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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci)
 ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 11 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 75), June 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1106 

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Behaviour of Wheat Cv. Masr-1 Plants to Foliar Application of Some Vitamins

 

Naheif Ebraheim Mohamed Mohamed

 

Agronomy Dept. Fac. of Agric. Souhag Univ., Egypt

 

Abstract: Plant height, grain yield and its components, some plant pigments as well as leaf and grain mineral content of wheat cv. Masr- 1 plants in response to foliar application of some vitamins namely vitamin B12 at 50 ppm, folic acid at 50 ppm and vitamin C at 500 ppm were investigated during 2010/ 2011 and 2011/ 2012 seasons. All vitamins were sprayed twice at 30 and 60 days after planting. Single and combined applications of these vitamins materially was accompanied with stimulating plant height, grain yield and its components, some plant pigments and different minerals in both the leaves and grains in relative to the control treatment. Nitrite in the grains was greatly declined with different vitamin treatments. Using vitamin C, folic acid and vitamin B12, in ascending order was very effective in stimulating growth, grain yield and its components. The best results with regard to grain yield and quality of wheat cv. Masr- 1 were obtained with spraying the plants twice with a mixture of vitamins containing vitamin B12 at 50 ppm, folic acid at 50 ppm and vitamin C at 500 ppm.

[Naheif Ebraheim Mohamed Mohamed. Behaviour of Wheat Cv. Masr-1 Plants to Foliar Application of Some Vitamins. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.01

 

Keywords: wheat, vitamins and yield.

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2

Comparative Anaesthetic Efficacy of Thiopental Sodium, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Propofol and Combination of Propofol with Ketamine Hydrochloride in Egyptian Mongooses, Herpestes Ichneumon.

 

Hassan, M. M.

 

Department of Surgery, Anaesthesiology & Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Dr_zaghlol68@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was performed on 12 adult apparently healthy male Egyptian mongooses to determine the comparative anaesthetic efficacy of thiopental sodium, ketamine, propofol alone and propofol in combination with ketamine. Durations of induction, surgical stage and recovery from anaesthesia were recorded. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature, in addition to the effects of anaesthetic agents on various body reflexes were recorded. Animals treated with thiopental sodium (Group A), showed rapid induction, the longest duration of surgical anaesthetic stage and prolonged non smooth recovery, while animals treated with ketamine (group B), showed unstable surgical anaesthetic stage with spasm in skeletal muscles and animals treated with propfol (group C), showed rapid induction and respiratory depression with very rapid recovery. Combination of ketamine with propofol (group D), reduced the dose of propofol required and prolonged the anaesthetic stage. Moreover, it avoided respiratory depression caused by propfol. It was concluded that propofol in combination with ketamine is a safe anaesthetic agent for mongooses as an alternative of thiopental sodium for prolonged surgical procedures.

[Hassan, M. M. Comparative Anaesthetic Efficacy of Thiopental Sodium, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Propofol and Combination of Propofol with Ketamine Hydrochloride in Egyptian Mongooses, Herpestes Ichneumon. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):6-12]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.02

 

Keywords: Egyptian mongooses, thiopental sodium, propofol, ketamine.

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3

Regulation of Navel Orange Cropping and Improvement of FruitQuality Using Sitofex and GibberellicAcid

 

Abd El Raheem,M.E; Abd El- Rahman, G.F.; Hoda, M. Mohamed; and Elharony, S.B

 

Horticulture Res.Inst.Citrus Department, Agric.Res. Centre- Egypt.

gamalelashmanty@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Influence of Sitofex (CPPU) and gibberellic acid (GA3) were studied on yield and fruit quality of navel orange trees (Citrus sinensis) during (2011, 2012) seasons. The trees were 20years old, budded on Volkamer lemon rootstock (Citrus volkameriana, Ten &Pasq.)and were planted at 6x4m spacing in a private orchard at Badr area,El-Behiera Governorate. The study involved two experiments. The first (pre experiment) was done to define the suitable concentrations of CPPU application on citrus, (5, 7.5, 10 ppm) at full bloom stage. The second (main experiment), nine treatments were used as follow, where the plant growth regulatorCPPUwas sprayed at 2, 3, 4, and 5 ppm, either as a single application or in combination with 30 ppm GA3 at full bloom stage, as well as, control treatment. Data indicated that, high concentrations of CPPU at 7.5 or 10 ppm causedthedemolitionofchlorophyll, decreased the concentrations of leaf chlorophyll (a&b) and led to flowers and leaves abscission, chlorosis and emergence of shoots dieback. While, there were no significant differences for leaf chlorophyll (a&b) between 5ppmCPPU and control treatments.The previous results indicate that CPPU could be used at concentrations less or equal (5ppm) for citrus. Results also revealed that, application of 3, 4 ppm CPPU either singly or in combination with 30 ppm GA3was superior for attaining the best total yield. Alltreatments significantly increased leaf area, fruit dimensions (length, diameter), fruitsize and improved the fruit peel quality by increasing rindfirmness. Also, CPPU treatmentsreduced TSS/Acid ratiobeside a delay of maturity stage and fruit coloration especially at (3, 4 ppm alone or with 30 ppm GA3) which led to extending the harvest season and therefore increasing the exportation rate.

[Abd El Raheem, M.E; Abd El- Rahman, G.F.; Hoda,M. Mohamed; and Elharony, S.B. Regulation of Navel Orange Cropping and Improvement of FruitQuality Using Sitofex and GibberellicAcid. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):13-21]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.03

 

Key words:navel orange, Sitofex “CPPU”, gibberellic acid “GA3”, yield and fruit quality.

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4

Petrography of subvolcanic rocks of Givshad (south west of  Birjand, East of Iran) and the effective factors in rising magma

 

Fazilat Yousefi, Mohamad Hosein Zarrinkoub

 

Department of petrology, Birjand University

f.yousefi87@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Complex of givshad is in the southwest of Birjand. This complex consists sub volcanic rocks that outcrops in the paleocene flysch type. Type of this complex is porfiritic diorite. Their texture are porfiric and microgranolar. Plagioclase, amphibole, biotite and Quartz are main minerals. and petty mineral is opaque. zoning observe in this plagioclase. The effective of agents in rise and increase velocity of magma are difference of density between magma and that’s formation environment and creation fracture in surface. For showing of this subject, we use raws of fluid mechanic and modeling.  

[Yousefi F, Zarrinkoub M.H. Petrography of subvolcanic rocks of Givshad (south west of Birjand, East of Iran) and the effective factors in rising magma. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):22-24]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.04

 

Keywords: East iran, Birjand, porfiric diorite, rise magma and fluid mechanic.

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5

The Effect of Steamed and Microwaved Cooking on the Levels of Heavy Metals; Lead and Mercury in the Cyprinus carpio’s Muscle

 

Forouzanfar, F1, Askari Sari. A2, Chelemal Dezfool Nezhad. M3

 

1. Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Khouzestan, Iran

2, 3.Department of Fisheries, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: The survey in 2012 to assess the heavy metals lead and mercury concentrations in common carp cooked in steam and microwave cooking methods were crude samples. Randomly assigned to 24 common carp Azadegan warm fish culture center (Ahvaz) was caught. After the fillets, steamed muscles and microwave cooking methods of lead and mercury fish were then measured with the Spectrophotometer using One-way Anova using SPSS software were compared. The results of this study showed higher concentrations of mercury in the steam way (258 11.05) compared to the microwave (50.33 7.75) and the raw samples (185.66 17) showed that mercury concentrations in steamed raw muscle and cooked in a microwave muscle shows significant differences (p <0.05) the highest concentrations of mercury instead of lead metal in the microwave cooking method (304 8.54) and the lowest concentration steamed mode (254.33 7.63) showed that both methods lead metal concentrations than controls (232 12.28) increased. Lead concentrations in the raw muscle muscle cooked by microwave shows a significant difference (p <0.05) while no significant difference was observed with steamed muscles (p ≥ 0.05).

[Forouzanfar, F, Askari Sari. A, Chelemal Dezfool Nezhad. M. The Effect of Steamed and Microwaved cooking on the Levels of Heavy Metals; Lead and Mercury in the Cyprinus carpio’s Muscle. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):25-28]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.05

 

Keywords: cooking methods,heavy metal,lead, mercury,Cyprinus carpio

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6

Salinity tolerance of the flora halophytes to coastal habitat of Jarjr-oma in Libya

 

Abusaief, Huda Mohamed Abd Al Razik.1 Dakhil Ansaf Husien2, Abd Al Naby, Mohamed Mahmod.3 Al-Mogasby, Abd Al Salam.4

 

1Agron. Fac. Agric., 2Bot. Fac. Sci. 3Soil Depar. Fac. Agric. Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ. 4Herbarium Fac. Sci. Benghazi Univ., Bossef_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Halophytic vegetation and flora of Jarjr-oma in Libya. The recorded 33 species in Sandy beach during four seasons of autumn 2010 and winter, spring and summer 2011. Importance value and density of the different association type are perennials Cynodon dactylon and Tamarix tetragyna. It appears exclusive in Sandy beach, association Sarcopoterium spinosum, Limonium sibthorpianum, Cichorium spinosum. The dominant species Sandy beach of this type is Allium rumherianum and Sarcopoterium spinosum. Density of Sandy beach habitat of winter and spring seasons Cynodon dactylon, in summer season highest annuals Euphorbia peplis and Salsola kali. As well as, total 19 species in Salt march gave highest Dominance Suaeda vera and Limoniastrum monopetalum its species salinity tolerance. Appear all seasons similar in results density of species perennial of Salt march habitat. Found 114 species in Saline lands of four associations the dominant species of this type is Polycarpon tetraphyllum, the indicator species is Suaeda vera and Onopordum cyrenaicum, Rumex bucephalophorus, Sarcopoterium spinosum. Association by Mercurialis annua and Arisarum vulgare, Juniperus phoenicea. association by Anagallis arvensis, Bellevalia sessiliflora and Rhus tripartita. Vegetation in Sand formation habitat recorded eight species during four seasons. The dominant species of this type is Carex divisa, which attained the highest density in winter and spring. The indicator species are Pancratium maritimum. The principal components analysis for the vegetation habitats-soil relationships distinguished that the highest affinity for sand and clay soil content. The maximum mean value for Cl-, Na+, So4-- and EC. The species Suaeda vera, Retama raetem, Cynodon dactylon and Juncus acutus preferred to grow in coarse sand soil.

[Abusaief, Huda Mohamed Abd Al Razik. Dakhil Ansaf Husien, Abd Al Naby, Mohamed Mahmod. Al-Mogasby, Abd Al Salam. Salinity tolerance of the flora halophytes to coastal habitat of Jarjr-oma in Libya. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):29-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.06

 

Key Words: Salinity, Halophytes, Flora, Density and Important value

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7

Effect of Magnetite and Some Biofertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Valencia Orange Trees

Under El – Bustan Condition

 

Hoda, M. Mohamed 1; Faten, A. Al- kamar 2; and Azza, A. M. Abd-Elall 3

 

1Horticulture. Res. Instit. Citrus Dep., Agric. Res., Center, Giza, Egypt.

2Soil Water and Environment, Res. Inst., Sand and Calcareous Soils Dep. Agric. Res., Center, Giza, Egypt.

3Soil Water and Environment, Res. Inst., Microbiology Dep. Agric. Res., Center, Giza, Egypt.

hodacitrus@yahoo.com

 

Abstracts: The response of Valencia orange trees (Citrus Sinensis) budded on Volkamer lemon rootstock (Citrus Volkameriana) to Magnetite, Diatoms and biofertilizer (mixture of Cyanobacteria and Azolla) were studied during (2011 & 2012) seasons. Trees were four years old, planted at 4x6m apart (175 trees/ feddan), under drip irrigation system and growing in soil influenced by salinity, (where EC was 3.64 ds/m), in a private orchard, located at El Bustan County, El Behera Governorate, Egypt. The experiment involved 14 treatments. The obtained results indicated that, the application of biofertilizer plus 750 gm. Magnetite treatment was the best combination for achieving the highest total yield (51.44, 38.22 % over control) during two seasons, respectively. Diatoms either singly or in combination with Magnetite treatments improved fruit peel quality, where, (the peel thickness and firmness has increased, fruit peel was more lightness and had high good color quality), so it seems more attractive. Diatom treatments could earlier the harvest date by increasing fruit TSS/ Acid ratio and Vitamin C contents and to decrease fruit acidity especially Diatoms at5 ppm plus 750 gm. Magnetite. All treatments slightly reduced soil EC and pH, increased leaf K+ and reduced Na+ uptake especially biofertilizer plus 750 gm. Magnetite treatment. Treatments also enhanced of the soil biological activity in terms of increasing the total (bacterial, cyanobacterial) counts and CO2 evolution. Based on the economic study, it could be recommended to use biofertilizer plus 750 gm. Magnetite for achieving the best total yield and produced the highest net profit / fed., (4541.75 L.E), or use Diatoms at 5 ppm plus 750 gm. Magnetite for giving the high fruit peel quality which very important characteristics especially when fruits tended to be exported and earlier maturation of fruit as well as increased net profit / fed. (3426.75 L.E).While, it could not be recommended to use biofertilizer alone because it caused loss of money (-742 L.E).

[Hoda, M. Mohamed; Faten, A. Al- kamar; and Azza, A. M. Abd-Elall. Effect of Magnetite and Some Bio fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Valencia Orange Trees Under El – Bustan Condition. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):46-61]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.07

 

Key words: Magnetite, Diatoms, cyanobacteria, Azolla, yield, fruit quality and Valencia orange trees.

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8

Follow-up the Human Umblical Cord Stem Cell Injected Into Rats with renal Impairment

 

Salem A. Habib1, Mahmoud H. Sayed2 andRana R. El-Sadda1

 

1Biochemistry Department; Faculty of Science; Damietta University; Damietta; Egypt.

2 Clinical Pathology Department; Faculty of Medicine; Al.Azhar University; Damietta; Egypt.

Science_19892011@yahoo.com, Rana_ramzy@du.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Umbilical cord (UC) is a source of a population of pluripotent, mesenchymal-like stem cells, UC is rapidly gaining attention for its therapeutic value their lowincidence of rejection after UCtransplantation. UC transplantation does not require perfect antigen matching. The aim of this study to follow-up human Umblical Cord Stem Cell injected Into Rats With renal Impairment by biochemical and histochemicalparameters and show the effect ofmesenchymal stem cell (MSC) on kidney generation.After cells isolation and then they were cultured in optimum growth media. Twenty four albino male rats used in this study, Sixteen rats were injected with cisplatin drug (5 mg /kg body weight) single dose to obtain rats with acute renal failure, then they were divided into two groups, group I: contains eight rats with a cute renal failure as a positive control, group II: contains eight rats were injected with a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) (100 l of cell suspension (1x106 cell) intraperitoneally injected single dose.GroupIII: containeightrats were intraperitoneally injected with saline solution (100 l /kg body weight(. Biochemical and hisochemical studies to show significantly (p<0.05) renal tissue recovery. This work showed that these cells have the therapeutic potential for cell therapy and biological treatment which can be easily obtained.

[Salem A. Habib, Mahmoud H. Sayed and Rana R. El-Sadda. Follow-up the Human Umblical Cord Stem Cell Injected Into Rats with renal Impairment. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):62-69]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.08

 

Key words: Mesenchymal stem cell, Acute renal failure, Wharton’s jelly, tissue engineering.

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Antimicrobial effects of epigallocatechingallate and epicatechins of green tea on planktonic and biofilm forms of staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA

 

Mostafa Mahmoud1, Fahd Alkhaleefah2, and Doaa Mohammed Sherif3

 

1. Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

2. Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, UK.

3. Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

mamostafa67@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common microorganism responsible for many types of infections. Resistance to conventional drugs is rapidly acquired by SA, especially strains such as methicillin-resistant (MRSA), vancomycin intermediate- Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant (VRSA). The study was conducted to assess the effects of two green tea polyphenolic catechin compounds, epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and epicatechins (EC), on 120 non-repetitive strains of SA (90 MRSA and 30 methicillin-sensetive SA “MSSA). After determination of the EGCG minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 12 conventional antimicrobial agents were tested for their effect on staphylococcal strains alone and in combination with the sub-MIC of EGCG. Eighteen of the Innovotech MBEC kits were used to induce biolfims over its pegs which were then challenged with EGCG to test for its effects upon biofilm and planktonic bacterial forms. Results showed that EGCG has antibacterial effects against all the tested strains of staphylococci with mean MIC of 64-256 μg/ml (mostly 256 μg/ml) upon planktonic bacteria and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of 512 μg/ml actericidal upon biofilms. No antibacterial effects for EC were detected. There was positive synergy with penicillin (and ciprofloxacin upon MRSA), and additive effects with EGCG and clarithromycin and gentamycin. These results prove the in vitro antibacterial effects of EGCG of green tea upon both planktonin and biofilm MRSA and MSSA, however further clinical studies are in need.

[Mahmoud A, Alkhaleefah F, Sherif DM. Antimicrobial effects of epigallocatechingallate and epicatechins of green tea on planktonic and biofilm forms of staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):70-79]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.09

 

Keywords: Staphylococcus auerus, polyphenolic catechin, epigallocatechingallate, epicatechins, planktonic, biofilm, synergy, MIC, MBEC.

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Impact of a designed supportive nursing program for hepatitis C patients on their functional health status during Interferon therapy in the National Hepatology Medicine Institute

 

Baghdad Hussein Mahmoud, Nilufer Shafik, and Suzan Attya

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

dr_baghdad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Egypt has the largest epidemic of hepatitis C virus in the world. The World Health Organization estimated in 2011 that Egypt comes first worldwide in hepatitis C prevalence, with more than 22 % suffering from the disease. Little attention has been given to the neurobehavioral manifestations of the disease and the side effects of its antiviral treatment Interferon plus Ribavirin specially, depression. Depression increase the risk for patient noncompliance and a reason for discontinuation of antiviral therapy. The aim of the present study was to identify the impact of a designed supportive nursing program for hepatitis C patients on their functional health status during Interferon therapy. A quasi-experimental research design was used to achieve the purpose of the study. A sample of convenience of 50 adult male and female patients in the national hepatology medicine research institute and 6th of October health insurance hospital outpatient clinics. Patients were interviewed at treatment weeks 1, 16, 32, 48 and 72 weeks. Data pertinent to the study variables were collected through sort form-36(SF-36) health survey and pre/post knowledge assessment questionnaire developed by the researcher. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure the severity of depression and a supportive nursing program for hepatitis C patients. In addition, a background data sheet was used to obtain information about the subjects pertinent to the study. The results revealed that side effects of Interferon begin a few hours after its administration and the patient develops tolerance in a few weeks with continuation of therapy. Patient education and monitoring are the cornerstones for enabling the patient to adhere to a therapeutic regimen. This study results recommend to improve hepatology nurse specialists skills of education, counseling and support to patients during antiviral therapy and teach patients self administering Interferon injections.

[Baghdad Hussein Mahmoud, Nilufer Shafik, and Suzan Attya. Impact of a designed supportive nursing program for hepatitis C patients on their functional health status during Interferon therapy in the National Hepatology Medicine Institute. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):80-94]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.10

 

Keywords: supportive nursing program, hepatitis C, Functional health status, Interferon.

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The Impact of Self-Care Instructional program on Quality of Life of Patients with Liver cirrhosis at El-Kasr EL Ainy Cairo University Hospital

 

Furat H. Mahmoud; Nawal Ebeid; and Mohamed S.A. Elaziz

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Dept; Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

Furat_hu@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Liver Cirrhosis is a serious and irreversible disease. It is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. Patients with chronic liver disease experience a variety of symptoms with profound negative impact on their HRQL. Working with patients with chronic liver disease requires not just dealing with the medical aspects of their disorder, but also working with the whole person-physically, emotionally and socially. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a self care program on quality of life of cirrhotic patients. A quasi experimental research design was utilized in the current study. A convenient sample of 60 male and female patients in the hepatology units in ELkasr El Ainy hospital was selected as a study sample. Data pertinent to the study variables were collected from the study sample through structured interviews, utilizing two questionnaires designed by the researcher and chronic liver disease questionnaire(CLDQ) used to measure QOL in chronic liver disease patients. In addition to self care instructional program. Study findings revealed that the majority of the study sample felt bad impact of the disease on their family and worried about the disease progression most of time. The patients' knowledge about the prevention and care of cirrhotic patients is improved after the educational program. All of patients knew the complications of cirrhosis, allowed and prohibited food and drugs after the program. The total knowledge score is improved after the educational program. Based on the findings of the present study, continuous education and follow up of chronic hepatitis patients is needed to prevent the complications of cirrhosis and education of nurses regarding patients responses and perception of stress related to have chronic liver disease needs to be addressed.

[Furat H. Mahmoud; Nawal Ebeid; Mohamed S.A. Elaziz. The Impact of Self-Care Instructional program on Quality of Life of Patients with Liver cirrhosis at El-Kasr EL Ainy Cairo University Hospital. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):95-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.11

 

Keywords: Quality of life- Liver cirrhosis- Self- care instructional program.

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Modeling Marshall Stability and Flow for Hot Mix Asphalt Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

 

Khaled A. Kandil

 

Associate Professor, Public Works Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

K_kandil@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Marshall Mix design method is one of the common methods that are used in several countries to design hot mix asphalt. Two of the main design parameters that are considered in this method are Marshall stability and Marshall flow. These parameters depend on several factors including aggregate gradation and asphalt cement content. Mix stability and flow are measured in the laboratory by applying a constant rate of deformation diametrically on a cylindrical specimen of asphalt mix. In recent years, artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks (ANNs) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) have been utilized in many civil engineering tasks as an alternative to traditional prediction approaches and have shown a good degree of success. The main objective of this study is to use Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to develop models that can predict the asphalt mix stability and flow as a function of mix gradation and asphalt cement content. An experimental investigation was carried out to provide the database containing the data required for models development. These data were then used to develop ANFIS models. These models were developed through using the Gaussian membership function. The output results indicated that ANFIS models can be used effectively to predict Marshall stability and flow.

[Khaled A. Kandil. Modeling Marshall Stability and Flow for Hot Mix Asphalt Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques.  Nat Sci 2013;11(6):106-112]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.12

 

Key words: Asphalt Mix, Marshall Mix design, Stability, Flow, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, Gaussian membership function.

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Implementation Of The False Position (Regula Falsi) As A Computational Physics Method For The Determination Of Roots Of Non-Linear Equations Using Java

 

1.*Makinde, V., 1.Akinboro, F.G., 1.Okeyode, I.C., 1Mustapha, A.O., 2.Coker, J.O., and 1.Adesina, O.S.

 

1.Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

2.Department of Physics, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos

victor_makindeii@yahoo.com; betamagengineering@yahoo.com; kamiyolejoy2000@yahoo.com; amidumustapha@gmail.com; cokerclara@yahoo.com; tundeblack2000@gmail.com

*Corresponding Author

 

ABSTRACT: Computational Physics cuts across all branches of Physics, Engineering, and Sciences in general. Determination of roots is one of the most common areas/topics that show up in various disciples where Computational Physics is applied or utilized. In the computation and determination of the roots of non-linear equations, various methods such as Root Bisection method, Regula Falsi method, Newton’s method among others have been implemented using FORTRAN, C, Basic, among other programming languages. This work considered the implementation of the False Position Method, otherwise known as the Regula Falsi method for the determination of roots of non-linear equations using Java. Comparison between results obtained showed that there is faster convergence and greater accuracy in the results obtained using Java than as in the results obtained using FORTRAN. Hence a good working knowledge of Java might end up being advantageous to an average physicist.

[Makinde, V., Akinboro, F.G., Okeyode, I.C., Mustapha, A.O., Coker, J.O., and Adesina, O.S. Implementation Of The False Position (Regula Falsi) As A Computational Physics Method For The Determination Of Roots Of Non-Linear Equations Using Java. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):113-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.13

 

Keywords: Computational Physics Methods, Regular Falsi, FORTRAN, Java.

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Development and Efficacy of Fish Vaccine Used Against Some Bacterial Diseases in Farmed Tilapia

 

Laila Ali Mohamed and Waleed Salah El-Din Soliman

 

National Research Centre-Veterinary Division - Department of Hydrobiology

LailaAli@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tilapia aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing type of fish production in Egypt. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is largely cultivated in many localities, where septicaemic bacteria are the most common pathogens of cultured warm water fish and cause major losses to the freshwater aquaculture in Egypt and elsewhere. The use of vaccines, combined with good health management techniques, can result in substantial disease prevention and production becomes more predictable. Vaccines are a preventative measure as opposed to antibiotic treatment which is used after a disease outbreak. Most bacterial vaccines used in aquaculture to date have been inactivated vaccines obtained from a broth culture of a specific strain(s) subjected to subsequent formalin inactivation. The best results are obtained with those bacterins that include both bacterial cells and extracellular products. Whereas with some vaccines acceptable levels of protection are achieved with aqueous formulations administered by injection or immersion, for other bacterins, an acceptable level of protection can only be achieved by immunization with oil-adjuvanted bacterins delivered by injection. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. The most effective method will depend upon the pathogen and its natural route of infection, the life stage of the fish, production techniques, and other logistical considerations.

[Laila Ali Mohamed and Waleed Salah El-Din Soliman. Development and Efficacy of Fish Vaccine Used Against Some Bacterial Diseases in Farmed Tilapia. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):120-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.14

 

Keywords: Tilapia fish - bacteria – oral vaccine - immersion vaccine -  bacterin – RPS.

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Variation in physical and biochemical characteristics of wheat plants treated with sewage water & plant growth regulators

 

Ram kumar Sagar1, Chandra Shekhar Kumar1, Alka Singh2 and J.N. Maurya1*

 

1Department of Plant Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, U.P., India

2Department of Botany, Bareilly College, Bareilly, U.P., India

 

ABSTRACT: Plant hormones play a vital role in coordination of many growth and behavioral process in the plant. They regulate the amount, type and direction of plant growth. Organic waste recycling in form of sewage water is an effective organic waste management, turning in to a high quality and in expensive soil amendment. In this study plant growth regulators like Auxin (IAA) and Gibberellin (GA3) were both applied in 10ppm and 20ppm concentrations in combination with sewage water. The sewage water was collected from Quilla channel (QA channel) of Bareilly city. Result indicated that 20ppm IAA and 20ppm GA3 with 100% of sewage water increased the physical and bio chemical properties of wheat crop compared to the 100% sewage water with 10ppm IAA & 10ppm GA3 and control (Tap water). Our findings also proved that exogenous application of PGRs along with sewage water result an increased physical and biochemical parameters as compared to sewage water alone and control.

[Ram kumar Sagar, Chandra Shekhar Kumar, Alka Singh and J.N. Maurya. Variation in physical and biochemical characteristics of wheat plants treated with sewage water & plant growth regulators. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):129-135]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.15

 

KEYWORDS: Sewage Water; Indole Acetic Acid; Gibberellin; Wheat.

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Nutraceuticals from Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del.) Protects against Cadmium Chloride induced Hypertension in Albino Rats

 

Olaiya C.O 1, Choudhary M.I 2, Ogunyemi O.M.1,  Nwauzoma A. B3

 

1.         Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

2.         H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences,  University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

3.         Department of Applied & Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science & Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 cooolaiya@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In recent years, the consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. This study investigated the cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of some nutraceuticals from Vernonia amygdalina namely, β-sitosterol (BSS), β-sitosterol glucoside (BSSG) and BSS: BSSG mixture on certain parameters in hypertensive wistar albino rats. Hypertension was induced with Cadmium Chloride and the biochemical analyses of serum were carried out following treatment with BSS, BSSG, BSS:BSSG mixture and lisinopril. Serum urea, creatinine, calcium and electrolytes levels were assayed using appropriate standard methods as tests for renal function, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) served as enzyme indices of the liver function. The effect on the serum lipid profile was also assessed. Data collected were expressed as mean SEM and analysed using one-way ANOVA. The sodium levels had a significant (p<0.05) reduction in BSS and BSS:BSSG mixture treated rats. BSS treatment also gave a significant (p<0.05) decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels while BSSG treatment gave 60.4% increase in HDL-Cholesterol levels and increased HDL-Cholesterol: LDL-Cholesterol ratio. Generally, treatments with the phytosterols reduced the levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and tends to maintain urea and creatinine basal levels while lisinopril significantly increased (p<0.05) serum urea and creatinine levels.  Tissue sections from phytosterol-treated groups show no visible lesion as against those from hypertensive rats that show areas of extensive necrosis. This study revealed that these nutraceuticals possess cardioprotective and hepatoprotective properties, with possible practical application in the management of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).

[Olaiya CO, Choudhary MI, Ogunyemi OM, Nwauzoma AB. Nutraceuticals from Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del.) Protects against Cadmium Chloride induced Hypertension in Albino Rats. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):136-145]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.16

 

Keywords: Nutraceuticals, Vernonia amygdalina,  bioactivity, lisinopril, hypertension.

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Evaluation of The Erythropoietin Responsiveness to Anemia in Type I Diabetic Children

 

El Hefnawy, H.*, Haider, N.*, Emara, I.** and Ghanem, A***.

 

*Pediatric, **Biochemistry and ***Clinical Pathology departments of National Institute for Diabetes & Endocrinology, (NIDE), Cairo – Egypt

E-mail: ib.emara@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Backgrounds and aim of the work: Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) levels increase during hypoglycemia and may represent protective hormonal counter-regulatory responses. The aim of this research was to evaluate the EPO responsiveness to anemia in type 1 diabetic children. Subjects & methods: Forty patients (20F/20 M) with type 1 DM aged from 8-18 years with history of diabetes more than 5 years. They matched with age, BMI and gender healthy 20 subjects (10 F/10 M) and 20 anemic non diabetic patients (10 F/10 M) were recruited for this study. All groups were subjected to estimation of Fasting Blood Glucose, serum EPO, ferritin, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), iron as well as Hemoglobin level, RBCs count and HbA1c in addition to micro-albumin/Creatinine ratio. Results: Fasting Blood Glucose concentrations showed increase significantly in patients with type 1DM than in the healthy controls and anaemic non diabetic group (P<0.001 ) Serum EPO levels were significantly higher in patients with type 1DM than in the healthy controls (P<0.05 ) While serum EPO levels showed statistically highly significant difference between diabetics and anemic non diabetic group (49.85+24.91 & 212.54+65.31respectively P<0.001). Diabetic patients had lower Hb levels than healthy one (p<0.05) and non significant difference than anemic patients. Also, diabetic patients showed significant increase in ferritin and iron levels and significant decrease in TIBC levels than anemic patients group. There were statistically significant differences between diabetics with positive microalbuminuria (n=12) and diabetics with normoalbuminuria (n=28) as regarding HbA1c concentrations, Hb concentrations and a highly significant difference as regarding serum EPO levels. EPO levels showed significant positive correlation with HbA1c concentrations and highly significant positive correlation with microalbuminuria in diabetic group and showed inverse correlation with Hb levels in the same group.

[El Hefnawy, H., Haider, N., Emara, I. and Ghanem, A. Evaluation of The Erythropoietin Responsiveness to Anemia in Type 1 Diabetic Children. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):146-153]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.17

 

Keywords: Erythropoietin, type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria, anemia

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A Comparative Assessment of the Municipal Solid Waste Management Services

 

Kadafa, Adati Ayuba; Latifah, Abd Manaf; Abdullah, Ho Sabrina; Sulaiman, Wan Azmin

 

Department of Environmental Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Darul Eshan, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, Telephone: +60192172925, E-mail: kwaala@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mankind naturally depends on the environment to sustain their lives but solid waste is one of the three major environmental problems in Nigeria, Malaysia and many other developing and even the developed countries are threatened by this. Waste management generally plays a significant role in the ability of nature to sustain life within its capacity and therefore an integral part of urban and environmental management in every city. Currently municipal solid waste management is a globally challenging issue especially in developing countries, due to its adverse environmental effects. This research is a comparative study aimed at rating municipal solid waste management services in FCT Abuja and Putrajaya towards identifying deficient areas requiring improvements. Residential questionnaire were used for the assessment. The data obtained was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods; specifically descriptive, parametric and nonparametric statistics.  

[Kadafa, Adati Ayuba; Latifah, Abd Manaf; Abdullah, Ho Sabrina; Sulaiman, Wan Azmin. A Comparative Assessment of the Municipal Solid Waste Management Services. Nat Sci 2013;11(6):154-164]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110613.18

 

Keywords: Assessment, Solid Waste, Management, Rating

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 22, 2013
 
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