Science Journal


Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 11 - Number 05 (Cumulated No. 74), May 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1105 


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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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Omega-3 fatty acids composition and lipid content from liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspicus in the south of Caspian Sea in Iran


Keivandokht Samiee1, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan2, Fatemeh Ghulamali3


1. Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

 2. Department of Chemistry, Science & Research branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

3. Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: In the present study, the liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspius from the south of Caspian Sea, Iran in Feb 2013 were separately extracted for their lipid content and fatty acids composition using the method of Blight & Dyer (1959). The compounds were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS). The components detected in the liver and muscle tissues, including saturated fatty acids Palmitic acid and Stearic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid Oleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and (PUFA) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), two methyl esters of fatty acids including Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Vitamine E (α-Tocopherol) and Cholesterol (Cholest-5-en-3-ol(3β).The results showed that the dominant fatty acids  in liver and muscle tissues were Omega-3 fatty acids Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). [Samiee K, Rustaiyan A, Ghulamali F. Omega-3 fatty acids composition and lipid content from liver and muscle tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspicus in the south of Caspian Sea in Iran. Nat Sci 2013; 11(5):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.01


Keywords: Fatty acids, lipid content, liver, muscle, Rutilus rutilus caspius, Caspian Sea.

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Distribution Pattern of the Fresh Water Invertebrate Biota of Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria


Olagunju Akeem Agboola1, Stephen Oluwagbemiga Owa


1. Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Biological Sciences, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria.



Abstract: Studies on streams of Ago-Iwoye have been specialized. Onabamiro (1951) identified Cyclops as the vectors of dracontiasis, a water-borne disease prevalent at that time. Other studies have focused on specific diseases. These include the baccalaureate project works of Onasanya (1987) on the bacteria, Okunoren (1987) on the fungi and Siwoku (1986) on the snail vectors of Schistosomes. Toyobo’s baccalaureate project work (1990) was on the habitat factors of the streams. The distribution of pelagic & benthic invertebrates and those associated with submerged vegetation were studied by using an improvised plankton net to take water samples once every month for nine (9) months, from seven (7) sampling locations in Ago-Iwoye, a fast developing University town in the South-West of Nigeria. In decreasing order, pelagic samples yielded more invertebrates than benthic and submerged vegetation samples. The ponds yielded so much more invertebrates than the streams. Analysis revealed that the aquatic organisms are of high population density during the dry season and low population density during the wet season. Forty-eight (48) genera were obtained, thirty-two (32) of which were identified. The Brachionidae Family showed the greatest diversity while the Cyclopidae Family showed the greatest abundance.

[Agboola OA, Owa SO. Distribution Pattern of the Fresh Water Invertebrate Biota of Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):6-9]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.02


Keywords: Pelagic; benthic; plankton; diversity.

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Modeling the Irrigation Schedule on Wheat under Climate Change Conditions


M.  A. A. Abdrabbo1 Samiha Ouda2  and Tahany Noreldin2


1 Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate; Agricultural Research Center; Egypt.

2Water Requirements and Field Irrigation Research Department; Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute; Agricultural Research Center; Egypt.



Abstract; The effect of climate change on wheat grown under sprinkler irrigation was studied using previous data of two growing seasons, (2008/09 and 2009/10). These data were used to calibrate CropSyst model. Furthermore, a field experiment was conducted at El-Giza Governorate in 2010/11 growing season. The data of this experiment was used to validate the CropSyst model. The treatments of the validation experiment composed of two wheat cultivars (Sakha 93 and Giza 168) and four irrigation treatments (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 of ETc). Two climate change scenarios (A2 and B2) were used to assess the consequences of climate change on wheat yield in 2060. A new irrigation schedule developed by Basic Irrigation Schedule (BIS) model was used to improve water productivity under climate change conditions. The results showed that CropSyst model was able to predict wheat yield with high degree of accuracy for both calibration and validation procedures. The results also indicated that, in general, the yield of both cultivars will be decrease under climate change; however the reduction was lower for Sakha 93, as compared with Giza 168. The application of the new irrigation schedule under climate change conditions increased water productivity under the two climate change scenarios, compared with irrigation amount resulted from 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 of ETc, for both wheat cultivars. Moreover, Sakha 93 gave the highest water productivity. Our results suggested that if we want to reduce yield losses for wheat under climate change conditions and increase water productivity, Sakha 93 should be cultivated and BIS model should be used to schedule irrigation.

[M.  A. A. Abdrabbo, Samiha Ouda and Tahany Noreldin. Modeling the Irrigation Schedule on Wheat under Climate Change Conditions.  Nat Sci 2013;11(5):10-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.03


Key words: CropSyst model, climate change scenarios, BIS model, irrigation schedule.

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The Distance from Maternal Perineum to Fetal Head as a Predictive of Successful Induction of Labor


Mohamed S. Ali, Mohamed A. Abdelhafeez and Medhat A. El-Sayed


Obstetrics and Gynecology department, Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University, Egypt.



Abstract: Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultrasound measurements of the fetal head perineum distance measured by transperineal ultrasound and cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasound imaging as a predictive factors for successful IOL and to creat a cut-off level of these parameters which may be helpful in predicting successful induction of labour. In the current study a prospective observational study was carried out on 180 pregnant women attending casualties of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital during the period from march 2011 to December 2011.All patients underwent cervical assessment including cervical dilatation (cm), cervical effacement (%), station of presenting part, cervical consistency and position (using modified Bishop score system)  All participants in this study were subjected to transperineal U/S for assessment of fetal head station and transvaginal U/S for assessment of cervical length and width.  Conclusion and Recommendations: Fetal head–perineum distance measured by transperineal ultrasound examination can predict vaginal delivery after induction of labor, with a predictive value similar to that of ultrasonographically measured cervical length and the Bishop score. Also, this technique helps in converting the labor into numerical figure (digitalization of labor). However, we judge none of these methods used alone to be good enough in a clinical setting. So, the cut off level of ultrasound measurements and clinical assessments together may become useful. The cut off level of head perineal distance is 4 cm below which the induction of labor is favorable, while the cut of level of cervical length is 2.5cm below which the induction of labor is favorable. These parameters in association with digitally assessed cervical dilatation is recommended to discriminate successful and failed induction of labor.

[Mohamed Sayed Ali, Mohamed Abdelhameed Abdelhafeez and Medhat Adel Ibrahim El-Sayed. The Distance from Maternal Perineum to Fetal Head as a Predictive of Successful Induction of Labor. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):19-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.04


Keywords: head- perineum distance,labour,induction.

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Study Influence 0f Elemental Sulpher Compared with Foliar Spray Fertilizers on Productivity and Maintenance Calcareous Soil.


Azza R. Ahmed


Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt


Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in two successive summer seasons 2009 and 2010 at the farm of Nubaria Agriculture Research Station (Calcareous soil) to study the effective role of elemental sulfur application and foliar spray fertilizers in the presence of FYM on some physical properties, productivity and maintenance of calcareous soil quality. Also, to assess and compare of farm profitability of all tested variables are considered. The obtained data indicated that the highest grain yield was obtained from the treatments of chelating foliar spraying and the application of sulfur which gave 4.95 and 4.82 ton fed-1 respectively and the difference between them was not significant. On the other hand, the relative increase yield for all treatments arranged in ascending order: 28, 30, 37.7 and 41% for hormone, mineral, sulfur and chelating than the control, respectively. However, there is a positive increasing for values of growth characters of maize plant due to applied the treatments e.g, the period from planting to produce 50% silk was decreased significantly in descending order as following hormone treatment> the mineral treatment>soil application of sulfur treatment >Chelating treatment. Also, uptake of P due to the application of sulfur was enhanced by 98% than the control. While uptake of P values increased due to the application of foliar spray fertilizers treatments by 55.8%, 48% and 60% for mineral, hormone and chelate than the control, respectively. Application of elemental sulfur positively affected Zn, Fe, Mn concentration and uptake. The corresponding values were increased by about 185% for Zn, 31.7 for Fe and 30% for Mn than the control. The effect of elemental sulfur application on soil pH was positive significant and decreased by 0.44 unite than the control. On the other hand, sulfur application was significantly increased the availability of P more than all treatments and increasing P availability by 135 % than the control. Under the condition of this study, data showed a positive effect on hydro-physical properties of calcareous soil. It was considered that the aggregation stability enhanced by application of sulfur associated to FYM. As the aggregate index value for application of sulfur with FYM near to one (0.92). The application of sulfur in the presence of FYM leaded to an increasing hydraulic conductivity by about 58% and 126% than the control. It was obvious from the previous data that the application of foliar spray fertilizers becomes the highest costs and lower return.

[Azza R. Ahmed. Study Influence 0f Elemental Sulpher Compared with Foliar Spray Fertilizers on Productivity and Maintenance Calcareous Soil. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):26-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.05


Key ward: Element S, Foliar fertilizers, aggregate size fraction, maize plant.

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Genetic and Pathogenic characterization of avian influenza H5N1 isolated from duck in Egypt


Salama, S. S*, Afaf, A. Khedr*, Hayam, Farouk* and Laila A. A.Sadeek**


*Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics (CLEVB), Abbasia, Cairo.

**Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute (VSVRI), Abbasia, Cairo.



Abstract: In this study Avian Influenza type A (H5N1) virus was isolated from duck farm eight weeks of age and showing clinical manifestation of avian influenza infection. The obtained isolate was differentiated from the haemagglutinating agents using different specific antisera. To confirm the pathogenicity of the isolated virus, Specific Pathogenic Free (SPF) chickens were infected with such isolate. The birds showed clinical manifestation and the total mortalities were 100% within 48 hours post-infection. The same results were obtained when the isolated virus was used in infection of ducks but with total mortalities 70%. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) was conducted for both H5 and N1 genes using specific primers and the obtained PCR products were at the molecular weight of 219 and 616 bp respectively. Sequence analysis for both genes (H5 and N1) PCR products were analyzed then compared with such available on GenBank and the obtained results showed that 99% similarity with virus sequences of chicken origin for both H and N genes while it was the same result regarding H gene sequence of virus from duck origin yearly 2010 and 2011, while it was 98% and 97% similarity when compared with the N gene sequences yearling 2010 and 2011 respectively. The obtained results revealed that the AI virus isolated from ducks yearly 2010 showed great similarity with that causing epidemics yearly 2010 and 2011 and the virus was circulating between ducks and chickens which increases the epidemiology between farms in Egypt. 

[Salama, S. S, Afaf, A. Khedr, Hayam, Farouk and Laila A. A.Sadeek. Genetic and Pathogenic characterization of avian influenza H5N1 isolated from duck in Egypt. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):35-46]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.06


Keywords: Avian Influenza H5N1, ducks, chicken, Egypt outbreaks, Genetic analysis, pathogenic characterization, sequencing, PCR of H gene, PCR of N gene.

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Relationship between total viable bacterial counts, fungal counts and the intrinsic parameters of garri


B. T. Thomas1,3, R. Kolawole1, O. M. Adebayo4, S. O. Makanjuola2


1. Department of  Cell Biology and  Genetics, University of  Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria

2. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

3. Thobentoa Centre for Microbiological Research, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

4. Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.



Abstract: Garri is a roasted granule of cassava that is widely consumed in rural and urban areas in Nigeria. In view of the recent reports, that this food supported the survival of certain pathogenic bacteria, this study was carried out to determine, if there is a definite relationship between total viable bacterial counts, fungal counts, and the intrinsic factors of garri circulating in Ogun State, Nigeria. The pH and titrable acidity of the food were measured using pH meter and colorimetric acidity titration method respectively. The moisture content was determined by using the recommended standard method by A.O.A.C. Results from this study revealed a direct relationship between moisture content, titrable acidity and total viable bacterial count of the garri samples while the total viable fungal count of garri was largely dependent on the pH values of the garri samples. Furthermore, an inverse relationship exist between the mean pH values and the titrable acidity of the garri samples. In conclusion, the results from this study showed that titrable acidity, pH and moisture content could be conveniently used for predicting the total viable bacterial count while only pH and titrable acidity had a statistical significant relation for predicting the total viable fungal counts.

[B.T. Thomas, R. Kolawole, O.M. Adebayo, S.O Makanjuola. Relationship between total viable bacterial counts, fungal counts and the intrinsic parameters of garri. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):47-50]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.07


Keywords: Total viable bacterial counts, Total viable Fungal  counts, Intrinsic factors, Garri.

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Concept and foundations of promotion, to promote methods and factors affecting it.


Mohammednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir


Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Sciences& Art in Taif University, Saudi Arabia& Department of Business Administration بقسم إدارة الأعمال بكلية العلوم الإدارية, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, –Sudan



Abstract: This Research handles promotions basics, procedures and the factors that affect it. It aims to illustrate the concept and identification of promotion. Also promotion and how to use it to get benefit from it in realizing marketing aims and determine its effect on the institutions different processes. The Research concluded that promotion composed of a mixture contains group of elements and that promotion communication processes consist of four important parts: the sender, the message, the mean and the receiver. Moreover it concluded that promotion campaigns have linked and serial steps. In addition to that the Research concluded that promotion is are of the important elements of marketing mixture representing 25% out of productivity process cost. And it has a big effect on agents in determining products and meet their needs.

[Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir. Concept and foundations of promotion, to promote methods and factors affecting it. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):51-59]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.08


Keywords: promotion; Concept and foundations of promotion; factors affecting.

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Utility of Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization for Detection of Trisomy 8 in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients


 Abdou S. 1, Elshabrawy D.2, Kamal H.2, Tolba F2 Salem H. 3 and El-Shebiney M. 4 *


Departments of Clinical Pathology, Tanta1 and Benha2 Faculties of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacy3, Misr University for Science and Technology, Clinical Oncology4, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

* melshibiny@yahoo.co.uk


ABSTRACT: Objective: To detect the incidence and relationship of trisomy 8 to various stages of chronic myeloid leukemia, (CML) and its clinicopathological significance. Patient and methods: Thirty five patients in different phases of the disease (15 in chronic phase, 10 in accelerated phase and 10 in blastic crisis) served as patients groups and 10 apparently healthy individuals of matched sex and age served as a control group were selected and subjected to the following; routine investigations as complete blood count, cytochemical staining, LAP score and detection of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph). Detection of trisomy 8 using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique by CEP8 Spectrum Orange DNA probe AT-rich alpha satellite (centromere region) 8p11.1-q11.1 FISH was performed on all groups using either archival fixed cells, or cells from newly diagnosed cases. Results: FISH study revealed that; all patients were Ph positive, BCR-ABL fusion gene positive. Only 4 (11.4 %) out of the 35 patients with CML were trisomy 8 positive. No one (0%) in the chronic or the accelerated phase groups was trisomy 8 positive. Only 4 (40%) out of 10 patients in the blast crisis group were trisomy 8 positive. Clinically, there was statistically significant difference between patients with trisomy 8 positive and negative status as regards age of the patients. No statistically significant difference between patients with trisomy 8 positive and negative status as regards sex, peripheral blood findings and LAP-score. While there was a striking highly significant difference between patients with trisomy 8 positive and negative status as regards the progression-free survival and the overall survival time. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed poor prognosis of CML patients with trisomy 8 positive when compared to trisomy 8 negative patients. Conclusion: Detection of trisomy 8 by FISH technique correlates with the duration of remission and overall survival rate in CML patients. It is useful as a supplement to standard cytogenetic studies to identify high risk patients and can be incorporated into management decisions.

[Abdou S., Elshabrawy D., Kamal H., Tolba F., Salem H. and El-Shebiney M. Utility of fluorescent in situ hybridization for detection of trisomy 8 in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):60-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.09


Key Words: Trisomy-8, CML, FISH.

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Advantages and Barriers of E-Banking in Iran


Farshad Sameni Kievani, Mohsen Khodadadi, Mohammad Jouzbarkand


Dept. accounting, Islamic Azad University, Roudsar and Amlash Branch, Roudsar, Iran



Abstract: In recent years, e-commerce has more and more become a necessary factor of business strategy and a strong shock for economic development. The goal of this study is to examine e-banking in Iran and propose strategies to utilize e-commerce into traditional retail banking services. New electronic systems and especially the "Internet business development in the last century led to fundamental are changed how cultural exchanges, economic and social communities. Internet has changed the dimensions of competition in the retail banking sector. In this paper is examining theoretical analysis on electronic money, electronic banking and its history, etc and also empirically tests some advantages and barriers to expanse of adoption of e-banking in Iran by the survey questionnaire. However, the research shows that the Iranian customers have not enough knowledge and trust with relation to the e-banking, the consequences of the research indicates that e-banking services have several advantages for the banks’ customers in Iran.

[Sameni F, Khodadadi M, Jouzbarkand M. Advantages and Barriers of E-Banking in Iran. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):67-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.10


Keywords: Internet, electronic banking, Electron, Likert Scale, electronic commerce and Iran.

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The effect of supplementation with flaxseed and its extract on bone health


Elbostany. A.Nahla1, Hala A. Thabet1 and Hanan. F. Ahmed2


1Special Food and Nutrition Dep., 2Bread&Pastries Dep. Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt. Nody_lovetheall@hotmail.com, Hanan_fawzy29@yahoo.com


Abstract: Background: Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women due to a sharp decrease in estrogen concentration that leads to an increased rate of bone remodeling. It is necessary to develop “natural” substance acts as alternative to traditional hormone replacement therapy with less undesirable side effects such as phytoestrogens compounds. Lignan-flaxseed compound is a type of phytoestrogens exerts many beneficial effects on human health. Objective: This work has been carried to investigate whether supplementation with flaxseed or its lignan extract will improve bone health in experimental animals (aged rats). Methods: Forty eight 13- month-old Western strain female rats were divided equally into 8 treatment groups: group 1 fed basal diet BD (control group), group 2 fed BD + orally dosed 17α ethinyl estradiol (reference group), groups 3& 4 fed BD supplemented with 5% and 10% flaxseed respectively, groups 5 & 6 fed BD+ orally dosed 0.05 g and 0.1g/day/rat lignan extract respectively and groups 7&8 fed BD supplemented with 20%and 40% flat bread (supplemented with 25% flaxseed ) respectively. The experimental period continued 8 weeks. Serum total Ca, Mg, P, Alk. phosphatase, β estradiol and intact parathyroid hormone were estimated. Also, Urine Ca, P and creatinine were estimated. Bone properties and chemistry were assayed. Results: Our results show that the supplementation with flaxseed is more effective than lignan extract supplementation on mineral absorption especially serum Ca. There were decreasing in calcium and phosphorus excretion in urine when the aged rats subjected to all treatments. Treatment with flaxseed and its lignan extract decreased both of serum alkaline phosphatase (bone formation marker) and parathyroid hormone (bone resorption marker) levels but did not affected on serum β-estradiol levels. Moreover, treatment with flaxseed or its lignan extract dose-dependently increase deposition of Ca, P and Mg in bone of groups 4,6,8 which were translated into an increment in femur length, breaking force and bone mineral density (BMD). Conclusion: It could be concluded that daily consumption of flaxseed can prevent bone loss due to estrogen deficient. The efficacy of such dietary intervention may be act as a natural alternative to traditional hormone replacement therapy among postmenopausal women.

[Elbostany. A.Nahla, Hala A. Thabet and Hanan. F. Ahmed. The effect of supplementation with flaxseed and its extract on bone health. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):71-80]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.11


Keywords: flaxseed, bone, β-estradiol, Ca, P, Mg, phytoestrogens, Lignan.

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Molluscicidal Activity of Bait formulation in attractant food pellets against vector snail, Indoplanorbis exustus


Farindra Tiwari


P. G. department of Zoology, M. G. P. G. College, Gorakhpur, 273 001, UP (INDIA)



Abstract: Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Use of molluscicides in the attractant food pellet (AFP) is one of the effective methods of snail control. Attractant food pellets containing amino acid proline and agar plus different concentrations of the molluscicides Azadirachta indica bark powder, Annona squamosa seed powder and their bio-active components azadirachtin and acetogenin were tested for molluscicidal activity upto 144h against the snail, Indoplanorbis exustus. Active components of both the plant derived molluscicides were highly toxic to Indoplanorbis exustus compared with their crude forms.

[Farindra Tiwari. Molluscicidal Activity of Bait formulation in attractant food pellets against vector snail, Indoplanorbis exustus. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):81-85]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.12


Keywords: Attractant food pellets, Bait formulation, Fasciola, Indoplanorbis exustus, Molluscicides, proline

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Biodegradation of Gamalin-20 by Micrococcus sp (Strain 189) in the Coastal Soils of Southeastern Nigeria


I.K. Ugwa1;  A. F. Ukponu2;  V.I. Omorusi1* and C.L. Igeleke3


1Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Iyanomo, Benin City, Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.

3Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences,

Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria

*Author for correspondence – omorusirrin123@yahoo.com  PAGE   \* MERGEFORMAT 86


Abstract:  A soil microorganism capable of utilizing the widely used broad spectrum recalcitrant organo-chlorine insecticide, Gamalin-20, as primary carbon and energy source, was isolated from coastal soils of Akwete, Southern Nigeria. The procedure for isolation and screening of microbial strain involved microbial strain involved serial dilutions of soil samples and plating on Gamalin-20 Minimal Medium Agar (GMMA). Isolates obtained were sub-cultured on Isolates were sub cultured on Nutrient Agar, Blood Agar, MacConkey Agar. Soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics. Growth determination of microbial isolates from the primary isolation in three batches of the soil samples (1, 8 and 9) were obtained based on their cultural characteristics and physiological properties. The organism was characterized as Micrococcus sp strain 189. The implication of this finding for the mangement of petroleum-associated pollution is discussed.

[I.K. Ugwa;  A. F. Ukponu;  V.I. Omorusi  and C.L. Igeleke. Biodegradation of Gamalin-20 by Micrococcus sp (Strain 189) in the Coastal Soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):86-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.13


Key words: Bio-degradation; Bio-remediation; Coastal soils; Gamalin-20, Micrococcus sp   

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Phytochemical Screening for Bioactive Chemical Constituents in Detarium microcarpum Guill & Perr Stem Bark.


1Reuben, K. D. and 2Jada, M. Y.


1Department of Basic Sciences,Adamawa State College of Agriculture, P M B 2088, Ganye, Nigeria.

2Department of Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P M B 2076, Yola, Nigeria.



Abstract: Stem bark of Detarium microcarpum Guill & Perr was collected, gabbled and shredded. This material was air dried and then subjected to gradient soxhlet extraction using ethylacetate, methanol and distilled water respectively. This yielded 110.00g of light brown powder for ethylacetate, 208.00g of light brownish shiny powder for methanol and 62.80g of dark brown shiny crystals for water extract respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate for the phytochemicals present in the extracts, thus, they were examined using the standard phytochemical screening procedures.This revealed high concentration of terpenoids in ethylacetate and methanol extracts as well as cardiac glycoside in ethylacetate. However, cardiac glycoside also showed moderate presence in methanol and low concentration in aqueous extracts respectively. There is also the general moderate presence observed of carbohydrates, tannins and flavonoids in all the extracts. [Reuben, K.D., Jada, M.Y. Phytochemical Screening for Bioactive Chemical Constituents in Detarium microcarpum Guill & Perr Stem Bark. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):91-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.14


Key words: Phytochemical, Constituents, Detarium microcarpum, Stem Bark.

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The Effect of a Nigerian Brewery Effluent on Two Receiving Streams


Fakorede Cecilia Nireti 1, Igbeneghu Oluwatoyin Abimbola2*, Odeyemi Olu 1


1. Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

2. Department of Pharmaceutics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: oaigbene@oauife.edu.ng; igbeneghuoluwatoyin@gmail.com


Abstract: This study assessed the microbiological and physico-chemical parameters of water samples from Omi- Asoro and Imo Hills streams into which effluent from a Nigerian breweries empties. Samples collected along the wastewater discharge path and receiving streams were analyzed for microbial count, coliforms, pH, Temperature, dissolved organic matter, BOD, DOC, total solid content, Total Nitrogen, Phosphorous, chlorine, iron and heavy metals. The antibiograms of bacterial isolates were determined using the disk diffusion method. Results showed that the factory effluent and contaminated streams had higher microbial loads and coliform counts than the uncontaminated streams. The bacteria recovered from the samples included antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas and klebsiella species while the prominent fungal genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Microsporium, Saccharomyces, and Cladosporium species. The dissolved organic matter, biochemical oxygen demand and total solid contents of the effluent and contaminated streams were beyond acceptable limits while the dissolved oxygen concentration in the contaminated stream was generally below acceptable levels. The concentration of lead and mercury were also above recommended limits. The study showed that the brewery effluent adversely affected the quality of the receiving streams rendering the water unfit for use at some locations along the course of the receiving streams.

[Fakorede CN, Igbeneghu OA, Odeyemi O. The Effect of a Nigerian Brewery Effluent on Two Receiving Streams. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):95-102]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.15


Keywords: Brewery, Effluent, Coliforms, Water, Antibiotic resistance.

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Production and Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas spp Isolated from the Rhizosphere Soil of an Egyptian Salt Marsh Plant


Ali Diab and Shereen Gamal El Din


Faculty of Biotechnology, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), Egypt

Ali.daib.eg@gmail.com; Gehan.safwat@hotmail.co.uk


Abstract: Seventeen bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant and screened for biosurfactant production. 76.5 % of the bacterial strains were found to produce biosurfactants, they were identified as Bacillus spp (4 strains) and Pseudomonas spp (9 strains), of which P. aeruginosa was represented by 6 strains. From the preliminary experiment, (Bacillus SH 20, SH 26 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa SH 29, SH 30) were the most active biosurfactant producers. The four main active biosurfactant producers were selected and studied. The results showed that P. aeruginosa SH 29 represents a good candidate for the production of the biosurfactants when grown on both nutrient broth (NB) and inorganic salt media (ISM) supplemented with waste frying oil. On the other hand Bacillus spp (SH 20 and SH26) were active biosurfactant producers when grown on molasses. Waste frying oil and molasses represent good, cheap and easily available substrates which have the advantage of reducing the production cost and help economic production of biosurfactants. The results of using different vegetable oils varied with the variation of media and bacterial strains. Olive oil was promising followed by sunflower oil and soybean oil. All of the four bacterial strains were able to emulsify the studied hydrocarbon oils and vegetable oils but with different E24 values. Bacillus spp SH 20, SH 26 produced the highest E24 values for petroleum oil (84.4 ± 5.2 and 75.0 ± 5.6 % respectively). This was followed by P. aeruginosa SH 30 (66.7 ± 3.8 %) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 (62.0 ± 3.4 %). The results also showed that the produced biosurfactants in the present study were stable at 0-121 °C, pH 1-14 values and at different concentrations of NaCl. An attempt was made to isolate the biosurfactant produced by P. aeruginosa SH 29 when grown in waste frying oil (2% w/v). The production yield of this crude product was estimated as 2.8 g/L. This crude material was selected and kept for further purification and studies. Accordingly, the four bacterial strains may be useful in petroleum industry (e.g petroleum recovery, cleaning of oil storage tanks and recovery of oil from oily sludge) and they may help in bioremediation of oil contaminated sites.

[Ali Diab and Shereen Gamal El Din. Production and Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas spp Isolated from the Rhizosphere Soil of an Egyptian Salt Marsh Plant. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):103-112]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.16


Keywords: biosurfactant-producing bacteria; biosurfactant; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Bacillus spp.

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Biochemical Changes in Serum Lipid Fractions, Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus Levels in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism


1M.M. Abbas, 1A.H. Mahmoud and *2W. El-Desouky


1Biological Applications Dept., Isotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

2Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

* waeld5@hotmail.com


Abstract: There is a growing evidence that subclinical hypothyroidism is an indicator of increased risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in women. However, the association of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with changes in serum lipids is still question. The aim of this study was to assess whether SCH is associated with abnormal lipid levels and changes in serum cations, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus as atherogenic parameters. Thirty women age; 40± 3 years who did not previously have a diagnosis of hypothyroidism or take any medicine were enrolled in the study, divided into euthyroid control (group included women with TSH value in a normal range between 0.27- 4.2 µIu/ml and subclinical hypothyroidism group with TSH value of 6.7- 12.5 µIU/ml. we measured total cholesterol (TC), low density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in both groups. SCH subjects showed significantly higher TC, LDL-c and TG levels than control. While, HDL-c was significantly lower in subjects with SCH than euthyroid. There was decrease in serum calcium level and increase in serum magnesium and phosphorus in SCH group. In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with elevated TC, LDL-c and TG levels and decreased HDL-c level and disturbance in serum electrolytes. This may increase the risk of atherosclerosis.

[M.M. Abbas, A.H. Mahmoud and W. El-Desouky. Biochemical Changes in Serum Lipid Fractions, Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus Levels in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):113-118]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.17


Key Words: subclinical hypothyroidism – Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) – Lipid profile – Calcium – Magnesium – Phosphorus.

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Modern Trends for Neutron Monitoring


 Z.M. Badawy, Ahmed H.M. Solieman and M. Fayez-Hassan


 Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, AEA, Egypt



Abstracts: This work represents a modern tool for neutron flux monitoring. The method based on the effect of the neutron field on the stress of the stainless steel materials. The neutron hardening effect on stainless steel foils were reported using the Vickers hardness test in air at room temperature. Am-Be neutron facility was used for the sample irradiation in thermal mode. The result was normalized with HPGe 70% detector using Indium foils as neutron flux monitoring. The method can be used successfully for different nuclear reaction laboratories.

[Z.M. Badawy, Ahmed H.M. Solieman and M. Fayez-Hassan. Modern Trends for Neutron Monitoring. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):119-125]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.18


Key words: Stainless-steel, neutron flux monitoring, NAA.

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Sinonasal Irrigation using Ceftriaxone-Saline Solution ameliorates Chronic Rhinosinusitis Clinical Severity and Improves Patients’ Quality of Life


Mohamed F. Shindy and  Bkr E Ras


Otorhrinolaryngology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.



Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the therapeutic yield of sinonasal irrigation (SNI) using ceftriaxone solution in saline and its impact on quality of life (QoL) scores.  Patients & Methods: This multicenter study was assigned to include all patients attending the outpatient clinic with symptoms suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Patients were diagnosed according to criteria defined by the Rhinosinusitis Task Force. All patients underwent rigid endoscopy and endoscopic findings were graded according to Lund-Kennedy scoring. All patients were asked to complete two quality of life questionnaires: the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) and the chronic sinusitis score (CSS). All patients received bilateral nasal and sinus irrigation using ceftriaxone sodium 1 gm/200 ml normal saline.  Then, all patients were allowed to use the same fluid for twice daily nasal irrigation for 6 weeks and reevaluated. Study outcome included clinical evaluation of presenting symptoms, evaluation of QoL questionnaires and endoscopic scoring at the end of 6 weeks of domiciliary irrigation. Results: The study included 700 CRS patients; 450 in Emirate and 250 Egyptian patients. After 6-weeks of irrigation; 220 patients had only minor symptoms (Responders) and 480 patients had varied distribution among other symptoms severity grades (Non-responders). There was significant difference of the frequency of patients among symptom severity grades between both evaluation sessions. After 6-weeks follow-up, mean Lund-Kennedy scores, total and subscales of RSDI were significantly lower with significantly higher CSS compared to baseline scores of responders. Moreover, responders showed significantly lower Lund-Kennedy scores and RSDI with significantly higher CSS at the end of follow-up compared to non-responders. Conclusion: SNI has a significant role as a therapeutic modality for CRS patients which could be implemented wherein bacterial resistance to systemic antibiotics was encountered or to postpone surgery or in patients who are unfit or refusing surgery. SNI with ceftriaxone-saline solution allowed minimization of clinical manifestations with improvement of QoL scores.  

[Mohamed F. Shindy and  Bkr E Ras. Sinonasal Irrigation using Ceftriaxone-Saline Solution ameliorates Chronic Rhinosinusitis Clinical Severity and Improves Patients’ Quality of Life. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):126-132]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.19


Key Words: Chronic rhinosinusitis, Irrigation, Ceftriaxone, Quality of Life.

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Screening Of Bacterial Strains For Beta-Mannanases Production In Solid State Fermentation


Oladipo O. Olaniyi1*, Festus O. Igbe2 ,Temitope C. Ekundayo1 and Kehinde J. Ayantola1


1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria.

2Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: Email: microladit@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to screen bacterial strains of agricultural wastes origin for β-mannanases production in solid state conditions. The eight bacterial strains obtained from stock culture were screened for mannanase production in solid state condition. The strains with different codes were classified as Klebsiella edwardsii 1A, Bacillus substilis BS, K. edwardsii 2B, K. edwardsii X1, K. edwardsii X5, K. edwardsii X4, K. edwardsii X3 and B. polymyxa BP. Solid substrate fermentation was carried out in Erlenmeyer flask using Mandels and Weber’s medium as the moistened agent. Βeta-mannanase activity was determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, while protein was determined by Lowry method. In the screening exercise conducted, all the 8 bacterial strains displayed mannanase activity which ranged 87.958 to 103.200 U/ml, while protein content ranged from 4.347 to 9.722mg/ml with the highest mannanase activity and protein content lied on isolate 1A. The optimal β-mannanase activities was achieved  at 18 hrs of incubation for bacterial strains 1A and BP, 24 hrs for BS, X1 and X4, 30 hrs for 2B and X5, while X3 exhibited two activity peaks which was at 18 and 36 hrs of incubation. The optimal fermentation time for bacterial growth estimation was obtained at 12 hrs for 1A, 2B and X1, 18 hrs for BS, X5, X4 and BP, while 24 hrs was the best fermentation time for X3. In this study, the screened bacterial strains evaluated for mannanase production from agro-wastes elaborated considerable mannanase activity and this could be exploited for economic uses.

[Oladipo O. Olaniyi, Festus O. Igbe, Temitope C. Ekundayo and Kehinde J. Ayantola. Screening Of Bacterial Strains For Beta-Mannanases Production In Solid State Fermentation. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):134-140]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.20


Key words: Bacterial strains, beta-mannanase, solid state fermentation, screening

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Biological Activities of Characterized Isolates of n-Hexane Extract of Azadirachta Indica A.Juss (Neem) Leaves


A.Akpuaka1, M.M. Ekwenchi1, D.A. Dashak1, A. Dildar2


1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Chemistry, Foreman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.



Abstract: The antimicrobial activities of n-Hexane extract and 5 Column Chromatography fractions, of Azadirachta indica A. juss (Neem) leaves, showed antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi) and yeast fungus (Candida albicans). Antimicrobial properties of Azadirachta indica fractions were tested using ditchwell diffusion method. Analysis of the data projected that upon bioassay with n-Hexane neem leaves extract and 5 fractions of Column Chromatography zone of inhibition for Salmonella typhi observed was 17mm, 12mm, 5mm, 3mm and 11mm respectively. While for the yeast fungus Candida albicans the zones of inhibition, seen were 28mm, 25mm, 20mm, 3mm, 21mm  and 20mm for Azadirachta indica, respectively.  Results were compared to conventional drugs. GC/MS identified 45 bioactive compounds in the n-Hexane extract of Azadirachta indica leaves out of which 33 have antifungal activity. Conclusively based on the data analysis it can be said Azadirachta indica A. juss  leaves  extract have biological activity as good as the conventional drugs against such microorganisms.

[Akpuaka A., Ekwenchi M M., Dashak D A., Dildar A. Biological Activities of Characterized Isolates of n-Hexane Extract of Azadirachta Indica A. Juss (Neem) Leaves.  Nat Sci 2013;11(5):141-147]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.21


Keywords: Azadirachta indica A. Juss; n-Hexane neem Leaf extract; Antifungal activity; Antibacterial activity; Zone of Inhibition

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Characterization of Iron Sodium Phosphate Glasses Doped Ba2+ Cations for Using as Radioactive Waste Encapsulation


A.G. Mostafa 1, M.Y. Hassaan 1, A.B. Ramadan 2, A.Z. Hussein 2 and A.Y. Abdel-Haseib 2*


1. ME Lab., Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

2. Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Glasses with the composition ( 65-x) P2O5+ 15Fe2O3+ 20Na2O+ x BaO, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 25 mol %  have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. The hyperfine structure of these glasses was  investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy, which indicated the presence of iron cations in two different oxidation states (Fe2+ &  Fe3+), and all Fe2+ occupied the tetrahedral coordination state , while some  Fe3+ occupied  the tetrahedral coordination state and the other occupied the octahedral coordination state.  The electrical properties of the studied glasses were found to be temperature and frequency dependent and their conductivity indicated that all glasses are semiconductors. The exponent (s) was found to be temperature dependent and the CBH and SPH  models are the most applicable conduction mechanisms of the studied glasses at low and high BaO content respectively. The density as well as the hardness increased monotonically with increasing barium oxide content, while, conversely, the molar volume decreased.   However, the applied investigations showed that these glasses can be used for capsulating radio-active waste before interment underground.

[Mostafa AG, Hassaan MY, Ramadan AB, Hussein AZ and Abdel-Haseib AY. Characterization of Iron Sodium Phosphate Glasses Doped Ba2+ Cations for Using as Radioactive Waste Encapsulation. Nat Sci 2013;11(5):148-155]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110513.22


Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; Sheilding glasses; Iron phosphate glasses; Radioactive waste encapsulation

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 10, 2013
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