Nature and Science
Volume 11 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 75), June 25, 2013
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1106
You can use the message in end of the article abstract to
To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each
article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf
to .doc (or .docx)
When you submit manuscript(s),
please mention that it is submitted to Nature and Science
PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA, 347-321-7172
Titles / Abstracts / Authors
Behaviour of Wheat Cv. Masr-1
Plants to Foliar Application of Some Vitamins
Naheif Ebraheim Mohamed Mohamed
Agronomy Dept. Fac. of Agric.
Souhag Univ., Egypt
Abstract: Plant height, grain yield and its components, some plant
pigments as well as leaf and grain mineral content of wheat cv.
Masr- 1 plants in response to foliar application of some
vitamins namely vitamin B12 at 50 ppm, folic acid at
50 ppm and vitamin C at 500 ppm were investigated during 2010/
2011 and 2011/ 2012 seasons. All vitamins were sprayed twice at
30 and 60 days after planting.
Single and combined applications of these vitamins materially
was accompanied with stimulating plant height, grain yield and
its components, some plant pigments and different minerals in
both the leaves and grains in relative to the control treatment.
Nitrite in the grains was greatly declined with different
vitamin treatments. Using vitamin C, folic acid and vitamin B12,
in ascending order was very effective in stimulating growth,
grain yield and its components. The best results with regard to
grain yield and quality of wheat cv. Masr- 1 were obtained with
spraying the plants twice with a mixture of vitamins containing
vitamin B12 at 50 ppm, folic acid at 50 ppm and vitamin C at 500
Ebraheim Mohamed Mohamed.
Behaviour of Wheat Cv. Masr-1 Plants to Foliar Application of
wheat, vitamins and yield.
Efficacy of Thiopental Sodium, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Propofol
and Combination of Propofol with Ketamine Hydrochloride in
Egyptian Mongooses, Herpestes Ichneumon.
Hassan, M. M.
Surgery, Anaesthesiology & Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary
Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
The present study was performed on 12 adult apparently healthy
male Egyptian mongooses to determine the comparative anaesthetic
efficacy of thiopental sodium, ketamine, propofol alone and
propofol in combination with ketamine. Durations of induction,
surgical stage and recovery from anaesthesia were recorded.
Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature, in addition
to the effects of anaesthetic agents on various body reflexes
were recorded. Animals treated with thiopental sodium (Group A),
showed rapid induction, the longest duration of surgical
anaesthetic stage and prolonged non smooth recovery, while
animals treated with ketamine (group B), showed unstable
surgical anaesthetic stage with spasm in skeletal muscles and
animals treated with propfol (group C), showed rapid induction
and respiratory depression with very rapid recovery. Combination
of ketamine with propofol (group D), reduced the dose of
propofol required and prolonged the anaesthetic stage. Moreover,
it avoided respiratory depression caused by propfol. It was
concluded that propofol in combination with ketamine is a safe
anaesthetic agent for mongooses as an alternative of thiopental
sodium for prolonged surgical procedures.
M. M. Comparative Anaesthetic Efficacy of Thiopental
Sodium, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Propofol and Combination of
Propofol with Ketamine Hydrochloride in Egyptian Mongooses,
Nat Sci 2013;11(6):6-12].
mongooses, thiopental sodium, propofol, ketamine.
Regulation of Navel Orange
Cropping and Improvement of FruitQuality Using Sitofex and
Abd El Raheem,M.E; Abd El-
Rahman, G.F.; Hoda, M. Mohamed; and Elharony, S.B
Department, Agric.Res. Centre- Egypt.
Influence of Sitofex (CPPU) and
gibberellic acid (GA3) were studied on yield and
fruit quality of navel orange trees (Citrus sinensis)
during (2011, 2012) seasons. The trees were 20years old, budded
on Volkamer lemon rootstock
(Citrus volkameriana, Ten
planted at 6x4m spacing in a private orchard at Badr
area,El-Behiera Governorate. The study involved two experiments.
The first (pre experiment) was done to define the suitable
concentrations of CPPU application on citrus, (5, 7.5, 10 ppm)
at full bloom stage. The second (main experiment), nine
treatments were used as follow, where the plant growth
regulatorCPPUwas sprayed at 2, 3, 4, and 5 ppm, either as a
single application or in combination with 30 ppm GA3
at full bloom stage, as well as, control treatment. Data
indicated that, high concentrations of CPPU at 7.5 or 10 ppm
decreased the concentrations of leaf chlorophyll (a&b) and led
to flowers and leaves abscission, chlorosis and emergence of
shoots dieback. While, there were no significant differences for
leaf chlorophyll (a&b) between 5ppmCPPU and control
treatments.The previous results indicate that CPPU could be used
at concentrations less or equal (5ppm) for citrus. Results also
revealed that, application of 3, 4 ppm CPPU either singly or in
combination with 30 ppm GA3was superior for attaining
the best total yield. Alltreatments significantly increased leaf
area, fruit dimensions (length, diameter), fruitsize and
improved the fruit peel quality by increasing rindfirmness.
Also, CPPU treatmentsreduced TSS/Acid ratiobeside a delay of
maturity stage and fruit coloration especially at (3, 4 ppm
alone or with 30 ppm GA3) which led to extending the
harvest season and therefore increasing the exportation rate.
El Raheem, M.E; Abd El- Rahman, G.F.; Hoda,M. Mohamed; and
Elharony, S.B. Regulation of Navel Orange Cropping and
Improvement of FruitQuality Using Sitofex and GibberellicAcid.
2013;11(6):13-21]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
orange, Sitofex “CPPU”, gibberellic acid “GA3”, yield
and fruit quality.
Petrography of subvolcanic
rocks of Givshad (south west of Birjand, East of Iran) and the
effective factors in rising magma
Fazilat Yousefi, Mohamad Hosein
Department of petrology, Birjand
Complex of givshad is in the
southwest of Birjand. This complex consists sub volcanic rocks
that outcrops in the paleocene flysch type. Type of this complex
is porfiritic diorite. Their texture are porfiric and
microgranolar. Plagioclase, amphibole, biotite and Quartz are
main minerals. and petty mineral is opaque. zoning observe in
this plagioclase. The effective of agents in rise and increase
velocity of magma are difference of density between magma and
that’s formation environment and creation fracture in surface.
For showing of this subject, we use raws of fluid mechanic and
F, Zarrinkoub M.H. Petrography of subvolcanic rocks of
Givshad (south west of Birjand, East of Iran) and the effective
factors in rising magma.
East iran, Birjand, porfiric
diorite, rise magma and fluid mechanic.
The Effect of Steamed and
Microwaved Cooking on the Levels of Heavy Metals; Lead and
Mercury in the Cyprinus carpio’s Muscle
Askari Sari. A2, Chelemal Dezfool Nezhad. M3
Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan
Science and Research Branch, Khouzestan, Iran
of Fisheries, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
The survey in 2012 to assess the
heavy metals lead and mercury concentrations in common carp
cooked in steam and microwave cooking methods were crude
samples. Randomly assigned to 24 common carp Azadegan warm fish
culture center (Ahvaz) was caught. After the fillets, steamed
muscles and microwave cooking methods of lead and mercury fish
were then measured with the Spectrophotometer using One-way
Anova using SPSS software were compared. The results of this
study showed higher concentrations of mercury in the steam way
(258± 11.05) compared to the microwave (50.33± 7.75) and the raw
samples (185.66 ± 17) showed that mercury concentrations in
steamed raw muscle and cooked in a microwave muscle shows
significant differences (p <0.05) the highest concentrations of
mercury instead of lead metal in the microwave cooking method
(304± 8.54) and the lowest concentration steamed mode (254.33±
7.63) showed that both methods lead metal concentrations than
controls (232± 12.28) increased. Lead concentrations in the raw
muscle muscle cooked by microwave shows a significant difference
(p <0.05) while no significant difference was observed with
steamed muscles (p ≥ 0.05).
F, Askari Sari. A, Chelemal Dezfool Nezhad. M.
The Effect of Steamed and Microwaved cooking on the Levels of
Heavy Metals; Lead and Mercury in the Cyprinus carpio’s Muscle.
cooking methods,heavy metal,lead,
Salinity tolerance of the flora halophytes to coastal habitat of
Jarjr-oma in Libya
Abusaief, Huda Mohamed Abd Al Razik.1 Dakhil Ansaf
Husien2, Abd Al Naby, Mohamed Mahmod.3 Al-Mogasby,
Abd Al Salam.4
Fac. Agric., 2Bot. Fac. Sci. 3Soil Depar.
Fac. Agric. Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ. 4Herbarium Fac.
Sci. Benghazi Univ.,
Halophytic vegetation and flora of Jarjr-oma in Libya.
The recorded 33 species in Sandy beach during four seasons of
autumn 2010 and winter, spring and summer 2011. Importance value
and density of the different association type are perennials
Cynodon dactylon and Tamarix tetragyna. It appears
exclusive in Sandy beach, association Sarcopoterium spinosum,
Limonium sibthorpianum, Cichorium spinosum. The
dominant species Sandy beach of this type is Allium
rumherianum and Sarcopoterium spinosum. Density of
Sandy beach habitat of winter and spring seasons Cynodon
dactylon, in summer season highest annuals Euphorbia
peplis and Salsola kali. As well as, total 19 species
in Salt march gave highest Dominance
its species salinity tolerance. Appear all seasons similar in
results density of species perennial of Salt march habitat.
Found 114 species in Saline lands of four associations the
dominant species of this type is Polycarpon tetraphyllum,
the indicator species is
Rumex bucephalophorus, Sarcopoterium spinosum.
Association by Mercurialis annua and Arisarum vulgare,
Juniperus phoenicea. association by Anagallis arvensis,
Bellevalia sessiliflora and Rhus tripartita.
Vegetation in Sand formation habitat recorded eight species
during four seasons. The dominant species of this type is
which attained the highest density in winter and spring. The
indicator species are Pancratium maritimum.
The principal components analysis for the vegetation
habitats-soil relationships distinguished that the highest
affinity for sand and clay soil content. The maximum mean value
for Cl-, Na+, So4-- and EC. The
preferred to grow in coarse sand soil.
Mohamed Abd Al Razik. Dakhil Ansaf Husien, Abd Al Naby, Mohamed
Mahmod. Al-Mogasby, Abd Al Salam. Salinity tolerance of the
flora halophytes to coastal habitat of Jarjr-oma in Libya.
2013;11(6):29-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Halophytes, Flora, Density and Important value
Effect of Magnetite and Some
Biofertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Valencia Orange
Under El – Bustan Condition
M. Mohamed 1; Faten, A. Al- kamar 2;
and Azza, A. M. Abd-Elall 3
Water and Environment, Res. Inst., Sand and Calcareous Soils
Dep. Agric. Res., Center,
Water and Environment, Res. Inst., Microbiology Dep. Agric.
The response of Valencia orange trees (Citrus Sinensis)
budded on Volkamer lemon rootstock (Citrus Volkameriana)
to Magnetite, Diatoms and biofertilizer (mixture of
Cyanobacteria and Azolla) were studied during (2011 & 2012)
seasons. Trees were four years old, planted at 4x6m apart (175
trees/ feddan), under drip irrigation system and growing in soil
influenced by salinity, (where EC was 3.64 ds/m), in a private
orchard, located at El Bustan County, El Behera Governorate,
Egypt. The experiment involved 14 treatments. The obtained
results indicated that,
the application of biofertilizer plus 750 gm. Magnetite
treatment was the best combination for achieving the highest
total yield (51.44, 38.22 % over control) during two seasons,
either singly or in combination with Magnetite treatments
improved fruit peel quality, where, (the peel thickness and
firmness has increased, fruit peel was more lightness and had
high good color quality), so it seems more attractive.
Diatom treatments could earlier
the harvest date by increasing fruit TSS/ Acid ratio and Vitamin
C contents and to decrease fruit acidity especially Diatoms at5
ppm plus 750 gm. Magnetite. All treatments
slightly reduced soil EC and pH,
increased leaf K+
and reduced Na+ uptake especially biofertilizer plus
750 gm. Magnetite treatment. Treatments
also enhanced of the soil biological activity
in terms of increasing the total (bacterial, cyanobacterial)
counts and CO2 evolution. Based on the economic
study, it could be recommended to use biofertilizer plus 750 gm.
Magnetite for achieving the best total yield and produced the
highest net profit / fed., (4541.75 L.E), or use Diatoms at 5
ppm plus 750 gm. Magnetite for giving the high fruit peel
quality which very important characteristics especially when
fruits tended to be exported and
earlier maturation of fruit as
well as increased net
profit / fed. (3426.75 L.E).While, it could not be recommended
to use biofertilizer alone because it caused loss of money (-742
M. Mohamed; Faten, A. Al- kamar; and Azza, A.
M. Abd-Elall. Effect of Magnetite and Some Bio
fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Valencia Orange
Trees Under El – Bustan
2013;11(6):46-61]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Magnetite, Diatoms, cyanobacteria,
Azolla, yield, fruit quality and Valencia orange trees.
Follow-up the Human Umblical Cord Stem Cell Injected Into Rats
with renal Impairment
Salem A. Habib1, Mahmoud H. Sayed2 andRana
Department; Faculty of Science; Damietta University; Damietta;
Clinical Pathology Department; Faculty of Medicine; Al.Azhar
University; Damietta; Egypt.
Umbilical cord (UC) is a source of a population of pluripotent,
mesenchymal-like stem cells,
UC is rapidly gaining attention for its therapeutic value their
lowincidence of rejection after UCtransplantation.
UC transplantation does not require perfect antigen matching.
The aim of this study to follow-up human Umblical Cord Stem Cell
injected Into Rats With renal Impairment by biochemical and
histochemicalparameters and show the effect ofmesenchymal stem
cell (MSC) on kidney generation.After cells isolation and then
they were cultured in optimum growth media.
Twenty four albino
male rats used in this study,
Sixteen rats were injected with cisplatin drug (5 mg /kg body
weight) single dose to obtain rats with acute renal failure,
then they were divided into two groups, group I: contains eight
rats with a cute renal failure as a positive control, group II:
contains eight rats were injected with a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)
(100 µl of cell suspension (1x106 cell)
intraperitoneally injected single dose.GroupIII:
containeightrats were intraperitoneally injected with saline
solution (100 µl /kg body weight(.
Biochemical and hisochemical studies to show significantly (p<0.05)
renal tissue recovery. This work showed that these cells have
the therapeutic potential for cell therapy and biological
treatment which can be easily obtained.
[Salem A. Habib, Mahmoud H. Sayed and Rana R. El-Sadda.
Follow-up the Human Umblical Cord Stem Cell Injected Into Rats
with renal Impairment.
Mesenchymal stem cell, Acute renal failure, Wharton’s jelly,
Antimicrobial effects of
epigallocatechingallate and epicatechins of green tea on
planktonic and biofilm forms of staphylococcus aureus,
Mahmoud1, Fahd Alkhaleefah2, and Doaa
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of
Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science,
University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, UK.
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of
Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.
(SA) is a common microorganism
responsible for many types of infections. Resistance to
conventional drugs is rapidly acquired by SA, especially strains
such as methicillin-resistant (MRSA), vancomycin intermediate-
Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant (VRSA).
The study was conducted to assess the effects of two green tea
polyphenolic catechin compounds, epigallocatechingallate (EGCG)
and epicatechins (EC), on 120 non-repetitive strains of SA (90
MRSA and 30 methicillin-sensetive SA “MSSA”).
After determination of the EGCG minimal inhibitory
concentrations (MICs), 12 conventional antimicrobial agents were
tested for their effect on staphylococcal strains alone and in
combination with the sub-MIC of EGCG. Eighteen of the Innovotech
MBEC kits were used to induce biolfims over its pegs which were
then challenged with EGCG to test for its effects upon biofilm
and planktonic bacterial forms. Results showed that EGCG has
antibacterial effects against all the tested strains of
staphylococci with mean MIC of 64-256 μg/ml (mostly 256 μg/ml)
upon planktonic bacteria and minimal biofilm eradication
concentration (MBEC) of 512 μg/ml actericidal upon biofilms. No
antibacterial effects for EC were detected. There was positive
synergy with penicillin (and ciprofloxacin upon MRSA), and
additive effects with EGCG and clarithromycin and gentamycin.
These results prove the in vitro antibacterial effects of EGCG
of green tea upon both planktonin and biofilm MRSA and MSSA,
however further clinical studies are in need.
[Mahmoud A, Alkhaleefah F, Sherif
DM. Antimicrobial effects of epigallocatechingallate and
epicatechins of green tea on planktonic and biofilm forms of
staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA.
polyphenolic catechin, epigallocatechingallate, epicatechins,
planktonic, biofilm, synergy, MIC, MBEC.
Impact of a designed
supportive nursing program for hepatitis C patients on their
functional health status during Interferon therapy in the
National Hepatology Medicine Institute
Baghdad Hussein Mahmoud, Nilufer
Shafik, and Suzan Attya
Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University
Abstract: Egypt has the
largest epidemic of
hepatitis C virus in the world. The World Health Organization
estimated in 2011 that Egypt comes first worldwide in hepatitis
C prevalence, with more than 22 % suffering from the disease.
attention has been given to the neurobehavioral manifestations
of the disease and the side effects of its antiviral treatment
Interferon plus Ribavirin specially, depression. Depression
increase the risk for patient noncompliance and a reason for
discontinuation of antiviral therapy.
The aim of the present study was
to identify the impact of a designed supportive nursing program
for hepatitis C patients on their functional health status
during Interferon therapy. A quasi-experimental research design
was used to achieve the purpose of the study. A sample of
convenience of 50 adult male and female patients in the national
hepatology medicine research institute and 6th of
October health insurance hospital outpatient clinics. Patients
were interviewed at treatment weeks 1, 16, 32, 48 and 72 weeks.
Data pertinent to the study variables were collected through
sort form-36(SF-36) health survey and pre/post knowledge
assessment questionnaire developed by the researcher. Beck's
Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure the severity of depression
and a supportive nursing program for hepatitis C patients. In
addition, a background data sheet was used to obtain information
about the subjects pertinent to the study. The results revealed
that side effects of Interferon begin a few hours after its
administration and the patient develops tolerance in a few weeks
with continuation of therapy. Patient education and monitoring
are the cornerstones for enabling the patient to adhere to a
therapeutic regimen. This study results recommend to improve
hepatology nurse specialists skills of education, counseling and
support to patients during antiviral therapy and teach patients
self administering Interferon injections.
[Baghdad Hussein Mahmoud, Nilufer
Shafik, and Suzan Attya. Impact of a designed supportive
nursing program for hepatitis C patients on their functional
health status during Interferon therapy in the National
Hepatology Medicine Institute.
Nat Sci 2013;11(6):80-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
supportive nursing program,
hepatitis C, Functional health status, Interferon.
The Impact of Self-Care
Instructional program on Quality of Life of Patients with Liver
cirrhosis at El-Kasr EL Ainy Cairo University Hospital
Furat H. Mahmoud; Nawal Ebeid;
and Mohamed S.A. Elaziz
Medical Surgical Nursing Dept;
Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University
Liver Cirrhosis is a serious and irreversible disease. It is a
consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by
replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as
regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver
function. Patients with chronic liver disease experience a
variety of symptoms with profound negative impact on their HRQL.
Working with patients with chronic liver disease requires not
just dealing with the medical aspects of their disorder, but
also working with the whole person-physically, emotionally and
socially. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a
self care program on quality of life of cirrhotic patients. A
quasi experimental research design was utilized in the current
study. A convenient sample of 60 male and female patients in the
hepatology units in ELkasr El Ainy hospital was selected as a
study sample. Data pertinent to the study variables were
collected from the study sample through structured interviews,
utilizing two questionnaires designed by the researcher and
chronic liver disease questionnaire(CLDQ) used to measure QOL in
chronic liver disease patients. In addition to self care
instructional program. Study findings revealed that the majority
of the study sample felt bad impact of the disease on their
family and worried about the disease progression most of time.
The patients' knowledge about the prevention and care of
cirrhotic patients is improved after the educational program.
All of patients knew the complications of cirrhosis, allowed and
prohibited food and drugs after the program. The total knowledge
score is improved after the educational program. Based on the
findings of the present study, continuous education and follow
up of chronic hepatitis patients is needed to prevent the
complications of cirrhosis and education of nurses regarding
patients responses and perception of stress related to have
chronic liver disease needs to be addressed.
[Furat H. Mahmoud; Nawal Ebeid;
Mohamed S.A. Elaziz. The Impact of Self-Care Instructional
program on Quality of Life of Patients with Liver cirrhosis at
El-Kasr EL Ainy Cairo University Hospital.
Nat Sci 2013;11(6):95-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Keywords: Quality of
life- Liver cirrhosis- Self- care instructional program.
Modeling Marshall Stability
and Flow for Hot Mix Asphalt Using Artificial Intelligence
Associate Professor, Public Works Department, Faculty of
Engineering, Ain Shams University,
Marshall Mix design method is one of the common methods that are
used in several countries to design hot mix asphalt. Two of the
main design parameters that are considered in this method are
Marshall stability and Marshall flow. These parameters depend on
several factors including aggregate gradation and asphalt cement
content. Mix stability and flow are measured in the laboratory
by applying a constant rate of deformation diametrically on a
cylindrical specimen of asphalt mix. In recent years, artificial
intelligence techniques such as neural networks (ANNs) and
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) have been utilized
in many civil engineering tasks as an alternative to traditional
prediction approaches and have shown a good degree of success.
The main objective of this study is to use Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy
Inference System to develop models that can predict the asphalt
mix stability and flow as a function of mix gradation and
asphalt cement content. An experimental investigation was
carried out to provide the database containing the data required
for models development. These data were then used to develop
ANFIS models. These models were developed through using the
Gaussian membership function. The output results indicated that
ANFIS models can be used effectively to predict Marshall
stability and flow.
Kandil. Modeling Marshall
Stability and Flow for Hot Mix Asphalt Using Artificial
2013;11(6):106-112]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Asphalt Mix, Marshall Mix design,
Stability, Flow, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System,
Gaussian membership function.
Implementation Of The False Position (Regula Falsi) As A
Method For The Determination Of
Roots Of Non-Linear Equations Using Java
1.Akinboro, F.G., 1.Okeyode, I.C., 1Mustapha,
A.O., 2.Coker, J.O., and 1.Adesina, O.S.
Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
Physics, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos
Physics cuts across all branches of Physics, Engineering, and
Sciences in general. Determination of roots is one of the most
common areas/topics that show up in various disciples where
Computational Physics is applied or utilized. In the computation
and determination of the roots of non-linear equations, various
methods such as Root Bisection method, Regula Falsi method,
Newton’s method among others have been implemented using
FORTRAN, C, Basic, among other programming languages. This work
considered the implementation of the False Position Method,
otherwise known as the Regula Falsi method for the determination
of roots of non-linear equations using Java. Comparison between
results obtained showed that there is faster convergence and
greater accuracy in the results obtained using Java than as in
the results obtained using FORTRAN. Hence a good working
knowledge of Java might end up being advantageous to an average
V., Akinboro, F.G., Okeyode, I.C., Mustapha, A.O., Coker, J.O.,
and Adesina, O.S.
Implementation Of The False
Position (Regula Falsi) As A Computational Physics
Method For The Determination Of
Roots Of Non-Linear Equations Using Java.
2013;11(6):113-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Computational Physics Methods, Regular Falsi, FORTRAN, Java.
Development and Efficacy of
Fish Vaccine Used Against Some Bacterial Diseases in Farmed
Laila Ali Mohamed and Waleed Salah El-Din Soliman
National Research Centre-Veterinary Division -
Department of Hydrobiology
Tilapia aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing
type of fish production in Egypt. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
niloticus) is largely cultivated in many localities, where
septicaemic bacteria are the most common pathogens of cultured
warm water fish and cause major losses to the freshwater
aquaculture in Egypt and elsewhere. The use of vaccines,
combined with good health management techniques, can result in
substantial disease prevention and production becomes more
predictable. Vaccines are a preventative measure as opposed to
antibiotic treatment which is used after a disease outbreak.
Most bacterial vaccines used in aquaculture to date have been
inactivated vaccines obtained from a broth culture of a specific
strain(s) subjected to subsequent formalin inactivation. The
best results are obtained with those bacterins that include both
bacterial cells and extracellular products. Whereas with some
vaccines acceptable levels of protection are achieved with
aqueous formulations administered by injection or immersion, for
other bacterins, an acceptable level of protection can only be
achieved by immunization with oil-adjuvanted bacterins delivered
by injection. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. The
most effective method will depend upon the pathogen and its
natural route of infection, the life stage of the fish,
production techniques, and other logistical considerations.
Ali Mohamed and Waleed Salah El-Din Soliman. Development and
Efficacy of Fish Vaccine Used Against Some Bacterial Diseases in
Farmed Tilapia. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):120-128]. (ISSN:
fish - bacteria – oral vaccine - immersion vaccine - bacterin –
Variation in physical
and biochemical characteristics of wheat plants treated with
sewage water & plant growth regulators
Ram kumar Sagar1, Chandra Shekhar Kumar1,
Alka Singh2 and J.N. Maurya1*
of Plant Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, U.P.,
of Botany, Bareilly College, Bareilly, U.P., India
Plant hormones play a vital role in coordination of many growth
and behavioral process in the plant. They regulate the amount,
type and direction of plant growth. Organic waste recycling in
form of sewage water is an effective organic waste management,
turning in to a high quality and in expensive soil amendment. In
this study plant growth regulators like Auxin (IAA) and
Gibberellin (GA3) were both applied in 10ppm and
20ppm concentrations in combination with sewage water. The
sewage water was collected from Quilla channel (QA channel) of
Bareilly city. Result indicated that 20ppm IAA and 20ppm GA3
with 100% of sewage water increased the physical and bio
chemical properties of wheat crop compared to the 100% sewage
water with 10ppm IAA & 10ppm GA3 and control (Tap
water). Our findings also proved that exogenous application of
PGRs along with sewage water result an increased physical and
biochemical parameters as compared to sewage water alone and
[Ram kumar Sagar, Chandra Shekhar Kumar, Alka Singh and J.N.
Maurya. Variation in physical and biochemical characteristics
of wheat plants treated with sewage water & plant growth
2013;11(6):129-135]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Sewage Water; Indole Acetic Acid; Gibberellin; Wheat.
Nutraceuticals from Bitter
Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del.) Protects against Cadmium
Chloride induced Hypertension in Albino Rats
Olaiya C.O 1,
Choudhary M.I 2, Ogunyemi O.M.1, Nwauzoma
Department of Biochemistry,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
H.E.J. Research Institute of
Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological
Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
Department of Applied &
Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science &
Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
In recent years, the consumption
of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of
nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have become progressively
popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases.
This study investigated
the cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of some
nutraceuticals from Vernonia amygdalina namely, β-sitosterol
(BSS), β-sitosterol glucoside (BSSG) and BSS:
BSSG mixture on certain
parameters in hypertensive wistar albino rats. Hypertension was
induced with Cadmium Chloride and the biochemical analyses of
serum were carried out following treatment with BSS, BSSG,
BSS:BSSG mixture and lisinopril. Serum urea, creatinine, calcium
and electrolytes levels were assayed using appropriate standard
methods as tests for renal function, while alkaline phosphatase
(ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase
(ALT) served as enzyme indices of the liver function. The effect
on the serum lipid profile was also assessed. Data collected
were expressed as mean ± SEM and analysed using one-way ANOVA.
The sodium levels had a significant (p<0.05) reduction in BSS
and BSS:BSSG mixture treated rats. BSS treatment also gave a
significant (p<0.05) decrease in triglyceride and total
cholesterol levels while BSSG treatment gave 60.4% increase in
HDL-Cholesterol levels and increased HDL-Cholesterol: LDL-Cholesterol
ratio. Generally, treatments with the phytosterols reduced the
levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and tends to maintain urea and
creatinine basal levels while lisinopril significantly increased
(p<0.05) serum urea and creatinine levels. Tissue sections from
phytosterol-treated groups show no visible lesion as against
those from hypertensive rats that show areas of extensive
necrosis. This study revealed that these nutraceuticals possess
cardioprotective and hepatoprotective properties, with possible
practical application in the management of cardiovascular
[Olaiya CO, Choudhary MI,
Ogunyemi OM, Nwauzoma AB.
Nutraceuticals from Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina
Del.) Protects against Cadmium Chloride induced Hypertension in
amygdalina, bioactivity, lisinopril, hypertension.
Evaluation of The
Responsiveness to Anemia in Type I Diabetic Children
El Hefnawy, H.*,
Haider, N.*, Emara, I.** and Ghanem, A***.
**Biochemistry and ***Clinical Pathology departments of National
Institute for Diabetes & Endocrinology, (NIDE), Cairo – Egypt
Abstract: Backgrounds and aim of the work:
Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) levels increase during hypoglycemia and
may represent protective hormonal counter-regulatory responses.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the EPO responsiveness
to anemia in type 1 diabetic children.
Subjects & methods: Forty
patients (20F/20 M) with type 1 DM
aged from 8-18 years with history of diabetes more than 5 years. They
matched with age, BMI and gender healthy 20 subjects (10 F/10 M)
and 20 anemic non diabetic patients (10 F/10 M) were recruited
for this study. All groups were
subjected to estimation of Fasting Blood Glucose,
serum EPO, ferritin, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), iron as
well as Hemoglobin level, RBCs count and HbA1c in addition to
micro-albumin/Creatinine ratio. Results: Fasting
Blood Glucose concentrations showed increase significantly in
patients with type 1DM than in the healthy controls and anaemic
non diabetic group (P<0.001 )
Serum EPO levels were significantly higher in patients
with type 1DM than in the healthy controls (P<0.05
) While serum EPO levels
showed statistically highly significant difference between
diabetics and anemic non diabetic group (49.85+24.91 &
Diabetic patients had lower Hb levels than healthy one (p<0.05)
and non significant difference
than anemic patients. Also, diabetic patients showed significant
increase in ferritin and iron levels and significant decrease in
TIBC levels than anemic patients group.
There were statistically significant differences between
diabetics with positive microalbuminuria (n=12) and diabetics
with normoalbuminuria (n=28) as regarding HbA1c concentrations,
Hb concentrations and a highly significant difference as
regarding serum EPO levels. EPO levels showed significant
positive correlation with HbA1c
concentrations and highly significant positive
correlation with microalbuminuria
in diabetic group and showed inverse correlation with Hb levels
in the same group.
[El Hefnawy, H.,
Haider, N., Emara, I. and Ghanem, A.
Evaluation of The Erythropoietin
Responsiveness to Anemia in Type 1 Diabetic Children.
type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria,
A Comparative Assessment of the Municipal Solid Waste Management
Kadafa, Adati Ayuba;
Latifah, Abd Manaf; Abdullah, Ho Sabrina; Sulaiman, Wan
43400 Darul Eshan,
Mankind naturally depends on the environment to sustain their
lives but solid waste is one of the three major environmental
problems in Nigeria, Malaysia and many other developing and even
the developed countries are threatened by this. Waste management
generally plays a significant role in the ability of nature to
sustain life within its capacity and therefore
an integral part of urban and environmental management in every
Currently municipal solid waste management is a globally
challenging issue especially in developing countries, due to its
adverse environmental effects. This research is a comparative
study aimed at
rating municipal solid waste management services in FCT Abuja
and Putrajaya towards identifying deficient areas requiring
improvements. Residential questionnaire were used for the
assessment. The data obtained was analyzed using qualitative and
quantitative methods; specifically descriptive, parametric and
[Kadafa, Adati Ayuba;
Latifah, Abd Manaf; Abdullah, Ho Sabrina; Sulaiman, Wan
Azmin. A Comparative Assessment of the
Municipal Solid Waste Management Services.
2013;11(6):154-164]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).
Assessment, Solid Waste, Management, Rating
in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review
starting from April 22, 2013.
comments are welcome: firstname.lastname@example.org
For back issues of the Nature and Science, click