Science Journal


Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
Volume 11 - Number 09 (Cumulated No. 78), September 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1109 


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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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The Effect of Miswak and Fluoride Toothpastes on Dental Plaque, A Comparative Clinical and Microbiological Study


WafaK.M.Talha (1), ManalElsaid(2), Ola M. Omar(3) and Somaiya A. Eissa(4).


(1)B. D. S Faculty of Oral Medicine and Dental Surgery, Tripoli University. Libya.

(2) Associate Professor of Pediatric Dentistryand Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

(3)Professor of Pediatric Dentistryand Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

(4)Professorof Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University



Abstract: Aim: The aim of this randomized, clinical trial was to compare the effect of miswak and fluoride toothpastes on the count of S. mutans and lactobacilli in dental plaque and also the effect of both toothpastes on plaque and saliva pH. Methodology: Children were randomly allocated into either the fluoride group (n = 20) or the miswak group (n = 20). The antimicrobial effect of both miswak and fluoridated toothpaste used in this study was determined using bacterial count. Two types of media were used for this purpose, Mitis Salivarius Agar Base for S. mutans, and tomato agar (ROGOSA AGAR) for Lactobacillus. Plaque and saliva pH were measured using a portable pH meter. Children were asked to brush their teeth twice daily for 2 weeks. Results: There was no statistically significant increase in the mean Plaque pH after using fluoridated toothpaste. While miswak group, showed a statistically significant increase in mean plaque pH after 2 weeks. Although the mean saliva pH values of both groups increased slightly yet it was statistically not significant. As regards fluoride group, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean log10 values of S. mutans CFU count after treatment. While miswak group, showed no statistically significant reduction in mean log10 values of S. mutans CFU count after treatment. Both fluoride and miswak group, showed a statistically significant reduction in mean log10 values of Lactobacillus CFU count after treatment. Conclusions: Both toothpastes have a good antimicrobial effect on caries producing bacteria. Miswak toothpaste raised plaque pH; while both toothpastes have no effect on saliva pH.

[Wafa K. M. Talha, Manal Elsaid, Ola M. Omarand Somaiya A. Eissa. The Effect of Miswak and Fluoride Toothpastes on Dental Plaque, A Comparative Clinical and Microbiological Study. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.01


Key words: fluoride; miswak; toothpaste; plaque pH; saliva pH; S. mutans; lactobacilli

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Review of Fauna of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh (India)


N. Rangini1, Mahendra S. Lodhi1*, P.K. Samal1, S. Sharma2, P.P. dhyani2


1.  North East Unit, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Vivek Vihar, Itanagar – 791113, Arunachal Pradesh, India

2.  G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora – 263643, Uttarakhand, India



Abstract: The paper deals with the compilation of faunal diversity of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve (DDBR) records from past works so as to create a comprehensive database of the faunal diversity of the BR at one place. Due to its rugged terrain and inaccessible landscape, the area has not been discovered so well from the biological diversity point of view, although its faunal diversity has been studied and reported by few workers. The areas in and around the Dehang Debang Biosphere Reserve contributes nearly 70% of the bird species of Arunachal Pradesh. The records reveal presence of 133 species of butterfly belonging to 8 families and 81 genera (as invertebrate record). While the vertebrate fauna is  represented by  180 species of mammals, 492 species of birds,106 species of reptile, 43 amphibian species and 93 species of fish and yet to explore more.

 [Rangini N, Lodhi MS, Samal PK, Sharma S, Dhyani PP. Review of Fauna of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh (India). Nat Sci 2013;11(9):8-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.02


Key Words: Dehang Debang Biosphere Reserve, DDBR, Fauna, Arunachal Pradesh, Biodiversity.

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Serum Copper Concentration in type-1 diabetes mellitus by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy


Saira Baloch1*, Shahida Hassan Memon2, Muhammad Yousuf Memon2, Zoheb Rafique2 and Amber Mahmood1


*1Medical Research Centre (MRC)

Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

2Department of Biochemistry, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Pakistan.

*E-mail: saira_dr01@yahoo.com


Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrinological disease associated with hyperglycemia characterized by both insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion. It is associated with the alteration of trace elements like copper which may be a contributing factor in the progression of Diabetes Mellitus and its complications. The aim of the present study was to estimate serum copper, in patients with type 1 DM and compare it with controls .This study was conducted in 100 subjects, out of which 50 were type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and 50 were healthy subjects (controls). Serum copper was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy using air-acetylene flame (AAS, Model Varian A-20). Serum Copper concentrations was significantly higher in patients as compared with the controls and It could be concluded that there is an association between oxidative stress and metabolic control in diabetic patients.

[Saira Baloch, Shahida Hassan Memon, Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Zoheb Rafique and Amber Mahmood.. Serum Copper Concentration in type-1 diabetes mellitus by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):14-16]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.03


Keywords: Type-1 diabetes mellitus, copper, serum, Atomic absorption spectrometer

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Efficacy of Fractionated CO2 Laser and Pulsed Dye Laser in Treatment of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars


Bonan P.1, Shokeir H.A..2, Emam H.M.3, Samy N.A.2, Rabie A.A.3 and Abdelhamid M.F.3


1Department of Dermatology II, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

2Department of Medical Laser Applications, Dermatology Unit, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Egypt.

3Research Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.



Introduction: Keloids and hypertrophic scars are skin proliferative disorders with altered dermal matrix deposition. Although laser improves scars, a universal treatment protocol regarding laser type, dosage and number of sessions has not yet been established; in addition Laser indications and efficacy have not been fully defined. We studied the impact of laser therapies on keloids and hypertrophic scars. Methods: This study aimed to assess keloids and hypertrophic scars response to 6 sessions of combined pulsed dye laser and fractionated CO2 laser (4 sessions of pulsed dye laser and 2 sessions of fractionated CO2 laser). Pulsed Dye laser parameters were fluence: 6- 6.5 joules/cm2, spot size: 10 millimeter and pulse duration: 0.5 millisecond. Fractionated CO2 laser parameters were fluence: 15 Watts, spacing: 500 micrometer and dwell time: 0.7-1 millisecond. Scar textural pliability, pigmentation and vascularity were subjectively scored according to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale comparing readings before laser sessions and after the 2nd, 4th, 6th laser sessions and after follow up for 6 months. Collected data was analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Hemoglobin, melanin and contour indices were objectively calculated. Results: Combined pulsed dye laser and fractionated CO2 laser ameliorated (with highly statistically significance) modified Vancouver Scar Scale from 7.00±0.60 to 2.00±1.35 in keloids and from 7.13±0.99 to 1.63±0.74 in hypertrophic scars. Hemoglobin, melanin and contour indices showed amelioration with combined pulsed dye laser and fractionated CO2 laser. Conclusion: When pulsed dye laser is associated with fractionated CO2 laser in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars, scar amelioration is achievable.

[Bonan P., Shokeir H.A., Emam H.M., Samy N.A., Rabie A. A and Abdelhamid M.F. Efficacy of Fractionated CO2 Laser and Pulsed Dye Laser in Treatment of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):17-23]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.04


Keywords:  Fractionated CO2 laser, Hypertrophic scars, Keloids, Microscopic treatment zones, modified Vancouver Scar Scale, Pulsed dye laser

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A survey of Traditional medicinal plants of Uttar Pradesh (India) - Used in treatment of infectious diseases


Achuta Nand Shukla 1, Sharad Srivastava 2 and A.K.S. Rawat 2


1. Botanical Survey of India, Northern Regional Centre, 192-Kaulagarh Road, Dehra Dun-248195 (India)


2. Pharmacognosy & Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR), Lucknow – 226 001 (India)


Abstract: The present study was to explore the traditional plant knowledge of Uttar Pradesh, India used in infectious disease. Ethnobotanical information was obtained through open informal interviews. The informants were residents, belonging to families living in the study area since generations, and involved at least partially in agriculture. A total of 184 botanical taxa were recorded along with local name, family, habit and parts used. These 184 plants species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 151 genera and 74 families. These plants used to cure 12 infectious ailments. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the area are the leaves (17.74%) and bark (14.51%). Plants used by local people were compared with previous ethnobotanical literature, concerning the neighboring areas of Uttar Pradesh. Our results highlight the role of the traditional use of plants in the maintenance of health and the prevention of infectious diseases.

[Achuta Nand Shukla, Sharad Srivastava and A.K.S. Rawat. A survey of Traditional medicinal plants of Uttar Pradesh (India) - Used in treatment of infectious diseases. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):24-36]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.05


Keywords: Ethnobotany, Traditional plant, Infectious diseases, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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The Influence of Raw Material Composition on the Quality of Sinter


Ö. Saltuk BÖLÜKBAŞI1, Baran TUFAN1, Turan BATAR2 and Akın ALTUN3


1Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Mining Engineering, Tınaztepe Campus, 35160, Buca, Izmir-TURKEY

2Gediz University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Seyrek-Menemen, 35665, Izmir-TURKEY

3Akdeniz University, Engineering Faculty, Kestel-Alanya, 07425, Antalya-TURKEY

osbolukbasi@gmail.com, baran.tufan@deu.edu.tr


Abstract: In this study provides an overview of chemical and physical properties of commercial iron ores as well as their influence on sintering performance. The sinter structure and its characteristics mainly depend on the raw material chemistry, phase body, crack distribution and the sintering process parameters. The aim of the studies is to present a new approach to the characterization of complex macrostructures and microstructures, especially those found in effect of sinter quality and productivity. A number of the commercial iron ores were tested in an industrial sinter plant to study the effect of iron ore composition on the sintering properties. Sintering process was performed for each individual using iron ore as constant basicity, coke dust and flux. The sintering properties of blending ores, including productivity, tumbler index (TI), suitable moisture and coke rate were approximately equal except reduction degradation index (RDI) values, to the weighted means of the individual ores. An important feature of this system is the simultaneous use of X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-EDS) which enables to determine both macro and microstructure of a sinter with high accuracy.

[Ö. Saltuk BÖLÜKBAŞI, Baran TUFAN, Turan BATAR and Akın ALTUN. The Influence of Raw Material Composition on the Quality of Sinter. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):37-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.06


Keywords: Sinter, Iron Ore, Mineralogical Analysis, Tumbler Index

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Morphology and anatomy of egg and oncomiracidium of the monogenean gill parasite Diplectanum aequanus


Abdel Aziz A. Khidr, Ola A. Abu Samak, Ashraf, E. Said and Marwa, M. Abou Hadied


Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Egypt

E- mail: rosalina_marwa@yahoo.co.uk


Abstract: Morphology and anatomy of the egg and free swimming oncomiracidia of Diplectanum aequanus infesting the gills of Dicentrarchus labrax were studies. Freshly laid egg of Diplectanum aequanus is yellowish brown in color, operculate, more or less tetrahedral with rounded protuberances at each corner and is provided with non-adhesive single appendage. The findings of the present study indicate that the appendage of the egg may ensure to a suitable anchoring and prevent the egg drift away from areas inhabited by potential host. Embryonation period ranged from 6 to 7 days at (20±2) °C with prominent developmental features is the formation of eyespots, which appeared on day 4 at 20±2°C. Hatching take place at the sixth day after deposition. Hatching process continued for about 10 to 15 minutes in the morning, one to two hours after sunrise. Oncomiracidial behaviour patterns were recorded. The free swimming oncomiracidium possesses four zones of ciliated cells (one anterior; two lateral and one posterior); four pigmented eyes; a prominent pharynx and a groups of gland cells on each side of the pharynx. The opisthaptor of each oncomiracidium has two pairs of well-developed hamuli in the centre of the opisthaptor in addition to usually present of 14 peripherally marginal hooklets. The distribution of the ciliated cells and possible functions of the pigmented eyes; lateral gland cells and haptoral sclerites are discussed.

[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. Morphology and anatomy of egg and oncomiracidium of the monogenean gill parasite Diplectanum aequanus. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):48-54]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.07


Key words: Diplectanides, Dicentrarchus labrax, Diplectanum aequanus, monogenean life cycle.

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Study of domestic violence against


Vahid Rezaie


No. 3, shohaday gharbi Street, Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran



Abstract: Violence against women is a subtle phenomenon, because many women in different societies refrain from expressing it; for reasons such as lack of stiff penalties and legal support. Today even in the capitalist world, citizens have been exploited especially violence against women. Violence against women is not limited to sexual harassment and physical and emotional, but the phenomenon is far more frightening; Capitalism increases patriarchy and violence against women in various ways in the community. Violence against women cannot be separated from the struggle with the capitalist system and we cannot ignore the historical roots of women's oppression. Analysis of liberal and fight against the inequality of women, distort the historical oppression of women, and secondly, to limit women's rights reforms within the capitalist system. Violence, discrimination and oppression of women, the emergence of the class system in history entered a new phase. In the past, women as men have involved in everything. Nowadays, due to the fact that capitalism is dominant in the whole world and currently is the dominant trend. But there are many forms of violence against women, including governmental violence and violence in the family, workplace, streets and various forms of violence in society. Violence against women, despite claims by the government and international institutions based on reducing violence against women, as well as the phenomenon is widespread and blatant and obscene. Women in different countries under various violations, such as: state repression, social and family beating, humiliation, mutilation, sexual and economic deprivation to the victims of honor killings, threats and insults. United Nations Population Fund estimates that 5,000 women each year worldwide are killed by their families for reasons of honor. 20% of women have been raped in their life or threatens it.

[Vahid Rezaie. Study of domestic violence against. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):55-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.08


Keywords: violence, Domestic Violence, violence against women, violence in society

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Utilization of the Root Bisection Computational Physics Method in the Determination of Roots of Non-Linear Equations using Java


1.* Makinde, V., 1. Mustapha, A.O., 1Okeyode, I.C., 1. Akinboro, F.G., 1. Adesina, O.S. , and 2. Coker, J.O.


1.Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

2.Department of Physics, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos

victor_makindeii@yahoo.com; tundeblack2000@gmail.com; amidumustapha@yahoo.com; kamiyolejoy2000@yahoo.com; betamagengineering@yahoo.com; cokerclara@yahoo.com

*Corresponding Author


Abstract: Advancement in programming and language development has made possible improved efficiency and accuracy in solving numerical problems and hence the numerical computation of physical problems as used in Computational Physics. Hitherto, languages such as Basic, Fortran, C, among others, have commonly been employed in solving numerical problems. In this work, Java, a modern object oriented language was deployed in solving some physical problems, specifically, determination of roots of non-linear equations using the Root-Bisection Method. A comparison between results obtained showed faster convergence and greater accuracy using Java than as obtained using Fortran.

[Makinde V., Adesina, .O.S., Mustapha, .A.O., Okeyode, I.C., Akinboro, F.G., and Coker, J.O. Utilization of the Root Bisection Computational Physics Method in the Determination of Roots of Non-Linear Equations using Java. Nat Sci 2013; 11(9):59-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.09


Keywords: Numerical Computation, Computational Physics, Java, Fortran, Root Bisection

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Implementation of the False Position (Regula Falsi) as a Computational Physics Method for the Determination of Roots of Non-Linear Equations using Java


1.*Makinde, V., 1.Akinboro, F.G., 1.Okeyode, I.C., 1Mustapha, A.O., 2.Coker, J.O., and 1.Adesina, O.S.


1.Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

2.Department of Physics, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos

victor_makindeii@yahoo.com; betamagengineering@yahoo.com; kamiyolejoy2000@yahoo.com; amidumustapha@gmail.com; cokerclara@yahoo.com; tundeblack2000@gmail.com

*Corresponding Author


Abstract: Computational Physics cuts across all branches of Physics, Engineering, and Sciences in general. Determination of roots is one of the most common areas/topics that show up in various disciples where Computational Physics is applied or utilized. In the computation and determination of the roots of non-linear equations, various methods such as Root Bisection method, Regula Falsi method, Newton’s method among others have been implemented using FORTRAN, C, Basic, among other programming languages. This work considered the implementation of the False Position Method, otherwise known as the Regula Falsi method for the determination of roots of non-linear equations using Java. Comparison between results obtained showed that there is faster convergence and greater accuracy in the results obtained using Java than as in the results obtained using FORTRAN. Hence a good working knowledge of Java might end up being advantageous to an average physicist.

[Makinde, V., Akinboro, F.G., Okeyode, I.C., Mustapha, A.O., Coker, J.O., and Adesina, O.S. Implementation of the False Position (Regula Falsi) as a Computational Physics Method for the Determination of Roots of Non-Linear Equations using Java. Nat Sci 2013; 11(9):69-]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.10


Keywords: Computational Physics Methods, Regular Falsi, FORTRAN, Java.

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Changes in Morpho-Physiology of Jatropha curcas grown under different water regimes


Neha Tiwari, Mamta Purohit, Gunjan Sharma, A.R. Nautiyal


High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, Post Box No.- 14, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal- 246174, Uttarakhand, India



Abstract: Jatropha curcas, a drought resistant perennial species has come into prominence as an important biodiesel crop. The investigation was aimed at studying the extent to which Jatropha curcas seedlings can resist water stress. During the experimentation, the response of J. curcas to water stress in terms of growth attributes, photosynthesis, fluorescence characters and leaf and soil water potential was studied. All the growth attributes showed drastic reduction in stressed plants in comparison to control plants. A significant reduction in fresh and dry biomass was observed with increasing water stress level. Minimum leaf and soil water potential was shown by stressed plants as compared to daily watered plants. When compared to control plants, photosynthesis decreased in water stressed plants and Fv/Fm, a parameter of PSІІ efficiency was maximum in control plants as compared to stressed plants.

[Tiwari N, Purohit M, Sharma G, Nautiyal, AR. Changes in Morpho-Physiology of Jatropha curcas grown under different water regimes. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):76-83]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.11


Key words: Water stress; Growth attributes; Photosynthesis; J. curcas

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Studies on the effect of clindamycin on experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus in relation to dose and treatment with special emphasis to antibiotic bacterial resistance


Amnah A.H. Rayes


Faculty of Applied Sciences. Umm Al- Qura University Makkah Saudi Arabia



Abstract: present study aimed to investigate and search about the most common causes of bacterial resistance to antiboiotics which are the dose and method of treatment using Clindamycin on experimental infected mice with Staphylococcus aureus. ATCC 25923 and study the effect of antibiotic on immune response humeral and cellular. A total number of 100 adult albino male mice were divided into 5 groups (20 mice each.). All groups were injected intra peritoneal I/P with Staphylococcus aureus 3 x109 cuf. 24 hours after bacterial injection all groups were treated with Clindamycin 500 mg/8h for 8 days. 1st group: control group: animals apparently healthy untreated.orally received saline sol., 2nd group: orally received single dose of defined prescribed dose of Clindamycin, 3rd group: orally received 5 times the defined dose of Clindamycin then decreased,4th group: orally received 1/5 of defined dose Clindamycin then increased and 5th group: orally administrated the initial dose of Clindamycin along the experiment. Animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected and divided into 2 portions; first one added to it anticoagulant for determination of phagocytic index and the second one without anticoagulant for Serum collection then keep in -20oC till used for determination of anti body titer in experimental infected mice. Blood samples were collected 6 hours after antibiotic administration for 8 days. Determination of antibotic concentration in blood, determination of antibody titer in serum and phagocytic index in blood for detection of the effect of antibiotic dose on the immune response of experimental infected mice with S.aureus. At the end of treatment survived mice scarified and isolation of S. aureus was performed, the isolated strain was identified as Staphylococcus aureus. ATCC 25923 ( same injected strain) using API20E system. Antibacterial susceptibility performed using disk diffusion method, the results displayed that the concentration of anti Clindamycin in serum was correlated with anti body titer and phagocytic index, all the obtained results were discussed.

[Amnah A.H. Rayes. Studies on the effect of clindamycin on experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus in relation to dose and treatment with special emphasis to antibiotic bacterial resistance. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):84-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.12


Key words: Clindamycin; Staphylococcus aureus; immune response; humeral; cellular; antibody titer; phagocytic index; disk diffusion

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Study the balance of men's violence against women and Education in Tabriz city


Zahra Firoozbakht


No194, Shahid Beheshti Street, Karaj, Alborz Proviance, Iran


Abstract today, one of the family phenomena that interest to researchers is the subject of violence in families. Accordingly, the original aim of the current study is to reach the balance of men's violence against women with related variables among families' residing of Tabriz city. to reach the objectives of the study, 400 families (with male and female) were selected with the sampling method for several stages. Given what topic method has been used survey field and correlation. Also, data collection tools include Sigmund and Estate tests to measure depression and anxiety, assertiveness Kambril and Rege test, 57 questions Eysenck test and questionnaire build by researcher. The results show that 55% mental violence, social violence 30 % and physical violence have 28.5%. Male violence against women as well as women with some demographic variables such as education, social class, family income, education level males and psychological variables such as anxiety, depression, and assertiveness is related to men and women. Given the results of the study, it is necessary for families to know how cope with the challenges of life so that they can control with anger, depression and anxiety to find them an alternative to violence, irritating the rest of the cases in the family.

 [Zahra Firoozbakht. Study the balance of men's violence against women and Education in Tabriz city. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):91-95]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.13


Keywords: violence, aggression, aggressive, anger, Tabriz, family

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Ecological and Immunological Studies on Rhinoestrus purpureus infecting Donkeys in Egypt and Its Control with Doramectin and Ivermectin


Mohamed Y. Ramadan 1, Abla D. Abd El mageid 2 and Mohamed G. Abdelwahab 3


1.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University.

2.Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Benha University

3Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University



Abstract: The objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence, habitat and control of parasitic larvae of Rhinoestrous purpureus in donkeys. Forty donkeys were necropsied to search larvae in their nasal cavities. The results indicated that 26 out of 40 examined donkeys were infected by R. purpureus larvae and the percentage of infection was 65%. Female donkeys showed higher infection rate (77.78%) compared to (54.55%) in males. 263 R. purpureus larvae were collected from all investigated donkeys; 143 from females and 120 from males. The mean burden was 10 in male and 10.1 in females. L3 were more common than L2 (149 L3 compared to 114 L2 ). Most of L2 larvae (86.84%) attack labrynith of ethmoidal bones., moderate number infect sphenopalatine communications and only 2.63% were collected from pharyngeal cavity. On the other hand 53.59 % of L3 was collected from labrynith of ethmoid bones and other half was collected from sphenopalatine communication (23.49%), pharyngeal cavity (8.75%) and common nasal meatus (5.32%). An increase in serum globulin level (6.30 mg/dl) in R. purpures infected animals compared to (4.8 mg/dl) in control was recorded. Gamma globulins in infected animals was (2.97 mg/dl) while it was in (2.53mg/dl) in control. IgM was higher in infected animals (59.20 ng/dl) compared to (23.90 ng/dl) in control. Also IgA showed an increase in its value in infected animals compared to control (191.75, 87.11ng/dl). Concerning control of R. purpureus larvae, the results indicated that both doramectin and ivermectin had a larvicidal effect against R. purpureus larvae with superiority of doramectin as it caused 100% larval mortalities in vitro within 8 hrs. It was concluded that, R. purpureus larvae affect high number of donkeys specially females and the doramectin was selected to be the drug of choice for control in donkeys.

[Mohamed Y. Ramadan, Abla D. Abd El mageid and Mohamed G. Abdelwahab. Ecological And Immunological Studies on Rhinoestrus purpureus infecting Donkeys In Egypt And Its Control With Doramectin And Ivermectin. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):96-102]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.14


Key words: Rhinoestrous purpures, equine, ivermectin and nitroxynil

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Lichen Flora Of Niti Area From Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand


Shobha Rawat 1*, D. K. Upreti 2and Rana P. Singh1


1Department of Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226025.

2Lichenology Laboratory, Plant Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (NBRI - CSIR) - 226001.



Abstract: The paper deals first time with the lichen flora of way of Gamsali to Niti area of Chamoli district, Uttarakhand. A total 43 species belonging to 32 genera and 13 families from the area have been reported. Among the different growth forms of lichen, foliose lichens exhibit their dominance with 21 species followed by 14 species of crustose and 8 species fruticose form respectively. Most of the lichen growing sequence of corticolous < terricolous < saxicolous lichen species followed by 22, 18 and 9 respectively. Total 13 species of lichens are medicinally important. The available information regarding lichen diversity provides baseline data which will be useful in conducting future biomonitoring studies and developing conservation strategies in the valley.

[Shobha Rawat, D. K. Upreti and Rana P. Singh. Lichen Flora Of Niti Area From Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):103-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.15


Keywords: Biodiversity, Niti, Garhwal Himalayas, India.

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The role Knowledge by presence in Sadra epistemology


Zabihollah Owhadi


Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, International Campus, Mashhad, Iran.



 Abstract: Knowledge by presence is one of the most discussed topics in the epistemology. Unlike the conceptual science, the philosophers hadn’t enough attention to the Knowledge by presence. In this article we're going to answer to this question that, whether Knowledge by presence can be helpful for people to get the truth or not helpful. the man was always looking for an easier way to unlock the truth, although access to the Knowledge by presence is a difficult way and it seems that it has more hazards than conceptual science but the revelation knowledge in this science is clearly far from wrong and it makes easy to understanding the truth, only by removing the obstacles from your eyes, you can immediately access to this knowledge. As long as people are born based on the talent that God gave to them, have insights and beliefs about themselves and their surroundings, This awareness is in the areas of Knowledge by presence not conceptual science, because conceptual sciences are adventitious and may be associated with the error this sciences must be discovered over the time but at the moment of creation, God gives Knowledge by presence to every creature. In this article we are going to define the conceptual science and Knowledge by presence and then we examined their various types and prove authenticity of the Knowledge by presence.

[Zabihollah Owhadi. The role Knowledge by presence in Sadra epistemology. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):106-109]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.16


Key word: conceptual science, Knowledge by presence, epistemology, sadra

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Bioefficacy of acrystalliferous Bacillus sphaericus M3 against field collected mosquito larvae


Pankaj K. Mishra1,2*; Atal K. Mishra1; S. M. Tandon1


1. Department of Microbiology, C. B. S. & H., G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar- 263145, U. S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, INDIA

2 Crop Production Division,Vekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture, (I.C.A.R.), Almora-263601, Uttarakhand, India misrapank12@lycos.com 


Abstract: The present investigation was directed to determine the pathogenicity; bioefficacy and larvicidal activity of Bacillus sphaericus M3 against Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes. B. sphaericus M3 showed high pathogenicity of 85.0% and 98.8% to Anopheline larvae, using vegetative cells or spores, respectively. In contrast, pathogenicity toward Culicine larvae was 45.0% and 48.8% for vegetative cells and spores, respectively. Bacillus sphaericus M3 possesses high larvicidal activity with LC50 values 6.11 x 103, 1.71 x 104 spores/ ml or 0.872, 24.4 mg/l against Anopheline & Culicine respectively.

[Mishra PK, Mishra AK, Tandon SM. Bioefficacy of acrystalliferous Bacillus sphaericus M3 against field collected mosquito larvae. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):110-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.17


Key Words: Bioefficacy; mosquito; Anopheline; Culicine; Bacillus sphaericus strain R3

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Serum Lipid Profile Of Hypertensive Pateints In Hyderabad, Pakistan


Mohsin Ali Baloch


University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sindh.


Abstract: A prospective study was conducted in the Hyderabad, Pakistan to investigate the serum lipid profile & the level of total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of hypertensive patients and compares them with levels of control subjects. The results revealed that serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were significantly markedly raised (p<0.005) whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.005) in hypertensive patients as compared to control subjects. No significant changes of serum lipid profile were found between male and female hypertensive patients, but in control subjects, markedly higher levels of serum lipid profile was observed in male compared to that of female. It was concluded that hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low density lipoprotein are the main lipid abnormalities on the incidence of hypertension in the study area.

[Mohsin Ali Baloch. Serum Lipid Profile Of Hypertensive Pateints In Hyderabad, Pakistan. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):115-118]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.18


Keywords: Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL- cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, Hypertension.

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Isopaches decolorans (Limpr.) H. Buch. (Marchantiophyta: Lophoziaceae) in India, A Noteworthy Rare and Disjunct Liverwort


 Krishna Kumar Rawat*, Praveen Kumar Verma**


*CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226001, India; **Rain Forest Research Institute Deovan Sotai Ali, Post Box # 136, Jorhat -785001, Assam, India

drkkrawat@rediffmail.com, **e-mail of corresponding author: pkverma_bryo@yahoo.co.in


Abstract: Isopaches decolorans (Limpr.) H. Buch., a rare and disjunct species is being reported from Arunachal Pradesh, India along with a note on its distribution and affinities with plants from other localities. The discovery of male plant also has been clearly authenticating the sexuality of the species (dioecious).

[Rawat K.K., and Verma, P.K. Isopaches decolorans (Limpr.) H. Buch. (Marchantiophyta: Lophoziaceae) in India, A Noteworthy Rare and Disjunct Liverwort. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):119-122]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.19


Keywords: Arunachal Pradesh, Tawang, Marchantiophyta, Cephaloziaceae, Isopaches, I. decolorans.

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Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of the Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Strychnos Spinosa


Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi and Bejide, Oyeniyi Stephen


Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, P.M.B. 117, Abuja,


+234 803 286 1737. Email: sylvaugoh@hotmail.com


Abstract: The study was carried out to ascertain the antimicrobial properties inherent in the aqueous, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Strychnos spinosa on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, as well as the phytochemical screening of the extracts. Agar well diffusion method and Macro Broth dilution method were used in determining the antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) respectively. The extracts showed good inhibitory activities against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, but minimally against S. aureus and C. albicans. The inhibitions of the test organisms were measured by the diameter of zone of inhibition. The methanol extracts of the leaves and stem barks were the most potent against E. coli while the ethanol extracts, especially the leaf gave the highest potency against P. aeruginosa with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 mg/ml . The extracts gave different MICs against the test organisms using the double-fold dilution method, with concentrations ranging between 31.25 to 500 mg/ml. The minimum lethal concentrations (MLC) of the extracts were 250 mg/ml and 500 mg/ml. The study     revealed that the extracts were more bacteriostatic than bactericidal. The results obtained were tested at P ≤ 0.05 level of significance using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and glycosides in the plant parts used.

[Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi and Bejide, Oyeniyi Stephen. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of the Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Strychnos Spinosa. Nat Sci 2013;11(9):123-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj110913.20


Key words: Phytochemicals, Zone diameter of inhibition, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum lethal concentration.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 10, 2013.

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