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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci (Monthly)
ISSN: 1545-0740 
Volume 12 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 82), January 25, 2014
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1201 

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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No.

1

Biodegradation of phenanthrene by native bacterial strains isolated from the river Nile water in Egypt

 

Hossam S. Jahin, Seleem E. Gaber and Ayman Y. Ewida

 

Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring, National Water Research Center, Egypt

Seleem_gaber@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The selection of appropriate bacterium species is critical in the successful application of biodegradation techniques. The present study is an attempt to isolate and identify new indigenous bacterial strains from a contaminated site in the river Nile water, and to assess their capability to degrade high concentrations of phenanthrene (PHE) as a model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to demonstrate the potential of the isolated bacterial strains in degrading high concentration of PHE, batch reactors were conducted using mineral salt base (MSB) and river Nile water as media, supplemented with 100 mgL-1 PHE as sole carbon and energy source. Determination of PAHs in Nile water samples and monitoring of the PHE biodegradation process was analyzed by the gas chromatography with a flame ionized detector (GC/FID). The total concentration of PAHs in the examined water samples ranged from 59.7 to 78.5 g l-1. And the overall composition pattern of PAHs was dominated by low molecular weight PAHs, which distinguishes its petrogenic origin. The examined bacterial isolates successfully achieved PHE biodegradation from the solutions through 21 days. The 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis suggested that the bacterial strains involved in the process of biodegradation of PHE are Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5 and Pseudomonas flourscens strain SBW 25.

[Hossam S. Jahin, Seleem E. Gaber and Ayman Y. Ewida. Biodegradation of phenanthrene by native bacterial strains isolated from the river Nile water in Egypt. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.01 

 

Keywords: River Nile, Biodegradation, Phenanthrene, Bacteria, Bacillus, Pseudomonas.

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2

A preliminary study on dual role of humic acid in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cultivation

 

R. Kar1, M. K. Ghosh1, S. K. Majumder2 and S. Nirmal Kumar1

 

1Soil Science and Chemistry Section, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Berhampore-742101, West Bengal, India

ranjitkr4@gmail.com

2Basic Seed Farm, National Silkworm Seed Organization, Central Silk Board, Dhubulia, West Bengal, India

 

Abstract: Humic acid (HA), the naturally occurring polymeric molecule establishes its importance for conditioning soil properties and influencing plant physiological activities. In the present communication, role of HA in reducing the fixation of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by soil clay has been investigated in terms of differential fixation of both the elements by clay and clay-humate complex (CHC). Besides, favorable influence of HA administration on the root growth of mulberry (Morus alba L.) variety, S-1635, has also been ascertained.

[R. Kar, M. K. Ghosh, S. K. Majumder and S. Nirmal Kumar. A preliminary study on dual role of humic acid in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cultivation. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):9-11]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.02

 

Key words: Clay, humic acid, mulberry, P/K fixation, root growth.

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Minimal Residual Disease Detection in Promyelocytic Leukemia and its Correlation with Clinical Outcome

 

Farida Gad Alla MD1, Thoraya Abdelhamid MD2, Heba N. Raslan MD1

 

1Clinical Pathology and 2Medical OncologyDepartments, NCI, Cairo University

basmaelgamal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute leukemia characterized by a balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosome 15 and 17 resulting in the chimeric gene encoding PML-RARA protein. Objectives:   Our aim was to study the PML-RARA fusion gene by real-time RT-PCR before and after therapy in a trial to assess its prognostic value and its impact on monitoring MRD to improve therapeutic strategies and decision making. Patients and Method: The study included 41 newly diagnosed APL patients. In addition to the standard work up, cytogenetic and FISH testing were performed at diagnosis and at CR. RT-PCR was done before treatment and after consolidation. We calculated the levels of PML-RARA by different methods: 1-The number of transcripts. 2-The ratio % which is calculated as: Copy number of PML-RARA /copy number of ABL.  3-The normalized copy number (NCN) which is calculated as: Copy number of PML-RARA/ copy number of ABL x 10000. To analyze the different prognostic factors, we correlated them to MRD cut-off values which were for the ratio% (1x10-3), and (NCN=10) for NCN method. Accordingly patients were divided into: Low risk patients: those with ratio% <10-3 or NCN <10 and high risk patients: those with ratio%  ≥10-3 or NCN >10. Treatment plan:  Induction and consolidation regimen included ATRA 45 mg/m2 P.O. daily and Daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 I.V. day 1-3 for three courses. Maintenance therapy was given with 6 mercaptopurine and methotrexate with ATRA intermittent courses for two years. Results: Median age was 36 years (18-66) with females to males ratio of 1.2:1. Only 30 patients achieved hematologic remission and were followed up for MRD detection while eight cases failed to achieve CR and three cases showed early death. The decrease in expression level of PML-RARA after treatment was highly significant. During the observation period of a median of 39.1 months (1-56), six cases showed relapse. The time elapsing from the detection of molecular relapse till the appearance of hematological relapse ranged from 1-3 months with most cases clustering in the 3rd month (4patients). The cumulative disease free survival (DFS) was 69%. The overall survival (OS) was 76.6% with a mean of 49.85 months with 95%confidence interval of (44.8-54.8). We found significant longer DFS and OS for the low versus high risk patients using the NCN cutoff at post consolidation analysis (p=<0.001 and 0.009 respectively).  We found also high statistical significant correlation between two log reduction or more after consolidation and longer DFS but not OS. Conclusions: PML/RARA NCN method is simple and accurate; its use enables standardization and avoids differences among laboratories. Monitoring patients at short time points is valuable and essential for decision making and choice of proper therapy.

 [Farida Gad Alla , Thoraya Abdelhamid , Heba N. Raslan. Minimal Residual Disease Detection in Promyelocytic Leukemia and its Correlation with Clinical Outcome. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):12-19]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.03

 

Keywords: APL, PML/RARA, MRD, Quantitative real-time PCR.

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4

Nursing Students’ Perception and Experience of Bullying Behavior in the Faculty of Nursing

 

Afaf Abdelaziz Basal 1and Entisar Abo Elghite Elhossiny Elkazeh 2

 

Medical Surgical Nursing 1, Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt.

drafafbasal@yahoo.com, dr.entisaraboelghit@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : Background: Workplace bullying, a serious issue affecting the nursing profession, is defined as any type of repetitive abuse in which the victim of the bullying behavior suffers verbal abuse, threats, humiliating or intimidating behaviors that interfere with his or her job performance and are meant to place at risk the health and safety of the victim. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess nursing students' perception and experience of bullying behavior in the faculty of nursing of Tanta University. Material and methods: Descriptive study design used a questionnaire survey short version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire that adapted according to the earlier studies on bullying against nursing students particularly those conducted by Cooper et al. and Celik and Bayraktar design to assess bullying behaviors by nursing faculty. The study conducted in Faculty of Nursing at Tanta University in Egypt. The sample was approximately 400 undergraduate students. The study was done during the academic year 2012-20130, in April month. Results: high percent of students 66% never exposure to threats of violence or physical abuse or actual abuse, high percent of students 66.8% sometimes and 19.5% frequently exposure to Being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage) also high percent 43% of students always exposure to behavior of Negative and disparaging remarks about nursing’s profession, and exposure to be shouted at or be the target of spontaneous anger (or rage) by nurse, patients and faculty employee of faculty 48.8 %, 34.3% and 42% respectively. Conclusion: Nursing students were exposed to bullying behaviors in both the practice settings and the educational settings. Recommendation: Encourage strategies to increase students’ awareness of this problem with bullying and its potential consequences and coping measures with bullying behavior.

[Afaf Abdelaziz Basal and Entisar Abo Elghite Elhossiny Elkazeh. Nursing Students’ Perception and Experience of Bullying Behavior in the Faculty of Nursing. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):20-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.04

 

Key words: Bullying behavior, perception, nursing students.

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5

Prevalence of Dental Caries in Child School from two Libya's Western Cities with Different Levels of Fluoride in Their Drinking Water

 

Abdalraof M. Nasr (1), Dalia M. Moheb(2) and Eman S. El Masry (3)

 

1 M.Sc. of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Oral Medicine and Dental Surgery, Al-Zawia University, Libya.

2Lecturer of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

3 Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

dr_3bdalraof@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Dental caries is one of the commonest oral diseases in children. Despite this fact, not much attention has been given to studies on this issue among libyan school children. Objectives: To assess prevalence and severity of dental caries among 6-12 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration levels in drinking water. Design: Cross-sectional observational study, done in two cities, Libya (endemic fluoride belt). Subjects and Methods: 2000 children; aged 6-12 years (969 boys, 1031 girls) were examined from four randomly selected public schools. Dental caries was measured using the WHO diagnostic criteria (1997). Water fluoride levels were determined from samples obtained from drinking water sources. Results: Overall caries prevalence was 60.8%, off all the three groups (Group I 6-8 years old = 55%; Group II 9-10 years old = 64.2% and Group III 11-12 years old = 61.5%) with the highest caries prevalence in group III and lowest in group I. The overall mean DMFT, deft and dmft indices were 1.01 (SD  1.48), 1.35 (SD  1.84) and 1.45 (SD  2.39), respectively for all subjects. There was a statistically significantly negative correlation in overall mean DMFT scores of children at various water fluoride levels (10.73 0.36 ppm)(P = 0.020). Caries experience was more among girls than boys (P = 0.021). Conclusion: The caries prevalence among schoolchildren was very high, and that there was a negative correlation between caries experience and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. In high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority in Libya than water fluoridation. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to further improve the dental health of school children.

[Abdalraof MN, Moheb DM and El Masry ES. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Child School from two Libya's Western Cities with Different Levels of Fluoride in Their Drinking Water. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):28-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.05

 

Keywords: Caries prevalence, Water fluoride levels, Schoolchildren, Libya.

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6

Improved techniques PROMETHEE preference for the changed conditions

 

Amin Akafpour, Dr. Maghsood Amiri, Dr. Naser Hamidi

 

Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Department of Management, Qazvin, Iran

E-mail address: a.akafpour@qiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: PROMETHEE II outranking method is developed some ELECTRE methods which are used for different conditions specific decision. This method requires the absolute values measures of the matrix, While some issues, such as deciding the amount of perishable products the absolute values is not available And a range of values is available for the decision maker. In this paper, PROMETHEE II method to use the standard deviation values instead of range of values has been developed.

[Amin Akafpour, Maghsood Amiri, Naser Hamidi. Improved techniques PROMETHEE preference for the changed conditions. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):35-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.06

 

Keywords: MCDA, PROMETHEE, GAIA, Outranking, MCDM

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7

Bioactivity of leaf extracts of Alphonso mango against cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

 

Hesham A. Srour

 

Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

hamsor98@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The contact toxicity of methanolic extract of Alphonso mango leaves was studied by treating 4th instar larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis with various concentrations (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/cm2) of the extract for 24 hours. Also, the impact of the same concentrations of Alphonso extract on the total protein, carbohydrate, lipid content and seven enzyme activity of the body tissue were studied. Results showed that extract exhibit concentration-dependant contact toxicity against S. littoralis larvae with LC50 of 325 mg/ cm2. While Alphonso leaf extract did not affect total protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in treated larvae, it significantly reduced activity of amylase, invertase and trehalase and significantly elevated activities of non-specific esterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase. The alteration of such parameters provides some insights about the mode of action of the allelochemicals in the methanol extracts in insect body and suggests that strong oxidizing agent(s) could be responsible for the toxic effect of the methanolic extract of Alphonso mango leaves.

[Hesham A. Srour. Bioactivity of leaf extracts of Alphonso mango against cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)]. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):43-48]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.07

 

Key words: Mangifera indica, Spodoptera littoralis,  Toxicity, Protein, Lipids, Carbohydrates, Enzyme

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8

Dissipation Behavior of Chlorfenapyr and Difenoconazole Residues in/on Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)

 

Osama I. Abdallah1*, Monir M. Almaz1, Mohamed H. Arief2 and Abd El-Aleem H. Abd El-Aleem3

 

1Pesticides Residues and Environmental Pollution Department, Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12618, Egypt

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Minoufiya University, Minoufiya, Egypt

shebin_osama@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Excessive use of pesticides in grape cultivation could lead to impact on environment and health. Dissipation rate, half-live (t0.5) and the preharvest interval (PHI) of acaridae chlorfenapyr (challenger 36% SC) and a fungicide difenoconazole (Score 25% EC) which two widely used pesticides in growing grape, were evaluated in grape fruits and leaves.. Samples were collected randomly at 1 h to 22 days after the pesticides application at recommended dose. Pesticides residues were quantified by using gas chromatography equipped with micro electron capture detector (GC-ECD) after extraction and clean up. Results showed that the initial deposits were 1.923 and 1.773mg kg-1 in grapes berries and 4.158 and3.642 mg kg-1 in leaves for chlorfenapyr and difenoconazole, respectively, the Chlorfenapyr and difenoconazole obey first order kinetics with dissipation rates 0.386, 0.294 days-1 and 0.154, 0.135 days-1in grape berries and leaves, respectively. The calculated half-life’s (to.5) were 1.796 and 4.494 days in grapes berries and 2.359 and 35.134 days in leaves after the application, respectively. We suggested that a waiting period of at least 15 and 17 days before harvesting the grape berries and leaves for chlorfenapyr, 17 and 21 days for difenconazole, respectively after the application at recommended dose that may be considered quite safe from point of health hazards due to toxic effect of residues.

[Osama I. Abdallah, Monir M. Almaz, Mohamed H. Arief and Abd El-Aleem H. Abd El-Aleem. Dissipation Behavior of Chlorfenapyr and Difenoconazole Residues in/on Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Nat Sci 2014;12(1):49-54]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.08

 

Keywords: Dissipation; Chlorfenapyr; Difenoconazole; Grape.

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Sequence analysis of alpha toxin produced by C. perfringens isolated from different sources

 

1Helmy Ahmed Torky and 2Mohamed Abdel gawad Hassan

 

Microbiology department, Faculty of Vet. Med. Alexandria University, Egypt.

Department of Microbiology.Animal Health Research Institute, Damanhour branch, Egypt.

m.gawad82@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The phylogenic and phenotypic relationships between C. perfringens strains isolated from different sources were evaluated. In which 400 samples were collected from chicken, rabbit, sheep and calves and subjected to anaerobic examination and identification. The incidence of C. perfringens isolated from chicken, rabbit, sheep and calves were 70%, 42%, 63% and 55% respectively. The recovered isolates were biochemically identified. Molecular typing of the isolates was performed by multiplex PCR using of three sets of primers specific for toxin producing genes of C.perfringens [alpha (402bp), beta (236bp) and epsilon (541bp) toxin]. Sequence analysis was performed on alpha toxin of 12 C. perfringens isolates (three isolates from each species) in which the products of PCR reaction of alpha toxin were sequenced and aligned with the alpha toxin sequences published in Gen bank and with reference strains. The results of Sequencing revealed that, alpha toxin gene sequences of recovered isolates has high similarity with each other, reference strains and with published sequences on gene bank. These results indicate that C. perfringens alpha toxin is highly conserved region among C. perfringens isolated from different origin as the identity percentage was greater than 95% and approached to 100 %.

[Helmy Ahmed Torky and Mohamed Abdel gawad Hassan. Sequence analysis of alpha toxin produced by C. perfringens isolated from different sources. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):55-61]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.09

 

Keywords: Sequence analysis; alpha toxin; C. perfringens; source.

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An Analytical Economic Study of Production and Export of Onion in Egypt

 

Haitham Bayoumi Ali Hassan; EitemadShaban.O. Mohamd2, Mahmoud Riad El-Gebaly and Yosef Morsy M. Hessein

 

1Department of Agricultural Economy, National Research Centre

2Research Institute of Economy Agriculture Research Center

 

Abstract: Research aims to identify area, production and exports of Egyptian onions as an important export crop. And through the study of the most important importing markets and the factors influencing them,results indicate that the production of onions loop winter and summer and the Nile represents about 79.1%, 13.06%, 7.85%, respectively, of the total domestic production of onions, amounting to about 2226.15 tons on average for the period (2007-2012).The production is concentrated in those lugs Dakahlia, 6 October and Minya.Results also found that the quantity exported annually from fresh onions about 202.1 thousand tons valued at about 68.6 million pounds on average for the same period.While the total amount of exports of dehydrated onions, about 8.41 tons per year worth about 50.19 million pounds, and the value of Egyptian exports of onions around 118.79 million pounds, which represents about 5.62% of the total value of Egyptian agricultural exports amounting to 21092 million pounds during the same period. The results found that the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is the most important economic blocs importing Egyptian freshonions quantity amounted to 145.3 thousand tons, the relative importance is estimated at 71.7%. The Saudimarket is one of the important markets importing Egyptian fresh onions, its quantity amounted to 131.7 thousand tons, with a relative importance of about 65 %, followed in the ranking by the Arab free trade zone which occupies the second place among the economic blocs as it absorbe about 27.8 thousand tons valued at about 10 million pounds, which represents by about 13.7%, 14.5% of the total quantity and value of Egyptian exports of fresh onions during the study period.Importers of the Egyptian onions includes all of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Yemen in the Arab free trade zone, Lebanoncomesin the first place, Jordan was ranked second by 9.5%, 3.5% of the total amount of the Egyptian exports and about 69.1%, 25.7% of the amount of the Egyptian exports to the Arab free trade zone. While the European Union (EU's).is the most important economic blocs and importers of dried Egyptian onion quantity amounted to about 18 thousand ton at a rate of about 83.2%. The markets which are considered the most important are German and Dutch markets for theimported Egyptian dried onions quantity amounted to about 3.2, 2.1 thousand tons, with a percentage of 32.7%, 22.6%, respectively, during the study period. The results also showed that, despite the continuation of the Egyptian onions exports during several months throughout the year, but not to take advantage of the preferences granted to agreements with many of the various economic blocs. It was also found that the most important factors affecting the Egyptian exports of onions are, the export price of Egyptian onions and the global average export price. The study recommends the need for early planting onions in the winter to meet the needs of the European market during the period of the lack of production in the countries of the European Union, especially Spain and the Netherlands, while working to open new markets for Egyptian onions. As well as work on the stability of imports of ASEAN countries and the Commonwealth of COMESA and onions by Egyptian interest in the production is of good quality appropriate for the taste of the consumer markets and those conforming with the achievement of price competition to produce a competitor countries.

[Haitham Bayoumi Ali Hassan; EitemadShaban.O.Mohamd, Mahmoud Riad El-Gebaly and Yosef Morsy M.Hessein. An Analytical Economic Study of Production and Export of Onion in Egypt. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):62-73]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.10

 

Keywords: Analytical Economic; Production; Export; Onion; Egypt.

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Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC– ESI –MS Analysis of Alkaloids in Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. grown in Soil of Egypt

 

Zeinab T. Abd El Shakour

 

Laboratory of phytochemistry, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Cairo- Egypt

zizishakour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There is only one Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. tree grown in Egypt. It is an Asian medicinal plant well known for producing potent antileukemic alkaloid, so the present study was aimed at identifying these alkaloids and to investigate its cytotoxic activity. Five known alkaloids (cephalotaxine, harringtonine, homoharringtonine, isoharringtonine and deoxyharringtonine) were identified by HPLC–ESI–MS technique according to its spectral data and comparison with the literature, the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. was in vitro investigated for its cytotoxicity against HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines for first time, and resulted with IC50 = 4.77, 12.9 and 17.5 μg/ml, respectively.

[Zeinab T. Abd El Shakour. Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC– ESI –MS Analysis of Alkaloids in Cephalotaxus harringtonia L. grown in Soil of Egypt. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):74-78]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.11

 

Keywords: Cephalotaxus harringtonia L., the aerial parts, alkaloid, cytotoxicity.

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Some Bioactive Fatty Derivatives from L. Pterodonta

 

*1Egharevba, Henry Omoregie and 2Okwute, Simon Koma

 

1Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Idu industrial Layout Idu, Abuja, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Gwagwalada,  Abuja, FCT, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author. Email: eohenri@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aerial part of Laggera pterodonta (DC.) Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae) was extracted successively with hexane and ethyl acetate, and subjected to chemical and microbiological investigations. Chromatographic separation of the extracts led to the isolation of five fatty derivatives identified as 2-triacontoxyethyleicosanoate, triacontyl methyl ether, ethane-1,2-dieicosanoate, eicosanoic acid, ethane-1,2-di-eicosenoate based on their spectral and physicochemical characteristics. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities against selected microorganisms, which include Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571), Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8236), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 10031), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 13704), and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella ozaenae and Shigella dysenteriae. The compounds were found to exhibit selective activities against some of the organisms with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of between 25 and 100 g/ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration of (MBC) of 100 and 200 g/ml. The study justified the use of the plant as antibiotic in ethnomedicinal applications, and underscores the important role fatty compounds play in cellular integrity.

[Egharevba HO, Okwute SK. Some Bioactive Fatty Derivatives from L. Pterodonta. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):79-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.12

 

Key words: Laggera pterodonta, 2-triacontoxyethyleicosanoate, triacontyl methyl ether, ethane-1,2-dieicosanoate, eicosanoic acid, ethane-1,2-di-eicosenoate.

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Self treatment of Malaria and its management in communities of Guyana

 

R. Kurup* and H. Kumar

 

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Guyana, Turkeyen Campus, South America

*Corresponding author: kuruprajini@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In Guyana the continued high incidence of malaria is due to increased mining and logger’s activities. In addition, behavioral patterns and attitudes of indigenous communities coupled with similar features in miners and loggers – all itinerant in nature- contribute significantly to interrupted/broken/incomplete treatments. This research assessed the use of self-treatment and also determined the various actions taken to manage malaria illness, especially among high risk individuals. This survey assessed the treatment-seeking pattern of malaria infection among fifty patients who visited Malaria clinic of Georgetown Public Hospital. Among the study population, 16% of the victims responded having sufficient information about malaria. Whilst most of the victims embraced the idea of self-administration (88%), 12% did not support the idea of self treatment. After careful examination, it was thought that the 12% of victims that was against self treatment may be as a result of advanced technology and availability of information on malaria like drug resistance and misdiagnosis. The study was able to draw trepidation of high risk malarial patients towards care and treatment. Self-treatment at home is the major action taken to manage malaria. Therefore efforts should be made to improve the availability of effective antimalarials to communities in rural areas with malaria, particularly through the use of community health workers, health posts, drug sellers, and shop owners.

[R. Kurup and H. Kumar. Self treatment of Malaria and its management in communities of Guyana. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):87-92]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.13

 

Keywords: malaria; self-treatment; knowledge.

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Responses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) moench) to different organic mulch materials in humid rainforest south western agro ecological zone Nigeria

 

1Sanni, K. O. and 2Eleduma, A. F.

 

1Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Lagos State Polytechnic, P. O. Box 249, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Sannikehinde2002@gmail.com, Tel: +23408023045361

 

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted during the dry season of 2011 at the Lagos State Polytechnic, Teaching and Research Farm, Ikorodu, to evaluate the effects of different mulch materials on the growth and yield of okra. Three different organic mulch materials (dry grasses, banana leaves and wood shavings) were compared with control (with no mulch material) laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Results showed significant effects of mulch materials on the number of leaves, plant height at 4 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP), and number of flowers at 50% flowering, number of pods per plant at harvesting; while there was non-significant difference among the treatments on weight of harvested pods per plant. Therefore, it was concluded that Lagos okra farmers could applied organic mulch to obtain maximum okra growth and yield.

[Sanni, K. O. and Eleduma, A. F. Responses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) moench) to different organic mulch materials in humid rainforest south western agro ecological zone Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):93-95]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.14

 

Keywords: evaluate, growth and yield, mulch materials, significant effects, weeks after planting.

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The Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Antagonist Protocol for Superovulation in Polycystic Ovarian Disease during Assisted Reproduction

 

Adel Elsayed Ibrahim

 

Assisted Reproductive Unit, Azhar University- Cairo- Egypt

Adel.sayed29@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The assisted reproductive technology is the last option in the treatment of Polycystic ovarian disease after failure of conventional treatment. The main problem with superovulation in PCOD in long agonist protocols is a high incidence of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. The use of GnRh antagonist protocol in PCOD was in an attempt to decrease incidence of OHSS without compromising pregnancy outcome. Sitting: Azhar ART unit.  Aim of the work; to comparethe GnRh antagonist protocol with long agonist protocol for superovulation in PCOS patients. Material and methods; This a retrospective studies carried out in Azhar ART unit in the period from June 2011 to March 2013, in which 150 patients with PCOD were classified into; 80 patients were received GnRh antagonist protocols and 70 patients were received long GnRh agonist protocol. The outcome measures were pregnancy outcome, incidence of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome, the duration of stimulation and total dose of HMG needed for ovarian stimulation. Results: The duration of stimulation was significantly shorter in the antagonist group (10.475), in addition the number of HMG ampules was significantly lower in the antagonist group (25.14910.18 vs 35. 1268.23). Furthermore the incidence of OHSS was significantly lower in the antagonist group (8 %, 0.2% vs 15%, 3.2%) for moderate and severe cases respectively. On the other hand the clinical pregnancy outcome was significantly lower in the antagonist group (25.36 % vs. 40.56). Conclusions: The GnRh antagonist protocol for superovulation in polycystic ovary disease decreases the duration of stimulation as well as number of HMG ampules, furthermore it decreases the incidence of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. But unfortunately it decreases the clinical pregnancy outcome if compared with the long GnRh agonist protocol.

[Adel Elsayed Ibrahim. The Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Antagonist Protocol for Superovulation in Polycystic Ovarian Disease during Assisted Reproduction. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):96-99]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.15

 

Key words; GnRh antagonist, GnRH agonist, PCOD, Ovarianhyper stimulationsyndrome,ICSI.

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Evaluation of Teratogenic Potentials and Tissue Residues of Tiamulin in Albino Rats

 

Mossad, G. A. El-Sayed, Ashraf, A.A. El-Komy and Amany, A. A. El-Meleh

 

Department of pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

amani.mailto: amani.mleeh@fvtm.bu.edu.eg.

 

Abstract: Drugs or medicinal agents should only be used in pregnancy if there is proven benefit to the mother and no potential teratogenic risks. The present study was performed to evaluate the teratogenic potentials of tiamulin in albino rats and its residues in tissues. The pregnant rats were divided into five groups, group (1) behaved as control received normal saline from 6th to 9th day of pregnancy and from 6th to 15th day of pregnancy. Group (2) received 36 mg/kg b.wt of tiamulin orally daily from 6th to 9th day of pregnancy and group (4) from 6th to 15th day of pregnancy. Group (3) received 72mg/kg b.wt of tiamulin orally daily from 6th to 9th day of pregnancy and group (5) from 6th to 15th day of pregnancy. There was no death or abortions, treated groups showed significant decrease in litter size, weight, length and retarded growth in fetuses. Fetal resorption was significantly increased in treated groups. The incidences of skeletal and visceral anomalies were increased in treated groups. Following oral administration of both dose of tiamulin from 6th to 9th day of pregnancy and from 6th to 15th day of pregnancy revealed distribution of the drug in tested tissues (brain, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, thigh, and thoracic muscles, fat, skin and whole fetuses).

[Mossad, G. A. El-Sayed, Ashraf, A.A. El-Komy and Amany, A. A. El-Meleh. Evaluation of Teratogenic Potentials and Tissue Residues of Tiamulin in Albino Rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):100-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.16

 

Keywords: tiamulin, pregnancy, anomalies, residues.

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Retrofitting steel special moment frame using ADAS metallic yielding dampers

 

Bahman farokh i1, ramin ghoochi2

 

1Student, Ph.D of civil engineering, university of malayer, iran (corresponding Author)

bahman.farokhi78@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In recent years, new equipment for use in earthquake-resistant structures have been developed. Energy dissipation devices such as ADAS metallic dampers are among them which have been used in the design of the new generation of earthquake-resisting buildings. In this study, systems with ADAS metallic dampers are evaluated in terms of behavior and performance and are compared with conventional earthquake-resistant steel systems such as the system of Chevron with steel special moment frame. Therefore, dampers needed for the design and performance of frames are evaluated by using the nonlinear dynamic analysis with Perform 3D. Also by applying the earthquake records of Bam-northridge-Elcentro-Naghan-Rudbar-Tabas-Lamaperia it is tried to obtain more comprehensive results. By installing the dampers, parameters such as relative and absolute displacement, base shear and hysteresis energy dissipation are reduced significantly by structural members and the performance of the dampers are improved with the increase in height and stories of the structure.

[Bahman farokh i, ramin ghoochi. Retrofitting steel special moment frame using ADAS metallic yielding dampers. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):106-113]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.17

 

Keyword: energy dissipation, ADAS metallic yielding dampers, steel special moment frames, seismic retrofitting, nonlinear dynamic analysis.

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The response of Iranian religious temper in the political realm

 

Ali Asghar Amini dehaghi

 

Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Vali asr street, Tehran, Iran

Amini779@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: When the new Muslim Arabs were dominant on the Sassanid Empire during comprehensive invasion and were prevailing in Iran, consequently the Iranian society accepted inevitably the religion of the invasive Arab, But Inwardly believed to Zoroastrian culture and the ancient heritage before the arrival of Islam in Iran, especially some Iranian elites could change the religion of Islam to Iranian Style Often in the form of the Shiite after two centuries of Perplexity and silence and have been the universal nature to it that were exposed to Moore malice constantly Arab Sunni Muslims. In this context, Iranian Sufism and mysticism emerged in the face of dogmatic of Arabic Islam that was mostly reserved for elite thus the followers of the Shiite movement in conflicts of the Sunni religious were identified as reactive until The Safavid of   the Shiite government was dominant. In this era, the Shia religion becomes gradually classical nature. As a result, the Safavid Shiite (nearby Shiite Sufism) has continued until today despite the Sufis, the Imami Shiite Safavid found the political nature. Shiite reaction requires the concept of "enemy" to political and social solidarity. Even supposed the nature of the enemy as hypothetical and the legendary and its reason is internalization of (sense of insecurity) in culture of (Shiite Safavid) until today.

[Ali Asghar Amini dehaghi. The response of Iranian religious temper in the political realm. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):114-121]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.18

 

 

Keywords: Sense of insecurity, Response of Shiite, the religion of Sunni, Alawite Shiite, Iranian Sufism, the Safavid Shiite.

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The effect of intoxication on criminal responsibility in criminal law system

 

Ghobad Naderi(M.A) 1, Alireza Shakarbigi (M.A) 2, Mahshid Mahtabi (M.A) 3, Piman Nmamian4

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Ali.shakarbaigi@gmail.com

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

4. Department of law, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In this study, about drunkenness, criminal responsibility, the impact on the criminal liability may be drunk, drunk impact on the history of criminal responsibility in Iran's penal system and the effect of drunkenness on the types of offenses in the Iranian judicial system has spoken to. The definition of drunkenness, saying the case is unusual because of drunkenness, drug use intoxicant is generated so that a person can suffer from various degrees of will power and clean, consciousness and perception will take away or impair. Criminal responsibility, mental element, malice or criminal intent and its types and causes of criminal fault resolver criminal liability issues discussed in the first chapter of the second. In this study, the definition of criminal responsibility, the resolver set the conditions and circumstances which, if they have not done is the person in charge of criminal acts. The first topic of this chapter on the place of drunkenness among ablative agents investigating criminal responsibility means that one of the factors required to create drunk on the influence of criminal responsibility. Reason being drunk or under the influence of the will? Also check that the drunk what circumstances can impact on the mental element. Was clear that the decline is caused by psychological rather incomplete Tom drunk, drunk with the intention of committing a crime can affect the criminal responsibility of intoxicated involuntarily committed if Mslvbalaradh undoubtedly cause deterioration of mental element of criminal liability. The second topic of the second chapter of the reception history of drunkenness as a factor in the resolves criminal liability is reviewed.

[Ghobad Naderi, Mahshid Mahtabi, Alireza Shakarbigi, Piman Nmamian. The effect of intoxication on criminal responsibility in criminal law system. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):122-127]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.19

 

Keywords: drunkenness, criminal responsibility, Nsrrvany, criminal intent.

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World energy prospects interaction and Processes political-legal and security in the Middle East Syria

 

Ghobad Naderi(M.A) 1, Mahshid Mahtabi(M.A) 2, Sohil Kabiri 3

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

3. Department of law, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The 20-month Syrian presence group, the Salafi and Wahhabi in security, military Syrian groups in this country to change the attitude and adopted a policy neutral in the crisis compelled to Syria at the beginning of the crisis, the country's solidarity with other people of Syria said the events next prompted to choose a different route . Salafism and the return of the Islamic civilization is based on the fact that over the period of Islamic civilization is beginning to Abzay to power and justice in the Middle East has become a new challenge. Salafism is an advantage in itself, but when it is driven by an external catastrophic Arabia in the early centuries of Islamic civilization Drshbh early civilization was an excellent model for a today golden age of the realities of the external in the Middle East practice emanating to. Syria, a country in terms of Islamic law derived from Islamic law and jurisprudence and criminal law standards and the balancing act Vshryat Muslim jurists agree classified Vahl Fan Art Specialist in the field of the rights.

[Ghobad Naderi, Mahshid Mahtab, Alireza Shakarbigi. World energy prospects interaction and Processes political-legal and security in the Middle East Syria. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):128-130]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.20

 

Keywords: intellectual movements, al Vjbh Alnsrh, oil, energy, national security.

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Association between vitamin D status in normal weight versus obese women residing in Western Saudi Arabia

 

Fatimah M. Yousef1, Elizabeth T. Jacobs 2,3, Jehad M. Yousef4, Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi5and Cynthia A. Thomson 2,3

 

1Food and Nutrition Dept., Faculty of Home Economic, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.2Arizona Cancer Center, Arizona University, Tucson, Arizona 85724, 3Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, Arizona University, 4 Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 5Center of Excellence for Osteoporosis Research, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

 

Abstract: Low concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are common among adults, particularly those diagnosed as overweight or obese. Female Saudi Arabian residents are at risk of developing vitamin D insufficiency related to cultural practices that reduce exposure to Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. During the past 10 years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity and overweight over time in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the rates remain high. The objective of this study is to examine whether current weight and weight change since 18 years can alter vitamin D status among healthy Saudi women. We hypothesized that serum 25(OH) D is significantly higher in women who maintained stable weight over time than in those who gained weight. We conducted this study among 120 healthy women with a mean age 47.9 years; range (18–75) years, and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 29.7 kg/m2. Height, weight, serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and questionnaires about medical history, health behaviors were measured. Results reported that approximately 89% of women were 25(OH)D deficient (≤ 10 ng/mL), and 11% were sufficient (≥ 20 ng/mL). The adjusted logistic regression model shows no relationship between BMI and serum 25(OH) D. The odds ratios (CI 95%) are 0.69 (0.19, 2.5) and 3.99 (0.90, 17.6) for the overweight and obese categories, respectively. Our results suggest that neither current weight noradult weight were associated with vitamin D status in Saudi Arabian women. This lack of association is likely related to the high prevalence of deficiency at all weight classifications. Saudi Arabian women may represent a specific subgroup at high risk for deficient vitamin D status.

[Fatimah M. Yousef, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Jehad M. Yousef , Rajaa M. Al-Raddadiand Cynthia A. Thomson. Association between vitamin D status in normal weight versus obese women residing in Western Saudi Arabia. Nat Sci 2014;12(1):131-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120114.21

 

Key words. Vitamin D, obesity, Saudi Arabian, women.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from December 17, 2013
 
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