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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 11 - Number 07 (Cumulated No. 76), July 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1107 

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Antioxidants Status in Breast Cancer Patients under Chemotherapy

 

 Ashraf A. EL-Bindarya, Raida S. Yahyab, Hatem A. EL-Mezayenc,  Hossam Darwishd, and Mohammed A. Eissae

 

aChemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damiette University, Damiette , Egypt, b Children Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura,Egypt, cChemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University,Cairo,Egypt,   dMedical Oncology Department, eClinical Pathology DepartmentDamiette Cancer Institute, Damiette, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The latest experimental evidences on cancer diseases were implicated the involved oxygen derived radicals in the development and spread of these diseases in human's body. Oxygen derived radicals were able to attack and damage the cell membranes, mitochondria and macromolecules including proteins, lipids and DNA. These damaged molecules were accumulates in the cells especial for DNA damages that it have the ability to increase the rate of cell carcinogenesis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the biochemical role of some antioxidants enzymes in breast cancer (BC) patients under therapy treatment. Spectrophotometric standard technique was used to estimate the activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione – S– transferase (GST)  in sera and plasma of 50 BC patients before  and after  their chemotherapy courses  and 40 healthy women as  controls. Statistical analyses were performed by a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 15.0 for windows, Inc.). We found that the activities of both SOD and CAT in pretreated BC patients were significantly lower (P<0.001) than those of controls. In contrast, the activity of GST was significantly increased (P<0.001) in pre treated BC patients than those of controls. After all BC patients received the first chemotherapy course, the effects of chemotherapy on SOD, CAT and GST activities were observed, where there was further significant decreasing (P<0.001) in these activities in post treated than other pretreated BC patients and controls. In conclusion, administration of these antioxidants is necessary to all BC patients that it may be helpful to support and manage the efficiency of their chemotherapy courses.
[
Ashraf A. EL-Bindary, Raida S. Yahya, Hatem A. EL-Mezayen, Hossam Darwish, and Mohammed A. Eissa. Antioxidants status in breast cancer patients under therapy. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.01

 

Keywords: breast cancer, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione–s–transferase, reactive oxygen metabolites

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2

Biocontrol  of Mushroom Spoilage Fungi  andAflatoxin Evaluation During Storage

 

Ilesanmi Fadahunsi1, Dayo Ayansina2, Ayodele Okunrotifa1

 

1 Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

sanmifadahunsi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The use of chemical substances in the control of pathogens is relatively expensive, it constitutes environmental hazards coupled with high level of toxicity to humans and it is therefore considered unsafe. Studies were carried out to investigate the biocontrol of fungi causing spoilage in mushroom and aflatoxin production during storage. The results obtained revealed that four species of fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus stolonifer were isolated from the spoilt mushroom samples. The antagonistic activities of four biocontrol agents; Trichoderma asperellum CMI T158, Trichoderma longibrachiatum CMI T167, Pseudomonas fluorescence CMI F113 and Bacillus subtilis CMI 22BN against the isolated spoilage fungi were tested using the agar well diffusion method. The optimization of the antagonistic activities of the biocontrol agent metabolites was carried out based on pH and temperature variations. The heat stability of the metabolites produced by the biocontrol agents and the aflatoxin production during storage of the mushroom samples were evaluated. The results obtained revealed that Bacillus subtilis did not inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus, but inhibited Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus stononifer with inhibition zones of 25mm 0.18, 21mm0.11 and 20mm0.13 respectively. Pseudomonas fluorescence and Trichoderma longibrachiatum inhibited all the tested pathogens, while Trichoderma asperellum did not inhibit A. fumigatus and A. niger but inhibited B. theobromae and R. stolonifer showing inhibition zones of 22mm 0.15 and 20mm 014 respectively. The effect of varying pH on the inhibitory activity of the metabolites produced by the biocontrol agents showed that the optimum inhibitory ability of the bacterial biocontrol agents were enhanced at pH 6.0, while the fungal biocontrol agents showed maximum inhibitory activity at pH 5.0. However variations in temperatures revealed that both the bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents were more effective at 300C. The monitoring of the thermal stability of the metabolites produced by the biocontrol agents indicated that they were inhibitory at 200C and 400C but at 600C, inhibition was not detected. The assessment of aflatoxin in dried stored mushroom reflected that aflatoxin B1 (4.0ppb0.1) and B2 (3.88ppb0.0) were produced in sample A while aflatoxins G1 and G2 were not detected in the same sample. Aflatoxin B1 (3.09ppb0.02), B2 (2.33ppb 0.04) and G1 (1.75ppb 0.0 1) were produced in sample B, while G2 was not detected in the same sample. 

[Ilesanmi Fadahunsi, Dayo Ayansina, Ayodele Okunrotifa. Biocontrol of Mushroom Spoilage Fungi and Aflatoxin Evaluation During Storage. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):7-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.02

 

Keywords:  biocontrol, mushrooms, aflatoxins,  spoilage, inhibition.

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3

Physiological Effects of Omega3 Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Subjects

 

M. M. Abbas

 

Biological Applications Dept., Isotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

manalmounir71@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), have been known for their potential in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, however, the physiological impact of their oral supplementation has not been clarified. The main objective of the present study was to assess the influence of (n-3PUFAs) supplementation on the lipid pattern, some hematological and inflammatory parameters in apparently healthy individuals. Thirty four healthy participants, 16 men and 18 women, ranged in age from 25-49 years old were recruited for this study. Subjects were received a daily dose of 1000mg of omega-3 for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were withdrawn from each volunteer before and after omega-3 supplementation to evaluate: Serum lipid profile, complete blood picture (CBC) and the inflammatory markers including, C reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-1(IL-1) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Results obtained from this study showed that omega-3 had a hypolipidemic effect upon oral administration for 12 weeks. It also favored cholesterol fraction distribution opposite to the atherogenic process. Moreover, a significant decrease in the monocytic count and platelets count was observed in response to omega-3 intake. In addition, inflammatory markers assayed in sera of the participants experienced a significant decrease after omega-3 administration. On the basis of data obtained from the present study, it may be speculated that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, counteract the atherogenic mechanism even within the physiological limits.

[M. M. Abbas. Physiological Effects of Omega3 Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Subjects. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):14-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.03

 

Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, lipid profile, CBC, Inflammatory cytokines.

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4

Sublethal effect of certain insecticides on biological and physiological aspects of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

 

El-Naggar, Jehan, B.A.

 

Plant Protection Research Inst., Sakha Agric., Res. St., ARC, Egypt

Jem.elnaggar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The toxicity and sublethal effects of three bioinsecticides; (spinosad; spinetoram and emamectin benzoate) and two insect growth regulator; (flufenoxuron and triflumuron) on some biological and physiological aspects were evaluated using a laboratory strain of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) 4th larval instar. On bases of LC50 values, emamectin benzoate was the most toxic insecticides followed by flufenoxuron while spinosad was the least toxic one.Triflumuron and spinetoram had a moderate effect. There was a negative relationship between the time elapsed post treatment and the LC50 values for all the tested insecticides. The treatment of the 4th instar larvae with LC25 values of the tested insecticides increased the larval, pupal duration and malformed pupae and decreased the percentage of pupation,adult emergence and egg hatchability compared to the control. Also, the tested insecticides at LC50 concentration reduced food consumption, larval growth rate, efficiency of converting ingested and digested food into body tissue. In contrast, all the tested insecticides did not significantly affect on approximate digestibility except emamectin benzoate as its effect increased. Thus, the tested boinsecticides and IGRs could be used into integrated pest management programs of any crop.

[El-Naggar, Jehan, B.A. Sublethal effect of certain insecticides on biological and physiological aspects of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Nat Sci 2013;11(7):19-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.04

 

Keywords: Spodoptera littoralis, spinosad, spinetoram, emamnectin benzoate, flufenoxuron, triflumuron, biological and physiological aspects.

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5

Evaluation of the effect of integrated control of tomato leafminer Tuto absoluta with sex pheromone and insecticides.

 

Taha, A. M.; A. F. E. Afsah and Fargalla, F. H.

 

Vegetables, Medicinal Ornamental and Aromatic Plants Pests Research Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, A.R.C., Egypt

gaber1956@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An experiment was conducted toward the development of integrated control program for the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta in the summer growing season of 2012 at Manwat village, Giza governorate. An integrated pest management (IPM) program which consisted of mass-trapping T. absoluta males in red plastic basin traps at a density of 8 traps / feddan, biweekly application of voliam flexi 40 % WG (20 % Thiamethoxam+ 20 % chlorantaniliprole) and Dan top 50 % WG (Clothianidin) in sequence during vegetative stage and weekly application of Dipel DF 6.4 % W G (Bacillus thuringiensis) during fruiting stage was compared with mass trapping only and farmers practice in which farmers sprayed several insecticides at their own discretion. The results showed that mean percent fruit damage was lower in the field treated with pheromone baited water traps only (37.44 %) than that in the farmers field (39.16 %), both being significantly higher than that in the field treated with such traps in combination with insecticide application. Therefore T. absoluta sex pheromone appears to be a valuable component in the integrated management of T. absoluta.

 [Taha, A. M.; A. F. E. Afsah and Fargalla, F. H. Evaluation of the effect of integrated control of tomato leafminer Tuto absoluta with sex pheromone and insecticides. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):26-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.05

 

Keywords: Control, Insecticide, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Mass-trapping, Pheromone, Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta.

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6

Novel Techniques for Production of Nano Emulsion Polymers for Textile Applications

 

M.M. El Sheikh(1), A. M. Rabei(2), A.I. Hussein(3), I. M. Taha(4).

 

(1) Applied Chemistry Department-Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

(2) Prof. dr. of Organic Polymer Chemistry-Organic Chemistry Department-Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

(3) Prof. dr. of Polymer and Pigment Technology-Polymers and Pigments Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

(4) Dr. of Material Science-Material Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

mmm_elsheikh2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ethyl acrylate is the backbone textile pigment printing binder due to its good adhesion, soft film formation, and good fastness properties. This study was designed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of ethyl acrylate polymer by co-polymerization with butyl acrylate in presence of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid at different concentration ratios (ethyl acrylate/butyl acrylate) (100/0, 5, 10, 15, 20) respectively. The prepared polymers were investigated by TEM, SEM as well as mechanical and physical tests. The prepared polymers used as textile pigment printing binder, and they were investigated by rubbing fastness, heat fastness and durability, the best results was achieved by 20% butyl acrylate/ethyl acrylate in presence of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid. [M.M. El Sheikh, A. M. Rabei, A. I. Hussein, and I. M. Taha. Novel Techniques for Production of Nano Emulsion Polymers for Textile Applications. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):30-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.06

 

Keywords: Pigment printing, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, characterization, fastness properties, morphological.

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Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) seropositivity in a cohort of people living with HIV and AIDS in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria

 

1Ojo DA, Ogwu-Richard SA, 2Okerentugba PO and 2Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: daojo3@yahoo.com; Tel: +234803 392 8703

2Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) seropositivity in a cohort of people living with HIV and AIDS in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. HBV is a major public health concern as it afflicts an estimated 350 million people worldwide. A clearer picture of HIV, HBV, and HCV prevalence in Africa is important in order to better educate the population, and control these epidemics. Studies are crucial and necessary to give us a better understanding of the epidemiology of the diseases in developing countries like Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective study of HBV seroprevalence among Nigerian population attending the HIV clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta and receiving HIV and AIDS treatment. In this cohort study, we collected blood samples from 183 HIV-positive patients between January 2012 and January 2013. Standard enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the serological prevalence of hepatitis B (HBsAg) among HIV-positive individuals. Among the HIV positive individuals, we found that 56 patients were infected with hepatitis B virus (30.6%). The overall HBV-HIV prevalence is 30.6%. The majority of the population infected was under 25 years and above (34.3%) and the higher proportion of males (37.4%) than females (25.0%) was observed. Our findings underscore the importance of screening for hepatitis B virus in the HIV infected population in developing countries, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the epidemics are still growing and a major public health concern.

[Ojo DA, Ogwu-Richard SA, Okerentugba PO and Okonko IO. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) amongst HIV Patients in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):36-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.07

 

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, HBV, cohort study, Prevalence, Nigeria.

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8

Application of Principal Component Method and k-me ans clustering algorithm for Khartoum stock Market

 

Abdalla Suliman Mhmoud 1, Sharaf Obaid Ali 2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Taif University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Department of Statistics, College of Economics and Political Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan

2. Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shaqra University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia

College of Computer Science, Alzaeim alazhari University, Sudan

abdallsuli@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a method in which the high dimensional data is reduced through Principal Component Analysis and then bisecting k-means clustering is performed on the reduced data. K-means technique of data mining was discussed and applied to maintain suitable way for selecting cluster from the huge datasets in order assist investors to have a proper guidance for making portfolio. The study shows that low price, high price, and close price are major variables that determine the trend of the share price in Khartoum market exchange. K-means results clustered the financial sectors in three homogenous clusters, most of objects in clusters consist of objects from the same sector.

[Abdalla Suliman Mhmoud, Sharaf Obaid Ali. Application of Principal Component Method and k-means clustering algorithm for Khartoum stock Market. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):41-44]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.08

 

Keywords: cluster, k-means cluster, stock exchange, classify, portfolio.

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Study the inhalation exposure effect of pesticides mixture in the white rat

 

Mohamed A. Noaishi1, Mostafa M.M. Afify2 and Amr A. Abd Allah.1

 

1 Mammalian Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt.

2Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Bani Sweif University, Egypt

Corresponding author: noaishi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present work was aimed to evaluate the risk of inhalation exposure of chlorpyrifos and cypermithrin mixture which is recently formulated and sale ready to use in Egypt especially most of the pesticide applicators in Egypt are not protected by safety measures when handling with the pesticides. The study was included some toxicological assays ranged from cytogenetic, histopathological, and oxidative stress assay. Twelve healthy male white rats weighing 140g10% were used and divided into three groups (a, b, and c) each of four rats per cage. The first group (a) was kept as control without exposure to any pesticides just a fresh air. Group (b) was exposed to low inhalation dose (44mg/L), group (c) was exposed to high inhalation dose (120mg/L). Inhalation chamber used was supplied with two fans for inlet and outlet airflow and in one side supplied with vial containing the pesticide tested and tissue paper to help of spreading the vapor of the pesticide. The results revealed that, the inhalation exposures for 28 consecutive days induce highly significant effect (p < 0.001) at high exposure dose and slight significant effect (p < 0.05) at low exposure dose in both genotoxicity and cholinesterase assays. Also induced highly significant effect (p < 0.001) in lipid peroxidation at high exposure dose and slight inhibition in the antioxidant enzymes Catalase and reduced in glutathione contents only at high dose but at low exposure dose no significant effect recorded. On the other hand the histopathology of lung tissue found to be severe changes by exhibition fibrosis with collagen proliferation and aggregation of the lymphoid cells in peribronchiolar tissue associated with sever dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels and hyperplasia in bronchiolar and lining epithelium with polyps formation at high exposure dose. Despite existing findings based on study with experimental animals it cannot be predicted to what extent of pesticides inhalation exposure will affect on humans because the rats are more tolerant than human and these results alarm of this type of exposure and strongly impose the need to more detailed testing of the toxicity of occupational exposure to pesticides especially by inhalation and the caution should be exercised in their handling in prolonged exposure time that may lead to adverse health effects. [Mohamed A. Noaishi, Mostafa M.M. Afify and Amr A. Abd Allah. Study the inhalation exposure effect of pesticides mixture in the white rat. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):45-54]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.09

 

Keywords: Inhalation, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, mixture, rat, chromosomal aberrations, histopathology, oxidative stress.

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Awareness Protocol for Pregnant Women Regarding Safety Measures for Using Electromagnetic Home Devices

 

Nadia M, Fahmy, Sahar M, Soliman, Ghada H,Hamed

 

Maternity and Neonatal Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

saharmossasoliman@yahoo.com, ghadahemdan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study is Quasi experimental design to study effect of using awareness protocol regarding safety measures for using electromagnetic home devices, was conducted at outpatient clinics of Ain Shams University Maternity hospital. A total of 210 pregnant women were included using Simple random sample technique through registered follow up book of antenatal care. Three tools used were Arabic Questionnaire Sheet, Observation Checklist Woman's, Compliance Sheet Regard Electromagnetic home devices used, the main result of the study revealed Marked improvement was detected in knowledge, and practice, after implementing awareness protocol. There was statistically significant improvement in knowledge level post counseling and in follow up after 3 months compared to pre counseling. Conclusion: Awareness protocol regarding safety measures for using electromagnetic home devices is effective, and improves pregnant women knowledge, practice and attitude. Recommendation: Designing a training program for pregnant women bout electromagnetic effect to improve pregnant women knowledge, practice, and attitude; replication of the study with inclusion of a control group to examine the effectiveness of educational counseling on knowledge, compliance, in other geographical areas in Egypt.

 [Nadia M, Fahmy, Sahar M,Soliman, Ghada H, Hamed. Awareness protocol about safety measures for using electromagnetic home devices. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):55-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.10

 

Keywords: Pregnancy, Safety Measures, Electromagnetic Home Devices.

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Efficacy of three entomopathogenic agents for control the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

 

Shalaby H. H., Faragalla F. H., El-Saadany H.M. and Ibrahim A. A.

 

Plant Protection Research Institute, Dokki, Egypt

hassan_shalaby2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In This study, efficiency of four concentrations (107; 108; 109; 1010) of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk), Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were prepared and tested on T. absoluta larvae (Neonate “newly hatched”, 2nd & 3rd instar) to study the effect of these agents on larval mortality. In addition, eggs of T. absoluta were exposure to B. bassiana and M. anisopliae to evaluate their effect on hatchability under laboratory conditions. Results showed that; the estimated LC50 of Btk was 3.25 x 1065.47 x 106 & 3.28 x 106 spores/ml for neonate, 2nd instar & 3rd instar of T. absoluta larvae, respectively. While the LC50 values of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were (0.28 x 106 & 0.11 x 106), (0.45 x 106 & 0.46 x 106) and (0.32 x 106 & 0.27 x 106 conidia/ml) for neonate, 2nd instar & 3rd instar T. absoluta larvae, respectively. According to LC50 values, B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were most effective on larval phase of T. absoluta than Btk. The effect of pathogen application was dependent on the instar phase at which the larvae were fed on pathogen-treated leaves also, the greatest percentage of mortality occurred on the neonate larvae for three agents. Concerning the most effective concentration of each agent, the higher concentration (1010) the higher mortality. The greatest percentage of mortality occurred in the newly hatched “neonate” followed by the third instar larvae when fed with leaves treated with Btk. Also, the greatest percentage of pathogen effect occurred in the newly hatched “neonate” followed by the second and the third instar larva which gave similar larval mortality values when larvae fed with leaves treated with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. After exposure of the eggs to the three agents, the pathogen effect was evident by the fourth day of evaluation after exposure in the four concentrations. The black appearance of eggs of T. absoluta took place after the exposure to the four concentrations of the two pathogenic fungi starting from the day five after exposure, and thereby no hatched larvae were detected in the four concentrations of the two pathogenic fungi comparing the control where the hatchability reached 87.7% and 80.0% during the evaluation time for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively. Thus our laboratory experiment suggested that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae has a potential effect on both egg and neonate “newly hatched larvae” of T. absoluta followed by Btk where was had moderate effect on neonate and third larval stage.

[Shalaby H. H., Faragalla F. H., El-Saadany H.M. and Ibrahim A. A. Efficacy of three entomopathogenic agents for control the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Nat Sci 2013;11(7):63-72]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.11

 

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Larval toxicity, Egg hatchability.

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Medium optimization for the production of lipstatin by Streptomyces toxytricini using full factorial design of experiment

 

Umesh Luthra, Harish Kumar, Nishtha Kulshreshtha, Archana Tripathi, Aditi Trivedi, Sneha Khadpekar and R.C. Dubey

 

Ipca Laboratories Ltd., Biotech R&D, Kandivali, Mumbai- 400067, Maharashtra, India

Department of Botany & Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, Uttarakhand, India

*Corresponding author: E-mail: umeshluthra@gmail.com; Tel.: +91-9892231361, +91-9167759646

 

Abstract: Full factorial design of experiment for medium optimization was employed for lipstatin production by Streptomyces toxytricini in shake flask study. The full factorial DOE was very much effective in screening of nutritional parameters within the stipulated time frame in a limited number of experiments. A maximum lipstatin production was achieved 3.290 g/l with the following optimized factors: soya flour 35g/l and soya oil 25g/l. Validation experiments were also carried out to verify the adequacy and the accuracy of the model. The results also give a scope for large scale fermentation of lipstatin production.

[Luthra, U., Kumar, H., Kulshreshtha, N., Tripathi, A., Trivedi, A., Khadpekar, S. and Dubey, R.C. Medium optimization for the production of lipstatin by Streptomyces toxytricini using full factorial design of experiment. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):73-76]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.12

 

Keywords: Medium optimization, Lipstatin, Streptomyces toxytricini.

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Changes in Protein Profile of Cotton Leaf Worm, Spodoptera Littoralis, Induced by Bt-Formulations Stored at Cold and Hot Storage Conditions

 

Karima, H.E. Haggag

 

Department of Pest Rearing, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

karima.haggag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The insecticidal activity of six commercial Bt-formulations named Agerin, Agry,Delfin, Dipel 2X, Dipel DF and Protecto as well as the chemical insecticide of Selecron EC 72% were tested against 2ed and 4th instars larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) in vitro after stored at cold and hot condition. Results of bioassay revealed that the Bt-formulations caused the larval mortality against 2ed instar insect larvae were in the range of 60.0 to 100.0% after cold storage conditions, while it was in the range of 60.0 to 96.7% after hot storage conditions, compared to the range of 83.3 – 100.0% at initial time. Results also revealed that the Bt-formulations caused the larval mortality was in the range of 66.7 to 100.0% and from 50.0 to 100.0% with 4th instar larvae after cold and hot storage conditions, respectively, compared to the rage of 76.7 to 100.0% at initial time. At initial time, the Dipel DF, Dipel 2X and Delfin were highly killed the insect larvae, followed by Agry, Prorcto and Agerin, respectively. These results showed that the storage of Bt-formulations reduced their insecticidal activity, except Dipel DF. Data of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the protein profiles of larvae haemolymph of S. littoralis showed the different molecular weight proteins (bands) were categorized into 41 peptides groups with P1 (Protein no.1) ranging from 121 – 226 KDa to P41 ranging from 21 – 25 KDa. Changes in protein profiles of treated larvae were found with all tested Bt-Formulations at cold and hot storage conditions. The dendrogram placed the detected peptides in the larvae treated with cold stored Bt-formulations in one cluster I, while other treated with hot stored conditions in cluster II.

[Karima, H.E. Haggag. Changes in Protein Profile of Cotton Leaf Worm, Spodoptera Littoralis, Induced by Bt-Formulations Stored at Cold and Hot Storage Conditions. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):77-85]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.13

 

Key words: Agerin, Agry, Delfin, Dipel 2X, Dipel DF, Protecto, Protein profiles, Spodoptera littoralis, Bioassay, Insecticidal activity.

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Evaluation of Cucumeropsis mannii Seed Cake

 

Ibironke Ajayi, Adegboye Salami

 

Industrial Chemistry unit, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

frajayi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The chemical composition of Cucumeropsis manii seed cake was analyzed for in order to evaluate its suitability and application in albino rat feed. The proximate analysis of Cucumeropsis manni seed cake showed that it had high protein (43.63 0.13%) but low carbohydrate (5.28 0.14%) and crude fibre value (4.39 0.03 %) contents. The predominant mineral was K (181.90 g/l) followed by Mg (83.90 g/l) and Na (39.93g/l). Other mineral elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were 3.75, 2.58, 1.86, 0.695 and 0.417 g/l respectively. The amino acid content (g/100g) of C. mannii seed cake was appreciably high especially for arginine (9.19), alanine (5.74) and glutamine (16.82), asparagines (16.25). The rat experiment lasted for eight weeks; rats were divided into two groups A and B and fed with diets that contained groundnut cake (control group) and 14.45% C. manii seed cake as a total replacement for groundnut cake (test group) and in the compounded feed. Both control and test feed had high values of carbohydrate (50.03 0.11% and 44.4 0.27%) and crude protein (22.40 0.13% and 23.71 0.13%) than C. manni seed cake respectively. The albino rats appeared to suffer no toxicological effect and weekly monitoring showed good physical appearance. Haematological and histopathological examination of sections of the heart, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, intestine and brain results obtained showed no significant difference between the test and control groups.

[Ibironke Ajayi, Adegboye Salami. Evaluation of Cucumeropsis mannii Seed Cake. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):86-93]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.14

 

Keywords: Amino acid, Cucumeropsis mannii, histopathological examination, mineral element.

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Relationships between Semen Cation Concentrations, Semen Characteristics, Testicular Measurements and Body Conformation Traits in Red Sokoto Goat

 

Akpa, G. N., Ambali, A. L.* and Suleiman, I. O.

 

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author, email: ambali.lekan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the relationship between semen cation concentrations, semen characteristics, testicular measurements and body conformation traits using 31 Red Sokoto bucks at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The body condition was scored on a scale of 1 to 5 and then used to categorize the bucks into score 3 and 4. The linear body measurements {heart girth (HG), stature (ST), chest width (CW), withers height (WH), body depth (BD), body length (BL) and rump width (RW)} were measured in centimeters (cm) using flexible tape. The testicular measurements {testicular length (TL), testicular circumference (TC), were measured using flexible tape while testicular width (TW) and testicular weight (TWT) were estimated using the appropriate formulae}. The semen characteristics {semen volume, sperm motility, semen pH, sperm concentration and live and dead ratio} and semen cation concentrations {sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P04)} were accordingly determined. The study lasted for one year (July, 2011 – June, 2012). The results showed that, semen volume was positively and significantly correlated with K+ and Ca2+ (P<0.05; r= 0.27 – 0.31) but not with Na+ and P04 (P>0.05; r= 0.13 – 0.14). Sperm motility was positively and significantly correlated with Na+ and K+ (P<0.05; r= 0.26 – 0.33). Sperm concentration had positive and significant correlation with K+ (P<0.05; r= 0.37), while live/dead ratio was positively and significantly correlated with only Na+ (P<0.05; r= 0.39) among the cation. Ca2+ was positively and significantly correlated with testicular measurements (P<0.05; r=0.34 – 0.39). Negative but significant (P<0.05) correlation was observed between Na+ and BL (r= -0.26). K+ was positively and significantly correlated with body conformation traits (P<0.05-0.01; r=0.29 – 0.52), except BW, BCS and HG (P>0.05; r=-0.09 to -0.14). Ca2+ was positively and significantly correlation with CW, WH, BD and RW (P<0.05; r=0.29-0.42). The study revealed that bucks with adequate concentation of calcium would exhibit better testicular dimensions; while bucks with good body structure would show high concentration of potassium in their seminal fluid, hence they would produce higher semen volume with increased sperm concentration and motility. Therefore, mineral status of the seminal fluid is an essential index in evaluating semen quality of Red Sokoto bucks.

[Akpa G.N, Ambali A.L, Suleiman I.O. Relationships between Semen Cation Concentrations, Semen Characteristics, Testicular Measurements and Body Conformation Traits in Red Sokoto Goat. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):94-99]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.15

 

Keywords: Red Sokoto goat; Body conformation; Testicular measurement; semen; cation concentrations.

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Biodegradable plastics the way to improve the environment

 

Kimiya yousefi, hadi alimoradi, elahe bashiri

 

Department of Chemical engineering, Sirjan University of Technology

k.yousefi90@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Plastic is a term meaning deformable. plastics are soft by heated. And come in any form such as play dough. The analysis of the polymeric in nature, consequences of indiscriminate use of them has become an environmental problem. Thus use of biodegradable plastics, that have source of plant. Beside waste management issues, industries and separation from source is negotiable Search. The news of Plastic food, perhaps, Many people are surprised. But the true is now the world tends to produce and use of biodegradable plastics and Edible. Why industrialized countries and advanced extensive research on construction of biodegradable plastics has begun.

[Yousefi  K, Alimoradi H, Bashiri E. Biodegradable plastics the way to improve the environment. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):100-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.  16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.16

 

Keywords: Plastic, Biodegradable plastic, environment.

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Ranking of Risks in Supply Chain by Lean Production Approach

 

Milad Jahanbakhsh and Amin Akafpour

 

Department of Industrial Management, Qazvin branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

 

Abstract: The objective of this study is assessment of the role of lean production elements in supply chain and evaluation & ranking of various risk factors, According to the definition of risk (Uncertainty reflects a situation in which there are shortage of information, knowledge and comprehension of each probable output) models using AHP and Expert Choice software which deals with the classification criteria of the selected article.

[Jahanbakhsh M, Akafpour A. Ranking of Risks in Supply Chain by Lean Production Approach. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):102-107]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.17

 

Key Words: Supply Chain, Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Risk Management, Lean Production.

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Application of Principal Component Method and k-me  ans clustering algorithm for Khartoum stock Market

 

Abdalla Suliman Mhmoud 1, Sharaf Obaid Ali 2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Taif University, kingdom  of Saudi Arabia

Department of Statistics, College of Economics and Political Sciences, Omdurman Islamic  University, Sudan

2. Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shaqra University, kingdom  of Saudi Arabia

College of Computer Science, Alzaeim alazhari  University, Sudan

abdallsuli@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a method in which the high dimensional data is reduced through Principal Component  Analysis and then bisecting k-means clustering is performed on the reduced data . K-means technique of data mining was discussed and applied to maintain suitable way for selecting cluster from the huge datasets in order assist investors to have a proper guidance for making portfolio. The study shows that low price, high price, and close price are major variables that determine the trend of the share price in Khartoum market exchange. K-means  results clustered the financial sectors in three homogenous clusters, most of objects in clusters  consist of objects from the same sector.

[Abdalla Suliman, Sharaf Obaid. Application of Principal Component Method and k-means clustering algorithm for Khartoum stock Market. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):108-112]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.18

 

Keywords: cluster, k-means cluster, stock exchange, classify, portfolio.

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Investigation of Solar Radiation Absorbance and Emittance for some Coloured Surfaces

 

V. Makinde1., F.G. Akinboro1., A.O. Mustapha1., I.C. Okeyode1., A.M.A. Bello2., and B.B. Ibrahim2.

 

 1.Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

2.Department of Physics, Kwara State Polytechnic, IIorin, Nigeria.

victor_makindeii@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Practical application and interpretations of basic physics laws look, to many, more of mirage than achievable realities within local context and content. In a geographical region of intense heat and radiation, such as Nigeria, these laws are more practicable and verifiable for application toward achieving the comfort of inhabitants of these high temperature zones. This work investigates the absorbance and emittance rates of differently coloured surfaces, in the demonstration of commonly expressed radiation laws, using five (5) 157 ml (170g) tins, of dimensions h = 6.0 cm, and r = 3.1 cm, each separately painted in black, blue, red, green, and white. These were placed in cubicles made in a wooden box and then exposed to solar radiation for about 7 hours daily for 5 days in each of two trials. Results show that solar radiant energy associated with black and white coloured surfaces are 729.866 Wm-2, and 384.450 Wm-2 respectively with that of other colours lying in-between these two values. This confirms that while black coloured enclosures may provide warmth when ambient temperature is low, white coloured enclosures may be the colour of choice where low temperature, absorbance and emittance are desired.

[Makinde, V., Akinboro, FG, Mustapha, AO, Okeyode, IC, Bello, AMA, Ibrahim, BB. Investigation of Solar Radiation Absorbance and Emittance for some Coloured Surfaces. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):113-117]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.19

 

Keywords: Solar radiation, Stefan-Boltzmann law, coloured surfaces.

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Implementation of the False Position (Regula Falsi) as a Computational Physics Method for the Determination of Roots of Non-Linear Equations Using Java

 

Makinde, V.1, .Akinboro, F.G1., Okeyode, I.C.1,  Mustapha, A.O.1., Coker, J.O.2., and Adesina, O.S.1.

 

1.Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

2.Department of Physics, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos

victor_makindeii@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Computational Physics cuts across all branches of Physics, Engineering, and Sciences in general. Determination of roots is one of the most common areas/topics that show up in various disciples where Computational Physics is applied or utilized. In the computation and determination of the roots of non-linear equations, various methods such as Root Bisection method, Regula Falsi method, Newton’s method among others have been implemented using FORTRAN, C, Basic, among other programming languages. This work considered the implementation of the False Position Method, otherwise known as the Regula Falsi method for the determination of roots of non-linear equations using Java. Comparison between results obtained showed that there is faster convergence and greater accuracy in the results obtained using Java than as in the results obtained using FORTRAN. Hence a good working knowledge of Java might end up being advantageous to an average physicist.

[Makinde, V., Akinboro, F.G., Okeyode, I.C., Mustapha, A.O., Coker, J.O., and Adesina, O.S. Implementation of the false position (regula falsi) as a computational physics method for the determination of roots of non-linear equations using Java. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):118-123]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.20

 

Keywords: Computational Physics Methods, Regular Falsi, FORTRAN, Java.

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In-vitro Biocontrol of Fungi Associated with Leaf Diseases of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using Trichoderma Species

 

Tolulope S. Ewekeye, 1,2 Oyedamola A. Oke, 1 Oyinkansola B. Seriki, 1 Aminat T. Bello 1

 

1Department of Botany, Lagos State University, Ojo, P. M. B. 0001, LASU Post Office, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria

2 Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

toluewekeye@gmail.com, damolaoke@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Biological control potential of fungi isolated from roots of diseased tomato plants against fungi associated with foliar diseases of tomato was investigated in this study. Fungi associated with the diseased tomato leaves included Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani, Phialophora melinii, Paecilomyces variotii, and Verticillium albo-atrium. Each fungus was paired against Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma koningii which were isolated from the rhizophere of the diseased plants. The antagonists (Trichoderma species) were paired simultaneously against the pathogen, the pathogen before the antagonist and the antagonist before the pathogen. For the timing of inoculation, pairing of the antagonist before the pathogen was the most effective, followed by simultaneous pairing, while pathogen before antagonist gave the least antagonism after nine days of inoculation. The mode of antagonism was found to be by competition for space, antibiosis and mycoparasitism. 

[Ewekeye T S, Oke O A, Seriki O B, Bello A T. In-vitro Biocontrol of Fungi Associated with Leaf Diseases of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using Trichoderma Species. Nat Sci 2013;11(7):124-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.21

 

Keywords: Foliar diseases of tomato, Trichoderma, biological control, antagonist

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The effect of knowledge management infrastructure on organizational performance

 

Manouchehr Niknam1, Mahmood Alborzi2 and Davood Gharakhani1

 

1. Ghazali Institute of Higher Education, Qazvin, Iran

2. Department of Industrial Management, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

davoodgharakhany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In today’s competitive business environment, knowledge management (KM) is increasingly recognized as a significant factor in gaining a competitive advantage. This study attempts to understand the relationships among KM infrastructure and organizational performance. Data for this study was collected based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the Chief Administrative Officers. This study examined a sample of 40 companies in Iran. Each company received ten questionnaires to answer. Of the 400 questionnaires posted, a total of 260 usable questionnaires were returned, comprising a response rate of 65%.  The results show from the full set of 5 KM dimensions, Human capital appears as a leading factor. Technology is the second most important criterion with the importance level of, while Organizational culture is found to be the third important KM dimensions.

[Niknam M, Alborzi M, Gharakhani D. The effect of knowledge management infrastructure on organizational performance. Nat Sci 2013; 11(7):129-134]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.22

 

Keywords: knowledge management, organizational performance, Technology, Organizational structure

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Biological activity of crude extracts of Citrus species from Nigeria

 

Akagbuo Barth  Nwauzoma1*, M. Iqbal Choudhary2, Ali Zulfiqar3, Charles O Olaiya4

 

1Department of Applied & Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science & Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria;

2H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical & Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan,

3National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA, 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria,

 *Current Address: Embrapa Agroenergy, PqEB s/no- Av. W3 Norte (final), Brasilia, DF, 70770 901, Brazil. drnwabarth@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The phytotoxicity, cytototixicity and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane extracts of the leaves of Citrus aurantifolia and C. paradisi were evaluated in vitro as part of the screening of ethno-medically useful plants from the Nigerian flora for biological activity. Phytotoxicity using the Lemna bioassay in C. aurantifolia revealed a significant growth inhibitory effect against Lemna minor in DCM, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts at the highest concentrations, and a moderate effect in methanolic fraction. On the other hand, DCM and methanolic extracts from C. paradisi had significant effects on Lemna minor at the highest concentration, while ethyl acetate and hexane had low activity (20 and 15%), respectively at the highest dose. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using brine shrimp lethality assay and it showed that only the hexane extract from C. aurantifolia had an inhibitory effect (LD50 302μg/ml). Also, none of the extracts inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi bacterial cultures, as well as Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Canadida glabrata fungal isolates, thus supporting previous findings on the non-antimicrobial effect of Citrus leaf extracts. The cytotixic and phytotoxic actions in some of the extracts could be considered as a valuable support for the ethno-medicinal uses of the leaves of C. aurantifolia and C. paradisi in Nigerian folk medicine.

[Nwauzoma, AB, Choudhary, MI, Zulfiqar, A, Olaiya, CO. Biological activity of crude extracts of Citrus species from Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013; 11(7):135-139]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.23

 

Key words: Citrus species; phytoxicity; cytotoxicity; antimicrobial;leaf extracts

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A Biosecurity measures application with proper treatment to overcome the risk factors that limit effective control of subclinical mastitis in dairy buffalo farms-A field study

 

Nahed, M. A. Shawky1; Dalia, K. Eskander2; Ahlam, K.A.Wahba1 And Abeer, A.E.M. Mohamad1

 

(1) Buffalo Diseases Research Department; (2) Bacteriology Department Animal Health Research Institute – Dokki -Giza-Egypt.

nahedshawky18@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Subclinical mastitis is one of the most costly diseases of dairy animals. This field study was carried out on 100 milking buffalo-cow aged from 2 to 7 years old in a herd group and housed at a private farm in El-Fayoum governorate, Egypt, from July, 2012 to March, 2013, (whereas decreased in milk yield, old infection by mastitis was treated systemically, workers don’t check animals for mastitis periodically and had knowledge about clinical mastitis but none of them knew about subclinical mastitis plus low hygienic measures), aiming to determine: the prevalence rate of subclinical form of mastitis (SCM), monthly incidence of the disease post calving, isolation of caused pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics, cure rate after proper treatment in conjunction of improvement of both environmental and hygienic measures surrounded the animals to understand the constraints that limit effective control of the disease. A total of 400 quarter milk samples were collected from 100 milking buffaloes and screened for subclinical mastitis by the aid of California Mastitis Test (CMT), 108 positive CMT quarters related to 58 % of farm’s animals suffering from SCM , hind quarters were most affected (66.7%).The CMT positive quarter samples, bulk milk samples, swabs of milk containers and tanks, water pipes and tanks, bedding and milker’s hands were cultured for isolation of the causative bacterial agents. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated pathogen (25.92%) followed by Staph aureus (22.23%), coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) (6.48%)) and Clostridium perfringens type A (1.85%). The mixed growth was (43.52%) between S. aureus , E.coli and streptococcus spp. and staphylococcus spp.. Antibiogram analysis was carried out for bacterial isolates where Enrofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Amoxicillin and clauvilinic acid; were found the most effective drugs against the major of isolated strains in our study. Resistance of S. aureus to penicillin is more prevalent. It could be concluded that both environmental and hygienic measures surrounded the animals constitute a major risk factors in the occurrence of mastitis. So, continuous bacteriological investigation together with treatment, and increase hygienic measures were done in the present study in order to identify potential mastitis control measures.

[Nahed, M. A. Shawky; Dalia, K. Eskander; Ahlam, K.A.Wahba; Abeer, A.E.M. Mohamad. A Bio-security measures application with proper treatment to overcome the risk factors that limit effective control of subclinical mastitis in dairy buffalo farms-A field study. Nat Sci 2013; 11(7):140-151]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 24. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.24

 

Keywords: California mastitis test, buffalo, Antibiogram, subclinical mastitis, hygiene and risk factors control.

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Nodulation of black gram as influenced by rhizobium inoculation using different types of adhesives.

 

Md. Abu S.Aleh1, Shahriar Zaman1, Golam Kabir2

 

1. Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2. Dept. of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

saleh@ru.ac.bd

 

Abstract: Beneficial roles of certain symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium on growth and yield of Black gram are well known.Three Rhizobium strains were isolated from different species of legumes. RLc107 from Lentil, RCa 220 from Chick pea and RVm 307 from Black Gram. To find out the effect of these strains on nodulation (Nodule number per plant, nodule fresh weight per plant and nodule dry weight per plant) of two Black gram varieties (BARI MASH-1 and BINA MASH-1), investigations were carried out in the field of Rajshahi University. For better seed inoculation of those varieties, four different types of adhesives like sucrose, peptone, molasses and glycerol were used. It was observed that Rhizobium inoculation improved nodulation in both the varieties than that of un inoculated control. The highest nodule number (58.45) per plant, nodule fresh weight (46.11mg) per plant and nodule dry weight (12.07 mg) per plant were observed in BINA MASH-1 when inoculated by RVm 307 with the adhesive peptone.

[Saleh M. A., Zaman S., Kabir G. Nodulation of black gram as influenced by rhizobium inoculation using different types of adhesives. Nat Sci 2013; 11(7): 152-157]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 25. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110713.25

 

Keywords: Adhesives, Black Gram, Inoculation, Nodulation, Rhizobium

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 2, 2013
 
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