Loading

 

Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740 
Volume 11 - Number 12 (Cumulated No. 81), December 25, 2013 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1112 

 

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or .docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript to: sciencepub@gmail.com

When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Nature and Science

Marsland Press, PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA, 347-321-7172

http://www.sciencepub.net/nature

CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Effect of Broccoli on the Antioxidant Activity of Experimental Rats Ingested Thermally Oxidized Oil

 

Amnah, M. A. Alsuhaibani

 

Nutrition and Food Sciences Dept, Home Economic Collage, Princess Nora Bent Abdul Rahman -University, Riyadh, Saud Arabia

 

Abstract: The effect of broccoli powder, aqueous and methanolic extracts on antioxidant activity in rats fed on thermally oxidized oil was studied. Chemical analysis of broccoli was investigated. Five groups of rats were used; group (1) was used as a negative control, while rats of the other groups were fed thermally oxidized oil in diet. Group (2) was left as a positive control, while groups (3), (4) and (5) were administered broccoli powder, aqueous and methanolic extracts for 60 days. The obtained results revealed that broccoli contains carbohydrate, protein, fiber and ash, and also high amount of potassium, calcium, phosphorous, total phenol and flavonoids. Positive control group which consumed oxidizing frying oil in diet showed a significant decrease in body weight, Food efficiency ratio (FER) and food intake. Also, it showed a significant increase in serum cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) and CHO/ HDLc, malodialdehyde (MDA); and liver cholesterol and total lipid but a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX); and liver triglyceride in comparing to negative control group. Broccoli powder, aqueous and methanolic extract rat groups showed that the values of liver cholesterol, total lipid and triglyceride appeared within values of negative control. However, they showed a significant decrease in liver parameters and serum MDA and significant increase in serum antioxidant enzymes activity comparing to positive control group

This study concluded that broccoli have ability to increase antioxidant activity in rats ingested thermally oxidized oil. Broccoli methanolic extract give the most favorable results, therefore this study recommends to intake broccoli when consuming fried foods.

[Amnah, M. A.Alsuhaibani. Effect of Broccoli on the Antioxidant Activity of Experimental Rats Ingested Thermally Oxidized Oil. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.01 

 

Keywords: Broccoli; Oxidized thermally oil; Biochemistry; Rat.

Full Text

1

2

Submerged fermentation of the hybrid of pleurotus tuberregium and pleurotus pulmonarius in zobo and synthetic media

 

J. A. Amao1 and J. K. Oloke 2

 

1. Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2. Department of Biology, Ladoke akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

ayoamao@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: This research work used the hybrid of Pleurotus tuberrigium and Pleurotus pulmonarius in Zobo and synthetic media, to investigate their ability to grow and produce mycelia mat during submerged fermentation. It was discovered that the ability of the hybrid of the two mushrooms in Zobo medium to form mycelia mat was lower compared to that of the synthetic medium; the mycelia mat weight in the synthetic medium and Zobo medium were 0.82g and 0.47g respectively. Moreover, the lag phase of the hybrid of the two mushrooms in the synthetic medium was shorter than that in the Zobo medium, this was shown by the turbidity of the medium on the second day while the Zobo medium became turbid on the third day. Changes in the colour of the Zobo medium showed that the hybrid of the two mushrooms has the ability of utilizing the medium for growth. There was a significant difference in the turbidity values of the Zobo medium compared to that of the synthetic medium, considering their means and t-test value of 5.58 and 7.80 for Zobo and synthetic medium respectively.

[J. A. Amao and J. K. Oloke. Submerged fermentation of the hybrid of pleurotus tuberregium and pleurotus pulmonarius in zobo and synthetic media. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):8-11]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.02

 

Keyword: hybrid, Zobo medium, mycelia mat, turbidity values, Pleurotus tuberrigium, Pleurotus pulmonarius

Full Text

2

3

Removal of cadmium from freshwater cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus using Neem Leave Water Extract (NLWE) and Neem Leave Powder (NLP)

 

Hussien.A.M.Osman1 and Asmaa M. Hegazy2

 

1. Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2. Department of Aquatic Pathology, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Al-Qanater, Cairo, Egypt

dr.hussien_osman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the clinical picture, bioassay of cadmium pollution evaluating the influence of Neem Leave Water Extract (NLWE) and Neem Leave Powder (NLP) on recovery and removal of cadmium in tissues of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and water. Azadirachta indica (A. indica) leaves were obtained and Leave Water Extract (NLWE) and Neem Leave Powder (NLP) were prepared. To evaluate effect of neem leaf as water extract (NLWE) and neem leaf powder (NLP). A total of 80 apparently healthy Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, weight (805) gram, fish were divided into four groups of 20 fish each, comprising three experimental groups and one control. 1st group was control simultaneously exposed to dechlorinated tap water only. 2nd group was exposed for cadmium chloride (15 mg/l). 3rd group exposed neem leaf water extract (1/10 LC50) only. 4th group exposed to cadmium chloride (15mg/l) and neem leaf powder NLP (200g/l). Clinical signs, post mortem lesions and mortality were monitored and recorded. Blood was collected from five of fish in each group after 30 days of starting the experiment. The musculature, skin, gills, liver, spleen and kidneys were collected from five fish of each group after the period of experiment for histopathological examination. From the present study, it was concluded that, Neem leave powder NLP efficiently remove cadmium from water decreasing it in tissues of fish. while NLWE remove cadmium in low degree but affect significantly the hematological, physiological and immunological state of O. niloticus, improving health status of fish.

[Hussien.A.M.Osman and Asmaa M. Hegazy. Removal of cadmium from freshwater cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus using Neem Leave Water Extract (NLWE) and Neem Leave Powder (NLP). Nat Sci 2013;11(12):12-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.03

 

Key words: cadmium; (NLWE); (NLP); Azadirachta indica; Oreochromis niloticus; Clinical signs; physiological; immunological.

Full Text

3

4

The Impact of Land Use Consolidation Program on Agricultural Productivity: A Case Study of Maize (Zea mays L.) Production among Households in Nyabihu District, Western Rwanda.

 

Isaac E. Ekise1, Alphonse Nahayo2, Jean de Dieu Mirukiro3, Beatrice Mukamugema4

 

1,2 Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine,  P.O. Box 210, Musanze, Rwanda.

3,4 Department of Rural Development and Agribusiness, University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine,  P.O. Box 210, Musanze, Rwanda.

iekise@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The high population growth in Rwanda has resulted in land fragmentation and poor crop yields in many rural farms hence necessitating the government to introduce the land consolidation policy in the country with the aim of boosting crop yields and effecting rural household development. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the land consolidation policy is effective in boosting maize production yields among the maize growers in the sector. Specifically, the research analyzed maize production before and after the land consolidation policy. To achieve the objective of the study, a survey was conducted with 40 households selected randomly from Mukamira Sector where the policy was implemented from 2004. The results showed that maize production in the Sector increased by 347% from a mean yield of 2027.5 kg to 9071.9 kg per household per season as a result of the policy (p=0.05). According to chi-square test there is a significant relationship between maize income as a dependent variable, fertilizer use and land size as independent variables (p=0.05). However, two major constraints were observed that hamper maize production and these were the low output prices and small land holdings. This study concludes that land consolidation policy has had great impact in the sector due to increased use of mineral fertilizers, certified maize seeds and better crop husbandry practices. To overcome the low prices of maize grains, there is need for farmers to market their produce as cooperatives rather than as individuals so that they may consolidate their bargaining power as cooperatives. Input suppliers need to open businesses near the farmers to try and provide good service.

[Ekise I.E, Nahayo A, Mirukiro J.D, and Mukamugema B.  The Impact of Land Use Consolidation Program on Agricultural Productivity: A Case Study of Maize (Zea mays L.) Production among Households in Nyabihu District, Western Rwanda. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):21-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.04

 

Key words: Bargaining power, Land fragmentation, Land consolidation policy, Impact, Collaboration, Input suppliers, and Chi-square test

Full Text

        4

5

The Religious intellectualism of soft movement in Iran

 

Ali asghar amini dehaghi

 

Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting,Vali asr street, Tehran, Iran

Amini779@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Once in Iranian society, religion has been influenced by of political authority in associated with the public sphere undoubtedly increases public expectations of the effectiveness of political religion; but when the demands not fulfilled by the politicized religion, As a result Sense of religious restraint, is  particularly prevalent in society. Since the Iranians are among religious people from the past to today, As a result, it is possible some have changed their religion as a negative struggle or at the same Religious, be neutral in the face of political religion. Consequently in response to a religious crisis, a religious intellectual movement is willing to act of criticism and ideas in the software against the religious property in the mental space of society. They are trying to influence people in the community with a sense of religion and their religious beliefs until Strongly Politicized religion will propel to socialization.

[Ali asghar amini dehaghi. The Religious intellectualism of soft movement in Iran. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):28-35]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.05

 

Keywords: Religious intellectual movement, Religious base, religious reform movement, the Iranian religiosity, Software movement

Full Text

5

6

Carbon Footprint for Paddy Rice Production in Egypt

 

Farag, A. A.1; H. A. Radwan2; M. A. A. Abdrabbo1; M. A. M. Heggi1 and B. A. McCarl3

 

1Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki 12411, Giza-Egypt

2Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza-Egypt

3 Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University-USA

awny_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Emissions resulting from rice cultivation are estimated in this paper including emissions from mechanical operations, field burning and N fertilization. The estimates are constructed using data and procedures from the IPCC guidelines for emissions estimation Coupled with Life Cycle Analysis procedures. The results show that the larger amounts of emissions come from Lower Egypt (Nile Delta). The regions with higher emissions are located as a rice belt in the Northern of the Nile Delta, Methane emission from the flooded rice fields are the main source of GHG emissions, contributing about 53.25 % of the total emissions. Rice straw burning after harvesting is the second largest source contributing 35.82 %. Nitrogen fertilization contributes out 9.92%and mechanical activities contribute about 1%. Finally, the carbon footprint for paddy rice is 1.90 Kg CO2eq / Kg paddy rice.

[Farag, A. A.; H. A. Radwan; M. A. A. Abdrabbo; M. A. M. Heggi and B. A. McCarl. Carbon Footprint for Paddy Rice Production in Egypt. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):36-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.06

 

Keywords: Rice, GHG emissions, machine emission, N Fertilizer emission, CH4, N2O, CO2

Full Text

6

7

Antioxidants, prevention and treatment of cancer

 

Lutfia Omar Morgem, Mohamed Abubaker Fadel*, Omar Abdussalam Aghil, Haifa Fakroon and Dia Sadique Abukhshem

 

Industrial Researches Centre, Faculty of Medical Technology*, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya.

mohamed.fadel178@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The instinct to maintain the kind and love to stay has been the impetus for man since ancient times to protect himself from multiple hazards of various accidents and diseases. Cancer is one of the diseases suffered by man since long time ago and he tried hard to identify its causes and resist it in various ways. All efforts have been made till now to completely overcome it have failed, and this dreaded disease continues to be one of the most important causes of death in most countries of the world. Several studies have been conducted in various parts of the world to know the mechanisms of cancerous tumors, their causes and possibility of preventing them before they occur. Cancerous tumors occur as a result of the availability of two factors: genetic predisposition and the presence of an external factor that stimulates tumor occurrence; such as radiation and oxidation-causing substances inside the body. To prevent the tumor as a result of oxidation causing materials tended the efforts of researchers to know the importance of natural antioxidants (natural antioxidants found in fruits, vegetables, herbs, etc.) to prevent tumor Of the most important natural antioxidants, which play an important role in preventing tumors are some vitamins like (vitamin C and vitamin E) and multi-phenols. In this paper we review the most important antioxidants and their sources, discussing mechanisms of cancerous tumors; we also review the most important studies carried out on the relationship between antioxidants and tumors and their role in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

[Lutfia Omar Morgem, Mohamed Abubaker Fadel, Omar Abdussalam Aghil, Haifa Fakroon and Dia Sadique Abukhshem. Antioxidants, prevention and treatment of cancer. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):46-51]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.07

 

Keywords: Antioxidants; prevention; treatment; cancer

Full Text

7

8

A study to find thyme oil dose that kill 50% of mice and  minimal dose that kill all mice and maximum non-lethal dose

 

Mohamed Asrety, Mohamed Abubaker Fadel*and  Omar Abdussalam Aghil

 

 Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Technology – University of Tripoli,  Tripoli Libya

mohamed.fadel178@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Thyme plant is one of the natural plants that have Aromatic Perfumes liked by human being, and one of the natural resources that sought by lot of researchers and scientists to use it in scientific research and studies of perfumes and pharmaceuticals and used as flavour in making a lot of industrial products. Components of thyme oil sold as a spice in the Libyan market extracted by steam distillation, the ratio of aromaticvolatile of thyme oil was 2.548% and specific gravity up to 0.9609, while the optical refractive index 1. 5111 where thyme oil extracted will be used as input in some food products for human consumption, the study required conduct some laboratory experiments with respect to toxicity to find the dose that kills 50% of the experimental animals, and then to prove that it has no damage when used repeatedly, in this study, the dose that kills 50% of mice and minimal dose lethal to all mice and maximum non-lethal dose was reached, the use of Libyan volatile thyme oil because of its great and direct relationship, especially its use in the manufacture of soft drinks, we are confident now that the use of 0.1 ml of thyme oil to prepare 1 liter of soft drink for human consumption is safe even if used repeatedly by man every day, and the dose reached was 3.84 mg, which killed 50% of mice, weighing 25 grams. This experiments was conducted at faculty of Medicine in Libya.

[Mohamed Asrety, Mohamed Abubaker Fadel and Omar Abdussalam Aghil. A study to find thyme oil dose that kill 50% of mice and  minimal dose that kill all mice and maximum non-lethal dose. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):52-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.08

 

Keywords: study; thyme; oil; dose; kill; mice; maximum non-lethal dose

Full Text

8

9

Brief Review on the Application of Histochemical Methods in Different Aspects of Plant Research

 

Esmat A Hassan and Mohamed E. El-Awadi

 

Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12311, Giza, Egypt

El_awadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Histochemical methods are employed in the identification, density of accumulation and distribution of chemical compounds within biological cells and tissues in different organs under microscopes using the color-stain-reaction technique and photographic recording. These include the preparation of fixed variably stained specimens and then the examination under the microscopic devices. In immuno-histochemistry, antibodies are mainly used to visualize antigens in sections of tissue under either the light or the electron microscope. Histochemistry reperesent elusive documents to be used for identifying cellular chemical processes, cellular traffics, metabolite sorting, and in investigating several diseases, mainly related to cancerous activities. It is successfully applied in gene expression studies, detection and localization of cellular components of active cell constituents such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and a range of ionic elements occurring in the cell solutions, in addition to identifying the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the secreted compounds. Ion homeostasis could be assessed, while constituents of the signal transduction cascades could be identified through metabolic amplification. The methods played a role in describing and tracing the ultrastructure development during different plant growth stages so as the genetic bases of plant physiological and biochemical processes could be further elucidated. The penetration process and defense reactions (hypersensitive response, oxidative burst and cell wall fortification) of various organisms could be studied histochemically. This help in comparing the resistant and susceptible plant cell lines. It also assists in indicating mechanism of pathogen invasion and hypersensitive responses. To examine the supposed pollution and contamination in a given location, histochemical methods are efficient in detecting the existence of certain injurious metals via samples of plants taken from the inhabiting area. It is however concluded that such methods are proved as good tool to be rapidly and efficiently employed in different vital aspects of biological research.

[Esmat A Hassan and Mohamed E. El-Awadi. Brief Review on the Application of Histochemical Methods in Different Aspects of Plant Research. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):54-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.09

 

Key words: Biological, cellular, chemical, histochemical, methods, plant, tissues.

Full Text

9

10

Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in Egypt

 

Fahim M. A.*1; Hassanein M. K. 1; Khalil A. A.1 and Abou Hadid A. F. 2

 

1Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, P.O. Box 296 Dokki, 12411 Giza, Egypt

2 Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt

ali.mohamed73@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Climate change will affect all four dimensions of food security, namely food availability (i.e., production and trade), access to food, stability of food supplies, and food utilization. The vulnerability of the agriculture in Egypt to climate change is mainly attributed to both biophysical and socioeconomical parameters. This study is to investigate climate change impacts based on field study results and projects activity outputs during last decade in Egypt. An analysis of climate risks for crops in food-insecure regions in Egypt was conducted to identify adaptation priorities, based on statistical crop models and climate projections for 2030, from different general circulation models. Results indicate that Egypt, without sufficient adaptation measures, will likely suffer negative impacts on several crops that are important to large food-insecure human populations. Adaptation planning in agriculture is designing and applying of national adaptation strategy for the agriculture sector. The strategy is facing a group of barriers and limitations (eg. existing scientific, information and policy perceptions, poor adaptive capacity of the rural community, lack to financial support, and absence of the appropriate institutional framework).

 [Fahim M. A.; Hassanein M. K.; Abolmaty S. M.; Khalil A. A. and Abou Hadid A. F. Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in Egypt] Nat Sci.2013; 11(12):68-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.10

 

Key words: Food security, social stability, net income, vulnerability, national adaptation strategy

Full Text

10

11

Assessment of Drought Impact in Africa Using Standard Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index

 

Hassanein M. K.; A.A. Khalil; Y.H. Essa

 

Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR), Egypt

Alaa_armka@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of drought in Africa and selects the vulnerable areas to drought by using Standard Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) as a new index for drought monitoring during the period from 1960 to 2008 at time scales 12. Results of this study refer to the characteristic of drought over Africa using the Stander Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at time scale 12 for month of Dec. during the period from 1960 up to 2008 was analyzed. Results concluded that the first decades were less drought area and the drought increased with time. Frequency of drought (SPEI values ≤ -1) increased in last decades. There are most difference between extreme drought and wet events while the severe and moderate classes were closer. The assessment of the drought impact in Africa needs to determine several systems (water resource, natural vegetation and crops) to quantify the impact of drought in terms of both system's resistance and resilience, to produce drought impact curve for each system and region.

 [Hassanein M. K.; A. A. Khalil; Y. H. Essa. Assessment of Drought Impact in Africa Using Standard Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):75-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.11

 

Key words: Drought, Drought index Assessment, Impact and Standard Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)

Full Text

11

12

The Impact of Autocorrelation on the Performance of the MEWMA Control Chart with Mild Correlation

 

Abbas Umar Farouk * and Ismail Bin Mohamad

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Ta’azim, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: (abbasumar6@gmail.com)

 

Abstract: As it is indisputable any time conventional control charts are used you have the suggested assumption that observations are usually independently in addition to identically distributed as time passes. However, in reality, this sort of findings generated through continuous along with discrete production procedures are usually serially correlated, which violates the independence assumption of conventional control charts as well as modify the performance of control charts adversely. In this paper, we investigate the performance of MEWMA control chart with autocorrelated data with mild correlation being controlled. The generated data were applied to MEWMA control chart procedure and showed an in-control state, as the generated observations had been put through normality tests with the assumptions and also sensitivities for departure to normality, and ended up being normal by all standard. Therefore, this provides an alternate for the quality practitioners to consider for the continuous and discrete production processes even the autocorrelation doesn't have impact on the performance of MEWMA control limits once the mild correlation continues to be controlled.

[Abbas, Umar F. Ismail Mohamad. The Impact of Autocorrelation on the Performance of the MEWMA Control Chart with Mild Correlation. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):82-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.12

 

Keywords: Autocorrelation, MEWMA control chart, Mild correlation, Normality test, Statistical process control

Full Text

12

13

Impact of driving style on fuel consumption

 

Saleh Mobasseri1, Hassan Soltani2

 

1Beyza branch, Islamic Azad University, Beyza, Iran

2Neyriz branch, Islamic Azad University, neyriz, Iran

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper has studied the effects of changes in the speed and acceleration of the driving style on fuel consumption cars. First, it is indicated cycles with constant acceleration in three ranges: Local driving; a slower pace than km/h32, City driving; between 32 km/ to72 km/ h, The highway driving; With faster than72 km/h. then they calculate the fuel consumption rate of cars in each group. In this way, we can evaluate the effect of acceleration on fuel consumption in each of them. Also, the cycle with the same acceleration can be estimated by comparing the fuel consumption. In the end, we can see that at low driving speeds, fuel consumption will increase compared to driving at high speed. It is important that in city driving, acceleration is the fuel consumption of determining factor.

[Saleh Mobasseri, Hassan Soltani. Impact of driving style on fuel consumption. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):87-89]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.13

 

Keywords: Average speed, acceleration, fuel consumption, Local driving (Low speed driving), Average speed driving (City driving), the highway driving

Full Text

13

14

Histological Characterization and Embryonic Development In the fertilizing eggs of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver)

 

Mona M. Al-Dawsary *1, Eman B. Moursy 2, Abdullah M. AlBakairi 3

 

Biology Dept., College of Science and Humanities, Salman bin AbdelAziz Univ., Saudi Arabia1.

Dept. of Entomology and Pesticides, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo Univ. Egypt2.

c Dept., of Pharmacology College of Pharmacy, King Saud Univ., Saudi Arabia3.

wisdom1425@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research paper is a laboratory description for the characteristics, the tissues structures and the successive phases for the embryos development of the Red Palm Weevil, R. Ferrugineus (Oliver) in the deposited fertilized eggs, by the light and transmission electron microscopy. The study included a description of the initiation of cleavage, blastula, gastrula and the formation of extra-embryonic membrane before hatching. The 6h old egg is typical of undifferentiated cell, containing regular reticulum of much cytoplasm and a thick periplasm. The zygote daughter nucleus (energids) and the yolk granules are in cytoplasmic continuity. The energids and yolk granules spread regularly all round the egg periphery and arrange in a layer in the 12 h old eggs. However, the rest of irregular cytoplasm remains at the center. The cleavage energids move apart as they divide and form the cellular blastoderm, while the yolk granules appear around them in the 24 h old eggs. Large masses and spherules of vitellophages and vacuoles are also observed through the clear cytoplasm. In 30 h old eggs, many folds of the plasma membrane are developed, extended between and beyond the preblastoderm nuclei. The preblastoderm nuclei of the 48h old eggs are bounded by the cytoplasmic islands and form the cellular blastoderm which differentiate into germ band and the extra -embryonic membranes in the 60h old eggs. Gastrulation and, differentiation of the ectodermal and mesodermal tissues e.g. the trachea, fore and mid gut become overgrown in the 72h old eggs.While, the ectodermal layer, the connective tissue, the muscles , the fat body and the malppighian cells are differentiated in the 84h old eggs.

[Al-Dawsary M, Moursy E, AlBakairi A. Histological Characterization and Embryonic Development In the fertilizing eggs of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver). Nat Sci 2013;11(12):90-98]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.14

 

Keywords: Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Embryo, Cleavage, Energids, Blastoderm, Germ band, Gastrulation, Differentiation, Embryonic membranes.

Full Text

14

15

The Relationship between Corporate governance and Conservatism in the Listed Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

 

Ghasem Almasi, S. Ali Vaeez

 

Department of Accounting, Payam noor University, Izee, Iran

gh_almas@yahoo.com

Department of Accounting, Shahid Chamran University, Iran

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the components of corporate governance and accounting conservatism. Conservatism in this study is measured by Basu standard model. Corporate governance characteristics compared with non-duty members of the Board, CEO and Chairman of job separation and the ownership of institutional shareholders has been used as independent variables. Research data, using the population consists of 106 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange analyzes for the period 2001 to 2006 using a combination of data and ordinary least squares regression analyzes. The results of the regression estimates suggest that the timing of the financial reporting of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange will affect the index of profitability. The results reject the hypotheses of the study and showed that significant relationship does not exists between the proportion of non-duty members of the Board, CEO and Chairman of the Board and the task of separating ownership of institutional shareholders as a component of corporate governance and accounting conservatism .

[Ghasem Almasi, S. Ali Vaeez. The Relationship between Corporate governance and Conservatism in the Listed Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. Nat Sci2013;11(12):99-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.15

 

Keywords: corporate governance, conservative, non-duty members of the board of directors, institutional shareholders

Full Text

15

16

South American Leaf Blight: Identification and Management of disease outbreak in Nigeria

 

Ogbebor, O. Nicholas

 

Plant protection Division, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049 Benin City, Nigeria.

Ogbeb06@gmail.com

 

Abstract: South American Leaf Blight is identified as one of the world’s five most threatening plant diseases that affect rubber. Until today it is the single factor responsible for the failure of economically rubber cultivation in its motherland, South America. The hectares of rubber plantations in Nigeria are over 247,000 hectares with more than 70% of the holdings by small-scale farmers. Nigeria contributes more than 60,000 tons of rubber to the international market. The rubber industry provides employment opportunities in the non-oil sector in Nigeria. An outbreak will have a far-reaching economic effect on the resource poor farmers and poverty alleviation program in the country. Presently Nigeria is currently free from South American Leaf Blight. However, based on the level of interaction between Nigeria, and South and Central America in such aspect as economic and cultural relationship, the spread of South American Leaf Blight to Nigeria is possible. The major means to prevent the spread of South American Leaf Blight if eventually introduced is to continually educate those involve in rubber production especially our small scale farmer who form the bulk of rubber producers in the industry in the country of the symptoms and biology of the dreaded disease South American Leaf Blight.

 [Ogbebor N. O. South American Leaf Blight: Identification and Management of disease outbreak in Nigeria.

 Nat Sci 2013;11(12):106-109]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.16

 

Keywords: Disease, Identification, Management

Full Text

16

17

Clinical Features Of Patients Diagnosed With Vesico Vaginal Fistula (Vvf) In South East Nigeria

 

1Dr. James U. Aboh1, Dr. Barnabas E. Nwankwo2, Tobias C. Obi3, Solomon A. Agu4

 

1,4,Department of Psychology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Nigeria

2,3Department of Psychology, Caritas University Enugu, Nigeria

banniewankwo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the clinical features of patients diagnosed with Vesicovaginal Fistula (VVF). 125 medical records of patients with VVF were reviewed. The patients were between the ages of 17 to 65 years (M = 34.05; SD = 5.84). The participants were sampled using convenience sampling technique from National Obstetric Fistula Centre, Abakaliki and Gynaecology department Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Ex-post facto design was adopted while descriptive (%) and quantitative (Chi-Square (X2) statistics was applied in testing the hypotheses. The result revealed that clinical features (rejection = 64.29%; X2 = 21, and depression = 73.81%; X2 = 31.85) all at p<.001 level of significance had significant difference on patients diagnosed with VVF. The findings were discussed and recommendations made. Based on the outcomes, it was concluded that clinical features had a remarkable difference on the prevalence and incidence of VVF among diagnosed patients.  

[Dr. James U. Aboh, Dr. Barnabas E. Nwankwo, Tobias C. Obi, Solomon A. Agu. Clinical Features Of Patients Diagnosed With Vesico Vaginal Fistula (Vvf) In South East Nigeria. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):110-115]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.17

 

Keywords: vesico vaginal fistula, depression, rejection, early marriage, south east nigeria

Full Text

17

18

Čerenkov Radiation: The Space-Time Paradox

 

Preecha P. Yupapin1 and Jalil Ali2

 

1Advanced Studies Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand; kypreech@kmitl.ac.th

2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81300, Malaysia; jalilali@utm.my

 

Abstract: Čerenkov radiation has become the interesting phenomenon which can be occurred in many aspects, where in this article, a new model of space-time paradox concept is proposed to describe the <conscious│subconscious> situation, where the connection between whispering gallery mode (WGM) probe and brain signal can be formed and the mind and mater interfacing information described, which is useful for possible mind and dream investigations. The uncertainty of the paradox pair is also involved and discussed.

[Yupapin PP and Ali J. Čerenkov Radiation: The Space-Time Paradox. Nat Sci 2013; 11(12):116-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.18

 

Keywords: Čerenkov radiation, Subtle energy, Space-time paradox, Enlightenment, Extrasensory perception

Full Text

18

19

A Comparison of Smart and Traditional Schools in Enhancing Learning Physics: a Study of Third Grader Girls of Experimental Science in Shahryar High Schools

 

1Mitra Nozari. 2Effat Nozari

 

1Department of education. Ma of Educational Administration.azad university of zanjan

mitranozari@yahoo.com

2Department of education.Ma of Educational Psychology.azad university of tehran

Effat.nozari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study attempts to compare smart schools and traditional schools in terms of improving physics learning skills among female students of third grade in experimental science in Shahryar high schools. In terms of its objective, this study is an applied one, while it is a descriptive study with causal-comparative design in terms of data collection. The statistical population consists of 142 high school third grade girls who study experimental science in smart schools (Hazrat Zeinab and Farzanegan) and traditional schools (Hazrat Masumeh and Parvin Etesami) in Shahryar in the academic year 2012-2013. The statistical sample includes 100 girls in third grade (50 studying in smart schools and 50 going to traditional schools), selected using convenience sampling and sample size formula. The data were gathered using student scores in teacher-designed physics tests for the second semester of 2011-2012 and the first semester of 2012-2013. The data were analyzed through inferential and descriptive statistics, and one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used to compare mean physics scores for students in smart and traditional schools. Our findings suggest a significant difference between physics scores of third graders in smart high schools and those of girls going to traditional schools. The results indicate effectiveness of smart education systems in promoting learning among third grader girls in high schools of Shahryar.

[Mitra Nozari. Effat Nozari. A Comparison of Smart and Traditional Schools in Enhancing Learning Physics: a Study of Third Grader Girls of Experimental Science in Shahryar High Schools. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):120-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.19

 

Keywords: Smart Schools, Traditional Schools, Smart Education, Learning, High School

Full Text

19

20

Morphological and Histological Changes in the Camel Testes In Relation To Semen Characteristics During Breeding and Non-Breeding Seasons

 

Maiada, W.A. Allam1 E.B. Abdalla1, A.E.B. Zeidan2, M.H. Farouk3, and A.M. Abd El-Salaam2

 

1Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Animal Production Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

mhfarouk@hotmaik.com

 

Abstract: A total number of 65 clinically healthy male dromedary camels were used in the present study. The age of these camels ranged from 5 to 10 years and their weights were approximately 500 kg an average. The experimental work aimed to investigate the effect of breeding and non-breeding seasons either hot-humid or hot-dry months on testicular measurements, epididymal semen characteristics and histological changes in the right and left testes of the dromedary camels.  The obtained results showed that, the testis weight, testicular volume, scrotal circumference, testis tone firmer score and the percentage of sperm motility, sperm-cell concentration of the dromedary camels were significantly (P<0.05) higher during breeding than non-breeding season either hot-dry or hot-humid months, while the percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa were significantly (P <0.05) higher during hot-humid months as compared to both hot-dry months and breeding season. Semen colour was creamish white, milky white and watery white during breeding season, hot-dry and hot-humid months, respectively. Semen consistency was viscous during breeding season and hot-dry months and semi-viscous during hot-humid months. Seminal pH value was significantly (P <0.05) higher during hot-humid months as compared to both breeding season and hot-dry months. The testis of the male dromedary camels during breeding season showed consisted of numerous semineferous tubules (ST) with different shapes and size (oval, ovaid and circular) were highly active. The ST lined by spermatogenic cells at different maturation stages (spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatid and spermatozoa) are present  as compared to camels during non-breeding season either hot-dry or hot-humid months.

[Maiada, W.A. Allam, E.B. Abdalla, A.E.B. Zeidan, M.H. Farouk, and A.M. Abd El-Salaam. Morphological and Histological Changes in the Camel Testes In Relation To Semen Characteristics During Breeding and Non-Breeding Seasons. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):129-137]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net  20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.20

    

Keywords: Male camel, semen, breeding season, hot-humid, hot-dry, testes histology

Full Text

20

21

Trends of Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature over Iraq

 

 S. M. Robaa and Zhian J. AL-Barazanji

 

Astronomy, Space Science and Meteorology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

zhdilshad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Iraq is one of the sensitive regions to climate variation particularly temperature change in the World. This study aims to show the change of the mean annual temperature in Iraq. Complete and homogenous time series of mean surface air temperature (T oC), for different eleven sites over Iraq have been used in this study. RH test software package used as a reference set of homogenous time series well correlated with a base series. Also, Sen's non-parametric estimator of slope has been frequently used to estimate the magnitude of trend, whose statistical significance was assessed by the Mann-Kendall test. The trends in temperatures at annual and seasonal time scales were examined and discussed. Trends of T showed a rising trend at all stations and it experienced an increase of 0.5 C/decade.

[S. M. Robaa and Zhian J. AL-Barazanji. Trends of Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature over Iraq. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):  page 138-145]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.21

 

Key Words: Climate, Surface air temperature, Mann-Kendall Test, Trends, Iraq.

Full Text

21

22

Distribution of Schistosome intermediate hosts in relation to aquatic plants and physico-chemical characteristics in different watercourses among Kafr El-Sheikh centers, Egypt

 

El- Khayat, H.M.M1.; Eissa, F. I2.; Mostafa, M. A3. and Flefel, H. E1

 

1Department of Environmental Research and Medical Malacology, Theodor Bilharz Research institute,

2Environment and Bio-Agriculture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3Agriculture Zoology and Nematology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

 hanaamahmoud@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to record the present status of schistosomiasis transmission in different watercourses among Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate. Snail survey incorporating 80 sites was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Aquatic plants at these sites were recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water were determined as well. Results showed that Biomphlaria alexandrina snails were found to be established in all types of watercourses (canals, drains and El-Borollos Lake) and in all centers with infestation percentage of 63.8% and density of 34.684 snails/site. Naturally infected B. alexandrina was observed in five centers exerting their highest infestation in Desouk, Baltim and El-Hamoul centers (37.5%). In the meantime Bullinus truncatus was observed in canal and drains and in all centers with infestation percentage of 25% and density of 4.10 snails/site. Naturally infected B. truncatus was observed only in Mottobis and Baltim centers with infestation percentage of 12.5 and 25%, respectively. B. alexandrina density was about 7 times that of B. truncatus and 3.3% of B. alexandrina and 0.9 % of B. truncatus were naturally infected. Results of physico-chemical parameters showed significant difference between centers in most parameters especially for conductivity, copper, sodium and iron levels. Baltim center showed the highest values in most of the examined parameters. In spite of the increased level of all Cu, Cd, K& Na means there was spreading of B. alexandrina and B. truncatus in all centers and those naturally infected in certain centers suggesting that chemical water pollution was not a limiting factor in these snails distribution. Highly significant correlation was observed between the moderate density of all the recorded plants and B. alexandrina infestation percentage while no significant correlation between the infestation pattern of B. truncatus and each of the examined plant densities.

[El- Khayat, H.M.M.; Eissa, F. I.; Mostafa, M. A. and Flefel, H. E. Distribution of Schistosome intermediate hosts in relation to aquatic plants and physico-chemical characteristics in different watercourses among Kafr El-Sheikh centers, Egypt. Nat Sci 2013;11 (12);146-155]. http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.22

 

Key words: Schistosomiasis, B. alexandrina, B. truncatus, natural infection, rice fields, fish aquacultures.

Full Text

22

23

Prevalence of Mycoplasma species in Urine Samples Collected from Female Patients attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, FCT-Nigeria

 

Ugoh, Sylvanus C., Nneji, Lotanna Micah and Samuel, Sussan

 

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, PMB 117, Nigeria

sylvaugoh@hotmail.com, lotannanneji@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Prevalence of Mycoplasma species among female patients attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada-Abuja was conducted. A total of one hundred urine samples were collected from females aged 15-40 years. 0.5 ml of each urine sample was poured into a universal bottle containing 5 ml of freshly prepared Brain- Heart Infusion broth and seeded with 1 ml suspension of sterilized yeast, 1 ml suspension of penicillin, 5 ml of phenol red and 5 ml of L-argentine and was incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Furthermore, 0.3 ml of the mixture was inoculated onto freshly prepared Brain-Heart Infusion Agar and incubated at 37oC for 3days. The result obtained showed that the overall prevalence rate of Mycoplasma species was 14%. Younger age group (15-20 years) had higher prevalence rate (42.90%) of Mycoplasma species infection than the older female subjects. However, out of 14 positive samples identified, nine (64.30%) were infected by Ureaplasma urealyticum and five (35.70%) were infected by Mycoplasma hominis. This study has highlighted the need to raise awareness of colonization of the urinary tracts by Mycoplasma species, hence there is need to expand services for prevention and treatment of this infection among females.

[Ugoh, S.C., Nneji, L.M. and Samuel, S. Prevalence of Mycoplasma species in urine samples collected from female patients attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, FCT-Nigeria. Nat Sci. 2013;11(12):156-160]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.23

 

Keywords: Prevalence, Mycoplasma, urinary tracts, females

Full Text

23

24

Spermidine as modulator of growth, some metabolic activities and reproductive development of Helianthus tuberosus plants grown in two types of soil

 

Mahmoud R. Sofy 1* and Hossam M. Fouda 2

 

1&2. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, 11884 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*mahmoud_sofy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Growth, yield and some metabolic activities of Helianthus tuberosus plants were studied in response to the treatment with spermidine under normal and saline soil. The obtained results revealed that, under saline conditions, treatments with spermidine (50 & 100 ppm) generally enhanced most of the growth and yield characteristics (shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots/ plant, number of tubers / plant and tubers weights) of Helianthus tuberosus plants. Plants which planted in saline soil showed significant decreases in contents of chlorophyll (a), (b) & (a + b), carbohydrates, soluble proteins, while phenols, carotenoids and free proline contents were increased throughout the experimental period. At saline conditions, catalase activities (CAT) and peroxidase activities (POX) were increased. Treatment with spermidine caused significantly increases in CAT and POX activities in plants grown in saline or non-saline soil.

[Sofy MR and Fouda HM. Spermidine as modulator of growth, some metabolic activities and reproductive development of Helianthus tuberosus plants grown in two types of soil. Nat Sci 2013;11(12): 161-171]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 24. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.24

 

Keywords: spermidine; saline soil; Helianthus tuberosus; metabolic activities

Full Text

24

25

Response of Maize Crop to Cyanobacteria Applied Under Different Nitrogen Rates

 

1Ghazal, F.M., 2Hassan, M.M.M., 1EL-Sayed, G.A.M. and 1Desoky, A.H.

 

1Agric. Microbiol. Dept., Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

2Maize Res. Dept., Field Crops Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

fekryghazal@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation was conducted in sandy soil at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station, Agric. Res. Center (ARC) (Latitude 30 35′ 41.901″ N and Longitude 32 16′ 45.843″ E), Egypt during two successive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012.Maize hybrid SC10 was used to study the effect of cyanobacteria (Cyano) and nitrogen fertilizer on maize growth, grain yield, yield components, and their effects on the biological activity of the soil around the rhizosphere of maize plants. Four treatments of cyanobacteria: 1) soaking grains in Cyano filtrate for 24 h then sprayed with Cyano filtrate after 30 d from planting, 2) side dressing along the row (dry) then sprayed at 30 d from planting, 3) soaking grains for 24 h + dry Cyano + Cyano spray, 4) and control (untreated); and three rates of nitrogen: 107 (1/3 N), 214 (2/3 N), and 321 kg ha-1(full N rate) were used. Experimental design was split-plot with four replications, where Cyano treatments were assigned to main plots and nitrogen rates in the sub plots. Results showed significant differences among Cyano treatments for days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking in 2012 season. Early days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking and were associated with the application of Cyano treatment (dry + spray) in 2012 season. However, Cyano did not affect days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking in 2011 season. Treatment of Cyano (soaking + dry + spray) was accompanied with the tallest plants and the highest values of ear heights. While, the shortest plants and the lowest values of ear heights were associated with using Cyano (soaking + spray). Effect of Cyano inoculation on grain yield was significant in both years.The highest grain yield was associated with Cyano treatment (soaking + dry + spray).The highest values for ear length and ear diameter were recorded as a result of using Cyano treatment (soaking + spray).Number of kernels row-1 was significantly affected by Cyano inoculation in the two years. Nitrogen application hastened the time of tasseling and silking. The increase of nitrogen rate from 1/3 N to full N increased significantly the plant height. Application of 1/3 N ha-1 was accompanied with the shortest plants and the lowest values of ear height. Grain yield increased as N increased up to the highest level. Regarding yield components, ear length, ear diameter, and number of kernels row-1 were significantly affected by N application. Increasing N levels up to full N rate (the highest N rate) was associated with the tallest ears and the highest values for number of kernel row-1 and ear diameter. Nitrogen x Cyano interaction had significant effect on days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking in the second season only. Applying full N ha-1 with Dry Cyano + Cyano spray accelerated days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking. Using Cyano (soaking+ spray) with 1/3 N ha-1 gave the shortest plants. The highest grain yield was achieved as a result of applying (full N + soaking in Cyano + dry Cyano and Cyano spray) in the two seasons. Furthermore, the use of cyanobacteria in combination with different nitrogen rates increased the rhizosphere soil biological activity of the maize rhizosphere soil.

[Ghazal, F.M., Hassan, M.M.M., EL-Sayed, G.A.M. and Desoky, A. H. Response of Maize Crop to Cyanobacteria Applied Under Different Nitrogen Rates. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):172-181]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 25. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.25

 

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, nitrogen fertilizer rates, maize (Zea mays L.), rhizosphere soil biological activity and sandy soil.

Full Text

25

26

Biochemical effects of caffeine on bone of growing rats

 

Osama M. Badr1; Samir A. El-Masry2; Magda A. Mansor3 and Walid M. Abdalla2

 

Animal Biotechnology department1 & Molecular Biology department2, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute (GEBRI), Sadat City University, Egypt

Histology Department3, Faculty of Medicine, Minoufia University, Egypt.

osbadr2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigated the biochemical effects of caffeine on bone of growing rats. The safety of caffeine use among children is understudied and poorly understood. Given that some caffeine-containing beverages are marketed directly to children and that caffeine use is growing among children, it is important to understand the potential effects of caffeine use within this population. Caffeine; 1, 3, 7 trimethylxanthine, a purine alkaloid, is a key component of many popular drinks, mainly tea and coffee, but most phytochemists know little about its biochemistry and molecular biology. A total of 25 rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into three groups: Group 1 (n =10), caffeine-high dose; group 2 (n = 10), caffeine-low dose; group 3 (n = 5), serve as the control group. The caffeine was fed via the animals’ dietary water and the high dose of caffeine=10 mg/100 g body weight/day, and the low dose of caffeine=2.5 mg/100g body weight/day. Body weight was measured weekly. After sacrifice, blood samples were collected in tubes, and separated the serum for the determination of Ca, ALP, Zn and Mn. The results showed that serum Ca level for high dose group is significantly lower than the low dose than the control group, serum Zn level for high dose is significantly lower than the low dose than control group, and serum Mn level of high dose group is significantly lower than the low dose group than the control group. The Alkaline phosphatase in low dose group is not significant smaller than the control group, but the high dose group has significantly elevation value than the control group. It is reported that the oral administration of caffeine lead to significant reduction in serum Ca, Zn and Mn and a significant elevation in serum ALP according to the increase of caffeine dose.

[Osama M. Badr; Samir A. El-Masry; Magda A. Mansor and Walid M. Abdalla. Biochemical effects of caffeine on bone of growing rats. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):182-187]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 26. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.26

 

Keywords: Caffeine, Ca, Zn, Mn and ALP levels, newborn rats, osteoporosis.

Full Text

26

27

Inhibitory Effect of Different Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Identification of the most Suitable Dairy Product for Delivery of the most Potent One:  An In-vitro Study

 

Shakir Abdalaziz Abdallah Osman1, Ali Ali Mortada2, Randa Youssef2& Osama Ibrahim El-Bheatawy3

 

1 B.D.S, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, University of Khartoum.

2Department of Pediatric Dentistry & Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University

3Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain- Shams University

Shakirabdalaziz@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: to evaluate the possible inhibitory effect of selected Probiotic bacterial strains against Streptococcus mutans (SM) and to identify the most suitable Dairy product in which most potent Probiotic strain will exhibit inhibitory activity against SM. Material & Methods: Six Probiotic strains including (Lb reuteri ATCC 23272, Lb rhamnosus ATCC7469, Lb acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lb acidophilus TISTR 450, Lb plantarum ATCC 14917 and Bifi bifidium DSM 20082) were tested against SM. Bioyoghurt, stirred fermented milk and kareish cheese were prepared and tested as delivery vehicle for most potent Probiotic strain. Results: All Probiotics in Group 1-6 significantly reduce % survival rate of SM at all ratio subgroups i.e. A- C (ratio of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 SM: Probiotic strain, respectively), with exception of Group 6 at ratio subgroup A. With exception of Groups 4 & 5 at ratio subgroup A, statistically significant difference between all Probiotics in the inhibitory activity against SM at all tested ratio subgroups (A-C). Lb reuteri ATCC 23272 displayed strongest inhibitory activity followed by Lb. rhamnosus ATCC7469, Bifi. bifidium DSM 20082, Lb. plantarum ATCC 14917 then Lb. acidophilus ATCC 4356 and last Lb. acidophilus TISTR 450 displayed weakest inhibitory activity. Lb reuteri ATCC 23272 on stirred fermented milk showed strongest inhibitory activity against SM, followed by Bio-yoghurt then kareish cheese, with statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion: Different Probiotics under study reduce the oral carriage of SM with varying degrees. Stirred fermented milk containing Lb reuteri ATCC 23272 is considered the best Probiotic delivery vehicle for dental caries prevention.

 [Shakir Abdalaziz, Abdallah Osman, Ali Ali Mortada, Randa youssef & Osama Ibrahim AbdEl-Salam El-batawy. Inhibitory Effect of Different Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Identification of the most Suitable Dairy Product for Delivery of the most Potent One: An In-vitro Study. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):188-195]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 27. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.27

 

Key words: Probiotics, Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Caries prevention.

Full Text

27

28

The Concept of Signifyin(g) Monkey in "Beloved" by Toni Morrison

 

Leila Naderi

 

Master in English Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Marivan Branch, Kurdistan, Iran

 

Abstract: Language has been an ideological and political tool in the hand of imperialists and colonists. An outstanding feature of African American literature has been proved to be a distinctively variety of English language used prevalently among black communities in the United States of America and specifically in Black Narratives which is an answer to the monolithic feature of Standard English. Toni Morrison is an author for whom language goes beyond a mere tool of communication and the present article is a study of her novel ‘Beloved’ and deals with the concept of black vernacular English through Henry Louis Gates, Jr.’s “Signifyin(g) Monkey” which reinforces the plurality and flexibility of Black vernacular English in contrast to Standard English.

[Leila Naderi. The Concept of Signifyin(g) Monkey in "Beloved" by Toni Morrison. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):196-200]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 28. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.28

 

Keywords: Colonial Language; Dialogical Language; Signifyin(g) Monkey; Toni Morrison; Beloved

Full Text

28

29

An Economic Study of the Most Important Oilseed Crops in Egypt

 

Haitham Bayoumi Ali Hassan, Ezzat Awad Zaghloul, Mahmoud Riad El-Gebaly and Yousef Morsy M. Hussein

 

Agricultural Economy Department, National Research Centre

 

Abstract: Egypt imports of vegetable oils about 676 thousand tons per year as an average during the period (1995-2010), which cost the state about 1.9 billion pounds annually. It is expected to increase the burden on the state budget in the coming years as a result of the increase in population and decreasing of oil crops production.Turns out the results of the study fluctuation of area and production oilseed crops under study (sunflower, soybean, peanut, sesame, cotton) between increases and decreases.The production of crops per feddan under study, had taken an increasing general trend statistically significant, except for the sesame crop productivity that increased at a non- statistically significant; as for the contribution of vegetable oils, both domestic or imported product in domestic consumption has increased from about 824 thousand tons in 1995 to about 1783 thousand tons in 2010; the average annual rate of about 1201 tons and the average per capita per year of vegetable oils had reached a minimum of about 4.2 kgs / year in 1999 and a maximum of about 18 kgs / year in 2010 and an average annual rate of about 11.3 kgs / year during the study period. The self-sufficiency rate ranged from a low of 19% in 2005 and a maximum of 54% in 2002, representing vegetable oils imported a significant proportion of the total Egyptian imports ranged from a minimum of 1.3% during the years 2001،2003and 2007; a maximum of around 4 % in 1995 and ranged from the cost of imports about 1.6 billion pounds, and in 2010 was the increase of 1.4% at a cost estimated at 3.9 billion pounds. The study examined the problems of production and marketing of oilseed crops, which lies in the lack of adoption of technological packages due to the presence of some obstacles, such as the high cost of implementation and the lack of improved seeds and lack of marketing information and offers crop for many diseases and pests. As for the means of the development of oil crops depend on the expansion of the cultivation of certain oil crops in the new lands until it exceeded from the circle of the competition of individual crops in addition to the organizing of the local marketing.

[Haitham Bayoumi Ali Hassan, Ezzat Awad Zaghloul, Mahmoud Riad El-Gebaly and Yousef Morsy M. Hussein. An Economic Study of the Most Important Oilseed Crops in Egypt. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):201-209]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 29. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.29

 

Keywords: Economic; Study; Oilseed Crops; Egypt

Full Text

29

30

Exploration of Erythrina Excelsa Baker and Aneilema Beniniense (P. Beauv.) Kunth Aqueous Extracts For The Management of Flea Beetles (Podagrica Spp) On Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus)

 

*Adesina, J. M.

 

1Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*moboladesina@yahoo.com, Tel: +234(0)8050204488

 

Abstract: Control of insect pests involves the management of pest populations to an equilibrium whereby their effect on yield is reduced. The efficacy of aqueous extracts of Aneilema beniniense and Erythrina excelsa plants were compared for effectiveness in the control of flea beetles (Podagrica uniforma and Nisotra dilecta) on okra during the 2013 cropping seasons at the Teaching, Research and Commercial Farm, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The extracts were sprayed every week for 5 weeks, starting from crop establishment till fruiting. The results show that the two plant extracts were able to exercise significant (P<0.05) insect controlling influence against P. uniforma and N. dilecta and caused impressive reductions of both insect pests population and protected the okra plant from serious damage and increased pod yield in comparison with the control. Fruit yields were significantly (P<0.005) higher in plots treated with A. beniniense extracts compared to other treatments. From the results, A. beniniense and E. excelsa was recommended for use on farms managed by limited resource farms in Nigeria, since the technology is cheap, safe, environmentally friendly and easy to adopt in tropical countries.

[Adesina, J. M. Exploration of Erythrina Excelsa Baker and Aneilema Beniniense (P. Beauv.) Kunth Aqueous Extracts For The Management of Flea Beetles (Podagrica Spp) On Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus). Nat Sci 2013;11(12):210-215]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 30. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.30

 

Keywords: effectiveness, impressive reductions, insect pests population, pod yield

Full Text

30

31

Floristic Diversity Assessment on the Afforested  Bank of  Manasbal Lake, Kashmir

 

Nasir Rahid Wani

 

Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar (J & K) India

nasirwani2012@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Floristic diversity study was carried out on the afforested bank of Manasbal Lake, Kashmir during the year 2009. The study was carried out in two vegetational strata’s, the tree and the herbaceous layer. The various phytosociological parameters like species richness, dominance and evenness index exhibited variations in both the strata in all the sites.

[Nasir Rahid Wani. Floristic Diversity Assessment on the Afforested  Bank of  Manasbal Lake, Kashmir. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):216-219]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 31. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.31

 

Key words:  Floristic diversity; Manasbal Lake; Vegetational strata

Full Text

31

32

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization Added at Various Phenological Stages on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Valencia Orange Trees.

 

Hifny H. A., Fahmy M. A., Bagdady G. A., Abdrabboh G. A. and Hamdy, A. E.

 

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

ashraf_ezat_1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work was an attempt to declare the effect of both rootstocks kind and their response to different applied N-fertilizing regime on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of Valencia orange trees budded on either sour orange (SO) or Volkamer lemon (VL) rootstocks. The results indicated that adding 50% of total given N /tree/year at various phenological stages had simultaneously affected the vegetative growth, fruit set %, fruit yield/tree and the response of physical and biochemical fruit characteristics of Valencia orange trees to different N-treatments. Maximum fruit yield (Kg/trees) was obtained when adding 50 % of total given N /tree/ year at either pre-autumn or at fruit cell expansion phenological stages to Valencia orange budded on VL or SO. Adding 50 % of total given N/tree/year at various phenological stages significantly enhanced the fruit physical and chemical characteristics of Valencia orange.

[Hifny, H.A., Fahmy, M.A., Bagdady, G.A. Abdrabboh G.A. and Hamdy A.E. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization Added At Various Phenological Stages on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Valencia Orange Trees. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):220-229]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 32. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.32

 

Key words: Citrus rootstocks, Nitrogen, Phenological stages and Valencia orange.

Full Text

32

33

Protective Role of Vitamin K Against Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Ovariectomized Exercised and Nonexercised Rats

 

Aziza Khalil, Gehan A. Youssef and Hanan F. Al-Saeed

 

 Medical Physiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine (Girls) Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

gehanphysiology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the protective role of vitamin K supplementation for 9 weeks on impaired glucose homeostasis, among ovariectomized exercised and nonexercised rats. Methods: Forty ovariectomized rats with an average weight of 150 gm were used in this study. They were equally divided into four groups. Group I: ovariectomized nonexercised group served as control. Group II: ovariectomized exercised group, the animals were exercised on treadmill 7days/week for 9 weeks. Group III: ovariectomized nonexercised & supplemented with vitamin K. The animals were given daily dose of vitamin K by gavage. Group IV: ovariectomized exercised, & supplemented with vitamin K. The rats were given vitamin K daily by gavage in the same previous doses during the same period of performing treadmill exercise. Blood samples were taken from all groups. We investigated the circulating concentrations of lipocalin-2, adiponectin, and their relationships to vitamin K supplementation with and without exercise. Results: Exercise alone, Vitamin K Supplementation alone or combined with exercise produce significant increase in insulin, adiponectin and lipocalin-2 with significant decrease of glucose blood level. Conclusions: Vitamin K supplementation for 9 weeks at doses attainable in the diet may reduce progression of insulin resistance in ovariectomized nonexercised and exercised rats.

[Aziza Khalil, Gehan A. Youssef and Hanan F. Al-Saeed. Protective Role of Vitamin K Against Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Ovariectomized Exercised and Nonexercised Rats. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):230-238]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 33. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.33

 

Keywords: Vitamin K, lipocalin-2, adiponectin, insulin resistance.

Full Text

33

34

Protective effect of vitamin D&K against arterial calcification in overectomized rats

 

Aziza Khalil and Gehan A. Youssef

 

Medical Physiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine (Girls) Al-Azhar University, Egypt

gehanphysiology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Objective: The objective of this study was to assess associations between the daily oral dose of vitamin D, vitamin K, both vitamins D & K supplementation and serum concentration of Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), interlukin 6 (IL6) and interlukin 10 ( IL 10 ). Aim of the work: Inflammation is regarded as a risk predictor for metabolic syndrome and atherogenesis. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis to confirm the effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine levels. Methods: fourty ovariectomized rats with an average weight of 150 g were used in this study. They were equally divided into four groups. Group I: control ovariectomized group. Group II: Ovariectomized & vitamin D supplementation group, Group III: ovariectomized & vitamin K supplementation group, Group IV; ovariectomized & both vitamins D&K supplementation group, the animals were given daily dose of vitamin D and K or both vitamins daily by gavage for nine weeks. Blood samples were taken from all groups. We investigated the circulating concentrations of MGP, IL6 and, IL 10, and their relationships to vitamins D, K and both vitamins supplementation. Results: Vitamin D supplementation alone, Vitamin K Supplementation alone or combined with vitamin D and K Supplementation to overictomized rats produce significant increase in MGP in versus to control overictomized rats. While Ovariectomized rats with vitamin K supplementation and ovariectomized rats with vitamin D+K supplementation induced significant decrease of IL6 and significant increase of IL10, overictomized rats with vitamin D supplementation induced insignificant decrease of IL6 and insignificant increase of IL10 compared to control overictomized rats. Conclusions: vitamins D & K stimulate MGP, a strong protein inhibitor of vascular calcification. Vitamin K supplementation was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers suggests that a possible protective role of vitamin K in inflammation.

[Aziza Khalil and Gehan A. Youssef. Protective effect of vitamin D&K against arterial calcification in overectomized rats. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):239-246]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 34. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.34

 

Key words: Vitamin D, Vitamin K, MGP, IL6 and IL10.

Full Text

34

35

Assessment of the Lifestyle Intervention in Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Group of Egyptian Population

 

Fadila Gad Allah 1, Maged Abd El Kareem Al Setohi 2, Salwa Seddik 1, Inas Sabry 1, Nebal Abou-El Ella 3, Eman Sultan 3

 

1 Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine -Ain Shams University, Cairo Egypt

2 Public Health, Faculty of Medicine – Ain Shams University, Cairo Egypt

3 National Nutrition Institute, Cairo Egypt

emansoltan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Back ground: The efficacy of lifestyle intervention in reducing the incidence of type T2DM has been established by the Diabetes Prevention Program and other studies. Our primary objective was to test the feasibility of integrating less intensive lifestyle intervention therapy into patient visits to improve weight loss and decrease the intensity of metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes risk factors. Methods: 499 middle-aged, overweight and obese subjects; mean age, 47 years; mean body-mass index 38 kg/m2 were screened from 9/2009 till 3/2011for the presence of prediabetes. We surveyed their characteristics of life style: eating and exercise habits, body mass index, waist line, resting blood pressure, OGTT plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL after a 12-hour fasting. After ruling out secondary obesity a tailored individual life-style was advised, which focused on dietary interventions (low calorie diet) and increased physical activity. An oral glucose-tolerance test was performed at the end for those at risk of diabetes. The mean duration of follow-up was one year. Results: The intervention group showed significant improvement in each intervention goal, with significant mean differences weight change (−8.58 kg, (P<0.000)). Also, there was an improvement in other markers for risk of progression to diabetes {BMI (P<0.000) and waist circumference (P<0.000)}. The magnitude of weight loss was strongly associated with improvements in glycemia, with significant differences in fasting glucose (P<0.000), and post load plasma glucose profiles 1-h (P<0.015) and 2-h (P<0.042), were seen. Conclusions: less intensive lifestyle intervention (diet, physical activity) produced beneficial changes in clinical and biochemical parameters in those who are at risk of T2DM. This type of intervention is a feasible option to prevent T2DM and should be implemented in the primary health care system.

[Fadila Gad Allah, Maged Abd El Kareem Al Setohi, Salwa Seddik, Inas Sabry, Nebal Abou-El Ella, Eman Sultan. Assessment of the Lifestyle Intervention in Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Group of Egyptian Population.. Nat Sci 2013;11(12):247-253]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 35. doi:10.7537/marsnsj111213.35

 

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, life style intervention, diet, Prediabetes, plasma glucose, anthropometric measures

Full Text

35

The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from November 6, 2013
 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Nature and Science, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com; naturesciencej@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

2013 Marsland Press

Terms of Service  |  Privacy Policy  |

2013 Marsland Press