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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci (Monthy)
ISSN: 1545-0740 
Volume 12 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 83), February 25, 2014
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1202

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Protective Role of Vitamin K Against Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Ovariectomized Exercised and Nonexercised Rats

 

Aziza Khalil, Gehan A. Youssef and Hanan F. Al-Saeed

 

Medical Physiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine (Girls) Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

gehanphysiology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the protective role of vitamin K supplementation for 9 weeks on impaired glucose homeostasis, among ovariectomized exercised and nonexercised rats. Methods: Forty ovariectomized rats with an average weight of 150 gm were used in this study. They were equally divided into four groups. Group I: ovariectomized nonexercised group served as control. Group II: ovariectomized exercised group, the animals were exercised on treadmill 7days/week for 9 weeks. Group III: ovariectomized nonexercised & supplemented with vitamin K. The animals were given daily dose of vitamin K by gavage. Group IV: ovariectomized exercised, & supplemented with vitamin K. The rats were given vitamin K daily by gavage in the same previous doses during the same period of performing treadmill exercise. Blood samples were taken from all groups. We investigated the circulating concentrations of lipocalin-2, adiponectin, and their relationships to vitamin K supplementation with and without exercise. Results: Exercise alone, Vitamin K Supplementation alone or combined with exercise produce significant increase in insulin, adiponectin and lipocalin-2 with significant decrease of glucose blood level. Conclusions: Vitamin K supplementation for 9 weeks at doses attainable in the diet may reduce progression of insulin resistance in ovariectomized nonexercised and exercised rats.

[Aziza Khalil, Gehan A. Youssef and Hanan F. Al-Saeed. Protective Role of Vitamin K Against Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Ovariectomized Exercised and Nonexercised Rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.01 

 

Keywords: Vitamin K, lipocalin-2, adiponectin, insulin resistance.

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2

Male age effect on male fitness is independent of rearing temperatures in D. melanogaster

 

Abolhasan Rezaei, M. S. Krishna*

 

1: Drosophila stock center, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,

Mysore - 560 006. Karnataka, India

drosokrish@gmail.com, rezaei54@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Male age effect on male fitness has been studied in rearing temperatures in D. melanogaster. It was noticed that in all the three rearing temperatures females of all the three age classes preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males more frequently than with old males. Young males mated performed greater courtship acts and mated faster than middle aged and old males. However except at 29C1C, no significant variation was noticed in duration of copulation among male age classes. Further young male inseminated more females and produced greater progeny numbers than middle aged and old males. This result was found to be similar in all the three rearing temperatures. Thus these studies suggests that in D. melanogaster male age has significant influence on age based female mate preference and age related changes in male courtship activities, male mating ability and progeny production were independent of rearing temperatures.

[Abolhasan Rezaei, M. S. Krishna. Male age effect on male fitness is independent of rearing temperatures in D. melanogaster. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):10-19]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.02

 

Keywords: D. melanogaster, male mating ability, Age based female mate preference, progeny number

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3

Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis Extract against Parapox virus in experimental Rats

 

Shaapan R. M1., Zeedan G. S. G. 2, Soad M. Nasr2 and Abeer M. Abdal hamed2

 

1 A: Department of Zoonoses, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, P. O. Box 12622, 33 El-Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2 Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, P. O. Box 12622, El-Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

gamilzee@yahoo. com

 

Abstract: Vaccination has been important in controlling a wide variety of viral infections of man and animals. The most vaccines depend on the association with adjuvant substances. The novel approaches which are presently being implemented to develop more effective vaccines. Evaluation of adjuvant capacity of ethanol and water extract propolis associated to inactive Parapoxvirus vaccine (IPPV) were tested by ELISA. Inoculation was done intradermal and subcutaneous with inactive PPV vaccine adjuvant with ethanol and water extract propolis with two dose, two week interval, Serum samples were collected for 4weeks after the last vaccination till the 7th week and the antibody were detected using ELISA assays. parapox virus vaccine adjuvant with propolis extract higher PPV antibodies levels comparing with antibody titer in rats sera that received commercial PPV vaccine and control negative groups. The ODs ELISA titers increased from 0. 255 to 0. 755 and This difference remained at the end of experiment at 42 days. The used of propolis extract alone without PPV did not induce significant levels of antibodies. However, it established that it was able to increase immune response, evidenced by the increased in the percentage of antibody titer against PPV. The effect of propolis extract on the humoral immune responses may be exploited for the development of effective vaccines. Both these novel vaccine approaches appear to be more efficacious than live PPV vaccines. The present finding encourage us for using propolis as an immunostimulant with human and animal vaccines.

[Shaapan RM, Zeedan G S G, Soad M N and Abeer M A. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis Extract against Parapox virus in experimental Rats Forests. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):20-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www. sciencepub. net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.03

 

Keywords: Propolis Isolation, Vaccine, ELISA, Water extract, Ethanol extract

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4

Different modes of collaboration of causative and perpetrator in murder from Islamic law

 

Sedigheh Mosadegh Sedghi (Ph.D) 1, Forouzan Alaeinovin (Ph.D)2, Fereshteh Meybati (M.A) (Corresponding author) 3

 

1.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran E-mail: mosaddegh_sedghi@yahoo.com , Tel: +989123965831

2.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

Email: Forozan.novin@yahoo.com

3.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

Email:  fereshtemeyboti@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: : one of issues addressed in Islamic penal code is occurrence of crime with direct and effective intervention of perpetrator and occurrence of crime and criminal consequence with indirect of its causative. On the other hand, since in Islamic penal code based on warranty juridical principle, criminal responsibility for warranty to perpetration and warranty to causation is discussed, so where neither perpetration nor causation hold in the crime, no one would be liable for the crime. Therefore, understanding the nature of each committed by perpetration or causation in crime and explanation of rules and orders governing them is an effective step toward determination of their liability extent and therefore achievement of rights and providing judicial security for all members of society and establishment and continuation of criminal justice. Hence, using this approach the present article attempts to investigate different modes of collaboration of perpetrator and causative in murder in Sonnite and Shia religions and Imami jurisprudence in a comparative manner. In this regard regulations of Islamic penal code are adjusted with ideas of practitioners of Islamic jurisprudence. Generally, we conclude that most of jurists believe in the liability of perpetrator when causative and perpetrator collaboratively commit a crime, unless the causative has more liabilities than perpetrator, even if causative and perpetrator are equal, the perpetrator is liable and if perpetrator, for any reason has no contribution in murder and or perpetrator is natural agent and human as the tool, it is known as pure causation and the issue of causative and perpetrator’s collaboration is not debated.

[ Sedigheh Mosadegh Sedghi, Forouzan Alaeinovin, Fereshteh Meybati. The Different modes of collaboration of causative and perpetrator in murder from Islamic law. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):26-31]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.04

 

Keywords: murder with perpetration, murder with causation, collaboration of causative and perpetrator, Imami jurisprudence, Sunnite religions

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5

Assessment of Physico-chemical Properties of Soil along Altitudinal Gradients in a Protected Forest in the Kumaun Himalayas, India

 

Manoj Kumar Arya

 

Department of Zoology, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263001, Uttarakhand, India

Email address: dr.manojkumar19@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Physico-chemical properties of soil were studied along altitudinal gradients in a protected forest in the Pindari area of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in the Kumaun Himalayas, India. The altitude of study area ranged between 2100-3500 m. In the present study, soil is mainly black, grey and brown in colour and in higher elevations it is skeletal type. Soil texture varied with elevations and the proportion of sand 40.7% to 47.2% increased somewhat with increase in elevation and a reverse trend was observed for clay. The present study also suggests that the higher silt content in site on. 2 and 3 was due to higher precipitation in the form of winter snow. Soil temperature ranged from 2.20C to 170C. The pH of the soil ranged from 5.3 to 6.3 and moisture content from 34.5% to 54.8%. Water holding capacity across the sites ranged 40% to 72.2% and the site no. 3 at highest elevation (3500 m) showed maximum water holding capacity but the site no. 2 which was located in 2800 m showed intermediate values. Maximum values of water holding capacity were observed during the rainy season. Soil organic matter was maximum 7.18% in site no. 3 (3500 m) and minimum 2.92% in site no. 1 (2100 m). The organic matter content tended to be higher in the higher altitudinal forests and increased with increasing altitudes.

[Manoj Kumar Arya. Assessment of Physico-chemical Properties of Soil along Altitudinal Gradients in a Protected Forest in the Kumaun Himalayas, India. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):32-37]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.05

 

Keywords: Soil, Physico-chemical parameters, Himalaya, Sites and Altitude.

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6

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids on Performance and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken

 

Azza M. Kamal1 and Naela M. Ragaa2

 

1 Biochemistry Dept, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki 12618,Gizza, Egypt.

2Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Dept., Fac. Vet. Med., Cairo University, 12211 Giza, Egypt.

nalamohamed@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of different types of organic acids on the performance and blood biochemistry of broiler chicken. Two hundred of commercial (Arbor acres) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 main groups (50 birds) of each. The control (T 1) group were fed the basal diet whereas in other treatment groups basal diet was supplemented with 3% butyric acid (T 2), 3% fumaric acid (T 3) and 3% lactic acid (T 4). The experiment was lasted when chicks were 42d old. Growth performance and some biochemical blood parameters were measured. Results obtained could be summarized as follow 1.Broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with organic acids had significantly (p < 0. 0 5) improved body weight gains and feed conversion ratio. No effect (p < 0. 0 5) on cumulative feed consumption was observed. 2. Broiler chicken fed acidified diets had better immune response as indicated by a higher serum globulin level than the control. On the other hand, significant reduction in serum level of cholesterol, total lipid or low density lipoprotein (LDL) was achieved due to dietary acidification. While, serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were significantly increased. At the same time, dietary acidification significantly elevated, triiodotyrosin (T3) concentration as well as T3:T4 ratio, but thyroxin (T4) level was not significantly affected. Moreover, liver and kidney functions did not adversely affected, while the activity of alkaline phosphatase was recorded to be significantly decreased in response to addition of organic acids. The results indicated that the organic acid supplementation, irrespective of type and level of acid used, had a beneficial effect on the performance of broiler chicken.

[Azza M. Kamal and Naela M. Ragaa. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids on Performance and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):38-45]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.06

 

Key words: Organic acids, broiler performance, serum biochemistry, immunity

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7

Total Phenolic Contents, Free Radical Inhibition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of the Medicinal Organic Compounds in the Fruit of Terminalia catappa Linn

 

Ololade Z.S.; Olatunde O.Z.; Oyelese O.J.; Olaoye O.O.; Odewande R.A.

 

1Department of Chemical Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Nigeria

2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

suntolgroup@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Quantitative and qualitative investigation of medicinally active organic compounds in the fruit of Terminalia catappa from Nigeria showed that the fruit extract contained several medicinally useful phytochemicals; seventeen components were detected comprising of 98.0 % of the total extract with cis-9-hexadecenal (20.0%), 9Z-9-tetradecenal (10.0%), palmitic acid (10.0%), cis-9-octadecenal (10.0%), 6Z-6-octadecenoic acid (10.0%), pentadecanoic acid (5.0%), arachidic acid (5.0%) and 1-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate(5.0%) as the principal components. The fruit extract contains majorly aldehydes (40.0%), fatty acids (33.6%), alkanol (7.2%), ketones (5.6%), ester (5.0%) hydrocarbons (4.6%) and a heterocyclic compound (2.0%) as the major classes of organic compounds. Similarly, the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined to be 3,034 gmg-1 gallic acid equivalent. High free radical scavenging and antioxidant potentials were observed in the fruit extract, the results from the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potentials at different concentrations gave inhibitions between 75-88% with IC50: 2.5μgml-1, this shows that the fruit extract was thrice more active than the synthetic antioxidant (ascorbic acid). The extract showed pronounced sensitivity against all the bacterial strains tested in this study. The zones of inhibitions were between 19-20mm. The high amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging, antioxidant and antibiotic properties of the fruit extract. The results concluded that the extracts have a potential source of therapeutic properties of natural origin.

[Ololade Z.S., Olatunde O.Z., Oyelese O.J., Olaoye O.O., Odewande R.A. Total Phenolic Contents, Free Radical Inhibition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of the Medicinal Organic Compounds in the Fruit of Terminalia catappa Linn. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):46-50]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.07

 

Key words: Terminalia catappa, phytochemicals, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antibacterial

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8

Microbiological Quality of unbranded curry and thyme sold in some markets in Port Harcourt,RiversState Nigeria

 

Omorodion, Nnenna J.P, Ezediokpu Marycollete N, Onyebuchi Ozioma J

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria.

nigwiloh@yahoo.com

 

Abstracts: The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged between 5.3 to 9.6 106 cfu/g in C1 – C10, while the control curry gave 3.4 104 cfu/g, and 1.2.to 8.0 105 cfu/g in T1 – T10, while control thyme gave 5.2 103 cfu/g. Coliform count ranged between 2.0 to 3.8 103 cfu/100g in C1 –C10, while the control curry gave 1.5 102 cfu/100g and 1.0 to 4.0. 103 cfu/100g in T1 – T10, while the control thyme gave 2.2 101 cfu/100g. The E. coli counts ranged between 1.2 101 to 3.3 102 cfu/100g in C1 – C10, while control curry gave 6.0 cfu/100g and 0.0 to 3.8 101 cfu/100g in T1 – T10, while the control thyme showed no growth. The fungal count ranged from 3.6. to 7.8 x 104 cfu/g in C1 –C5, while control curry gave 1.0 102 cfu/g and from 2.7 to 7.1 x 105 cfu/g in T1 –T10, while control thyme gave 7.0 102 cfu/g are shown in Tables 3 and 4. The pH and percentage moisture content of the thyme and curry are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Unbranded and branded spices (curry and thyme) retailed in some Port Harcourt markets were investigated for their microbiological quality, to assess the total bacterial count, coliform count, fungal count, types of bacterial and fungal species present. Their physicochemical parameters, pH and moisture content were also assessed. Test results revealed pH and moisture content ranges of thyme from 5.1 to 5.8 and 4.1 to 4.9% respectively, the control thyme gave 5.0 and 3.8% for pH and moisture content respectively. While the pH and moisture content of the curry samples ranges from 5.6 to 6.4 and 8.3 to 10.6% respectively and the control curry gave 5.7 and 8.3 for pH and moisture content respectively. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged between 5.8 to 9.8 106 cfu/g in C1 – C10, while the control curry gave 3.4 104 cfu/g, and 3.6 to 7.0 105 cfu/g in T1 – T10, while control thyme gave 5.2 103 cfu/g. Coliform count ranged between 2.0 to 3.8 103 cfu/100g in C1 –C10, while the control curry gave 1.5 102 cfu/100g and 1.0 to 4.0. 103 cfu/100g in T1 – T10, while the control thyme gave 2.2 101 cfu/100g. The E. coli counts ranged between 1.2 101 to 3.3 102 cfu/100g in C1 – C10, while control curry gave 6.0 cfu/100g and 0.0 to 3.8 101 cfu/100g in T1 – T10, while the control thyme showed no growth. The fungal count ranged from 3.6. to 7.8 x 104 cfu/g in C1 –C5, while control curry gave 1.0 102 cfu/g and from 2.7 to 7.1 x 105 cfu/g in T1 –T10, while control thyme gave 7.0 102 cfu/g,. Seven bacterial species namely Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella species, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus, and four fungal species; Penicillium species, Aspergillus niger, Mucor species and Saccharomyces species were isolated. Conclusively, the branded curry and thyme samples which served as the control showed that they are of better sanitary quality compared to unbranded curry and thyme samples. Poor sanitary nature of unbranded spices as observed in this study could be caused by air contamination, improper storage and insufficient drying before vending in the markets.

[Omorodion, Nnenna J.P, Ezediokpu Marycollete N, Onyebuchi Ozioma J. Microbiological Quality of unbranded curry and thyme sold in some markets in Port Harcourt, RiversState Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):51-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.08

 

Keywords: Curry, Thyme,branded spices, unbranded spices.

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Microbiological Quality of Meats Sold In Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria

 

Omorodion NJPN and Odu NN

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

nigwiloh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three different meat samples namely; beef, chicken and pork obtained from Creek road market, Mile 3 market and Rumokoro market were analyzed for their microbiological quality using differential, selective and routine media. A total of thirtyone bacterial isolates covering six genera and thirteen fungal isolates covering three genera were isolated and characterized as Bacillus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp., Aspergillus spp., Mucor spp. and Penicillium spp. From the analysis, it was observed that the total bacteria viable count of the meat samples ranged from 8.6x105 CFU/g to 2.6x106CFU/g, while that of fungi ranged from 6.0x104CFU/g to 4.4x105CFU/g. In the detection method for pathogens (Salmonella and Shigella) after adopting the normal culture procedures of selective enrichment, differential and selective plating; no pathogen was detected. Appropriate measures such as chilling, freezing, treatment with salt, nitrites, phosphate, lactic acid, etc should be adopted to prevent contamination of meat by bacteria and fungi; this will ensure good microbiological quality of meat products. It is essential to store the meat at lower than 4C immediately after slaughtering and during transport and storage as it is critical for meat hygiene, safety, shelf life, appearance and eating quality.

[Omorodion NJPN and Odu NN. Microbiological Quality of Meats Sold In Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):58-62]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.09

 

Key words: contamination; meats samples; microbiological quality; preservation

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Ginkgo biloba leaf extract inhibits and treated Entamoeba histolytica infection

 

Areej Jameel M. Alghabban

 

Biology Department, Faculty of science, University of Tabuk, KSA

a_alghabban@ut.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Entamoeba histolytica constitutes one of the commonest protozoal infections on a global scale, and it is estimated to infect 10% of the world’s population, up to 50 million cases of invasive amebiasis, and about 100,000 deaths and probably represent the third leading parasitic cause of death, behind only malaria and schistosomiasis. Oral inoculation of rabbits with 5x103 cysts of E. histolytica isolated from the feces of 30 patients resulted in an infection between 2-3 days among all the infected rabbits as shown by the presence of trophozoites in the large intestine and colon. The cysts were first observed in the stool as early as 3rd day post inoculation, however, no trophozoites were observed. Body weight gain in infected rabbits with E. histolytica was significant decrease as compared to control group, however, it significantly increase in treated infected rabbits with ginkgo when compared to infected group. Experimentally infected rabbits with E. histolytica and treated with extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves for 7 days (G4) in significantly (p <0.05) devoided cyst gradually from day 1 after treatment. Both cysts and trophozoites were detected in the rabbit stools after the 1st day of treatment with ginkgo extracts. The cysts and trophozoites count started decreasing and became E. histolytica free by the 6th day of Ginkgo biloba extract administration indicated 100% cure rate at the end of treatment. Trophozoites of E. histolytica were highly sensitive to ginkgo extracts (24% viability) at a dose of 200 mg/Kg body weight/ day that was significant in relation to the control (500% viability after 3 day of infection) which indicates progression of infection. Many histological abnormalities in the large intestine were detected in experimentally infected rabbits with Entamoeba histolytica. These abnormalities as necrosis, severe hemorrhage, increased in numbers of goblet cells, cytoplasmic vacuoltions, congested blood vessels and lymphocytes proliferation were. Treatment with ginkgo helps in improving the adverse effect of E. histolytica infections; also the histological study confirms this finding.

[Alghabban AJM. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract inhibits and treated Entamoeba histolytica infection. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):63-68]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.10

 

Keywords: Entamoeba; Ginkgo biloba; Rabbit; Histopathology; PCNA

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Serum Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) as a Biomarker of Ectopic Pregnancy

 

Shafik A. 1*, Fayed S. T. 1 and El-Sayed A.2

 

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shoubra General Hospital, Egypt.

shafikadel@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether serum PlGF concentration has a role in differentiation between a normal intrauterine pregnancy, an ectopic pregnancy and a non-viable intrauterine pregnancy. Methods: The Study included three groups of women: group I, including women with viable intrauterine pregnancy; group II, including women with first-trimester missed abortion; and group III, including women with proven tubal ectopic pregnancy. All included women were at gestations between 6 and 13 weeks. All included women were subjected to serum assays for b-hCG and PlGF. Results: The median value of serum hCG was lower in women of group III than that in women of group II than that in women of group I; these differences were, however, statistically non-significant (p=0.190). The median value of serum PlGF was significantly lower in women of group III than that in women of group II than that in women of group I (p <0.001). Serum PlGF level was a significant predictor for differentiating an ectopic pregnancy from a normal intrauterine pregnancy [AUC = 0.948, 95% CI (0.891 to 1.005), p <0.001]. On the contrary, serum hCG concentration was not a significant predictor for differentiating an ectopic pregnancy from a normal intrauterine pregnancy [AUC = 0.571, 95% CI (0.413 to 0.729), p =0.380]. Conclusion: Serum PlGF assay seems to be a promising biomarker for differentiating ectopic pregnancy from both normal intrauterine pregnancy and non-viable intrauterine pregnancy. These features are probably unique to PlGF, which advantages it over the standard b-hCG assay.

[Shafik A., Fayed S. T. and El-Sayed A. Serum Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) as a Biomarker of Ectopic Pregnancy. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):69-75]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.11

 

Key Words: Ectopic pregnancy – Placental growth factor (PlGF) – Pregnancy of unknown location – Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

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The relationship between parenting styles with child Centrism

 

Ghasem Bahrami

 

Qazvin Health Insurance office, Iran Health Insurance Organization

 

Abstract: A controversial feature of modern parenting is “child-centrism,” the tendency for parents to prioritize their children’s well-being above their own. The present study deals with the family's role in parenting styles, types of parenting practices in families considering the culture, examples of positive parenting techniques, and the practices to establish discipline. General definition of child-centrism, the concept of child-centrism from the perspective of psychology and religion, and the ways to cope with and prevent from child-centrism will be also discussed. We also evaluate that which of parenting styles leads to child Centrism.

[Ghasem Bahrami. The relationship between parenting styles with child Centrism. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):76-83]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.12

 

Keywords: child Centrism; parenting styles; religion.

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Assessment of the Lifestyle Intervention in Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Group of Egyptian Population

 

Fadila Gad Allah 1, Maged Abd El Kareem Al Setohi 2, Salwa Seddik 1, Inas Sabry 1, Nebal Abou-El Ella 3, Eman Sultan 3

 

1 Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine -Ain Shams University, Cairo Egypt

2 Public Health, Faculty of Medicine – Ain Shams University, Cairo Egypt

3 National Nutrition Institute, Cairo Egypt

emansoltan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Back ground: The efficacy of lifestyle intervention in reducing the incidence of type T2DM has been established by the Diabetes Prevention Program and other studies. Our primary objective was to test the feasibility of integrating less intensive lifestyle intervention therapy into patient visits to improve weight loss and decrease the intensity of metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes risk factors. Methods: 499 middle-aged, overweight and obese subjects; mean age, 47 years; mean body-mass index 38 kg/m2 were screened from 9/2009 till 3/2011for the presence of prediabetes. We surveyed their characteristics of life style: eating and exercise habits, body mass index, waist line, resting blood pressure, OGTT plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL after a 12-hour fasting. After ruling out secondary obesity a tailored individual life-style was advised, which focused on dietary interventions (low calorie diet) and increased physical activity. An oral glucose-tolerance test was performed at the end for those at risk of diabetes. The mean duration of follow-up was one year. Results: The intervention group showed significant improvement in each intervention goal, with significant mean differences weight change (−8.58 kg, (P<0.000)). Also, there was an improvement in other markers for risk of progression to diabetes {BMI (P<0.000) and waist circumference (P<0.000)}. The magnitude of weight loss was strongly associated with improvements in glycemia, with significant differences in fasting glucose (P<0.000), and post load plasma glucose profiles 1-h (P<0.015) and 2-h (P<0.042), were seen. Conclusions: less intensive lifestyle intervention (diet, physical activity) produced beneficial changes in clinical and biochemical parameters in those who are at risk of T2DM. This type of intervention is a feasible option to prevent T2DM and should be implemented in the primary health care system.

[Fadila Gad Allah, Maged Abd El Kareem Al Setohi, Salwa Seddik, Inas Sabry, Nebal Abou-El Ella, Eman Sultan.. Assessment of the Lifestyle Intervention in Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Group of Egyptian Population. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):84-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.13

 

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, life style intervention, diet, Prediabetes, plasma glucose, anthropometric measures.

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Purposive Mobilization Exercises to Improve Range of Motion of Children with Second Degree of Shoulder Burn

 

Safy Al-Rafay1 and Ahmad Abdel Salam2

 

Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University1;

Plastic Surgery, Burn Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University2

salrafay@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Childhood burns in Egypt are a significant problem, especially in families of low socioeconomic status. The burn injury is related to the loss of normal tissue and its replacement with scar tissue; leading to limitation of movement and disfigurement. Therefore, medical and nursing professionals are working together to avoid loss of range of motion (ROM) of the burnt extremity especially in shoulder as an important organ for children in everyday academic, play and domestic accomplishments, it is also used to express body language and message of communication and needs. Aim: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of applying active and passive mobilization exercises for children with second degree of burn shoulder on improving range of motion. Design: A quasi-experimental design with pre/post control group was used. Subjects and Methods: A purposive sample of 90 children aged 5-15 years with second-degree burnt shoulder were classified into an experimental group who were exposed to the mobilization exercises (n=50), and a control group (n=40) who were not administered to the study intervention. All angles of movements were measured using a goniometer properly; including wrist flexion (palmar), wrist extension (dorsiflexion), wrist radial deviation, wrist ulnar deviation, metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP)-finger flexion, MCP-finger extension, MCP-finger abduction, MCP-finger adduction, forearm supination, forearm pronation, elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, and shoulder extension. Results and Conclusions: Findings concluded that at the completion of the four sessions of intervention, subjects in the study group had gained the best percent improvement in the mean angle degrees of the elbow flexion (54.215.3) and wrist ulnar deviation increased to 52.810.4. In contrast, results did not show any progress in ROM angles among burnt children of the control group even at the third or fourth day, especially in the wrist flexion that reached minimum change (4.64.5) and MCP-finger flexion (7.86.3) at the fourth day. Recommendations: Based on the study findings, it is recommended that well-trained nurses should apply mobilization exercises at burn units. Further studies are needed to establish the long-term outcome for the burnt children for evaluating the effect of mobilization exercises on ‘‘new’’ versus ‘‘old’’ burn scar. More researches are needed to explore the benefits of repeated treatments of mobilization exercises on patients with a larger sample that could verify this positive trend.

[Safy Al-Rafay and Ahmad Abdel Salam. Purposive Mobilization Exercises Improves Range of Motion of Children with Second Degree of Shoulder Burn in Cairo. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):91-100]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.14

 

Keywords: burn; children; mobilization exercises; range of motion.

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Structural and Functional Observation of the Appendages of Gill Parasite, Lernanthropus Kroyeri (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) Infesting the Sea Bass Dicentrarchus Labrax.

 

Abd El-Aziz A. Khidr, Ola A. Abu Samak, Ashraf E. Said, Ahmed M. Ghoneim and Shereen A. Fahmy

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Egypt

shereenfahmy80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: About 60 parasitic copepods of the species Lernanthropus kroyeri were isolated from the gills of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and morphological and functional characteristic of their appendages were investigated by both light and electron microscopy. The first maxillae were bilobate and ended by two horny spines and a setule cover. The second maxillae was uniramous with a distal calamus claw armed with two sharp denticles. Maxillipeds appeared with a robust, terminal claw. The first and second thoracic legs were smaller than the other thoracic appendages and ended with hand fingers-like spines. This structure is thought to serve in the attachment to the adjacent secondary gill lamellae and to increase the stability. The third and fourth thoracic legs were the largest appendages and appeared free of any cuticular structures. This unique structure is suggested to serve in adjusting the parasite position and in providing tight attachment. Light and scanning electron microscopy shows that the second antenna of Lernanthropus kroyeri is characteristically prehensile and uncinate and thus provides the main force for the attachment to the host tissue. The assisting action in the process of attachment is thought to be achieved by first maxillae, second maxillae, maxillipeds and the first four thoracic legs. The present study reveals that Lernanthropus kroyeri is well adapted to the attachment to the gill filaments of the sea bass and, therefore, can cause severe damage to the host tissues.

[Abd El-Aziz A. Khidr, Ola A. Abu Samak, Ashraf E. Said, Ahmed M. Ghoneim and Shereen A. Fahmy. Structural and functional observation of the appendages of gill parasite, Lernanthropus kroyeri (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infesting the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):101-107]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.15

 

Key words: Structure; appendages; Lernanthropus kroyeri; copepoda; Dicentrarchus labrax.

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Optimization of Material Requirements Planning (Case Study: Oil Companies of ETKA Organization)

 

Davood Gharakhani

 

Researcher of ETKA Organization Research and Development Center

Email: davoodgharakhany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Material Requirements Planning is a commonly accepted approach for replenishment planning in major companies. Material requirement planning systems help manufactures determine precisely when and how much material to purchase and process based upon a time-phased analysis of sales orders, production orders, current inventory and forecasts. Purpose this paper is Optimization of Material Requirements Planning in Oil Companies of ETKA Organization. Other objectives of this paper are: To minimize excess material needed in store, Prevent shortages of raw materials, Timely delivery of products to sell in accordance with market demand, Reduce and minimize production stoppages, Prevent immediate purchases, Reduce costs and ultimately increase profits.

[Gharakhani D. Optimization of Material Requirements Planning (Case Study: Oil Companies of ETKA Organization). Nat Sci 2014;12(2):108-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.16

 

Keywords: production planning, Materials Requirements Planning, Enterprise Resources Planning, ETKA Organization

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Structural and Physical Properties Study of Some Iron Doped Mixed Manganite Peroveskite Samples

 

A. G. Mostafa 1*, S. A. Mazen 2 and A. El-Attar 2

 

1. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Al Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt

2. Phys. Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig Univ.,  Zagazig, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Polycrystalline peroveskite manganite samples of the composition La0.7Ba0.3Mn1-xFexO3 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5), have been prepared by high energy ball-milling technique. The effect of replacing some manganese by iron cations on the structure of the studied samples, have been examined applying XRD. The obtained results indicated that, complete peroveskite tetragonal structure has been obtained after milling the powder oxides for 36 hrs. The obtained crystallites were found mostly in the range of nano-particle size and the mean unit cell parameters were found approximately unchanged while the micro-strain showed slight increase.  The calculated theoretical density showed very slight increase while both the apparent and relative densities showed an observable gradual increase. The magnetic susceptibility values showed gradual increase which may be due to the gradual increase of iron cations. The dc electrical transport measurements showed that all samples behave like semiconductors and the conduction mechanism was found to obey the variable range hopping (VRH) model. The electrical activation energy values were found to be connected tightly with the density of states at Fermi level.

[Mostafa AG, Mazen SA and El-Attar A. Structural and Physical Properties Study of Some Iron Doped Mixed Manganite Peroveskite Samples. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):112-121]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.17

 

Keywords: High energy ball milling; Manganite peroveskite; XRD analysis; Electrical transport; Magnetic susceptibility.

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Common pathogens associated with neonatal bacteremia and their antibiotic resistance pattern.

 

Abdulbaset. M.E. Abusetta1 M. A. B.Gamal2 and Fathia A. Ben saed3

 

1 Pathology Department, Faculty of Medical Technology, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

2.Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3.Tripoli Health Care ,Ministry of Health, Libya

abustta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Despite recent advances in prenatal care, neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Neonatal bacteremia occurring in neonates older than 3 days occurs in approximately 10% of all neonates and in >25% of very low birth weight infants (<=1500 g) who are hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units. Objective: To determine the incidence and evaluate the antimicrobial-susceptibility patterns of bacterial infections in our neonatal units. Materials: This study was conducted at Neonatal department, at medical Tripoli center, Tripoli. During the period from march 2010 to August , 2010. In this study 150 infants suffering from neonatal bacteremia were included in the current study. Methods: Blood culture, was done using an automated continuous-monitoring blood culture system. The prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial strains were studied. Results: It was clear from the present results that the rate of infection decreased with increasing birth weight. Similarly, the infection rate was inversely related to gestational age. There were nine different identified bacterial species (five Gram negative and four Gram positive organisms) and one yeast. The most common Gram positive organism causing neonatal bacterimia in an descending order, were as follow; Staphylococcus epidermidis (72.0 cases), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, and Streptococcus pyogenes (isolated from 14.0, 6.0 and 4.0 cases respectively). However, Gram-negative organisms causing neonatal bacterimia in an descending order, were as follow; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Enterobacter, and Serratia were isolated from 15.0, 10.0, 5.0, 3.0 and 3.0 cases respectively. Candida albicans was isolated from 18 cases in this study. Most bacterial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosae, were susceptible to Amikacin. Antibiotic agents whose effectiveness was comparable to Amikacin included Ofloxacin, and Augmenten. Generally, there was a trend of increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusions: The trend of increasing bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics necessitates the implementation of a rational empirical treatment strategy, based on local susceptibility data, reserving certain agents for emerging resistant pathogens.

[Abdulbaset. M.E. Abusetta M. A. B.Gamal and Fathia A. Ben saed. Common pathogens associated with neonatal bacteremia and their antibiotic resistance pattern. Nat Sci 2014;12(2):122-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120214.18

 

Keywords : Neonatal , Bacterial infection, Antibiotic resistance

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from January 20, 2014.
 
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