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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 11 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 72), March 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1103 

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Jatropha In The Food Fuel Debate

 

  Dr. Nnorom Achara

 

Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria

ekoamuzu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A combination of factors including the fuel crises of the seventies, global warming and the associated desert encroachment, among others, prompted the search for alternative energy sources.  The feedstock for the first generation of biomass was sourced from food crops, a practice many considered unethical. Jatropha is non-edible and can thrive in an unproductive land.  The cultivation of this second generation biomass may indirectly still impact on food availability in terms of competition with food crops for land, water and fertilizer.  Hydro dams, geothermal, solar energy and wind turbine are some other renewable energy sources that their usage could, in one way or the other, effect food crop production.  Without adequate planning and education,  rural farmers may switch to jatropha farming at the expense of food crops.  As the western countries set their renewable energy targets, it is hoped that unscrupulous business men would have the decency not to exploit the rural farmers by advising them to turn arable land into jatropha farms.

 [Nnorom Achara. Jatropha In The Food Fuel Debate. Nat Sci J 2013; 11(3):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.01

 

Key Words: transesterification, biofuel, biomass, feedstock, carbon footprint, carbon neutral.

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2

Assessment of watershed management implemented on springal peak flood discharge and flood volume, using HEC-HMS model (Case study: Kushk Abad sub-basin in Iran)

 

B. M. Golrang 1, F. S. Lai 2, S. H. R. Sadeghi 3, Khamurudin. M. N 4, Kamziah, Abd Kudus 5, M. Mashayekhi 6, R. Bagherian 7

1. Department of Forest Management (PhD Candidate), Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

2, 4, 5. Department of Forest Management, Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

3. Department of Mathematic (PhD Candidate), Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia

 

3. Department of Watershed Management Engineering (Assoc. Professor), Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Noor 46417-76489, Mazandaran, Iran.

6 Department of English Language (PhD Candidate), Faculty of Modern Language, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia

7 Department of Watershed Management (Assistant Professor), Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and natural resources Research center, Iran

 b_golrang@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:  Assessment of watershed management operation is one of the main subjects for future planning of practical projects and natural resources management. Flood Damage is one of the most important problems in countries same Iran, which is mostly, affected most parts of the country and caused hazards. Therefore, identification of the area with high potential risk of flood occurrence is the main purpose in order to the flood control and reducing its damages. Due to the lack of any tool for assessment of watershed processes in many cases, distributed hydrological models can be useful. The indicator watershed of Kushk-Abad Basin as the study area in Khorasan province of Iran divided to 6 sub-basins which was processed geometrically using GIS and HEC-HMS extension. With using HEC-HMS model and emission of individual repetition of the sub-basins, the homogenous flood hydrographs have gained in relation to the recorded precipitation calculated for different sub-basins. For this purpose, first by considering observed events, HEC-HMS model was optimized and calibrated. Then, for evaluating the effects of check dams on time of concentration, it was optimized and calibrated. Then, for evaluating the effects of check dams on time of concentration, it was calculated before and after of check dam’s construction by use of field observations and vegetation cover improvement was also estimated after the project. These parameters were imported to HEC-HMS to find out the effects of watershed practices and then flooding condition was simulated. For assessment purposes, peak discharche and flood volume were calculated for before and after construction conditions. Results showed that check dams as mechanical measures had low effect on time of concentration while biological practices lead to decease in curve number with an average value of 4.5. This result in decrease of peak flow and flood volume meanly 19% and 14%, respectively.

[B.M. Golrang., F.S. Lai, S.H.R. Sadeghi, Khamurdin. M.N, Kamziah. A.K, Mashayekhi. M, R. Bagherian. Assessment of watershed management implemented on springal peak flood discharge and flood volume, using HEC-HMS model. Nat Sci J 2013; 11(3):6-12]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.02

 

Keywords:  HEC-HMS Model- SCS method, GIS, Rainfall-Runoff, Kushk-Abad Basin, Iran.

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3

Dielectric Properties of Silver Borogermante Superionic Glassy System

 

F. M. Hafez

 

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al -Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo, Egypt

mg_hafez52@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The superionic system xAgI – (100-x) [Ag2O-0.5 GeO2–B2O3] series 1 and 50AgI–20Ag2O–y GeO2–(20–y) B2O3 series 2 where x=10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% and y= 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 % have been prepared by rapid melt quenching technique. The samples were investigated by x-ray diffraction to check its amorphous nature. No diffraction peaks were observed in XRD patterns at room temperature indicating their amorphous structure. However for x=60% few microdomains are observed, so it consider as a composite. The Ac measurements were carried out over the frequency rang (42Hz –5MHz). The addition AgI enhances ionic conduction where it generates easy path for conducting ions. These glasses exhibit high ionic conductivity (10-3 S/cm at x=50%). i.e. the samples behave as super ionic conducting glass. The present systems exhibit time dependent conductivity, confirming ionic conduction which is the dominant conduction mechanism. The conductivity increases with increasing AgI content. However, the addition of GeO2 leads to (almost independent) conductivity. Different dielectric relaxation processes, electrode polarization, translational polarization and rotational polarization are considered in the present system. The studies reveal the drastic decrease of electronic component and increase of the ionic by the addition of AgI. This presumably is caused by formation of Ag+ conductive "tissue" facilitated by a considerably disrupted glass network.

[Hafez FM. Dielectric Properties of Silver Borogermante Superionic Glassy System. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):13-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.03

 

Keywords: Superionic glass, dielectric relaxation, permittivity, ionic conductivity.

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4

Influence of composition on the in-vitro bioactivity of bioglass prepared by a quick alkali-mediated sol–gel method

 

M.I. El-Gohary1, Khairy M. Tohamy1, M.M. El-Okr2, Ashraf F. Ali3, Islam E. Soliman1*

 

1.       Biophysics branch, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

2.       Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

3.       Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

islamsoloiman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bioactive glass with composition SiO2, Na2O, CaO, P2O5 with MgO additive were synthesized through a quick alkali mediated sol–gel method. MgO was substituted for SiO2 in glass formula up to 5 wt% and in-vitro bioactivity of the samples (precipitation behavior of carbonated apatite likely bone layer) was evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF). The characterizations were carried out using XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and DSC. The thermal results showed that all organic and inorganic precursors were completely decomposed before 600 oC and, hence, all glass samples were stabilized at this temperature. The results obtained showed that MgO doping to glass samples increased its degradation and the formation of apatite like bone is delayed.

[El-Gohary MI, Tohamy KM, El-Okr MM, Ali AF, Soliman IE. Influence of composition on the in-vitro bioactivity of bioglass prepared by a quick alkali-mediated sol–gel method. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):26-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.04

 

Key words: bioactive glass, sol-gel, in-vitro, bioactivity.

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5

Tropane Alkaloid Production via New Promising Atropa belladonna L. Lines by In Vivo and In Vitro

 

Khater M.A. 1, S.S.A.Soliman2, M.S. Abdel-Hady1, and A.H. Fayed2

 

1Botany Dept., National Research Centre, Egypt

2Genetics Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt

Mahmoudkhater2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Atropa belladonna L. seeds of the three promising new lines (M-11-1, M-11-2 and M-15-1) were used to produce alkaloids especially atropine via in vivo and in vitro. Highly significant effect on lines was reported on callus induction frequency. There were a markedly increases in callus induction percentage by increasing 2, 4-D concentrations until 2.0 mg/l. Highly significant differences between two concentrations of 2, 4-D (1.0 and 2.0 mg/l) were recorded on callus fresh weight and callus dry weight respectively. M-11-1 line had higher callus fresh weight than the control and other genotypes at 4th subculture. The rate of total alkaloids between in vivo and in vitro (callus) were approximately one and half times. The behavior of atropine values at callus tissues was higher increasing than plant leaves. More well as the increase of callus atropine values than the leaves about 5 th times for M-11-1 callus comparing with leaves of control.

[Khater M.A., S.S.A. Soliman, M.S. Abdel-Hady and A.H. Fayed. Tropane Alkaloid Production via New Promising Atropa belladonna L. Lines by In Vivo and In Vitro. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):32-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.05

 

Key words: Atropa belladonna - Promising new lines - In vitro -Callus – 2,4-D-Tropane alkaloid –Atropine – HPLC.

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6

Competitive  adsorption of Co(II) in a binary and tertiary system with  metal ions Cr(III) and Ni(II) on Lewatite S-100 cation exchange resin

 

N. G. El- Kholy, N.A. Badawy, A.G. El-Said, and A. Abd El Pasir

 

Chemistry Department. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Metronet2004@g.mail.com

 

Abstract: The main contribution of this study to the state of the art on the subject matter was to study the efficiency of the Lewatite S-100 in the purification of cobalt(II) ions even in conditions of  competition. The capacity removal of Co((II)  was examined  by varying experimental conditions viz. amount of adsorbent, pH of the solution and contact time. The equilibrium data have been found to fit both Langmuir and  Freundlich isotherms. The results were analyzed using three kinetic models, psendo-first, pseudo-second order and Weber-Morris intrapartical diffusion. Sorption properties of Co(II) in a binary and tertiary system with  metal ions Cr(III) and Ni(II) on Lewatite S-100 cation exchange resin were investigated in batch system.

[N. G. El- Kholy, N.A. Badawy, A.G. El-Said, and A. Abd El Pasir. Competitive adsorption of Co(II) in a binary and tertiary system with  metal ions Cr(III) and Ni(II) on Lewatite S-100 cation exchange resin. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):41-48]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.06

 

Key Words: Lewatite S-100 cation exchange resin, Co (II) solution, Isotherm, Kinetics and competitive cations Cr(III) and Ni(II).

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7

Tropane Alkaloid Production via New Promising Atropa belladonna L.  Lines by In Vivo and In Vitro

 

Khater M.A. 1, S.S.A.Soliman2, M.S. Abdel-Hady1, and A.H. Fayed2

 

1Botany Dept., National Research Centre, Egypt

2Genetics Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt

Mahmoudkhater2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Atropa belladonna L. seeds of the three promising new lines (M-11-1, M-11-2 and M-15-1) were used to produce alkaloids especially atropine via in vivo and in vitro. Highly significant effect on lines was reported on callus induction frequency. There were a markedly increases in callus induction percentage by increasing 2, 4-D concentrations until 2.0 mg/l. Highly significant differences between two concentrations of 2, 4-D (1.0 and 2.0 mg/l) were recorded on callus fresh weight and callus dry weight respectively. M-11-1 line had higher callus fresh weight than the control and other genotypes at 4th subculture. The rate of total alkaloids between in vivo and in vitro (callus) were approximately one and half times. The behavior of atropine values at callus tissues was higher increasing than plant leaves. More well as the increase of callus atropine values than the leaves about 5 th times for M-11-1 callus comparing with leaves of control.

[Khater M.A., S.S.A.Soliman, M.S. Abdel-Hady and A.H. Fayed. Tropane Alkaloid Production via New Promising Atropa belladonna L.  Lines by In Vivo and In Vitro. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):49-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.07

 

Key words: Atropa belladonna - Promising new lines - In vitro -Callus – 2,4-D-Tropane alkaloid –Atropine – HPLC.

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8

Use of WRF-ARW model to forecast some aviation reports

 

                                                                                            G. H. AlESSA             

 

      Department of Astronomy, Space Sciences and Meteorology, Faculty of Science-Cairo University-Cairo-Egypt

ghazi.alissa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was mainly focused on Damascus International Airport (Syria) to examine the capability of such approach and to compare with now cast observations. Also the study demonstrate  a real 5 days prediction to Fog of occurrences which mainly act as the main factor can produce some divert for airplanes at this airport. This study use high performance limited area model (WRF-ARW) and the product of the model was used to verify the accuracy and uncertainty in using such procedure by comparison with real observation data. The key parameters included in the (TAF and METAR) reports like (T, Td, RH, WS and P) were proven to be of more close as observation. Also the results are predicting Fog is very much good in comparison with the actual observations. 

[G.H. AlESSA. Use of WRF-ARW model to forecast some aviation reports. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):58-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.08

 

Key words: METAR, TAF, WRF-ARW and Fog.

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9

Assessment Of Some Metals In The Drinking Water Of Dal Lake Kashmir

 

Imtiyaz A.Raja1, M.Y. Khan1, N.A. Khan3, M.R. Wani3 and A. A. Bhat2

 

1. Department of Chemistry, S.P. College, Srinagar, J & K, India

2. Department of Zoology University of Kashmir, J & K, India

3. Department of Chemistry, Degree College, Bemina, J & K, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried in the famous Dal Lake Kashmir. The Dal Lake is a eutrophic water body and is contaminated due to various inflows directly as well as indirectly. Main source of pollution comes from Dal dwellers and surrounding areas. During present study the metal contamination has been assessed in the drinking water of Dal dwellers. The study showed that there is an increasing trend in the metal contamination in the lake, no doubt still out of danger.

[Imtiyaz A. Raja, M. Y. Khan, N.A. Khan, M. R. Wani and A. A. Bhat. Assessment Of Some Metals In The Drinking Water Of Dal Lake Kashmir. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):63-64]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.09

 

Key words: Dal Lake, metal contamination.

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10

Enrolment, Infrastructure And Qualification Of Teachers At College Level In District Anantnag

 

Ms. Shazia Siraj Zargar, Dr. Mohammad Yousuf Ganai

 

PhD Scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, India

Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to study Enrolment, Infrastructure and Qualification of Teachers at college level in District Anantnag (1) To find out the overall enrolment at college levels in District Anantnag. (2) To find out the infrastructure facilities which cater to the needs of the student’s. (3) To find out the sanitary facilities in the said colleges especially in newly established colleges. (4) To find out the accommodation, infrastructure and laboratory facilities at newly established college of Anantnag District. (4) To find out the number and qualification of the teacher working at colleges.  All Government degree colleges functioning in District Anantnag were taken as sample for the present investigation. The total number of degree colleges was 06 and their enrolment was 16242 including 9445 males and 6797 females. It is found that (1) In terms of total enrolment of colleges existing in District Anantnag is 16242. Among them 9445 (58.15%) are male and 6797 (41.845) are female students. (2) In terms of the enrolment of students in different stream. Among them 3554 (21.88%) are enrolled in science stream in which 2493 (70.14%) are male students and 1061 (29.85%) are female students. In arts stream, 12272 (75.55%) are enrolled, in which 6654 (54.22%) are males and 5618 (45.77%) are females. Among others (commerce and B.C.A. 416 (2.56%) are enrolled, in which 290 (69.71%) are male students and 126 (30.28%) are female students. (3) In terms of position of buildings it was found that the total number of colleges was 06. Out of them 04 (66.66%) have their own buildings and 02 (33.33%) have rented buildings. Out of 06 colleges, all the colleges have pucca buildings. (4) In terms of number of colleges, out of 06 Govt. degree 04 (66.66%) colleges, have single building and 02 (33.33%) have more than 05 buildings. (5) In terms of equipment/ infrastructure of Govt. degree, it was revealed that there were 6500 chair, 259 whiteboards, 04 playgrounds, 06 libraries, 121187 books, 02 botanical gardens, 02 Auditoriums, 273 computers, 45 bathrooms, 02 Hostels and 04 laptops in all Govt. degree colleges in District Anantnag. (6) In terms of number and percentage of permanent and contractual teachers working at colleges in District Anantnag, it was found that out of 95 (33.56%) permanent teachers 41 (43.15%), 24 (25.26%), 30 (31.57%) are postgraduate, M. Phil and PhD respectively. (7) In terms of qualification of contractual teachers, it has been found that out of 188 (66.43%), 40 (21.27%), 131 (69.68%), 17 (9.04%) are postgraduate, M. Phil and PhD respectively. (8) Finally in terms of number of colleges and their enrolment in District Anantnag it has been found that there were 06 colleges and their enrolment was 16242, among them 9445 (58.15%) were male students and 6797 (41.84%) were female students. Out of 16242, 6318 (38.8%) students were enrolled in first year. Among them 3956 (24.3%) and 2362 (14.5%) were male and female students respectively. Similarly, 5222 (32.1%) were enrolled in 2nd year, among them 2915 (17.9%) were male students and 2307 (14.2%) were female students. Similarly in final year out of 4702 (28.9%), 2574 (15.8%) were male students and 2128 (13.1%) were female students.

[Shazia Siraj Zargar, Mohammad Yousuf Ganai. Enrolment, Infrastructure And Qualification Of Teachers At College Level In District Anantnag. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):65-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.10

 

Key Words: Enrolment, Infrastructure and Qualification, Teachers, college and Anantnag.

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A comparative study of Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Science and Social Science Higher Secondary Students

 

Ms. Shazia Siraj Zargar, Dr. Mohammad Yousuf Ganai

 

PhD Scholar, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, India

Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the study was to compare Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Science and Social Science in Higher Secondary Students. (1) To identify science and social science higher secondary students. (2) To study Emotional Intelligence of science and social science higher secondary students. (3) To find out academic achievement of the science and social science higher secondary students. (4) To compare emotional intelligence and academic achievements of science and social science higher secondary students. The sample for the present study was collected from higher secondary school Safa Kadal of J& K state.

[Shazia Siraj Zargar, Mohammad Yousuf Ganai. A comparative study of Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Science and Social Science Higher Secondary Students. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):71-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.11

 

Key Words: Emotional Intelligence, Academic Achievement, Science, Social Science and Higher Secondary.

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Carbon credit in soil under a long-term fertilizer experiment on mulberry

 

R. Kar1, B. B. Bindroo1, M. K. Ghosh1 and S. K. Majumder2

 

1Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore, West Bengal, India

2National Silkworm Seed Organization, Basic Seed Farm, Dhubulia, West Bengal, India

ranjitkr4@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study aims at the enumeration of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks under a long-term fertilizer experiment (LTFE) on mulberry (Morus alba L., var. S-1635), continuing for more than five years at Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore (West Bengal), India. Under the experimentation, combinations of organic, inorganic and biological sources of nutrient inputs have been used along with sole inorganic nutrient inputs and control with no nutrient inputs in the mulberry plantation of 60 cm 60 cm and 90 cm 90 cm spacing. SOC stock has been improved due to application of organic as well as inorganic combination of nutrients resources and also organic, inorganic as well as biological combination of nutrients resources over sole chemical fertilizers as well as treatment without any nutrient input. But, SIC stock has furnished its higher titre in sole chemical fertilizers as well as treatment without any nutrient input in comparison to others. The inverse relationship between the two indicates an increase of one at the expense of the other. SOC stock has, in turn, imparted significant positive effect on the yield as well as nutrient-uptake attributes of mulberry (var. S-1635) and soil fertility, but, SIC stock has imparted reverse effect on the same. Thus, mulberry nutrient management systems comprising of inorganic, organic as well as biological combinations of nutrients resources are capable of earning such a carbon credit in soil that can exert positive influence on mulberry nutrition and soil fertility under continuous cropping.

[R. Kar, B. B. Bindroo, M. K. Ghosh and S. K. Majumder. Carbon credit in soil under a long-term fertilizer experiment on mulberry. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):77-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.12

 

Key words: Fertility, Inorganic carbon stock, Long-term fertilizer experiment, Mulberry, Nutrient-uptake, Organic carbon stock, Soil.

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Effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the haematological indices of poultry chicken challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV)

 

Ayodele POa, Okonko IO*b, Evans Ea, Okerentugba POb, Nwanze JCc, Onoh CCc,

 

aDepartment of Science Laboratory Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria;

bDepartment of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Uniport Post Office, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

cDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

Tel: +234-80-35380891; Email: iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng, mac2finney@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This study reports the effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the haematological indices of poultry chicken challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Eighteen (18)-weeks-old chickens were used for this study. They were divided into 3 groups, A (chickens infected + treatment), B (chickens infected without treatment) and C (control). Groups A and B were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Group A and C were given ethanolic root extract of A. nobilis orally at intervals of 6 h at 0.5mg per 100g of body weight for 28 days.  All the chickens were given tetracycline antibiotic to eliminate bacterial infections. The average body weight and the temperature were monitored. The cytological examination of the chickens in group B showed that there was ulceration in the intestinal lining. All values for blood parameters were within the normal range for chickens before they were challenged with NDV. From our findings most of hematological indices of poultry chickens tend towards normal after treatment with the root extract of A. nobilis. This showed the ability of this plant extract to impact immunity in chickens suffering from Newcastle disease (ND). The packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and full blood count (TWBCC) were significantly different (P<0.05) between the Group A and Group B. The hematological indices of poultry chickens in group A were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the treatments except for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration estimation (MCHC). It showed negligible differences (P>0.05) among the three groups, A (33.3% and 33.8% respectively), B (32.4%) and C (32.1%). They fell within the normal range of 30.0%-36.0%. This showed that the NDV did not affect that aspect. The study indicated a drop in the hematological indices of the infected and untreated chickens (Group B) while those of group A and C fell within normal range. The study showed that ethanolic root extract of Anthocleista nobilis was able to correct the haematological and physiological alteration associated with Newcastle disease among infected poultry chickens. The ability of group A poultry chickens to tend towards normal after treatment are physiological evidences of the antiviral effect of the root extract of A. nobilis on hematological indices of the poultry chickens studies. The study also showed that Anthocleista nobilis root extract was able to prevent further NDV infection of the poultry chickens. Thus, further studies on phyto-chemical and toxicological properties of Anthocleista nobilis as well as its antiviral property are advocated.

[Ayodele PO, Okonko IO, Okerentugba PO, Nwanze JC, Onoh CC. Effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the haematological indices of poultry chicken challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Nat Sci 2013;11(3):82-xx]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.13

 

Keywords: A. nobilis, Antiviral effect, New Castle disease, NDV, hematological indices, chickens, ulceration, Nigeria.

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Detection of Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) Antibodies, HIV, HBV, and HCV co-infections among attendees of Two Health Facilities in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria


Okonko IO1, Adejuwon OA2, Okerentugba PO1, and Frank-Peterside N1

 

1Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

2Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng, Tel: +2348035380891

 

Abstract: This study reports on the detection of Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) antibodies, HIV, HBV, and HCV co-infections among attendees of two health facilities in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis among patients attending the two health care facilities in Ibadan. Screening for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis was carried out in order to determine the prevalence levels of these infections, as biological markers of risk, modes, and time functions of their transmission. This study was carried out using a total of 417 attendees of two health facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. A serological screening was carried out during the period of August—October, 2011 to assess the risk of infection with syphilis and co-infection with HIV-1/2, HBV, and HCV among these attendees. Unlinked and coded serum samples received from 417 subjects (260 females and 157 males) was screened by laboratory tests commonly used for laboratory diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis. Among the 417 samples serological reactivity was detected for HIV-1/2 in 27(6.5%), HBV in 15(3.6%), HCV in 4(1.0%), and syphilis in none (0.0%). The incidence of HIV-1/2, HBV and HCV was higher among males than females, i.e. 18/157 (11.5%) versus 28/260 (10.8%). None was found to have co-infection with HIV-HBV, HBV—HCV, HIV—syphilis, HIV—HCV, HBV—syphilis, and HCV—syphilis. Age, sex, marital status, history of vaccinations, and locality significantly influence the rate of HIV, HBV and HCV positivity. In conclusion, a substantial percentage of attendees of these two health care facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria harbored HIV and viral hepatitis infections, which otherwise would remain undiagnosed without serological screening.

 [Okonko IO, Adejuwon OA, Okerentugba PO, and Frank-Peterside N. Detection of Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) Antibodies, HIV, HBV, and HCV co-infections among attendees of Two Health Facilities in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):92-101].(ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.14

 

Keywords: Antibodies, Treponema pallidum (Syphilis), HIV, HBV, HCV, co-infections.

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15

Primary Production And Nurients In An Open Tropical Lagoon.

 

*Onyema, I.C.

 

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos Akoka, Lagos.

iconyema@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The primary production with regard to chlorophyll a concentration, nutrient (Nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus, sulphate, silicate), rainfall and salinity were characteristics investigated at 12 stations for two years for the Iyagbe lagoon, Lagos.  The parameters reflected seasonal changes related to the inflow of nutrient rich water especially during the rains and tidal seawater incursion especially in the dry season. Whereas sulphate (20.8 - 1140mgl-1), silica (0.9 - 6.0mgl-1) and salinity (0.06 - 35.1%) recorded increased values in the dry than wet season, nitrate (3.3 - 59.8mgl-1) and phosphate (0.01 - 1.68mg) recorded higher values in the wet than dry season. Values for chlorophyll a were higher in the dry than wet season. Positive spearman rank correlation coefficient was recorded between chlorophyll a concentrations and salinity, nitrate and sulphate. Recorded chlorophyll a values places the Iyagbe lagoon between the mesotrophic and eutrophic status. It is suggested that increasing tidal influence associated with reduced rain events may have encouraged elevated salinities and created conditions for the development of more algal cells, hence higher chlorophyll a estimates. Furthermore, the higher levels of nutrient recorded from the wet season (Nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus, sulphate, and silicate) were from Land-based sources.

[Onyema, I.C. Primary Production And Nurients In An Open Tropical Lagoon. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):102-106]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.15

 

Keywords:  Physico-chemical factors, brackish, microalgae, hydroclimatic factors, Nigeria.

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16

Confirmation of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Among Selected Tertiary Institution Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

 

Babalola E.T.1, Ainabe O.B.2 and Okonko, I.O.3

 

1. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Ogun State, Nigeria. E-mail: drbabalola09@yahoo.co.au; Tel: +2348034763543

2. Department of Biological Sciences, Crawford University, Faith City, Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria.

3. Virology Sub-Division, Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

E-mail: Iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; mac2finney@yahoo.com; Tel: +2348035380891

 

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of HBsAg among students of Crawford University. Students were selected using the stratified random sampling method with a response rate of 100.0%. A total of ninety six samples were also collected from students. Screening was carried using HBsAg rapid test strips and confirmation was by the use of a fourth generation Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All 4(100.0%) positive samples were confirmed positives and 1(1.1%) of the negative serum samples came out positive on ELISA establishing the fact that ELISA has a greater sensitivity and it is the standard for HBV diagnosis. Results showed an overall prevalence of 5.2%. The seroprevalence of HBsAg was higher in females [5(10.9%)] than in their male counterparts [0(0.0%)]. The age-specific distribution of HBsAg among the subjects showed that those in the age group of 21-25 years had a higher prevalence rate of (7.8%) compared to those in age group 16-20 years which had a lower prevalence rate of 2.2%. There was significant association (p<0.05) between age, sex and HBsAg seropositivity in the study. Only 10.0% of the subjects had a previous knowledge of Hepatitis B virus. About 3.0% of the subjects with positive serum had had contact with body fluids of other individuals (infected or not). There was poor knowledge about Hepatitis B infection among Crawford University students. Majority had no idea if they had been immunized or not. This study confirms the presence of HBsAg among students of Crawford University, Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria. It further confirms that ELISA is the most acceptable and conclusive method for diagnosing HBsAg compared to the use of rapid test strips. The importance of routine HBsAg screening among students especially the young and singles is advocated.

[Babalola E.T., Ainabe O.B. and Okonko, I.O. Confirmation of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Among Selected Tertiary Institution Students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(3):107-113]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.16

 

Keywords: ELISA, HBsAg, Prevalence, Knowledge, Nigeria.

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17

Emotional Intelligence Of Adolescent Students With Special Reference To High And Low Socio Economic Status

 

Mahmood Ahmad Khan and Ishfaq Ahmad Dar

 

1.       Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Kashmir (India).

2.       Research Scholar, Faculty of Education, University of Kashmir (India).

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was under taken to study the emotional intelligence of 9th grade students with high and low socio-economic status. The sample of the study comprised of 100 students (50 high socio-economic status students and 50 low socio-economic status students) selected randomly from all Govt. High and Higher Secondary Schools of the educational zone Dryigam. Emotional intelligence scale by Hyde et al was employed for the collection of data and ‘t’ test was used for the analysis of data. Bar diagram and Line graph were drawn to make the results transparent. The results of the study highlight that high socio-economic status students are more emotionally intelligent than low socio-economic status students. High and low socio-economic status students show significant difference in self-awareness, self-motivation, emotional stability, managing relations, integrity, self-development and commitment. High socio-economic status students have been found clear in their priorities, pay more attention to the worries and concerns of others. They are found to be friendly, sociable, helpful and skilful in dealing with people. They are found to be more responsible, more comfortable to novel ideas and new information. They face boldly good and bad situations. They are more aware of their weaknesses, are more co-operative, helpful, outgoing and democratic. They are found to be able to meet commitments and keep promises and are organized and careful in their work. No significant difference was found in empathy, value orientation and altruistic behavior between high and low socio-economic status students.

[Mahmood Ahmad Khan and Ishfaq Ahmad Dar. Emotional Intelligence Of Adolescent Students With Special Reference To High And Low Socio Economic Status.  Nat Sci 2013;11(3):114-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110313.17

 

Key words:  Emotional intelligence, social economic, adolescents.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from February 10, 2013
 
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