Nature and Science
Volume 11 - Number 05 (Cumulated No. 74), May 25, 2013
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1105
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Titles / Abstracts / Authors
fatty acids composition and lipid content from liver and muscle
tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspicus in the south of
Caspian Sea in
Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University,
Department of Chemistry, Science & Research branch, Islamic Azad
University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran
of Marine Sciences and Technology Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
In the present study, the liver
and muscle tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspius from
the south of Caspian Sea, Iran in Feb 2013
were separately extracted for their lipid content and
fatty acids composition using the method
of Blight & Dyer (1959). The compounds
were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS).
detected in the liver and
muscle tissues, including
saturated fatty acids Palmitic acid and
monounsaturated fatty acid Oleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty
acids Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and (PUFA)
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA),
two methyl esters of fatty acids
including Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester and Hexadecanoic acid,
methyl ester, Vitamine E (α-Tocopherol) and Cholesterol
(Cholest-5-en-3-ol(3β).The results showed that the dominant
fatty acids in
liver and muscle tissues were
Omega-3 fatty acids
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and
(EPA). [Samiee K, Rustaiyan A, Ghulamali F.
Omega-3 fatty acids composition and lipid content from
liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspicus in
the south of Caspian Sea in Iran.
2013; 11(5):1-5]. (ISSN:
Fatty acids, lipid content,
liver, muscle, Rutilus rutilus
caspius, Caspian Sea.
Distribution Pattern of the
Fresh Water Invertebrate Biota of Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
Olagunju Akeem Agboola1,
Stephen Oluwagbemiga Owa2
Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo
Department of Biological Sciences, Landmark University,
Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Studies on streams of Ago-Iwoye
have been specialized. Onabamiro (1951) identified Cyclops
as the vectors of dracontiasis, a water-borne disease prevalent
at that time. Other studies have focused on specific diseases.
These include the baccalaureate project works of Onasanya (1987)
on the bacteria, Okunoren (1987) on the fungi and Siwoku (1986)
on the snail vectors of Schistosomes. Toyobo’s baccalaureate
project work (1990) was on the habitat factors of the streams.
The distribution of pelagic & benthic invertebrates and those
associated with submerged vegetation were studied by using an
improvised plankton net to take water samples once every month
for nine (9) months, from seven (7) sampling locations in
Ago-Iwoye, a fast developing University town in the South-West
of Nigeria. In decreasing order, pelagic samples yielded more
invertebrates than benthic and submerged vegetation samples. The
ponds yielded so much more invertebrates than the streams.
Analysis revealed that the aquatic organisms are of high
population density during the dry season and low population
density during the wet season. Forty-eight (48) genera were
obtained, thirty-two (32) of which were identified. The
Brachionidae Family showed the greatest diversity while the
Cyclopidae Family showed the greatest abundance.
[Agboola OA, Owa SO.
Distribution Pattern of the Fresh Water Invertebrate Biota of
Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. Nat Sci
2013;11(5):6-9]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Pelagic; benthic; plankton; diversity.
Modeling the Irrigation
Schedule on Wheat under Climate Change Conditions
M. A. A. Abdrabbo1
Samiha Ouda2 and Tahany Noreldin2
Central Laboratory for
Agricultural Climate; Agricultural Research Center; Egypt.
Requirements and Field Irrigation Research Department; Soils,
Water and Environment Research Institute; Agricultural Research
The effect of climate change on
wheat grown under sprinkler irrigation was studied using
previous data of two growing seasons, (2008/09 and 2009/10).
These data were used to calibrate CropSyst model. Furthermore, a
field experiment was conducted at El-Giza Governorate in 2010/11
growing season. The data of this experiment was used to validate
the CropSyst model. The treatments of the validation experiment
composed of two wheat cultivars (Sakha 93 and Giza 168) and four
irrigation treatments (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 of ETc). Two
climate change scenarios (A2 and B2) were used to assess the
consequences of climate change on wheat yield in 2060. A new
irrigation schedule developed by Basic Irrigation Schedule (BIS)
model was used to improve water productivity under climate
change conditions. The results showed that CropSyst model was
able to predict wheat yield with high degree of accuracy for
both calibration and validation procedures. The results also
indicated that, in general, the yield of both cultivars will be
decrease under climate change; however the reduction was lower
for Sakha 93, as compared with Giza 168. The application of the
new irrigation schedule under climate change conditions
increased water productivity under the two climate change
scenarios, compared with irrigation amount resulted from 0.8,
1.0 and 1.2 of ETc, for both wheat cultivars.
Moreover, Sakha 93 gave the highest water productivity. Our
results suggested that if we want to reduce yield losses for
wheat under climate change conditions and increase water
productivity, Sakha 93 should be cultivated and BIS model should
be used to schedule irrigation.
[M. A. A. Abdrabbo, Samiha Ouda
and Tahany Noreldin.
Modeling the Irrigation
Schedule on Wheat under Climate Change Conditions.
CropSyst model, climate change
scenarios, BIS model, irrigation schedule.
The Distance from Maternal
Perineum to Fetal Head as a Predictive of Successful Induction
Mohamed S. Ali, Mohamed A.
Abdelhafeez and Medhat A. El-Sayed
Obstetrics and Gynecology
department, Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University, Egypt.
Abstract: Aim of the study:
The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultrasound measurements
of the fetal head perineum distance measured by transperineal
ultrasound and cervical length measured by transvaginal
ultrasound imaging as a predictive factors for successful IOL
and to creat a cut-off level of these parameters which may be
helpful in predicting successful induction of labour. In the
current study a prospective observational study was carried
out on 180 pregnant women attending casualties of Ain Shams
University Maternity Hospital during the period from march 2011
to December 2011.All patients underwent cervical assessment
including cervical dilatation (cm), cervical effacement (%),
station of presenting part, cervical consistency and position
(using modified Bishop score system) All participants in this
study were subjected to transperineal U/S for assessment of
fetal head station and transvaginal U/S for assessment of
cervical length and width. Conclusion and Recommendations:
Fetal head–perineum distance measured by transperineal
ultrasound examination can predict vaginal delivery after
induction of labor, with a predictive value similar to that of
ultrasonographically measured cervical length and the Bishop
score. Also, this technique helps in converting the labor into
numerical figure (digitalization of labor). However, we judge
none of these methods used alone to be good enough in a clinical
setting. So, the cut off level of ultrasound measurements and
clinical assessments together may become useful. The cut off
level of head perineal distance is 4 cm below which the
induction of labor is favorable, while the cut of level of
cervical length is 2.5cm below which the induction of labor is
favorable. These parameters in association with digitally
assessed cervical dilatation is recommended to discriminate
successful and failed induction of labor.
[Mohamed Sayed Ali, Mohamed
Abdelhameed Abdelhafeez and Medhat Adel Ibrahim El-Sayed.
The Distance from
Maternal Perineum to Fetal Head as a Predictive of Successful
Induction of Labor.
Study Influence 0f Elemental
Sulpher Compared with Foliar Spray Fertilizers on Productivity
and Maintenance Calcareous Soil.
Azza R. Ahmed
Soils, Water and Environ. Res.
Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt
A field experiment was conducted in two successive summer
seasons 2009 and 2010 at the farm of Nubaria Agriculture
Research Station (Calcareous soil) to study the effective role
of elemental sulfur application and foliar spray fertilizers in
the presence of FYM on some physical properties, productivity
and maintenance of calcareous soil quality. Also, to assess and
compare of farm profitability of all tested variables are
considered. The obtained data indicated that the highest grain
yield was obtained from the treatments of chelating foliar
spraying and the application of sulfur which gave 4.95 and 4.82
ton fed-1 respectively and the difference between
them was not significant. On the other hand, the relative
increase yield for all treatments arranged in ascending order:
28, 30, 37.7 and 41% for hormone, mineral, sulfur and chelating
than the control, respectively. However, there is a positive
increasing for values of growth characters of maize plant
due to applied the treatments e.g,
the period from planting to produce 50% silk was decreased
significantly in descending order as following
hormone treatment> the mineral treatment>soil application of
sulfur treatment >Chelating treatment. Also, uptake of P due to
the application of sulfur was enhanced by 98% than the control.
While uptake of P values increased due to the application of
foliar spray fertilizers treatments by 55.8%, 48% and 60% for
mineral, hormone and chelate than the control, respectively.
Application of elemental sulfur positively affected Zn, Fe, Mn
concentration and uptake. The corresponding values were
increased by about 185% for Zn, 31.7 for Fe and 30% for Mn than
the control. The effect of elemental sulfur application on soil
pH was positive significant and decreased by 0.44 unite than the
control. On the other hand, sulfur application was significantly
increased the availability of P more than all treatments and
increasing P availability by 135 % than the control. Under the
condition of this study, data showed a positive effect on
hydro-physical properties of calcareous soil. It was considered
that the aggregation stability enhanced by application of sulfur
associated to FYM. As the aggregate index value for application
of sulfur with FYM near to one (0.92). The application of sulfur
in the presence of FYM leaded to an increasing hydraulic
conductivity by about 58% and 126% than the control. It was
obvious from the previous data that the application of foliar
spray fertilizers becomes the highest costs and lower return.
[Azza R. Ahmed. Study
Influence 0f Elemental Sulpher Compared with Foliar Spray
Fertilizers on Productivity and Maintenance Calcareous Soil.
Nat Sci 2013;11(5):26-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Element S, Foliar fertilizers, aggregate size fraction, maize
Genetic and Pathogenic
avian influenza H5N1
S. S*, Afaf,
A. Khedr*, Hayam, Farouk*
and Laila A.
Laboratory for Evaluation of
(CLEVB), Abbasia, Cairo.
and Vaccine Research Institute (VSVRI), Abbasia, Cairo.
In this study Avian Influenza type A (H5N1) virus was isolated
from duck farm eight weeks of age and showing clinical
manifestation of avian influenza infection. The obtained isolate
was differentiated from the haemagglutinating agents using
different specific antisera. To confirm the pathogenicity of the
isolated virus, Specific Pathogenic Free (SPF) chickens were
infected with such isolate. The
birds showed clinical manifestation and the total mortalities
were 100% within 48 hours post-infection. The same results were
obtained when the isolated virus was used in infection of ducks
but with total mortalities 70%. Reverse transcriptase polymerase
chain reaction (Rt-PCR) was conducted for both H5 and N1 genes
using specific primers and the obtained PCR products were at the
molecular weight of 219 and 616 bp respectively. Sequence
analysis for both genes (H5 and N1) PCR products were analyzed
then compared with such available on GenBank and the obtained
results showed that 99% similarity with virus sequences of
chicken origin for both H and N genes while it was the same
result regarding H gene sequence of virus from duck
origin yearly 2010 and 2011, while it was 98% and 97% similarity
when compared with the N gene sequences yearling 2010 and 2011
respectively. The obtained results revealed that the AI virus
isolated from ducks yearly 2010 showed great similarity with
that causing epidemics yearly 2010 and 2011 and the virus was
circulating between ducks and chickens which increases the
epidemiology between farms in Egypt.
S. S, Afaf,
A. Khedr, Hayam,
and Laila A.
Genetic and Pathogenic characterization of
avian influenza H5N1
2013;11(5):35-46]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Avian Influenza H5N1,
ducks, chicken, Egypt outbreaks, Genetic analysis, pathogenic
characterization, sequencing, PCR of H gene, PCR of N gene.
Relationship between total
viable bacterial counts, fungal counts and the intrinsic
parameters of garri
B. T. Thomas1,3,
R. Kolawole1, O. M. Adebayo4, S. O.
Department of Cell
Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria
Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo
University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.
for Microbiological Research, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo
University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Garri is a roasted granule of
cassava that is widely consumed in rural and urban areas in
Nigeria. In view of the recent reports, that this food supported
the survival of certain pathogenic bacteria, this study was
carried out to determine, if there is a definite relationship
between total viable bacterial counts, fungal counts, and the
intrinsic factors of garri circulating in Ogun State, Nigeria.
The pH and titrable acidity of the food were measured using pH
meter and colorimetric acidity titration method respectively.
The moisture content was determined by using the recommended
standard method by A.O.A.C. Results from this study revealed a
direct relationship between moisture content, titrable acidity
and total viable bacterial count of the garri samples while the
total viable fungal count of garri was largely dependent on the
pH values of the garri samples. Furthermore, an inverse
relationship exist between the mean pH values and the titrable
acidity of the garri samples. In conclusion, the results from
this study showed that titrable acidity, pH and moisture content
could be conveniently used for predicting the total viable
bacterial count while only pH and titrable acidity had a
statistical significant relation for predicting the total viable
Adebayo, S.O Makanjuola.
Relationship between total viable bacterial counts, fungal counts
and the intrinsic parameters of garri.
Total viable bacterial counts,
Total viable Fungal counts, Intrinsic factors, Garri.
of promotion, to promote methods and factors affecting it.
Mohammednour Eltahir Ahmed
Department of Business
Administration, Faculty of Sciences& Art in
University, Saudi Arabia&
Department of Business Administration
بقسم إدارة الأعمال بكلية العلوم الإدارية, Faculty of
Omdurman Islamic University, –Sudan
handles promotions basics, procedures and the factors that
affect it. It aims to illustrate the concept and identification
of promotion. Also promotion and how to use it to get benefit
from it in realizing marketing aims and determine its effect on
the institutions different processes. The Research concluded
that promotion composed of a mixture contains group of elements
and that promotion communication processes consist of four
important parts: the sender, the message, the mean and the
receiver. Moreover it concluded that promotion campaigns have
linked and serial steps. In addition to that the Research
concluded that promotion is are of the important elements of
marketing mixture representing 25% out of productivity process
cost. And it has a big effect on agents in determining products
and meet their needs.
[Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir.
of promotion, to promote methods and factors affecting it.
foundations of promotion;
Utility of Fluorescent in Situ
Hybridization for Detection of Trisomy 8 in Chronic Myeloid
Abdou S. 1,
Elshabrawy D.2, Kamal H.2, Tolba F2
Salem H. 3 and El-Shebiney M. 4 *
Departments of Clinical
Faculties of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacy3,
Misr University for Science and Technology, Clinical Oncology4,
Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University
To detect the incidence and relationship of trisomy 8 to various
stages of chronic myeloid leukemia, (CML) and its
clinicopathological significance. Patient and methods:
Thirty five patients in different phases of the disease (15 in
chronic phase, 10 in accelerated phase and 10 in blastic crisis)
served as patients groups and 10 apparently healthy individuals
of matched sex and age served as a control group were selected
and subjected to the following; routine investigations as
complete blood count, cytochemical staining, LAP score and
detection of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph). Detection of trisomy
8 using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)
technique by CEP8 Spectrum Orange DNA probe AT-rich alpha
satellite (centromere region) 8p11.1-q11.1 FISH was performed on
all groups using either archival fixed cells, or cells from
newly diagnosed cases. Results: FISH study
revealed that; all patients were Ph positive, BCR-ABL fusion
gene positive. Only 4 (11.4 %) out of the 35 patients with CML
were trisomy 8 positive. No one (0%) in the chronic or the
accelerated phase groups was trisomy 8 positive. Only 4 (40%)
out of 10 patients in the blast crisis group were trisomy 8
positive. Clinically, there was statistically significant
difference between patients with trisomy 8 positive and negative
status as regards age of the patients. No statistically
significant difference between patients with trisomy 8 positive
and negative status as regards sex, peripheral blood findings
and LAP-score. While there was a striking highly significant
difference between patients with trisomy 8 positive and negative
status as regards the progression-free survival and the overall
survival time. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed poor prognosis of
CML patients with trisomy 8 positive when compared to trisomy 8
negative patients. Conclusion: Detection of
trisomy 8 by FISH technique correlates with the duration of
remission and overall survival rate in CML patients. It is
useful as a supplement to standard cytogenetic studies
to identify high risk patients
and can be incorporated into management decisions.
[Abdou S., Elshabrawy D.,
Kamal H., Tolba F., Salem H. and El-Shebiney M.
Utility of fluorescent
in situ hybridization for detection of trisomy 8 in chronic
myeloid leukemia patients.
2013;11(5):60-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Trisomy-8, CML, FISH.
Advantages and Barriers of
E-Banking in Iran
Farshad Sameni Kievani, Mohsen
Khodadadi, Mohammad Jouzbarkand
Dept. accounting, Islamic Azad University,
Roudsar and Amlash Branch, Roudsar, Iran
In recent years, e-commerce has
more and more become a necessary factor of business strategy and
a strong shock for economic development. The goal of this study
is to examine e-banking in Iran and propose strategies to
utilize e-commerce into traditional retail banking services. New
electronic systems and especially the "Internet business
development in the last century led to fundamental are changed
how cultural exchanges, economic and social communities.
Internet has changed the dimensions of competition in the retail
theoretical analysis on electronic money, electronic banking and
its history, etc and also empirically tests some advantages and
barriers to expanse of adoption of e-banking in
Iran by the survey questionnaire.
However, the research shows that the Iranian customers have not
enough knowledge and trust with relation to the e-banking, the
consequences of the research indicates that e-banking services
have several advantages for the banks’ customers in Iran.
F, Khodadadi M, Jouzbarkand M. Advantages and Barriers of
E-Banking in Iran.
Internet, electronic banking,
Electron, Likert Scale,
electronic commerce and Iran.
The effect of supplementation
with flaxseed and its extract on bone health
Hala A. Thabet1
and Hanan. F. Ahmed2
Food and Nutrition Dep., 2Bread&Pastries Dep. Food
Technology Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.
Background: Osteoporosis is a major health problem in
postmenopausal women due to a sharp decrease in estrogen
concentration that leads to an increased rate of bone
remodeling. It is necessary to develop “natural” substance
acts as alternative to
traditional hormone replacement therapy
with less undesirable side
effects such as phytoestrogens compounds. Lignan-flaxseed
compound is a type of phytoestrogens exerts many beneficial
effects on human health. Objective: This work has been
carried to investigate whether supplementation with flaxseed or
its lignan extract will improve bone health in experimental
animals (aged rats). Methods: Forty eight 13- month-old
Western strain female rats were divided equally into 8 treatment
groups: group 1 fed basal diet BD (control group), group 2 fed
BD + orally dosed 17α ethinyl estradiol (reference group),
groups 3& 4 fed BD supplemented with 5% and 10% flaxseed
respectively, groups 5 & 6 fed BD+ orally dosed 0.05 g and
0.1g/day/rat lignan extract respectively and groups 7&8 fed BD
supplemented with 20%and 40% flat bread (supplemented with 25%
flaxseed ) respectively. The experimental period continued 8
weeks. Serum total Ca,
Mg, P, Alk. phosphatase, β estradiol and intact parathyroid
hormone were estimated. Also, Urine Ca, P and creatinine were
estimated. Bone properties and chemistry were assayed.
Results: Our results show that the supplementation with
flaxseed is more effective than lignan extract supplementation
on mineral absorption especially serum Ca. There were
decreasing in calcium and
phosphorus excretion in urine when the aged rats subjected to
all treatments. Treatment
with flaxseed and its lignan extract decreased both of
alkaline phosphatase (bone
formation marker) and parathyroid hormone (bone resorption
marker) levels but did
not affected on serum β-estradiol levels. Moreover, treatment
with flaxseed or its lignan extract dose-dependently increase
deposition of Ca, P and Mg in bone of groups 4,6,8 which were
translated into an increment in femur length, breaking force and
bone mineral density (BMD).
Conclusion: It could be concluded that daily consumption
of flaxseed can prevent bone loss due to estrogen deficient.
The efficacy of such
dietary intervention may be act as a natural alternative to
traditional hormone replacement therapy among postmenopausal
A.Nahla, Hala A. Thabet
and Hanan. F. Ahmed. The effect of supplementation with
flaxseed and its extract on bone health.
flaxseed, bone, β-estradiol,
Ca, P, Mg, phytoestrogens,
Molluscicidal Activity of
Bait formulation in attractant food pellets against vector
snail, Indoplanorbis exustus
P. G. department of Zoology, M. G. P. G. College, Gorakhpur,
273 001, UP (INDIA)
Snail control is one of the most
important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of
fascioliasis. Use of molluscicides in the attractant food pellet
(AFP) is one of the effective methods of snail control.
Attractant food pellets containing amino acid proline and agar
plus different concentrations of the molluscicides
Azadirachta indica bark powder, Annona
squamosa seed powder and their bio-active components
azadirachtin and acetogenin were tested for molluscicidal
activity upto 144h against the snail, Indoplanorbis exustus.
Active components of both the plant derived molluscicides were
highly toxic to Indoplanorbis exustus compared with their
Molluscicidal Activity of Bait formulation in attractant food
pellets against vector snail, Indoplanorbis exustus.
2013;11(5):81-85]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Attractant food pellets, Bait formulation, Fasciola,
Indoplanorbis exustus, Molluscicides, proline
of Gamalin-20 by Micrococcus sp (Strain 189) in the
Coastal Soils of Southeastern Nigeria
I.K. Ugwa1; A. F. Ukponu2; V.I. Omorusi1*
and C.L. Igeleke3
Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Iyanomo, Benin City,
of Microbiology, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City,
of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences,
Benson Idahosa University, Benin
*Author for correspondence –
PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 86
Abstract: A soil microorganism
capable of utilizing the widely used broad spectrum recalcitrant
organo-chlorine insecticide, Gamalin-20, as primary carbon and
energy source, was isolated from coastal soils of Akwete,
Southern Nigeria. The procedure for isolation and screening of
microbial strain involved microbial strain involved serial
dilutions of soil samples and plating on Gamalin-20 Minimal
Medium Agar (GMMA). Isolates obtained were sub-cultured on
Isolates were sub cultured on Nutrient Agar, Blood Agar,
MacConkey Agar. Soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical
characteristics. Growth determination of microbial isolates from
the primary isolation in three batches of the soil samples (1, 8
and 9) were obtained based on their cultural characteristics and
physiological properties. The organism was characterized as
Micrococcus sp strain 189. The implication of this finding
for the mangement of petroleum-associated pollution is
Ugwa; A. F. Ukponu; V.I. Omorusi
and C.L. Igeleke.
Gamalin-20 by Micrococcus sp (Strain 189) in the Coastal
Soils of Southeastern Nigeria.
Key words: Bio-degradation;
Bio-remediation; Coastal soils; Gamalin-20, Micrococcus
Screening for Bioactive Chemical Constituents in Detarium
microcarpum Guill & Perr Stem Bark.
K. D. and 2Jada, M. Y.
of Basic Sciences,Adamawa State College of Agriculture, P M B
2088, Ganye, Nigeria.
of Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P M
B 2076, Yola, Nigeria.
Stem bark of Detarium microcarpum Guill & Perr was
collected, gabbled and shredded. This material was air dried and
then subjected to gradient soxhlet extraction using
ethylacetate, methanol and distilled water respectively. This
yielded 110.00g of light brown powder for ethylacetate, 208.00g
of light brownish shiny powder for methanol and 62.80g of dark
brown shiny crystals for water extract respectively. The aim of
this study was to investigate for the phytochemicals present in
the extracts, thus, they were examined using the standard
phytochemical screening procedures.This revealed high
concentration of terpenoids in ethylacetate and methanol
extracts as well as cardiac glycoside in ethylacetate. However,
cardiac glycoside also showed moderate presence in methanol and
low concentration in aqueous extracts respectively. There is
also the general moderate presence observed of carbohydrates,
tannins and flavonoids in all the extracts. [Reuben, K.D., Jada,
M.Y. Phytochemical Screening for Bioactive Chemical
Constituents in Detarium microcarpum Guill & Perr Stem
Phytochemical, Constituents, Detarium microcarpum, Stem
The Effect of a Nigerian
Brewery Effluent on Two Receiving Streams
Fakorede Cecilia Nireti 1,
Igbeneghu Oluwatoyin Abimbola2*, Odeyemi Olu 1
Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,
Department of Pharmaceutics, Obafemi Awolowo University,
This study assessed the
microbiological and physico-chemical parameters of water samples
from Omi- Asoro and Imo Hills streams into which effluent from a
Nigerian breweries empties. Samples collected along the
wastewater discharge path and receiving streams were analyzed
for microbial count, coliforms, pH, Temperature, dissolved
organic matter, BOD, DOC, total solid content, Total Nitrogen,
Phosphorous, chlorine, iron and heavy metals. The antibiograms
of bacterial isolates were determined using the disk diffusion
method. Results showed that the factory effluent and
contaminated streams had higher microbial loads and coliform
counts than the uncontaminated streams. The bacteria recovered
from the samples included antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas
and klebsiella species while the prominent fungal
genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Microsporium,
Saccharomyces, and Cladosporium species. The
dissolved organic matter, biochemical oxygen demand and total
solid contents of the effluent and contaminated streams were
beyond acceptable limits while the dissolved oxygen
concentration in the contaminated stream was generally below
acceptable levels. The concentration of lead and mercury were
also above recommended limits. The study showed that the brewery
effluent adversely affected the quality of the receiving streams
rendering the water unfit for use at some locations along the
course of the receiving streams.
CN, Igbeneghu OA, Odeyemi O. The Effect of a Nigerian Brewery
Effluent on Two Receiving Streams.
2013;11(5):95-102]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Brewery, Effluent, Coliforms,
Water, Antibiotic resistance.
Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus
spp and Pseudomonas spp Isolated from the Rhizosphere
Soil of an Egyptian Salt Marsh Plant
Ali Diab and Shereen Gamal El Din
Faculty of Biotechnology, October
University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), Egypt
Abstract: Seventeen bacterial
strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian
salt marsh plant and screened for biosurfactant production. 76.5
% of the bacterial strains were found to produce biosurfactants,
they were identified as Bacillus spp (4 strains) and
Pseudomonas spp (9 strains), of which P. aeruginosa
was represented by 6 strains. From the preliminary experiment, (Bacillus
SH 20, SH 26 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa SH 29, SH
30) were the most active biosurfactant producers. The four main
active biosurfactant producers were selected and studied. The
results showed that P. aeruginosa SH 29 represents a good
candidate for the production of the biosurfactants when grown on
both nutrient broth (NB) and inorganic salt media (ISM)
supplemented with waste frying oil. On the other hand
Bacillus spp (SH 20 and SH26) were active biosurfactant
producers when grown on molasses. Waste frying oil and molasses
represent good, cheap and easily available substrates which have
the advantage of reducing the production cost and help economic
production of biosurfactants. The results of using different
vegetable oils varied with the variation of media and bacterial
strains. Olive oil was promising followed by sunflower oil and
soybean oil. All of the four bacterial strains were able to
emulsify the studied hydrocarbon oils and vegetable oils but
with different E24 values. Bacillus spp SH 20, SH 26
produced the highest E24 values for petroleum oil (84.4 ± 5.2
and 75.0 ± 5.6 % respectively). This was followed by P.
aeruginosa SH 30 (66.7 ± 3.8 %) and P. aeruginosa SH
29 (62.0 ± 3.4 %). The results also showed that the produced
biosurfactants in the present study were stable at 0-121 °C, pH
1-14 values and at different concentrations of NaCl. An attempt
was made to isolate the biosurfactant produced by P.
aeruginosa SH 29 when grown in waste frying oil (2% w/v).
The production yield of this crude product was estimated as 2.8
g/L. This crude material was selected and kept for further
purification and studies. Accordingly, the four bacterial
strains may be useful in petroleum industry (e.g petroleum
recovery, cleaning of oil storage tanks and recovery of oil from
oily sludge) and they may help in bioremediation of oil
Diab and Shereen Gamal El Din. Production and
Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus
spp and Pseudomonas spp Isolated from the Rhizosphere
Soil of an Egyptian Salt Marsh Plant.
2013;11(5):103-112]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
biosurfactant-producing bacteria; biosurfactant; Pseudomonas
aeruginosa; Bacillus spp.
Biochemical Changes in Serum Lipid Fractions, Calcium, Magnesium
and Phosphorus Levels in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism
Abbas, 1A.H. Mahmoud and *2W. El-Desouky
Applications Dept., Isotope Applications Division, Nuclear
Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
There is a growing evidence that subclinical hypothyroidism is
an indicator of increased risk for atherosclerosis and
myocardial infarction in women. However, the association of
subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with changes in serum lipids is
still question. The aim of this study was to assess whether SCH
is associated with abnormal lipid levels and changes in serum
cations, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus as atherogenic
parameters. Thirty women age; 40± 3 years who did not previously
have a diagnosis of hypothyroidism or take any medicine were
enrolled in the study, divided into euthyroid control (group
included women with TSH value in a normal range between 0.27-
4.2 µIu/ml and subclinical hypothyroidism group with TSH value
of 6.7- 12.5 µIU/ml. we measured total cholesterol (TC), low
density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high density
Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), calcium,
magnesium and phosphorus in both groups. SCH subjects showed
significantly higher TC, LDL-c and TG levels than control.
While, HDL-c was significantly lower in subjects with SCH than
euthyroid. There was decrease in serum calcium level and
increase in serum magnesium and phosphorus in SCH group. In
conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with
elevated TC, LDL-c and TG levels and decreased HDL-c level and
disturbance in serum electrolytes. This may increase the risk of
[M.M. Abbas, A.H. Mahmoud and W. El-Desouky. Biochemical
Changes in Serum Lipid Fractions, Calcium, Magnesium and
Phosphorus Levels in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.
2013;11(5):113-118]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
subclinical hypothyroidism – Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) –
Lipid profile – Calcium – Magnesium – Phosphorus.
Z.M. Badawy, Ahmed H.M.
Solieman and M. Fayez-Hassan
Experimental Nuclear Physics
Department, AEA, Egypt
represents a modern tool for neutron flux monitoring. The method
based on the effect of the neutron field on the stress of the
stainless steel materials. The neutron hardening effect on
stainless steel foils were reported using the Vickers hardness
test in air at room temperature. Am-Be neutron facility was used
for the sample irradiation in thermal mode. The result was
normalized with HPGe 70% detector using Indium foils as neutron
flux monitoring. The method can be used successfully for
different nuclear reaction laboratories.
[Z.M. Badawy, Ahmed H.M.
Solieman and M. Fayez-Hassan.
Modern Trends for Neutron
2013;11(5):119-125]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Stainless-steel, neutron flux
Sinonasal Irrigation using Ceftriaxone-Saline Solution ameliorates
Chronic Rhinosinusitis Clinical Severity and Improves Patients’
Quality of Life
Mohamed F. Shindy and Bkr E Ras
Otorhrinolaryngology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha
Objectives: To evaluate the therapeutic yield of sinonasal
irrigation (SNI) using ceftriaxone solution in saline and its
impact on quality of life (QoL) scores. Patients & Methods:
This multicenter study was assigned to include all patients
attending the outpatient clinic with symptoms suggestive of
chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Patients were diagnosed according
to criteria defined by the Rhinosinusitis Task Force.
All patients underwent rigid endoscopy and endoscopic findings
were graded according to Lund-Kennedy scoring.
All patients were asked to complete two quality of life
questionnaires: the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) and
the chronic sinusitis score (CSS). All patients received
bilateral nasal and sinus irrigation using ceftriaxone sodium 1
gm/200 ml normal saline. Then, all patients were allowed to use
the same fluid for twice daily nasal irrigation for 6 weeks and
reevaluated. Study outcome included clinical evaluation of
presenting symptoms, evaluation of QoL questionnaires and
endoscopic scoring at the end of 6 weeks of domiciliary
irrigation. Results: The study included 700 CRS patients; 450 in
Emirate and 250 Egyptian patients. After 6-weeks of irrigation;
220 patients had only minor symptoms (Responders) and 480
patients had varied distribution among other symptoms severity
grades (Non-responders). There was significant difference of the
frequency of patients among symptom severity grades between both
evaluation sessions. After 6-weeks follow-up, mean Lund-Kennedy
scores, total and subscales of RSDI were significantly lower
with significantly higher CSS compared to baseline scores of
responders. Moreover, responders showed significantly lower
Lund-Kennedy scores and RSDI with significantly higher CSS at
the end of follow-up compared to non-responders. Conclusion: SNI
has a significant role as a therapeutic modality for CRS
patients which could be implemented wherein bacterial resistance
to systemic antibiotics was encountered or to postpone surgery
or in patients who are unfit or refusing surgery. SNI with
ceftriaxone-saline solution allowed minimization of clinical
manifestations with improvement of QoL scores.
[Mohamed F. Shindy and Bkr E Ras. Sinonasal
Irrigation using Ceftriaxone-Saline Solution ameliorates Chronic
Rhinosinusitis Clinical Severity and Improves Patients’ Quality
2013;11(5):126-132]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Chronic rhinosinusitis, Irrigation, Ceftriaxone, Quality of Life.
Bacterial Strains For Beta-Mannanases Production In Solid State
Oladipo O. Olaniyi1*, Festus O. Igbe2
,Temitope C. Ekundayo1 and Kehinde J. Ayantola1
Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704,
of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704,
*Corresponding author: Email:
This study was carried out to screen bacterial strains of
agricultural wastes origin for β-mannanases production in solid
state conditions. The eight bacterial strains obtained from
stock culture were screened for mannanase production in solid
state condition. The strains with different codes were
classified as Klebsiella edwardsii 1A, Bacillus
substilis BS, K. edwardsii 2B, K. edwardsii
X1, K. edwardsii X5, K. edwardsii X4, K.
edwardsii X3 and B. polymyxa BP. Solid substrate
fermentation was carried out in
Erlenmeyer flask using Mandels and Weber’s medium
as the moistened agent. Βeta-mannanase activity was determined
by dinitrosalicylic acid method, while protein was determined by
Lowry method. In the screening
exercise conducted, all the 8 bacterial strains displayed
mannanase activity which ranged 87.958 to 103.200 U/ml, while
protein content ranged from 4.347 to 9.722mg/ml with the highest
mannanase activity and protein content lied on isolate 1A.
The optimal β-mannanase activities was achieved at 18
hrs of incubation for bacterial strains 1A and BP, 24 hrs for
BS, X1 and X4, 30 hrs for 2B and X5, while X3 exhibited two
activity peaks which was at 18 and 36 hrs of incubation. The
optimal fermentation time for bacterial growth estimation was
obtained at 12 hrs for 1A, 2B and X1, 18 hrs for BS, X5, X4 and
BP, while 24 hrs was the best fermentation time for X3. In this
study, the screened bacterial strains evaluated for mannanase
production from agro-wastes elaborated considerable mannanase
activity and this could be exploited for economic uses.
[Oladipo O. Olaniyi,
Festus O. Igbe, Temitope C. Ekundayo and Kehinde J.
Ayantola. Screening Of Bacterial Strains For Beta-Mannanases
Production In Solid State Fermentation.
2013;11(5):134-140]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Bacterial strains, beta-mannanase, solid state fermentation,
Activities of Characterized Isolates of n-Hexane Extract of
Azadirachta Indica A.Juss (Neem) Leaves
M.M. Ekwenchi1, D.A. Dashak1, A.
1. Department of
Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos,
Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
2. Department of
Chemistry, Foreman Christian College (A Chartered
University), Lahore, Pakistan.
antimicrobial activities of n-Hexane extract and 5 Column
Chromatography fractions, of Azadirachta indica A. juss (Neem)
leaves, showed antimicrobial activities against human
pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi) and yeast fungus
(Candida albicans). Antimicrobial properties of Azadirachta
indica fractions were tested using ditchwell diffusion
method. Analysis of the data projected that upon bioassay
with n-Hexane neem leaves extract and 5 fractions of Column
Chromatography zone of inhibition for Salmonella typhi
observed was 17mm, 12mm, 5mm, 3mm and 11mm respectively.
While for the yeast fungus Candida albicans the zones of
inhibition, seen were 28mm, 25mm, 20mm, 3mm, 21mm and 20mm
for Azadirachta indica, respectively. Results were compared
to conventional drugs. GC/MS identified 45 bioactive
compounds in the n-Hexane extract of Azadirachta indica
leaves out of which 33 have antifungal activity.
Conclusively based on the data analysis it can be said
Azadirachta indica A. juss leaves extract have biological
activity as good as the conventional drugs against such
Ekwenchi M M., Dashak D A., Dildar A. Biological
Activities of Characterized Isolates of n-Hexane Extract of
Azadirachta Indica A. Juss (Neem) Leaves.
2013;11(5):141-147]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Azadirachta indica A. Juss; n-Hexane neem Leaf extract;
Antifungal activity; Antibacterial activity; Zone of
Characterization of Iron
Sodium Phosphate Glasses Doped Ba2+
Cations for Using as Radioactive Waste Encapsulation
A.G. Mostafa 1, M.Y.
Hassaan 1, A.B. Ramadan 2, A.Z. Hussein
2 and A.Y. Abdel-Haseib 2*
ME Lab., Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr
City, Cairo, Egypt.
Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA),
Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
Glasses with the composition (
65-x) P2O5+ 15Fe2O3+
20Na2O+ x BaO, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 25 mol % have been
prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. The
hyperfine structure of these glasses was investigated using
Mössbauer spectroscopy, which indicated the presence of iron
cations in two different oxidation states (Fe2+ & Fe3+),
and all Fe2+ occupied the tetrahedral coordination
state , while some Fe3+ occupied the tetrahedral
coordination state and the other occupied the octahedral
coordination state. The electrical properties of the studied
glasses were found to be temperature and frequency dependent and
their conductivity indicated that all glasses are
semiconductors. The exponent (s) was found to be temperature
dependent and the CBH and SPH models are the most applicable
conduction mechanisms of the studied glasses at low and high BaO
content respectively. The density as well as the hardness
increased monotonically with increasing barium oxide content,
while, conversely, the molar volume decreased. However, the
applied investigations showed that these glasses can be used for
capsulating radio-active waste before interment underground.
[Mostafa AG, Hassaan MY, Ramadan AB, Hussein AZ and Abdel-Haseib AY.
Characterization of Iron Sodium Phosphate Glasses Doped Ba2+
Cations for Using as Radioactive Waste Encapsulation.
Mössbauer spectroscopy; Sheilding
glasses; Iron phosphate glasses; Radioactive waste encapsulation
in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review
starting from March 10, 2013.
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