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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 11 - Number 8 (Cumulated No. 77), August 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1108 

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Overview On Inflammatory Bowel Disease

 

Engy Yousry EL Sayed

 

Assistant professor of internal medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

ashorengy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) (collectively termed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)) are complex disorders reflected by wide variation in clinical practice. Ulcerative colitis is characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon. Crohn’s disease is characterized by patchy, trans mural inflammation, which may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. It may be defined by location (terminal ileal, colonic, ileocolic, upper gastrointestinal), or by pattern of disease (inflammatory, fistula ting, or structuring). About 5% of patients with IBD affecting the colon are unclassifiable after considering clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and pathological criteria, because they have some features of both conditions. This can be termed indeterminate colitis (IC) (1).

[Engy Yousry EL Sayed. Overview On Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1

 

Keywords: Ulcerative colitis (UC); Crohn’s disease (CD); inflammation; gastrointestinal tract

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2

Changes in the contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes in the leaf tissues of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) following exogenous application of bioregulators

 

Olaiya, C.O. and Poloamina, L.A.

 

Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

cooolaiya@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The impact of exogenously applied bioregulators, Indole acetic acid (IAA) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on antioxidant enzyme activity and some phytochemicals was investigated in  three pepper species namely  Capsicum annuum var. grossum, Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum and Capsicum chinense  (big sun). Seeds of these pepper species were respectively treated with 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 mg/L concentrations of the bioregulators and a control was set up for each of them. The treatments were replicated three times in a completely randomized pattern and the seeds were then planted in standard polythene bags in a screen house. The plants were watered on alternate days. At maturity, their leaves were collected and used for analyses. Results showed low activity for catalase and peroxidase while the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the grossum and accuminatum species at 60mg/L IAA; 40 and 80mg/L NAA.  The highest level of photosynthetic pigments was obtained at 40mg/L NAA in the Capsicum chinense species. The high concentration of 120mg/L NAA generally caused a decrease in the level of phytochemicals in the three pepper species relative to control. Though IAA and NAA have been reported to induce many physiological and biochemical processes in plants, this study revealed the negative effects of these compounds on the biochemical contents of pepper, especially at high concentrations.

[Olaiya CO, Poloamina LA. Changes in the contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes in the leaf tissues of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) following exogenous application of bioregulators. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):9-14]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2

 

Keywords: Indole acetic acid, Naphthalene acetic acid, antioxidants, chlorophyll, Capsicum spp.

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3

Prevalence and Toxinotyping of the Toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in Sheep with suspected Enterotoxemia

 

Fayez, M.M1; Al Musallam, A.2; Al Marzoog, A2 and Suleiman, M. B.3

 

1Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. 2Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory – Al Ahsa, KSA. 3Department of Quarantine, Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries- Sudan.

Mahmoudfayez30@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was designed to determine the types of Clostridium perfringens and their toxins in sheep with suspected enterotoxemia in Al- Ahsa province, KSA. Out of 240 intestinal content samples collected from dead sheep with suspected enterotoxemia, 34 Clostridial strains were isolated. Diagnosis was based on classical diagnostic tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the types and toxins of C. perfringens. All isolates exhibited characteristics of Clostridium perfringens. Subsequently, molecular typing of the bacterial isolates was performed by multiplex PCR. Genotyping of isolated strains revealed that, 18 (52.94%) were type A, 2 (5.8 %), were type B, 6 (17.64 %), were type C and 8 (23.52%) were type D. Based on the ELISA results, 73 (30.41%) intestinal content samples were positive for the toxins produced by C. perfringens. Clostridium perfringens type A and D were the dominant types in cases of enterotoxemia in sheep in Al- Ahsa province detected by ELISA and multiplex PCR tests. The enterotoxaemia causes considerable economic loss to the sheep industry. Therefore, it is recommended that a proper vaccination schedule against enterotoxemia should be implemented for sheep flocks in Ahsa province. These vaccines should provide adequate protective immunity against all C. perfringens types specially types A and D.

[Fayez M.M; Al Musallam A.; Al Marzoog, A.; and Suleiman, M. B. Prevalence and Toxinotyping of the Toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in Sheep with suspected Enterotoxemia. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):15-21]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3

 

Keywords: Enterotoxemia, ELISA, PCR, Clostridium perfringens

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4

Quality Analysis Of Freshwater Crab Cardisoma Armatum And Marine Blue Crab Callinectes Amnicola Collected From Yaba, Lagos Nigeria

 

FAGBUARO Omotayo* , OSO James Abayomi James, MAJOLAGBE, Folasade Adesola and OLADAPO Abimbola Olawale

 

Ekiti State University, Faculty of Science, Department of zoology, P.M.B. 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Email: omofagbuaro@yahoo.com; Phone No: +234803 492 5363

 

ABSTRACT: The proximate compositions (Protein, carbohydrate, lipids, moisture, fibre and ash content) of freshwater crabs (Cardisoma armatum) and marine crab (Callinectes amnicola), mineral contents and anti-nutrient factors were determined. The crabs’ samples were collected from Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria. Samples were separated into sexes and each sex separated into walking legs exoskeleton and tissues. The samples were analysed according to the standard methods of AOAC. The protein, fibre and carbohydrate were found to be higher in both male and female of the two crab species. But C.amnicola samples are richer in protein, fibre and carbohydrate than C.armatum. Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Phosphorus are predominant elements in both male and female C.armatum and C.armnicola. Copper was not detected in any of the two crabs’ samples. The anti-nutrients: tannin, phytin and oxalate were recorded in the two species of crabs but not as high as to impair the nutritional qualities of the crabs. The proximate composition, mineral content, and low anti-nutrient values will make C.armatum and C.amnicola the best substitutes to catfishes and mackerel where they could not be afforded.

[Fagbuaro,O., Oso, J.A., Majolagbe, F.A. and Oladapo A.O. Quality Analysis of Freshwater crab Cardisoma armatum and Marine blue crab Callinectes amnicola Collected from Yaba Lagos, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):22-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4

 

KEYWORDS: Cardisoma armatum, Callinectes amnicola, crabs, Proximate, Minerals, anti-nutrients

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5

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on andrographolide content of Andrographis paniculata.

 

1Sushma Mishra, 2Dr. Aruna Jain

 

1Research Scholar, 2Asst. Prof. Botany

Sarojini Naidu Govt.Girls P.G. College, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal (M.P)

mishrasushma21@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers combination along with vermicompost on andrographolide content of Andrographis paniculata.The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RDB) with 8 treatments using chemical fertilizers (NPK), vermicompost and biofertlizers (Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria ) in different combinations including one control treatment. The analysis revealed significant variation in andrographolide content at different stages of life cycle of plant. After 45DAS, 75DAS, 105DAS and 135DAS, maximum increased % andrographolide was observed 0.749%, 0.764%, 0.834%, 0.893% in T8 plot plants treated with BF+CF+VC in combination in an interval of 30 days. From these results it can be concluded that integrated nutrient treatment facilitate increase % andrographolide content in A.paniculata. Thus INM can be an alternative to chemical fertilizers for sustainable quality crops.

[Mishra Sushma, Aruna Jain. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on andrographolide content of Andrographis paniculata. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):30-32]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5

 

Keywords - Biofertilizers, Chemical fertilizers, Vermicompost, INM, Andrographolide, DAS(days after sowing).

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6

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Kogi, Nigeria.

 

Kehinde Charles MOFOLORUNSHO1, Emmanuel Onwubiko NWANKWO1, Taiye Babatunde MOFOLORUNSHO2.

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.

2Department of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Preliminary Studies, Kogi State Polytechnic Osara Campus, Kogi State, Nigeria.

ckmofolorunsho@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to lowering the life expectancy among those infected. Several factors have been attributed to causing the infection and its prevalence as well as the quality of life of those infected. The aim of this study was to determine the socio – economic factors influencing the quality of life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Kogi State, Nigeria. A descriptive Cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample included 252 PLWHA from five health care centers recruited through Treatment Support Specialist, themselves PLWHA. The WHOQOL-HIV bref was used to assess each study respondents. Of the 252 respondents, 178 (70%) were in the age group 18 – 35 years, 158 (62.7%) were females, 98 (38.9%) had secondary school education, and 126 (58.3%) had no monthly income. Four variables which included occupation, income, education, and discrimination, showed significant association in relation to at least three of the six quality of life domains. Higher educational levels and income were associated with higher score for quality of life on the Physical health, Psychological health, Level of Independence and Spirituality/religion/personal beliefs domains while those who reported not been discriminated scored higher in all domains. The implication of this study is hinged on the fact that the quality of life of PLWHA as important as it is could be influenced by these factors which could be appropriated to the advantage of improving the quality of life of PLWHA in Nigeria.

[Kehinde Charles MOFOLORUNSHO, Emmanuel Onwubiko NWANKWO, Taiye Babatunde MOFOLORUNSHO. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Kogi, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):33-39]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6

 

Keywords: People living with HIV/AIDS, Treatment Support Specialist, WHOQOL HIV-bref, Nigeria

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7

Biochemical Impacts of Rynaxypyr (Coragen) and Spinetoram (Radiant) on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

 

Mahmoud H. Rashwan

 

Pesticides Dept., Faculty of Agric., Menoufia Univ., Egypt.

ihrashwan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In laboratory study the impact of rynaxypyr (coragen) and spinetoram (radiant) on the activity of acetylcholine E and non-specific esterase's (α and β esterase), carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (amylase, trehalase and invertase), chitinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and on major biochemical components was studied when Spodoptera littoralis, 5th instar larvae of the laboratory strain was treated by LC50 of both insecticides. The effect of LC50 of both insecticides on major biochemical component of 4th larval instar after 24 hours showed that, the amount of total carbohydrates, total protein, total lipids, carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (invertase, trehalase and amylase) were significantly decreased, where spinetoram resulted in slight increase in α–esterase and rynaxypyr resulted in moderate increase in activity AcgE. In contrast bath insecticides induce pronounced increase % in activity of chitinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

[Mahmoud H. Rashwan. Biochemical Impacts of Rynaxypyr (Coragen) and Spinetoram (Radiant) on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Nat Sci 2013;11(8):40-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7

 

Keywords: rynaxypyr (coragen), spinetoram (Radiant SC 12%) Spodoptera littoralis, major biochemical components, carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, esterases, Non-specific esterases, Chitinase and LDH enzymes

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The Occurrence and Modified Method for Phenotypic Identification of Ambler Group A and B Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases Production in Urino-Genital Gram Negative Bacterial Isolates from, Nigeria.

 

Christian Azubike Enwuru1, Bamidele Iwalokun 1, Nkechi Veronica Enwuru 2, Oliver Ezechi 1, NneomaIdika 1, Afolabi Oluwadun 3

 

1. Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.

2. Faculty of pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, Lagos, Nigeria.

3. College of Health Sciences, Dept. of Microbiology and Parasitology OOU, Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria.

enwuru@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Beta lactamase enzymes production in gram negative bacteria (GNB) grouped into four Ambler classe: A – D, remains a formidable threat to therapeutic interventions and impact negatively on the course and outcome of infections in patients worldwide. Routine β -lactamase screening is a standard for clinical bacteriology laboratories especially for gram negative pathogens of extra-intestinal origin medicated often with third and fourth generation cephalosporins. However, routine phenotypic screening methods (DDT and DDST) as recommended by CLSI for class A and B respectively have been found not sustainable in resource poor settings such as Nigeria, as a result of cost and cumbersomeness. This study was designed to study the occurrence and evaluate the performance of a modified DDT and DDST methods for phenotypic identification of Ambler class A and B - β-lactamase production in GNB for routine use in the clinical laboratories. A total of 63 consecutive non-repetitive gram-negative bacterial isolates from urino-genital specimens of men attending fertility clinic were studied. There were 10 different species of bacteria: with E. coli 23/63 (36.5%) and Enterobacter spp. 12/63 (19%) having the highest occurrence. Groups A and B β-Lactamases were screened with CLIS recommended phenotypic methods (DDT and DDST respectively) for Enterobacteriaceae and a modified agar plate (co-detection in a single lawn culture plate) and the results were compared. Of the 63 bacteria screened, 18 (29%) produced Ambler group A and 7 (11%) demonstrated hetero-resistant sub-population. Eleven (17.5%) were Ambler group B positive. One (1.5 %) strain showed hetero-resistant subpopulation and negative for Metallo β-Lactamase production. Out of the 18 group A and 11 group B ESBLs producing isolates by standard methods, 16 (89 %) and 10 (91%) were positive on the modified method respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 88.9 % and 100% for group A and 91% and 100% for group B β-Lactamases, respectively. The positive predictive values of 100% were recorded for both. The highest co-production of both enzymes was amongst Serratia spp. 2/3. The result has demonstrated 29 % group A and 17.5 % group B ESBLs occurrence and that the modified method (less expensive, time saving and less cumbersome) is comparatively sensitive with the standard DDT and DDST methods recommended by CLSI and is equally recommended.

[Enwuru CA, Iwalokun B, Enwuru NV, Ezechi O, Idika N, Oluwadun A. The Occurrence and Modified Method for Phenotypic Identification of Ambler Group A and B Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Production in Urino-Genital Gram Negative Bacterial Isolates from, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):48-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8

 

Key words: Bacteria, Antibiotics, ESBLS, Occurrence, Modified, Screening.

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9

Validity of Growth hormone and Melatonin mixture locally applied around immediate implants: Aclinical study

 

1Rania El Behairy; 1Mohammed Hamed; 2Ibrahim Ahmed; 3Hamdy Feteh; 4Wael Amer

 

1-Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University

2- Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University.

3-Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University

5- Oral Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University.

Raniaelbehairy73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: There is no uniform strategy about the optimal implant yet. The foundation of implant success is osseointegration, the quality, quantity and rate of which is of importance. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of growth hormone and melatonin mixture on osseointegration around immediate implants after 3,6 and 9 months in human. Material and methods: Five patients were included in this study, to whom eight immediate implants were inserted in their posterior mandible. They were divided into two groups, test group including five implants and control group including 3 implants. The test group received the growth hormone and melatonin mixture before implant incersion, while the control group was not. Results as regard bone density were statistically non significant in all test periods, while the transition period 3-6 months was statistically significant in test and control. In conclusion, Growth hormone and melatonin mixture in a single large dose at time of surgery did not affect bone density of the new bone formed around an immediate implant.

[Rania El Behairy; Mohammed Hamed; Ibrahim Ahmed; Hamdy Feteh; and Wael Amer. Validity of Growth hormone and Melatonin mixture locally applied around immediate implants: A clinical study. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):54-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9

 

Key words: Biomimetics, Growth hormone, Melatonin, Immediate implants

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10

Involvement in Asymptomatic Cases of HCV Infection

 

Mostafa kamel, Magdy El-Sharkawy and Essam Afifi

 

Internal medicine & Nephrology department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

mostakal@msm.com, mostakal@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Background: About 150 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus and more than 350 000 people die every year from hepatitis C-related liver diseases. HCV glomerulonephritis is well documented as the most important extrahepatic manifestation of HCV infection. Renal manifestations are usually associated with long standing HCV infection (i.e. more than 10 years). At this time it will be associated with concurrent clinical and laboratory features of chronic active hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Other authors claimed that it can occur earlier and it might be the presenting feature of HCV infection while the patient is hepatic symptoms free. So, we aimed to study renal involvement of HCV infection in hepatic symptoms free patients. Patients and methods: One hundred HCV +ve cases with asymptomatic compensated liver were collected from the outpatient clinic of internal medicine in Ain Shams University Hospital (Group A) and were compared to 25 healthy control subjects (Group B) for: clinical examination, abdominal U/S, FBG, diagnostic tests for hepatitis virus C and B including quantitative PCR for virus C, serum bilirubin, aminotransferases (ALT and AST), albumin, PT and INR, eGFR, urea, creatinine and complete urinalysis including P/C ratio. Results:  AST and ALT were higher (p<0.001) and PT and INR were more prolonged (p<0.01) in patients group than in the control group with mean levels within normal reference range. There was no significant correlation between Liver function tests and viral load. There was a significant negative correlation between age of patients and AST (p<0.05), ALT (p<0.001) and serum albumin (p<0.001). There was also a significant negative correlation between age and viral load (p<0.01). Creatinine (p<0.01) and P/C ratio (p<0.001) were higher while eGFR was lower (p<0.001) in patients than in the control group with mean levels within normal reference range. There was no significant correlation between kidney function tests and viral load. There was a significant correlation between creatinine and age of patients (p<0.01). Also, eGFR correlated inversely significantly to age of patients (p<0.001). Abnormal urinary sediments were significantly more encountered in patients group than in control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Both liver and kidney are involved early in the course of HCV infection with deterioration of liver and kidney functions. The deterioration is not apparent by current laboratory tests except when compared to normal subjects. Ultrasonography is also invaluable, age of the disease is difficult to be determined, viremia is misleading and the problem is great because of the huge population of patients. We recommend more sensitive tests for early diagnosis of HCV and scheduled score sheets for better interpretation of laboratory tests. Early treatment should be considered. We recommend, also, performing this study on larger sample size to have more reliable information.

[Mostafa kamel, Magdy El-Sharkawy and Essam Afifi. Involvement in Asymptomatic Cases of HCV Infection. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):59-65]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10

 

Keywords: Renal manifestations- HCV

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Serum Iron Parameters as Predictors of Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic HCV +ve Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis

 

Mostafa Kamel M A

 

Internal medicine & Nephrology department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

mostakal@msm.com, mostakal@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common problem affecting more than 3% of the world population. The problem is more pronounced in hemodialysis centers Insulin resistance is frequently seen in patients with HCV infection. Numerous studies indicated a link of insulin resistance to iron overload. In our study, we aimed to evaluate serum iron parameters as predictors of insulin resistance in non-diabetic HCV+ve patients on hemodialysis. Subjects and methods: 60 non-diabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis in Ain Shams university hospital were chosen and divided into 2 groups, Group 1 consisted of 30 HCV +ve cases and Group 2: consisted of 30 HCV -ve cases. All cases were subjected to full history taking and clinical examination with determination of age, sex, BMI and duration of hemodialysis. Serum liver enzymes AST and ALT, FBS, serum fasting insulin were measured with calculation of insulin resistance using the standard homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Typically, a HOMA-IR>2 is used to identify significant insulin resistance. Serum iron parameters including serum iron, serum ferritin, TIBC, TSAT and hemoglobin content were measured for all cases. Results:  Prevalence of IR in HCV +ve cases on chronic hemodialysis was 86.67% and 33.33% in HCV-ve cases. FBS showed insignificant difference between group 1 and group 2 (p>0.05). Meanwhile, insulin and HOMA-IR showed significant increase in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.001). Both liver enzymes (AST and ALT) were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.001 for ALT and =0.001 for AST). S. iron (p<0.01), ferritin (p<0.05), TSAT (p<0.05) and hemoglobin (p=0.001) were higher in group 1 than in group 2. In group 1, HOMA-IR had a highly significant correlation to both AST (p<0.01) and ALT (p<0.001). HOMA-IR, also, significantly correlated to serum iron (p<0.01) and TSAT (p<0.01) but not to serum ferritin, TIBC or hemoglobin (all p values>0.05). Also, in group 1 there was a significant correlation between serum iron and both ALT (p<0.01) and AST (p<0.01). TSAT had a significant correlation only with ALT (p<0.05) but not with AST (p>0.05). Conclusion: it was observed that using HOMA-IR at a cutoff point of > 2, the prevalence of IR in HCV +ve cases on chronic hemodialysis was 86.67% and was 33.33% in HCV-ve cases. Severity of insulin resistance is proportional to the activity of HCV marked by AST and ALT. Serum iron and TSAT are better predictors of insulin resistance than serum ferritin. There is a close relationship between serum iron and (ALT and AST) that might be a complex associate of insulin resistance in HCV +ve cases on chronic hemodialysis.

[Mostafa Kamel M A. Serum Iron Parameters as Predictors of Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic HCV +ve Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):66-71]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11

 

 Keywords: Insulin resistance- Serum iron parameters- HCV- Hemodialysis

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Sublingual versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Preoperative Cervical Priming in First Trimester Missed Abortion

 

Bahaa Abdel Kader Fateen1, Noha Homed Rabei1 and Waleed Mohamed Mostafa2

 

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

2 M.B.B.Ch. Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zagazig Central Hospital

noha.rabei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: missed abortion has been defined as retention of the products of conception after death of the embryo or the fetus. Surgical evacuation using vacuum aspiration has been currently the standard management however it associated with major and minor morbidities. Cervical priming has been shown to result in a shorter operative time, less blood loss and easier mechanical dilation. Misoprostol, a prostaglandin e1 analogue has been used for this purpose in the form of tables 200mg each. Aim of the Work: was to compare the effect of sublingual versus vaginal administration of misoprostol for preoperative cervical priming before surgical termination of pregnancy in first trimester missed abortion. Patients and methods: 120 patients were recruited for this study. Group I (60 cases) cervical priming with 2 tablets of vaginal misoprostol and sublingual placebo. Group II: (60 cases) cervical priming with 2 tablets of sublingual misoprostol and vaginal placebo. Results: There was no significant difference between both groups as regards the baseline cervical dilation and the ease of cervical dilation. There was no significant difference between both groups as regards the main operative time and operative blood loss. There was no significant difference between both groups as regards side effects as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Conclusion: The use of sublingual misoprostol to induce cervical priming in first trimester abortion was efficient and as effective as vaginal misoprostol with more convenience to the patient and avoided the need of the doctor to insert it.

[Bahaa Abdel Kader Fateen, Noha Homed Rabei and Waleed Mohamed Mostafa. Sublingual versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Preoperative Cervical Priming in First Trimester Missed Abortion. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):72-77]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12

 

Keywords: misoprotol, missed abortion, cervical priming

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Histopathological studies on the hematopoietic organs of Clarias gariepinus in relation to water quality criteria at different localities in the River Nile.

 

1Ashry, M. A.; 2Mahmoud, S. A. and 1Abd El-Rahman, A. A. S.

 

1Women's College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo, Egypt

monyham@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The physico-chemical parameters (water temperature, electrical conductivity, transparency, pH value, oxygen studies and nutrient salts) were carried out at El Kanater El-Khayria and discharge point of El-Rahawy drain at Rosetta branch of the River Nile seasonally from spring 2011 to winter 2012. In addition, liver, spleen and kidney samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were examined histopathologicaly. The results showed decrease in transparency and nitrite as well as depletion of dissolved oxygen at discharge point of El Rahawy drain. On the other hand, the increase in BOD, COD, ammonia and nitrate at discharge point of El-Rahawy drain was observed. The liver was characterized by vacuolar degeneration, necrosis, hemorrhage, hemolysis, hemosidrin and parasite cysts. The kidney alterations were necrosis, degeneration, dilation of capillaries in the glomerulus and reduction of Bowmans space. Hemorrhage, hemosidrinosis, degeneration, hemolysis, parasitic forms and necrosis were the most changes in spleen tissue. The collected samples of fish from discharge point of El-Rahawy area were suffered from more pathological changes than those collected from El-Kanater El-Khayria. It was concluded that the discharge of different types of wastes deteriorates the water quality in the River Nile and consequently effect on fauna and fish production. It is recommended to treat the different wastes before discharging to the River Nile stream.

[Ashry, M. A.; Mahmoud, S. A. and Abd El-Rahman, A. A. S. Histopathological studies on the hematopoietic organs of Clarias gariepinus in relation to water quality criteria at different localities in the River Nile. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):78-88]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 13

 

Key words: River Nile, Rosetta branch, Clarias gariepinus, liver, kidney, spleen, necrosis, El-Rahawy.

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Geochemical Investigation of Gemstone Specks within Complex Basement Rocks of Iwajowa Area of Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria

 

B. S. Badmus, O. D. Akinyemi, *A. M. Gbadebo, P. Babatunde, S. A. Ganiyu and O. T. Olurin

 

Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

*Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

olurin@physics.unaab.edu.ng, stolurin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Geo-chemical analysis was carried out on complex basement rock samples serving as host rocks for tantalite, tourmaline and beryl, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The AAS was used for the determination of major oxides, trace and rare earth elements. The results revealed the various mineral compositions of these rock samples both in part per million (ppm) and weight percentage (wt. %). The analyses revealed tourmaline to be a complex compound with high proportion of Boron (B), silica (SiO2 ), Alumina (Al2O3 ), Iron (Fe2O3), Barium (Ba) and Titanium oxide (TiO2 ) with little proportion of Mg2O, Ca2O, K2O, Li, Mn, Cr, Co, V, Zr, Th, Ra, etc. Tantalite analysis revealed the presence of Iron oxide (Fe2O3), Tantalum oxide, Copper oxide, Niobium, Boron, and Barium with little proportion of Li, V, Ti and Cr. Beryl analysis also revealed high content of beryllium and iron with little proportion of Ti, Cr, B, Ni and Ba but with no content of Nb. Cr, Ni, V and Fe. This paper x-rayed the qualities of tantalite, tourmaline and beryl samples analyzed to be of low qualities but more importantly, it has revealed the host rock of the tourmalines and beryl to be gneissic-schist.

[B. S. Badmus, O. D. Akinyemi, A. M. Gbadebo, P. Babatunde, S. A. Ganiyu and O. T. Olurin. Geochemical Investigation of Gemstone Specks within Complex Basement Rocks of Iwajowa Area of Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):89-93]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14

 

Key words: Chemical composition, Gem stones, Mineralized pegmatite, Gemstones

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The Relationship between Creativity and Translation

 

Esmail Dorri

 

Phd Student in Translation Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, school of Languages, Litaracies &Translation.

esmaildorri@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Creativity is considered as a problem solving in the world, especially in translation, but it has been neglected and no course is taught in the university as a creativity course in the world. This study attempts to discover the relationship between creativity and translation especially translations from English to Persian. Since there will be different for and against ideas and theories about necessity of creativity or lack in translation process to reach translation product. In the present study, it has been tried to use the creative questionnaire (CQ) and a general text includes two paragraphs.  60MA translation students participated in the study to show their capabilities in translation. The results of the current paper explores that creative students have a capability to choose, find and generate new novel equivalences. The creative lexical show the importance and quality of the translated text accordingly.

[Esmail Dorri. The Relationship between Creativity and Translation. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):94-97]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 15

 

Key words: Creative Equivalence; Translation; Creativity; Creative process product

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A Histological and Immunohistochemical study on the effect of mobile phone radiation on the hipocampus of adult and newborn albino rats

 

Amal A. Afeefy1 Amina M.A.Tolba2 and Omayma K. Afifi3

 

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar University Egypt 1, 2

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt; Tiaf University KSA 3

Amal.afeefy73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The effect of mobile phone radiation (electromagnetic field; EMFs) on the human health is a subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in its usage throughout the world. Concerns have been expressed about the possible interactions of this radiation with the human organism and, in particular, the brain. Aim of the work: studying the histological and immunohistochemical changes in the hippocampus after prenatal and postnatal mobile exposure and also in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty adult and thirty 4-week aged offspring male and female albino rats were divided into; group I (4-week aged control), group II (offspring exposed prenatally for 3 weeks and postnatal for 4 weeks); group III (adult control): and group IV (adult exposed for 12 weeks). EMFs exposure occurred from centrally placed mobile among the cages of animals and the mobile phone ringed for120 min/day. Results: examination of both limbs of the dentate gyrus of mobile-exposed animals revealed degenerative changes in some nerve cells especially in the granule layer. These changes were in the form of deeply stained nuclei, or intranuclear vacuolation in some granule cells. The dark cells which were wedged between the granule cells in control groups were absent, while the granule cells itself were apparently increased with decreasing in their diameter. The pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus proper were widely separated with loss of their normal arrangement. Most of them became irregular in shape, are surrounded with pericellular haloes and showed intranuclear vacuoles. There was a loss of the dark cells which were seen among the pyramidal cells in the control sections. As regards GFAP immunohistochemical results, a positive reaction in the form of thin regular brown fibers was present in the astrocytes of the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus proper of both control groups. After mobile exposure, there was an apparent increase in their intensity and became irregular, thickened and twisted. Conclusion: it could be concluded that the electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone induced histological and immunohistochemical changes in the hippocampus of adult and young rats. These results might reflect the well-known affection in the memory, cognitive function and in the neural activity in CNS.

[Amal A. Afeefy, Amina M.A.Tolba and Omayma K. Afifi. A Histological and Immunohistochemical study on the effect of mobile phone radiation on the hipocampus of adult and newborn albino rats. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):98-113]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 16

 

Keywords: Mobile phone, Rats, Hippocampus, L/M, GFAP.

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Histological and Ultrastructural Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Ginseng on Gamma-Irradiated Rats' Salivary Glands

 

Amal A. El- Batouti

 

Lecturer, Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo. molashosho@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction has a major deleterious effect on oral health. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ginseng on radiation induced oxidative stress in salivary glands. Design: Forty-eight Albino rats were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was the control group received vehicle (0.5 ml of DDW) by gavage for 7 consecutive days. The second group was administered ginseng (100 mg /kg, by gavage) for 7 consecutive days. Group 3 was administered vehicle by gavage for 7 consecutive days, then exposed to single dose γ-irradiation (6 Gy). Group 4 received ginseng (100 mg /kg, by gavage) for 7 consecutive days and exposed one hour later to single dose γ-irradiation (6 Gy). Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands were collected at the third and tenth day after the end of treatment and were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The submandibular gland of the group 4 revealed less intracytoplasmic vacuolization, slight alteration of acinar architecture and almost even size nuclei as compared to the irradiated group. TEM revealed marked dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and fusion of several secretory granules within the acinar cytoplasm of group 3, with less obvious alterations in group 4. Conclusion: ginseng ameliorated the deleterious effects of gamma irradiation in rats’ salivary glands.

[Amal A. El- Batouti. Histological and Ultrastructural Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Ginseng on Gamma-Irradiated Rats' Salivary Glands. Nat Sci 2013;11(8):114-121]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17

 

Key words: ginseng; gamma radiation; ultra-structure; histological; salivary glands.

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The phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels root bark extract

 

*Taiye R. Fasola, M.E. Oluwole, I. F. Olaniyi and I.E. Adeboye

 

Department of Microbiology, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

Correspondence: fasolatr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The root bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels is used traditionally as gastric stimulant to prevent and cure diarrhea in infants and children, aids digestion and relieves constipation in adults. As quality antibiotics are rarely possessed, human pathogens are fast developing resistance to synthetic drugs yet medicinal plants are scantily validated. This has necessitated the investigation of T. laxiflora root bark for its phytochemical and antimicrobial values. Petroleum ether, aqueous and ethanoic extracts of Terminalia laxiflora root bark were tested using agar well diffusion technique on the following selected microorganisms: Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Lasidiophobia discorea and Saccharomyces cerevisae. Terminalia laxiflora showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides as its non nutritive metabolites. Ethanoic and aqueous extracts of the plant root were found to be potent on all the bacteria used at minimum inhibitory concentration of 58mg/ml and 54mg/ml respectively. Besides, ethanoic extract also reacted with Penicillium sp and Aspergillus sp while the aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were non reactive on all of the fungi used. The pharmaceutical use of this extract may be found to be bactericidal and weakly fungistatic in properties. This finding will help a long way to complement the worldwide efforts of providing safe, potent and cheap antibacterial drug of natural origin for all and sundry.

[Taiye R. Fasola, M.E. Oluwole, I. F. Olaniyi and I.E. Adeboye. The phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels root bark extract. Nat Sci 2013;11 (8):122-127]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18

 

Keywords: Terminalia laxiflora, antibacterial, secondary metabolites, plant root bark.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 23, 2013
 
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