as measures to determine possible effects on the populations under investigation. The present study is the first attempt in Egypt which devoted to assessment the effects of transgenic Bt cotton Gossypium barbadense L. (Giza 80), which was genetically modified (GM)- during the co-ordinate  project between Monsanto company and Ministry of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Center (ARC) including Cotton Research Institute (CRI),  Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI) and Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI)  by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes against cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis and bollworms, (pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella and spiny bollworm Earias insulana) on the function of the non target organisms community (pests and natural enemies). However, no variety of Bt cotton has yet been approved for commercial planting in Egypt. Tow genes (Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were introduced to the American cotton Gossypium hirsutum by the particle bombardment, then crossed and back crossed with Egyptian cotton variety Giza 80 to transfer those two genes to the Egyptian cotton variety Giza 80.The Scouting was conducted on a weekly basis from 7th weeks of the plant emergence and continued until the cotton bolls started to open (10 weeks of data).The statistical analysis cleared that, no significant different between the abundance of non-target pest arthropods and non-target beneficial arthropods on Bt cotton and non Bt. These attempts were elucidate to evaluate the effect of  Bt cotton on non target organisms in cotton fields to release the Egyptian Bt cotton as a new commercial product at large scale for rationalize the using of insecticides via IPM program on cotton crop in Egypt.

[Hassan Farag Dahi. Assessment the Effects of Transgenic Egyptian Bt Cotton that Contain Two Genes Expressing Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab Delta-Endotoxin on the Abundance of the Non Target Organisms Community. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):117-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.21

 

Key words: Bt cotton, GM Crops, non-target pest arthropods, non target beneficial arthropods, Cry1Ac, Cry 2Ab, Delta-Endotoxin and seasonal abundance.

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Antimicrobial Activity of Estuarine Isolates against Shrimp Pathogenic Aeromonas Species.

 

Caroline Nchedo Ariole and Edith Chikodiri Oha

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

cnariole@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Four isolates of Pseudomonas spp. from brackish water and four isolates of Lactobacillus spp. from healthy shrimp (Penaeus monodon) gut were screened for antimicrobial activity against shrimp pathogenic Aeromonas species using agar well diffusion assay. One isolate of Pseudomonas sp. (P2) and one isolate of Lactobacillus sp. (L2) were found active against all Aeromonas strains. The co-culture experiment showed that Pseudomonas P2 with 1.0x105 cfu/ml and Lactobacillus L2 with 1.0x105 cfu/ml were enough to suppress Aeromonas sp. (A2) within 12 hours. Therefore, the indigenously isolated antagonistic Pseudomonas sp. P2 and Lactobacillus sp. L2 could be used as effective biocontrol agents for management of aeromonasis in aquaculture.

[Caroline Nchedo Ariole and Edith Chikodiri Oha. Antimicrobial Activity of Estuarine Isolates against Shrimp Pathogenic Aeromonas Species. Nat Sci 2013;11(2):123-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110213.22

 

Keyword: Inhibitory activity; indigenous probiotics; shrimp pathogens.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from January 15, 2013
 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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