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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740; Monthly 
Volume 12 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 84), March 25, 2014
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1203

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Effects of C-Peptide With and Without Antioxidant Supplementation on Diabetic Male Rats

 

Gamal A. Shawer1, Shebl R. Samaha2 and Gehan A. Youssef3

 

1Medical Physiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Medical Physiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Egypt

sheblsamaha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in all populations causing major health problem with long-term complications responsible for its mortality and morbidity. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be one of the factors in the development of both types of diabetes and its disabling chronic complications. So, in addition to insulin and oral hypoglycemic, it is necessary to deal with diabetes mellitus by a poly-therapy regimen including drugs, diet, exercise and other new lines of treatment required to improve symptoms and preventing future complications. The present work was designed to evaluate the possible effects of c-peptide administration with and without antioxidant supplementation as a new line of treatment of diabetes mellitus in male rats. Fifty adult local strain male albino rats were chosen to be the model of the present study. They were left for two weeks in the laboratory room before any experimental interference for acclimatization with free axis to water and rat chow bellet, then they were divided into five equal groups as follow; (Group I) received intraperitoneal saline injection and served as control group, (Group II) were subjected to induction of diabetes by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monhydrate (120mg/kg body weight), (Group III)  were subjected to induction of diabetes as group II  followed by intraperitoneal injection of C-peptide (50 nmol/kg/day) for four weeks. (Group IV) were subjected to induction of diabetes as group II  followed by oral administration of vitamin C (200mg/kg/day) and vitamin E (14.4 IU/kg/day) for four weeks. (Group V) were subjected to induction of diabetes as group II then received C-peptide plus vitamin C and vitamin E for four weeks. Blood samples were withdrawn for determination of blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, total cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. It was noted that treatment of diabetic rats by C-peptide showed a lower levels of glucagon, LDL, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA in addition to higher level of insulin level versus diabetic group.

 [Gamal A. Shawer, Shebl R. Samaha and Gehan A. Youssef. Effects of C-Peptide With and Without Antioxidant Supplementation on Diabetic Male Rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):1-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.01 

 

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus. Insulin. Alloxan. C-Peptide. Antioxidants.

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2

Ablution with earth or sand from the viewpoint of Twelve’s and the religions of quadruple

 

Hamideh Husseini (M.A)* 1, Sedigheh Mosadegh Sedghi (Ph.D) 2, Ebrahim Sadighi (Ph.D) 3

 

1.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran E-mail: mosaddegh_sedghi@yahoo.com, Tel: +989123965831

3.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

 

Abstract: Ablution with earth or sand is defined as a peculiar ceremonious purification after easing nature which has been prescribed under necessity to do praying and various ritual practices in cases when performing the ablutions or dipping would be inexplicable or impossible, regarded by Shiite and quadruple of religions respectively. In the following thesis we scrutinize instances in which the dipping is substituted by ablution, afterwards the prescribed practice of it and its applications will be discussed. Shiite jurists believe that when a Saracen practices ablution with earth or sand for performing his/her ablutions, he/she is obliged to touch her/his hands down once, clasping the hands and wetting her/his forehead, toes and back part of the hands therein. When a Saracen practices ablution with earth or sand for pollution, he/she touches down the earth once, jolting them and wetting his/her forehead and eyebrows to nebs, touching down the hands once more and wets the back part of the hands about the palms respectively. All scholars unanimously believe in the incumbency of holdup the ablution till the end hour of the prayer and dispute that all types of ritual practices are allowed whether by ablution or ritual purification thereinafter. Various jurists of quadruple of religions are consentaneous with the aforesaid edicts. Jurists of diverse Islamic religions say that there is no stick about the legitimacy of ablution on the strength of Koran verses and traditions but they have dissentions about their elaborations.

[Hamideh Husseini, Sedigheh Mosadegh Sedghi, Ebrahim Sadighi. ablution with earth or sand from the viewpoint of Twelve’s and the religions of quadruple. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):14-18]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.02

 

Keywords: ablution with earth or sand, substitute for dipping, substitute for ablution before prayer, Twelvers, quadruples of religions.

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3

Check dissemble civil law

 

Reza Borji (M.A) (Corresponding author)

 

Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Ilam science Research Branch

 

Abstract: Dissemble, including issues of contract law is controversialist Rights in Iran, dissemble to "cheat contract or otherwise compromise the main motives" are defender’s Rights, we will dissemble flaw is not considered the fault determination (R) is a unique reluctant and confused. Jurisprudence, is represent the truth on the other side, dissemble is considered and given sanction to dissemble considered (option), not considered defects and faulty R. dissemble marriage based on legal rules, such as "rule seeks" or "ego rule" is Dissemble legal term used to express words of deception and deceit and deception in the course of the contract, treaty or trade Deals’ Term for the person who has to deal with deception Mdls legal expression That such They will dissemble cucumber Be. Well as some fraudulent act against the law for a person Mdls that do That criminal punishment is prescribed. Dissemble the legal systems of different countries have different definitions and principles that need to be taken to study the comparative binding of some elements in common bonds of the legal system states There.

[Reza Borji. Check dissemble civil law. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):19-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.03

 

Keywords: Dissemble, Law, Dissemble promise, Enforcement.

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4

Define acquittal and Clearance in rights of the Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Amin Pahkideh (M.A)1, Ali badri (M.A) 2

 

1.Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran  Email: Pahkideha1364@yahoo.com

2.Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran  Email: Alibadri1022@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The word abomination and pall, permit, clearing the fault and slander and get rid of the debt, in legal terms, is called the presumption of innocence. Innocent people are being released from liabilities and obligations imposed task until about stipulated binding rules. Clearance is also at the root of the word means to improve the acquittal uniform, bouncing, running, Weary is clean and in terms Rhythmic law and jurisprudence, which has resulted in legal effect, intent or consent or unilateral, whether it be in Instead, or not.

[Amin Pahkideh, Ali badri. Define acquittal and Clearance in rights of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):27-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.04

 

Keywords: Define, acquittal, Clearance, consent or unilateral.

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5

Effect of sex change on outcomes and rules of former marriage and possibility of next marriage

 

Ehsan Nazari (M.A) (Corresponding author)  1, Saeed Khradmandi (Ph.D)2

 

1. Department law, college of private law, Kermanshah Branch Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

E-mail: nazari2320@yahoo.com

2. Department law, college of private law, Kermanshah Branch Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

 

Abstract: : Sex change alters former marriage conditions greatly so that if either clarifies nullity of former marriage or results in termination of marriage by disappearing spouses sexual difference, where former marriage cannot be restored even by second sex change. If a marries person suffers no hardship caused by his/her current sex, he/she has no  right to change his/her sex without his/her spouses  consent. With disappearance of prior sex, some marriage outcome like required keeping of the period of divorced wife disappears because they are dependent on former subject and sex. But some of other outcomes like marriage portion remain since, as a rule, they are under obligation after sexual intercourse. Of course, interference of such factors as wife's action during limited period marriage results in deduction of marriage portion relative of the left period of marriage. Based on his/her new sex, a sexually changed person is allowed to marry a person with opposite sex although care needs to be paid to his/her close family members. After changing sex, father, mother, and child titles do not change and parent-child marriage is not allowed because of its respect. Such marriage respect remains unchanged for other lineal close family members. But for causal kinsmen, reference needs to be made to criteria of Islamic law; and in relation to obligations like marriage, a woman newly changed into a man is allowed to marry her former mother-in- law.

[ Ehsan Nazari, Saeed Khradmandi, Effect of sex change on outcomes and rules of former marriage and possibility of next marriage. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):30-48]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.05

 

Keywords: Sex change, Marriage, Marriage portion, Period of a divorced woman, Close family members.

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6

Scrutiny of the consequences of handing over considered in the contract of sale

 

Afrouz Mahmoudian (M.A) (Corresponding author) 1, Jamal Rezaie HoseinAbadi (ph.D) 2

 

1.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

E-mail:  afrooz.mahmoudian@gmail.com

2.Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

E-mail: Jamal-rezaei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The singular “qabz” has multiple synonyms which is used by religious jurisconsults and jurists e.g. sometimes they use the lexicons or “tasalom” meaning delivery instead but the parallelism regarded in all labels is the mere of the bargain which are purchase money and object of sale respectively. In our country s unwritten law the delivery of object of sale and the delivery of purchased money meaning handing over and taking delivery which is considered an in force therein. The delivery of object is materialized duly by the transaction parties in any deal. In taking delivery the promptitude is not an option besides the permission of vendor but in some contracts i.e. trusts and gift inter vivos to taking the ex gratia and endowed property the authorization of grantor and donor is a prerequisite. Taking delivery is considered the origin of rules when taking place in due form of vending. The taking delivery has a ripple effect on many contracts and unilateral contracts e.g. divorce at the wife's request against compensation and etc. Its notability manifests when the verity of some contracts e.g. gift inter vivos, endowment and encumbrance is subject to taking delivery as well. The rippling effects of taking delivery are clarified i.e. if the object of sale destroys, the liability to recompense a loss would charge by the purchaser by the factor of taking delivery meaning that the liability pre and pro taking delivery is charged by vendor and purchaser respectively. In many contracts the taking delivery has no effect and its consequences are accrued by the converging will of the parties thereinafter. Contract of sale is considered the axiom of contracts and the plenary of contracts for value respectively. It enjoys overriding notability in international arenas therefore. Sustained development of international trades has leaded the international community to the codification of integrated provisions guaranteeing the facility of international trades respectively.

[ Afrouz Mahmoudian, Jamal Rezaie HoseinAbadi. Scrutiny of the consequences of handing over considered in the contract of sale. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):49-54]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.06

 

Keywords: taking delivery, handing over, contract of sale, predominance, delivery.

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7

Sexual dysfunction in legal rules and social norms Psychology

 

Mahshid Mahtabi (M.A) 1, Ghobad Naderi (M.A)  2, Soheila Mohammadi (M.A) 3

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

3. Department of law, college of private law, Kermanshah Branch Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

 

Abstract: As the youngest and oldest institution of family the biggest role in its survival; Results indicate strong sex couples increasing Being effective in maintaining physical and mental health Couple, It has an important role in the upbringing of children. The level of marital adjustment amount Is closely related to sexual satisfaction Any inconsistencies and reduce the commitment, intimacy, affection, Trust, loyalty and honesty can couple to each other Sexual relations damage. In fact, sexual dysfunction and Sexual perversions of two factors that affect the sexual relationship Couple has adverse effects. Sexual dysfunction includes desire disorder and psychosocial changes on Affect the sexual response cycle, causing stress and interpersonal problems, and includes lack of sexual desire, hatred Sexual arousal and orgasm disorder, is disparonia From this review of sexual dysfunctions in one of the most important factors in dealing with it properly .In our dealing with different sexual problems dealing with global this is due to our religious and cultural features.

[Ghobad Naderi, Mahshid Mahtab, Soheila Mohammadi. Sexual dysfunction in legal rules and social norms Psychology. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):55-58]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.07

 

Keywords: family, marriage annulment, divorce.

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8

Sachet Water Syndrome: A Potential Vehicle for the Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance Pathogenic Organisms

 

1*Musa Yakubu Tula and 2Iyoha Osaretin

 

1*Department of Biological Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, P.M.B 35, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

2Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, College of Medical Science University of Benin, P.M.B. 1152, Benin City, Nigeria.

birtyty@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A total number of 54 sachet water samples from nine brands randomly purchased from different sales points in Mubi metropolis were used for this study. A volume of each sample was added to an equal volume of bacteriologic peptone water and incubated at 37oC for 24hrs and streaked unto McConkey agar and Mannitol salt agar for differential purposes. All the sachet water samples had growth on McConkey agar, while 30(55.5%) of the samples had no growth on Mannitol salt agar. Seventy eight (78) isolates in all were isolated from the 54 sachet water samples which include Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and Citrobacter spp. Among the isolates, 24(30.8%) are gram positive, while 54(69.2%) are gram negative. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) have the highest incidence rate (70.8%) among the gram positive isolates, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa has the highest incidence rate (24.1%) among the gram negative isolates. On the over all, CoNS has the highest incidence rate (21.8%), while Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. has the least incidence rate (6.4%). The results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that both Staphylococcus aureus and  CoNS were 100% resistant to Penicillin-G, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid, Cotrimoxazole, Cephalexin, Cefazolin and Cefuroxime; their resistance to these antibiotics were however not significantly different from that of Erythromycin (p>0.05), but were significantly higher than those of other antibiotics (p<0.05). Also resistance by CoNS and Staphylococcus aureus to Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Azithromycin were not significantly different (p>0.05), but were significantly higher than those of Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, and Piperacillin (p<0.05), and significantly lower than those of other antibiotics (p<0.05). Also, Seventeen (17) resistance patterns were shown by both Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS with ck,pg,ax,ac,ct,cp,cf,cr,er,te,az as the most common resistance pattern. The antibiotic susceptibility testing of gram negative isolates showed that all of them are 100% resistance to Nitrofurantoin, Ceftazidime, Cefixime and Cefdinir; their resistance to these antibiotics were however, not significantly different from those of Aztreonam, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, and Cefuroxime (p>0.05). Resistance to Norfloxacin, Gentamycin and Amikacin by all the gram negative isolates were not significantly different (p>0.05), but were significantly lower than those of other antibiotics (p<0.05). All the gram negative isolates showed 25 resistance patterns, and all are multi-drug resistant. Resistance to β-lactams antibiotics by both gram positive and gram negative isolates were not significantly different (p>0.05), but were significantly higher than those of other class of antibiotics (p<0.05). Resistance to all the antibiotics by both gram positive and gram negative bacterial isolates were significantly higher than their sensitivity pattern to the same antibiotics.

[Tula MY. and Iyoha, O. Sachet Water Syndrome: A Potential Vehicle for the Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance Pathogenic Organisms. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):59-65]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.08

 

Key words: sachet water, vehicle, antibiotic, resistance.

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9

Application of Principal Component Analysis to Investigate the Proliferation of Armed Movements and Insurgencies in Recent Time in Sudan.

 

Mohamed Hassan, Sharaf Obaid Ali, Abdallah M Mohamed Zain.

 

1.Department of Statistics, College of Economics and Political Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan, Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Shagra University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2.College of Computer Science, Alzaeim alazhari University, Sudan, Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shaqra University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3.Department of Statistics, College of Economics and Political Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan , Department of Mathematics, College of Sharia and Islamic Studies, Department of Management , Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

sharafobaid@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This article describes thepplication of principal component analysis to investigate the proliferation of armed movements and insurgencies in recent time in Sudan.

[Mohamed Hassan, Sharaf Obaid Ali, Abdallah M Mohamed Zain. Application of Principal Component Analysis to Investigate the Proliferation of Armed Movements and Insurgencies in Recent Time in Sudan. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):66-72]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.09

 

Keyword: Principal component, Proliferation, armed.

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Influence of Slag on the improvement of engineering properties of different soils, Nile Delta, Egypt.

 

A. I. M. Ismail and Z. L. Belal

 

Geological Sciences Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

ali_Ismail_2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recent soft soil is widespread along the Nile Delta, Egypt. Some foundation problems were susceptible to cracks in the area of study. The cracking is fundamentally due to the lack of a clear and detailed understanding of the geotechnical and geo-engineering properties. In this context, this paper studies the engineering implications of two types of soils and their improvement by granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS). GBFS percentages (5%, 10% and 20%) were added to both soil types. The laboratory test results showed that GBFS additives increased the pH value and reduced the plasticity index in both soil types but the slag stabilizer is more effective in the second type of soil. The maximum dry density (MDD) decreased and optimum moisture content (OMC) increased especially in the first soil type. MDD and the OMC increased with increasing the percentages of slag.  Unconfined compressive strength showed that, the slag additive was more effective in the second type of more clay rich compared to the first one. With increasing the curing time to 28 and 139 days, the strength values were clearly decreased suggesting that the slag was used as workable additives in soil improvement.

[A. I. M. Ismail and Z. L. Belal. Influence of Slag on the improvement of engineering properties of different soils, Nile Delta, Egypt. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):73-78]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.10

 

Keywords: Engineering Characteristics; Foundation Problems; Soil Improvement; Granulated Blast Furnace Slag.

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The impact of the strategic planning on the development of the performance of tourism companies in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia

 

Ahmed Osman Ibrahim Ahmed, Gafar Abdallah Musa Idris

 

Department of Business administration, Taif University

ahmedtenga33@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The research handles the impact of the strategic planning on the development of the performance of tourism companies in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia. The aim of this is to reflect the present status of tourism activity in Ta'if and to envisage the administration  of tourism activities in Ta'if. The study is based on the premise that the absence of strategic plans that may lead to the deterioration of the performance of tourism companies in the long term.  The analytical descriptive approach was adopted to represent and analyze the sample responses in companies involved in the field of tourism in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, particularly in Ta'if Area. The researcher used the questionnaire to collect the initial information from research sample and the time limitation is in the period from 1427 - 1432 ah. The Research includes four chapters of the general framework and Chapter II is the theoretical framework. In chapter III, field study is conducted, and Chapter IV provides the results and recommendations. The research proved that there is absence of clear message within the company and exclusion of workers  when forming objectives. The researcher recommends the integration of governmental role with business owners to create an integrated system of information and encourage investment in the tourism industry through internal laws and legislation regulating this matter.

[Ahmed Osman Ibrahim Ahmed. The impact of the Principles of strategic planning on the development of the performance of tourism companies in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):79-86]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.11

 

Keywords: strategic planning, performance of tourism; tourism companies in Ta'if.

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Detection of Natural gas leakage in Al-Ahmadi area, South of Kuwait: A preliminary study

 

Ahmed Al-Rashed

 

Department of Science, College of Basic Education, PAAET, Kuwait.

ahmedbufarsan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Block No.1 of Al-Ahmadi Town suffers from repeated cycles of natural gas leakage in the last decade. Each cycle has its own characteristics regarding the leaking period and gas intensity. Some inhabitants of this Block moved out of their houses due to their fear about the spread of diseases such asthma and possible disaster such as fires due to gas emission. The earlier investigations has not yet reached the reasons behind the gas leakage, but limited the reason to one of the following: geological factors; the 50 year old gas network; and the new gas network. Intensive geochemical survey represented by 47626 gas readings has been conducted inside and around the Block No. 1 of Al-Ahmadi Town. This is to shed light on the possible reasons behind the repeated natural gas leakage phenomena. This is to locate and identify the leakage source, which will be helpful for planning to solve the gas leakage problem and to prevent any possible further gas leakage from the subsurface and also to prevent any possible untoward incident due to gas leakage. The survey has been run using an up-to -date Soil Gas Detector (Crowcon Gas-Detector) that based technically of the Flame Ionization Detection (FID) technique and utilizing a stream-mode surveying technique. Inspection of the iso-methane contour map of the surveyed area revealed that the study area is characterized by low to medium gas leakage intensity (0-500 CPS). Extremely high local anomalies are recorded to the west of the study area, which attains gas intensity up to 4000 (CPS). However, probable source of gas leakage may exist NE ward of the study area as an increase in the gas intensity up to 1000 CPS is remarkable at this direction. The probable reasons of the gas leakage is may either due to near surface artificial or natural gas leakage sources. The differentiation between these possible sources requires detailed background on the sub surface infrastructures, such as pipeline network, as well as the near-surface joints or fractures (neotectonics) of the study area. Further shallow geophysical surveys are recommended for mapping the near surface weakness zones, microstructures and neotectonics.

[Al-Rashed, A. Detection of Natural gas leakage in Al-Ahmadi area, South of Kuwait: A preliminary study. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):87-93]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.12

 

Keyword: Gas Leakage, Al-Ahmadi, Kuwait.

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Estimation of indoor Radon, Thoron and their progeny levels in some dwellings of District Yamuna Nagar of India using SSNTD

 

Anil Pundir1, Sunil Kamboj2, Rajinder Singh3

 

1.  Department of Electronics, M L N (PG) College, Yamuna Nagar, India

2.  Department of Physics, GSSS Camp, Yamuna Nagar, India

3.  Department of Electronics, SD (PG) College, Ambala Cantt, India

anil.pundeer@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The main source of indoor radon is 226Ra in soil, building materials, and tap water. The pathway for radon generation in rock and soil to its indoor accumulation is controlled by a number of geogenic and anthropogenic factors. Generally, indoor radon concentration is subject to seasonal variability. The exposure to alpha radiation emitted from radon, thoron and their progeny poses health hazards not only to workers at industrial units like thermal power plants, coal fields and oil fields but also to the dwellers in normal houses in their surroundings. Radon, thoron and their progeny are the major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Radon being an inert gas can easily disperse into the atmosphere immediately on its release. The solid alpha active decay products of radon like 218Po and 214Po become airborne and get themselves attached to the aerosols, dust particles and water droplets suspended in the atmosphere. When inhaled during breathe, these solid decay products along with air may get deposited in the tracho-bronchial and pulmonary region of lungs resulting in the continuous irradiation of the cells which may be the cause of lung cancer. Keeping this in mind the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of Shivalik foot hills-India has been carried out. The radon thoron twin dosimeter cups are being used for the study. Three pieces of LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detectors are fixed in the dosimeters and are suspended in the dwellings for three months during a season. One gives radon, thoron and progeny concentration, second gives radon and thoron concentration while the third gives only the radon concentration. Out of different types of dwellings under study the levels are found to be higher in some dwellings in village Kaleser as compare to other places. The annual dose received due to radon-thoron and their progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study have also been calculated.

[Anil Pundir, Sunil Kamboj, Rajinder Singh. Estimation of indoor Radon, Thoron and their progeny levels in some dwellings of District Yamuna Nagar of India using SSNTD. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):94-97]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.13

 

Keywords: Radon; Thoron; LR-115 type-II detectors; Shivalik Foot hills.

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Value of Surgery on the Outcome of Olfactory Groove Meningioma

 

Abdel-Basset Ali Saleh

 

Department of Neurosurgery, Al-Azhar University

  

Abstract: Background: Olfactory groove meningiomas represent a difficult problem because of involvement of the arteries of the anterior circulation as well as the anterior visual pathways when increased in size. Objective: in my study I will discuss 12 patients with olfactory groove meningiomas regarding their clinical presentation, radiological appearance, surgical approach as well as their post operative follow-up. Methods: All patients had been operated in Al-Azhar university hospitals in the period between February 2005 to October 2011. Patients' data as clinical presentation, surgical approach, histopathology, outcomes and follow up were collected and recorded. Results: There were 10 women and two men ranging in age from 33 to 64 years with mean age of 47 years. The leading symptom was Dementia in 5 patients. The bifrontal approach was the surgical approach in all cases. Simpson grade I or II was achieved in 9 patients, and grade III or IV was attained in 3 cases. In 11 patients there was a good result. One patient had a postoperative intracerebral hemorrhage after surgery and has a permanent dysphasia. Conclusion: The Olfactory groove meningiomas are frequent tumor in neurosurgical practice that should be excised completely with minimum complication and good outcome.

[Abdel-Basset Ali Saleh. Value of Surgery on the Outcome of Olfactory Groove Meningioma. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):98-102]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.14

 

Key Words: Olfactory groove, Meningioma, Dementia, Bifrontal approach.

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Physicochemical And Microbiological Profile Of Drinking Water Sold In Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

1Balogun S.A., 1Akingbade O.A., 2Oyekunle M A, 3Okerentugba P.O.

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: balogunsa33@hotmail.com, 08055470781

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, 500102, Nigeria. E-mail: phillip.okerentugba@uniport.edu.ng; Tel: +2348033087332

 

Abstract: The trend of producing sachet water is now on the increase with Abeokuta, Ogun State, South West Nigeria, having lots of these manufacturers. Outbreaks of major epidemics throughout the world have implicated water as major sources of infection. In this study, bacteria present in a total of 120 sachet and bottle water samples were isolated and characterized. The physicochemical parameters of the sachet water showed a pH range of 6.0 - 6.9, turbidity of 0.30 - 0.45 NTU, temperature of 28 - 29oC, calcium, magnesium, phosphate and chloride were 2.0mg/dl, 1.20 mg/dl, 1.46 mg/dl and 21.30 mg/dl respectively. The physicochemical parameters of the bottle water showed a pH range of 6.5 - 7, turbidity of 0.10 - 0.35 NTU, temperature of 27 - 29oC, calcium, magnesium, phosphate and chloride were 0.72mg/dl, 0.43 mg/dl, 1.00 mg/dl and 12.64 mg/dl respectively. Bacteria isolated from sachet and bottle water samples include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while Enterobacter sp was isolated in only sachet water. The result from this study revealed a high level of bacterial contamination in sachet water samples. This showed poor sanitary standard of operation in the production line of sachet-water.

[ Balogun S.A.,  Akingbade O.A.,  Oyekunle M A,  Okerentugba P.O. Physicochemical And Microbiological Profile Of Drinking Water Sold In Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):103-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.15

 

Keywords: Bacterial contamination, Drinking water, Physicochemical, Microbiological, Sachet water

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Micropropagation of Some Peach Rootstocks

 

Edriss M. H., Baghdadi G.A., Abd El-Razek, A. M., Abdrabboh G. A. and Abdel-Aziz, H. F.

 

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

gabdrabboh65@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work was an attempt to develop an In vitro technique for propagation of Nemaguard and Okinawa peach rootstocks. The two rootstocks were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA and IAA either alone or in combinations. Axillary buds were evaluated as explants. Data reported that addition of 0.5 mg / L BA to MS medium encouraged shoot proliferation compared with other treatments and control. Also, adding IAA at 0.1 mg /L to MS medium enhanced shoot proliferation compared with control. Addition of BA alone at multiplication stage at any concentration used was superior to 2iP regarding multiplication rate of shoots. The combination between BA and 2iP at 2.0+2.0 mg / L for each recorded the highest shoot number in comparison to other treatments and control. Moreover, maximum root number and root length was occurred when MS medium was supplemented with combination between NAA and IBA at 1.0 mg / L for each.

[Edriss M. H., Baghdadi G.A., Abd El-Razek, A. M., Abdrabboh G. A. and Abdel-Aziz, H. F. Micropropagation of Some Peach Rootstocks. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):106-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.16

 

Keywords: Micropropagation, Nemaguard, Okinawa peach Rootstocks.

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Comparison of IOP correction factor provided with scheimflug camera (pentacam) with that provided by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and their correlations with various corneal parameters for finer refinement of IOP measurements for Normal individuals.

 

Tamer A. Refai

 

Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt

tamerrefai@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To compare the IOP correction factor provided with Pentacam with that provided by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) for finer refinement of IOP measurements for Normal individuals. Methods: 69 eyes of 38 healthy Egyptian patients without ocular pathology or previous intraocular surgery were included in the study, of which there was 50 female eyes and 19 male eyes.The age ranged from 18-49 years (mean 27.628.51 Years).The spherical equivalent ranged from +3.75 to -11.5 diopters (D) (mean -4.283.28D). All cases were subjected to full ophthalmological examination including uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity,refraction,slit lamp examination, Scheimflug imaging (i:e Pentacam, (ALLEGRO Oculyzer Version 1074; Allergo, Germany) and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Inc., Buffalo, NY,USA). For each studied item,mean value and standard deviation were calculated by statistical analysis. Comparison(t-test) and Pearson correlation tests were also done. Results: The correction factor for IOP provided by pentacam ranged from -6.5 to 3.6mmHg (mean -0.612.35mmHg) while that provided by ORA ranged from -3.6 to 4.1mmHg (mean -0.321.88mmHg), comparison by t-test revealed a non significant difference (t-test= 0.54 (p = 0.62 i.e;>0.05). Studying the effect of age on the results revealed a non significant difference i.e:t- test showing a value of 1.01(p=0.32 i.e >0.05 for Pentacam and. t- test showing a value of 0.82(p =0.41 i.e >0.05 for ORA. Regarding intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor provided by Pentacam:A highly significant correlation (p =<0.01) existed between intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor and the central pachymetry, corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor. A statistically significant correlation "r"=-0.22(p =<0.05) existed between intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor and the central protrusion in the posterior float, while a non significant correlation (p =>0.05) existed between intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor and the average keratometry readings.and the central protrusion in anterior float. Regarding intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor provided by ORA: A highly significant correlation (p =<0.01) existed between intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor and the central pachymetry, the corneal hysteresis and the corneal resistance factor.A statistically significant correlation "r"=0.38(P=<0.05) existed between intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor and the average keratometry readings. A non significant correlation (p =>0.05) existed between intraocular pressure (IOP) correction factor and the central protrusion in anterior float and and the central protrusion in the posterior float. Conclusions: A non significant difference exists between IOP correction factor obtained by pentacam and ORA and the results were not affected by age but there was a statistically significant correlation between IOP correction factor and the central corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor with both machines. Therefore both machines can be used with reasonable comparable accuracy for finer refinement of IOP for ophthalmic patients.

 [Tamer A. Refai. Comparison of IOP correction factor provided with scheimflug camera (pentacam) with that provided by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and their correlations with various corneal parameters for finer refinement of IOP measurements for Normal individuals. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):115-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.17

 

Keywords: Pentacam IOP correction factor, ORA IOP correction factor,central corneal thickness, Corneal hysteresis, Corneal resistance factor.

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Antimicrobial Activities of Heated Extracts of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Some Selected Pathogens

 

Lawrence A. Adetunde, Isaac Sackey, Emmanuel O. Kombat* and Nahimatu Issah

 

Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University for Development Studies, P. O. Box 24, Navrongo, Ghana

emmanuelkombat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Many of the spices used daily in our homes have been documented to be antimicrobial and have medicinal value as well. Spices such as garlic and ginger have been used as antimicrobial agents in their raw form for the treatment of wounds, injuries and joint pains. The present study investigated the antimicrobial activity of heated extracts (ethanolic and aqueous) of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on some selected pathogens using the agar-well diffusion assay method. Three different concentrations of the extracts (i.e. 2.5 mg/ml, 5.0 mg/ml and 10.0 mg/ml) were prepared and used for the study. The antimicrobial activity of these heated extracts was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Candida albican, and Proteus mirabilis at different concentrations of the extracts. The results showed that neither the heated ethanolic extracts nor the heated aqueous extracts of A. sativum had antimicrobial activity against any of the test organisms. Similarly, heated aqueous extracts of Z. officinale showed no activity against any of the test organisms. Only the heated ethanolic extracts of Z. officinale showed some level of activity against C. albicans (8.5 – 11.0 mm) and S. typhi (7.0 – 14.5 mm). The findings of the study were attributed to the high temperatures used during the extraction phase, which may have caused the denaturing of some bioactive compounds resulting in the ineffectiveness of the extracts against the test microorganisms. It is therefore suggested that, garlic and ginger should not be heated or cooked if they are to be used for medicinal purposes.

[Adetunde, L.A., Sackey, I., Kombat, E.O. and Issah, N. Antimicrobial Activities of Heated Extracts of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Some Selected Pathogens. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):121-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.18

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial; Heated extracts; Garlic; Ginger; Pathogens

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Progress of Joint Forest Management in India with Special Reference to Jammu and Kashmir

 

Nasir Rashid Wani1, Tanweer Hussain Malik2

 

1Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar (J & K) India

2Department of Agriculture, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, India

nasirwani2012@gmail.com 

 

Abstract: The state of Forest Report, 2011 represents a grim situation vis-a vis the country’s forest cover, of the total 328.7 million hectares of the country’s geographical cover, only 67 million hectares (23.65%) is under forest tree cover, well behind the holistic goal of 33 per cent set in the National Forest Policy of 1988. Earlier overwhelming importance was given to commercial forestry and protection of forestry from the forest side rural community and forest dwellers by exclusion. This trend was reversed and local interests, environmental and ecological aspect were made paramount in the National Forest Policy (1988).To ensure that massive people involvement especially women and socially disadvantaged groups were to be organised in village institutions for protection and development of forest land, if need be, by interface of committed voluntary agencies (VA’s)/Nongovernmental during the 1990’s. This was particularly important to address the expectations and needs of society and by involving the local population in managing the forests sustainably. Though a successful programme ever since its inception for the first time in the state of West Bengal, implementation of Joint Forest Management in the country has highlighted several issues like appropriate mechanism of participation between the parties involved, its institutionalisation, lack of objectives, sustainability, adequacy of benefits to village community and pleasant experience for both – the dwindling status of country’s forest cover and the poor masses of our country.

[Nasir Rashid Wani, Tanweer Hussain Malik. Progress of Joint Forest Management in India with Special Reference to Jammu and Kashmir. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):127-131]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.19

 

 Key Words: Forest department; Village committee; Joint forest management

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Nursing Intervention Program Using Life Style Model for Clients with High Lipids Profile

 

Sahar M.M. Aly

 

Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

saharaly23@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: High blood cholesterol level is one of the major controllable risk factors for developing coronary heart disease, heart attack and stroke. So it is dependent on individual actions, including risk reduction, participation in screening efforts, and prompt attention to signs and symptoms to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. Through using epidemiological information can direct interventions to control health related conditions, by increase awareness, change behavioral habits about nutrition and dietary concept, encourage high risk people with high lipid profile for physical activities and weight control. The present study aims to improve clients with high lipids profile knowledge, and practices related to; nutrition, and physical activity, through using life style model. A quasi-experimental design was applied to achieve the aims of the study. The sample composed from (100 clients) with high lipids profile according to certain criteria, the study was carried out in AL Ismailia Branch of Health Insurance out patients clinics. Data collected through using three tools: first tool; structure interviewing questionnaire was developed to assess clients' knowledge and practices, and socio demographic characteristics; second tool, to assess clients' BMI, third tool, to assess clients' medical history and laboratory investigations, and program for clients with high lipids level designed and implemented to study group. The study showed that, improved knowledge level of the clients with high lipids, improved in behavioral habits of clients regarding nutritional habits, and physical activities. Changes in blood lipids level toward improvement from high levels to desirable normal and borderline high level. Also slightly improvement in BMI from moderate obese toward overweight and normal weight BMI. The study recommended to conduct further educational programs for clients with high lipids profile to raise their knowledge and practices toward high lipids, Supporting in-service training programs for health team, in counseling techniques and interpersonal communication skills are required for health care providers.

[Sahar M.M. Aly. Nursing Intervention Program Using Life Style Model for Clients with High Lipids Profile. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):132-146]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.20

 

Key words: cholesterol, lipids profile, physical exercise, dietary habits, DM, life style model

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Evaluation of platelet indices and their significance in Preeclampsia

 

Wael Ahmed Ezzat kamel Ammar1, Moharam Abd El Hasseeb Abd El Hei2, Mahmoud Ahmed Gehad3 and Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed3

 

1Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, EL-Galaa Teaching Hospital, Egypt

2Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

3Lecturer of obstetrics and gynecology, Faculty of medicine, Benha University, Egypt

dr.waela3@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: to evaluate the platelet indices and their significance in assessment of severity of preeclampsia and their correlation with pregnancy outcome. Patient and methods: The present study was a prospective study that was done from January 2012 to March 2013 in EL-Galaa Teaching Hospital and comprised 200 pregnant women who were: 100 normotensive and 100 preeclampsia (68 cases were mild preeclampsia and 32 cases were sever preeclampsia), blood samples were analyzed for platelet indices and the pregnant women were followed up for both maternal and fetal outcome. Results: The present study found that the platelet count decreased, while MPV, PDW and PLcr increased with severity of preeclampsia, poor maternal prognosis and poor fetal prognosis. And from ROC curves we found that in differentiating mild from sever preeclampsia a PLT count cut-off value of 168,000 / mm3 showed a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 72.1 %, a MPV cut-off value of 10.3 fl showed a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 85.3 %, a PDW cut-off value of 16.2 fl showed a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 85.3 % and a PLcr cut-off value of 29.7 % showed a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 83.8 %. We also found in predicting poor maternal prognosis a PLT count cut-off value of 116,000 / mm3 showed sensitivity of 83.7 % and specificity of 88.5 %, a MPV cut-off value of 12.1 fl showed sensitivity of 83.7 % and specificity of 88.5 %, a PDW cut-off value of 18.7 fl showed sensitivity of 83.7 % and specificity of 88.5 % and a PLcr cut-off value of 34.7 % showed sensitivity of 83.7 % and specificity of 88.5 %. We also found that in predicting poor neonatal prognosis a PLT count cut-off value of 128,500 / mm3 showed sensitivity of 92.3 % and specificity of 94.7 %, a MPV cut-off value of 11.3 fl showed sensitivity of 92.3 % and specificity of 94.7 %, a PDW cut-off value of 17.8 fl showed sensitivity of 92.3 % and specificity of 94.7 % and a PLcr cut-off value of 32.9 % showed sensitivity of 92.3 % and specificity of 94.7 %. Conclusion: We found a relationship between platelet indices and severity of preeclampsia and pregnancy outcome.

[Wael Ahmed Ezzat kamel Ammar, Moharam Abd El Hasseeb Abd El Hei, Mahmoud Ahmed Gehad and Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed. Evaluation of platelet indices and their significance in Preeclampsia. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):147-153]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.21

 

Keywords: platelet indices, significance, Preeclampsia

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Breeding biology of Indian whiskered tern Chlidonias hybrida indica (Stephens) at lake Wular Kashmir

 

Mustahson Farooq Fazili

 

Wildlife Research Division Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir-190006

drfaziliwl@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract:Some parameters of breeding biology of Indian whiskered tern were studied for three successive years (2011-2013) in the lake Wular(3415ʹ to 3425ʹ N, 7432ʹ to 7442ʹ E), Kashmir, India. Terns arrived in the lake in April. Breeding occurred from May to August and was initiated by pair formation.The whiskered terns were strictly monogamous. The nesting sites were generally chosen near reed beds with dense floating vegetation. Trapa and Nymphoid mats were mostly preferred .The water depth near nest site varied from1-2.5 meters.They were colonial and number of nests in a colony varied fom 15-179. Both the sexes built the nest in an average period of 5.250.8 days. Nests were substantial platforms with a mean diameter of 13.5 0.9cm and average depth of 2.65 0.2cm. Average clutch size showed both inter and intra annual variation with an overall mean of 3.16 0.59. The freshly laid eggs weighed on an average17.212 1.069g and their average length, breadth volume and shape index were 36.9 0.50mm, 27.4 0.20mm,14.34 1.80cm3 and 74.23 0.475 respectively. The eggs showed on an average a gradual weight loss of 16.6% during incubation..In 65% of the clutches eggs were laid daily and peak laying was between June,21 to July,10. Incubation was performed by both the sexes during a mean period of 21.80.88days.Overall egg survival during incubation was0.34. Hatching was asynchronous and hatching period varied from 1-2 days.Over all hatching success calculated by traditional method was 28.82%.Humans predated 68% of the eggs incomparison to2.31%by natural predators. Nestling survival during nestling period was 0.25 and nesting success calculated from exposure was 0.26.

[Mustahson Farooq Fazili. Breeding biology of Indian whiskered tern Chlidonias hybrida indica (Stephens) at lake Wular Kashmir. Nat Sci 2014;12(3):154-164]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 22. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.22

 

 Key words: Breeding, Clutch, Incubation,Hatching, nestling, Wular Lake

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Sociology of Addiction and the Role of Social Work Fields in Facing It

 

Sherif Yehia Mahmoud Fahmy

 

Social Work and Community Development Department, Faculty of Education, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Alsharifa_amel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Addiction is a very harmful and destructive phenomenon that affects the individual, the family and the society. An addict is a negative, helpless, dependant person who cannot face his problems and lives in an imaginary world through using narcotics to escape from reality for a period of time. Unfortunately, some of the Youth are involved in such problem which has bad impact as youth are the builders of the future; therefore, a great effort should be done to face this problem by means of union of all the institutions with the social work fields’ institutions to prevent its occurrence and to treat who are already involved in it. The aim of this study to focus upon the role of some of social work fields with the help of the family and the social environment in facing such a hazardous phenomenon. In addition, the study includes the types of addictive substances and its harmful consequences.

[Sherif Yehia Mahmoud Fahmy, Sociology of Addiction and the Role of Social Work Fields in Facing It. Nat Sci 2014; 12(3):165-174]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 23. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120314.23

 

Keywords: Addiction, Narcotics, Social worker, Social Institutions.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from February 19, 2014.
 
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