Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740 
Volume 12 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 85), April 25, 2014; Monthly
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1204


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Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Camel Milk in El-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia


Yosef, T.A.1,2*; Al- Julaifi, M.Z.2; Hussein, Y.A.3,4; Al-Shokair, S.S.3 and AL-Amer, A.S.2


1Dept. of Forensic Med. and Toxicology, Fac. of Vet. Med., Kafrelshiekh Univ., 33516, Egypt.

2Toxicology lab. Management of Vet. Laboratories, Min. of Agric., Riyadh, 11418, KSA.

3Dept. of Clinical Studies, College of Vet. Med. and Animal Resources, King Faisal Univ.,11647KSA.

4Dept. of Forensic Med. and Toxicology, Fac. of Vet. Med., Alexandria Univ., 2485 Egypt.

Email: tarekyosef70@yahoo.com


Abstract: During the period of February–April 2013, one hundred-seventeen samples of raw camel milk, collected from EL-Ahsa Governorate(Eastern Saudi Arabia)were checked for Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by using competitive ELISA technique. Samples exceeded AFM1 Gulf countries maximum limit of raw milk were confirmed by LC-MS analysis so as to avoid any doubts about its chemical identification. AFM1 was detected in 78.6% of milk samples, with range of 2.50to 398.60ng/l and the mean of 164.72±0.432ng/l. Eighty four samples (71.8%) go over the European Commission recommended limits (50ng/l) of raw milk while thirty four samples (29.1%) surpassed the Gulf countries maximum limit distinct as 200ng/l. AFM1 was detected at levels below 50ng/l in merely 6.8% of the samples whilst, 23.0% ranged from 50 to 100ng/l. AFM1 positive samples assorted from 101 to 200ng/l were established in 19.7% of milk samples and about 29.1% were above 200ng/l. High levels of AFM1 in the raw camel milk samples is an enormous health risk factor for end consumers. There is need to improve storage conditions of feed ingredients that will mitigate the AFB1 production in the feed/ration and ultimately decrease the AFM1 levels in the animal milk.

[Yosef, T.A.; Al- Julaifi, M.Z.; Hussein, Y.A.; Al-Shokair, S.S. and AL-Amer, A.S. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Camel Milk in El-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):1-7]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.01 


Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, ELISA, LC-MS, Raw camel milk.

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Enhancing Rice Straw Media for Growing Eggplant under Modified Climatic Conditions Using Compost and Bacterial Inoculation


I. I. Sadek1, Fatma S. Moursy1, E. A. Salem1, A. Schüch2, M. A. M. Heggi1


1Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agriculture Research Centre

2 Universities of Rostock, Agricultural and Environmental Faculty, Department Waste Management and Material Flow



Abstract: Nowadays, rice straw in Egypt considered as the largest agricultural waste. Rice straw causes environmental problems when it is burned at the fields. So, it’s necessary to conduct a new methods, that are capable to accommodate continues production of paddy rice straw every year. Rice straw usage as agriculture media is one of several applications or solutions. This study validates rice straw to be appropriate media for eggplants cultivation, whereby the ideal percentage of added compost to that waste was tested. Other tested hypothesis, using free living fixing bacteria (two strains) to cover the nitrogen shortage in rice straw when use it as agricultural media. Moreover, this experiment was carried out inside a net house, in order to characterize the effect of modified climatic conditions. Results showed that, it’s applicable and profitable to use rice straw as a growing media for eggplant. Using rice straw plus compost (20% of the overall media volume) and inoculates it with both Azotobacter chroococcum and Paenibacillus polymyxa presented the highest crop yield and the highest profit compared to other tested treatments. Meanwhile, high air temperature and relative humidity (RH %) caused a reduction in crop yield and in the net return.

[I. I. Sadek, Fatma S. Moursy, E. A. Salem, A. Schüch and M. A. M. Heggi. Enhancing Rice Straw Media for Growing Eggplant under Modified Climatic Conditions Using Compost and Bacterial Inoculation. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):8-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.02


Keywords: Rice straw, Agriculture media, Eggplant, Climate modification and Compost.

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Protective Role of Panax Gensing on Fluvoxamine Maleate Induced Structural Changes in the Submandibular Salivary Gland of Rats


Alaa A. El-Agamy1, Omayma K. Afifi 2 and Abdelrazek A. Sheta 3


1; Dental Surgery Specialist, University Clinic; Taif University; KSA

2; Department of Histology; Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt & Faculty of Medicine, Tiaf University KSA

3; Department of Anatomy & Embryology; Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University; Egypt & Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Alqura University, KSA



Abstract: Background: Many dental patients receive Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressant therapy; fluvoxamine maleate. The most common and significant major complication of this group is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularly xerostomia. There are some herbal plants which are believed to be excellent therapy to alleviate the symptoms of many diseases as ginseng. Aim of the work: was to evaluate the histological changes in rat submandibular salivary gland that might result from fluvoxamine maleate treatment and the possible protective role of ginseng. Material and Methods: Nineteen adult male albino rats were used and were divided into group I (control);group II (experimental):each rat was daily and subcutaneously injected with fluvoxamine maleate in a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight, and group III (protective):each rat was given panax ginseng at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight orally and daily concomitantly with fluvoxamine maleate by the same dose, route and method of administration used in group II. After 28 days, the submandibular glands were dissected and were processed for histological examination. Results: examination of the submandibular glands of fluvoxamine maleate- treated animals revealed degenerative changes especially in the secretory acinar cells. These changes were in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation especially in serous acini, reduced secretory granules that became basal, dilated intralobular ducts, congested blood vessels and widening of the interlobular spaces. Ultrastructurally, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vacuolization were the prominent features. As regards the secretory granules, serous acini showed degranulation while the granules of mucous acini exhibited coalesce and heterogenous appearance of their materials. Conclusion: it could be concluded that a treatment with fluvoxamine maleate could induce structural changes in rat submandibular salivary gland, which could be partially minimized by concomitant treatment with ginseng.

[Alaa A. El-Agamy, Omayma K. Afifi and Abdelrazek A. Sheta. Protective Role of Panax Gensing on Fluvoxamine Maleate Induced Structural Changes in the Submandibular Salivary Gland of Rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):21-29]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.03


Key word: Xerostomia, fluvoxamine maleate, gensing, L/M, E/M.

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Preparation of ceramics pigment as nano-powder using organic fuels in approach for the solution combustion synthesis


A.El-Maghraby1, 2 and Moamen S. Refat 1,3


1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, P.O. Box 888, Zip Code 21974, Taif, Saudi Arabia

2 Ceramic Department, National Research Center, Tahrir Str., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt

Corresponding author: Prof. A.El-Maghraby


Abstract: The cobalt chromium aluminates spinel can be prepared by solid-state reactions which is opaque and has good hiding power is classified as ceramics grade pigment. The techniques have been applied to prepare ultrafine CoCrAl2O4 spinel as chemical combustion process, which has laid a good foundation for the development of the pigment-grade CoCrAl2O4 spinel characterized by a fine particle size and a uniform distribution. The crystalline powders have been synthesized by combustion process in a single step using a novel fuel urea and glucose. Urea and glucose as a fuel was used to prepare new nano size blue refractory ceramic pigments MgAl2O4: as Co2+ and Cr3+ using low temperature combustion synthesis (LCS) method. The results can be prepared five batches at different percentage from Cr 3+ to Al 3+ and firing the batches at 700, 900, and 1100 ˚C. From the studies, the suitable temperature is at 900 C to form the crystal as spinel. The different percentage of Cr ion substitute Al ion in spinel lattice. The synthesized and calcite powders were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry, electronic spectra, thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, the color measurements of nano pigments are studied by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) using CIE-L*a*b* parameter method.

[A.El-Maghraby and Moamen S. Refat. Preparation of ceramics pigment as nano-powder using organic fuels in approach for the solution combustion synthesis. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):30-44]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.04


Keywods: ceramics pigment, nano-powder, organic fuels, combustion synthesis

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Design And Production Of Fabrics Suitable For Patches And Valves Frames


1Sabry, A., M., 2 El-Bheiry, H., 3 Mostafa, S., A., 4 Mahmoud,I.,I. and 5 Ibrahim, G., E.


1,4&5 Spinning, Weaving & Knitting Dept. Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University

2 * Collage of Engineering & Science Clemson University – USA

3 * The National Heart Institute



Abstract: This research is mainly concerned with designing fabrics used in heart prostheses (patches and valves frames). The woven technique was applied to produce samples under study, using polyester. Different parameters were studied including, the fabric structure (regular hopsack 2/2, satin 4 and twill 1/3), yarn count (50, 70 and 100 denier), warp set (80, 100 and 120 ends /cm) and weft set (75, 100 and 125 picks /cm) for patches, valves frames. The produced fabrics were treated with Chitosan.Their influence on the performance of the end-use fabric and the achieved properties were studied. On the other hand physical-chemical properties including; air permeability, water permeability, thickness and weight were evaluated according to the final product needs. Some more results were reached concerning structures and materials.

[Sabry, A., M., El-Bheiry, H., Mostafa, S., A., Mahmoud, I., I. and Ibrahim, G., E. Design And Production Of Fabrics Suitable For Patches And Valves Frames. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):45-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.05


Keywords: Heart prostheses, patches, valves frames, Chitosan and Sterilization

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Effect of supplementation with organic selenium on selenium content in broilers meat


Hala, A. Thabet1 and Fathy, A. Mohamed2


1Special Foods and Nutrition Dept., Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Egypt

2Poultry Production Department, Faculty Of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt.



Abstract: Consumption of poultry products in the world has increased over past years. Broilers meat is popular to eat, because of its high nutritional value and reasonable prices. This study was intended to explore the effect of selenium-enriched yeast supplemented diet on broilers and selenium (Se) content in its meat. One hundred fifty unsexed one day old of Hubbard broiler chicks were reared up to 5 weeks. Broilers diet was supplemented with selenium-enriched yeast to get different levels of organic Se (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/kg diet). Supplementation with 0.2 organic Se was used as control treatment (T1). The results showed that the concentration of selenium (Se) in raw breast muscles was increased along with increasing the supplementation levels of organic Se in chicken’s diet. The highest value of Se content was in treatment 5 (0.48 mg/kg). The amount of Se in cooked breast muscles was increased due to cooking processes comparing with raw samples except in case of boiling process the amount of it was decreased as a result of cooking. The highest values of Se after the different cooking processes were observed in grill process. There were no significant differences in CL% accompanied by increasing organic Se in chickens diet between T1 and other treatments in boiled and fried after boiling samples. Supplementation broilers diet with organic Se resulted in increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) comparing with control treatment (T1). There were significant differences for serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels among T1 and other treatments. Concerning to total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, there were no significant differences between control treatment and both T2 and T3. Meanwhile, T4 and T5 achieved significant differences between T1. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels in serum were decreased in all treatments compared to T1. Meanwhile, there were significant increases in sera HDL-C levels in T4 and T5 compared to T1. The broiler meat in both raw and cooked samples was not affected by increasing Se levels in diet regarding in all sensory attributes except in case of T5 in raw and boiled samples and T4 in boiled samples when odor was tested . Also, in case of flavor, T5 differ significantly from T1 in boiled samples. By modifying broiler feeding mixtures, broiler meat is enriched with functional ingredients such as selenium. Interestingly, supplementation with 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg organic Se/kg diet from Se-enriched yeast increased Se deposition in chicken meat muscles and improved the antioxidant status of broilers. Getting such enriched chicken meat could be considered a useful source of this vital antioxidants in the human diet. Therefore, without changing eating habits and traditions of the various populations, it is possible to solve problems related to deficiency of various nutrients, in particular selenium.

[Hala, A. Thabet and Fathy, A. Mohamed. Effect of supplementation with organic selenium on selenium content in broilers meat. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):58-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.06


Keywords: Organic selenium, Broiler, Cooking processes, Antioxidant enzyme activities, Sensory evaluation.

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Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa in Primary Schools in Zawia City, Libya


Mohamed M. A. Elsaid1, Amjad T. Shaktur1, Sammar M. Elsaid4. Mohamed Dia Eddin E. EL-Alem1,2, Khalid O. Traish1,3, Fawzia Kahbar5


1-Department of Intensive Care and Anesthesia, Faculty of Medical Technology, Tripoli University

2- Al-jala Hospital, Tripoli-Libya

3-AL-hadba AL-khadra hospital, Tripoli-Libya

4- Faculty of Medicine, Tripoli University

5- Academy of Graduate Studies, Tripoli



Abstract: A total number of 605 stool samples were collected among eight primary school in Zawia city, during the period of November 2011 to April 2012 and analyzed for intestinal protozoa. Stool examination was done by direct and formalin ether technique. Total 64 (10.6%) cases were found with intestinal protozoa in their stools. The most common protozoa was Entamoeba coli( E. coli) 22 (3.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytic) found in 19 (3.1%) cases and Gardia lamblia (G. lamblia) in 11 (1.8%) cases. Double infection was seen in only three samples. The low prevalence of intestinal protozoa among the study groups reflects the outstanding health and hygienic care in primary schools visited.

[Mohamed M. A. Elsaid, Amjad T. Shaktur, Sammar M. Elsaid, Mohamed Dia Eddin E. EL-Alem, Khalid O. Traish and Fawzia Kahbar. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa in Primary Schools in Zawia City, Libya. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):67-71]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.07


Keywords: Prevalence, Intestinal protozoa.

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Comparison of natural soil sterilization methods and their effects on soil inhabitant fungi


Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali


Dept. of Plant Protection, Fac. Of Agriculture, Omer Almukhtar Univ.

El-Beida, P.O. 919. Email: Zelgali@yahoo.com


Abstract: The most frequently soil-borne fungal pathogens on plants that make high economical damages in various agricultural locations from Libya and the world. The temperature and method for killing soil organisms in soil are so important factors that affect the results. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of some non-chemical methods of soil sterilization: Solar heating. Hot water and Flooding for sterilization of lentil nursery seedbed soil. Treatments resulted difference of types and numbers of fungi before and after treatment. Progagules of Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Pythium sp were greatly reduced or completely eliminated in soil treatment. Soil irrigation + covered with transparent and Hot water were more effective than the other treatments to control soil borne fungi. Seedlings survival were increased to 90 and 100% after treatment with Soil irrigation + covered with transparent and Hot water respectively compared to 75% for the plants were sown in non-treated pots. These methods was simple, effective, non negative side and applicable in diverse farming areas at warm season.

[El-Gali, Z.I. Comparison of natural soil sterilization methods and their effects on soil inhabitant fungi. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):72-78]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.08


Keywords: Solar heating, Hot water, Flooding , Sterilization, Soil-borne fungi, Control.

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Response of pulps of different origins to the upgrading effect of bulk added green denatured soy protein, in correlation to morphological structure & chemical composition of cellulose fibers


Tamer Y. A. Fahmy*, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid and Yehia Fahmy


Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, Sh. El-Tahrir, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Soy-protein is used, for the first time, as bulk binder in papermaking from wood pulps (hardwood and softwood pulps). Wood pulps represent the major pulps used for paper production. A green denaturing method, involving only biodegradable compounds, was found sufficient to expose the functional groups of proteins. Addition of denatured soy-protein caused a considerable increase in all strength properties of paper, at all beating degrees. The effect was highest in non-wood (for comparison) followed by hardwood and softwood pulps respectively. This could be correlated to ratio of fiber length/width, fines, and hemicellulose content of pulps. The less the ratio, and the higher the fines and hemicellulose content, the more was the increase in strength properties; due to more exposed surfaces. The outstanding effect of soy-protein was magnifying the desired opacifying effect and retention of inorganic fillers e.g. kaolin, while eliminating the loss in strength, which occurs normally due to fillers.

[Tamer Y. A. Fahmy, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid and Yehia Fahmy. Response of pulps of different origins to the upgrading effect of bulk added green denatured soy protein, in correlation to morphological structure & chemical composition of cellulose fibers. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):79-83]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.09


Keywords: Wood pulps; Green denatured soy-protein; Morphological structure of cellulose fibers; Paper strength promoters; Paper fillers retention aids.

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Effect of Cationic Surfactant on Some Growth Parameters and Nutrients Uptake of Barley Plant


Mohamed M.M


Soils and Water Dept., Fac.of Agric., Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: This work was conducted to study the effect of ethanediyl-1,2-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium chloride; CS12) as cationic surfactant on germination percentage, dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium contents and uptake of barley plant grown in sandy and calcareous soils collected from Cairo Alexandria desert road (Sadate city) and Amria region respectively. In a pot experiment 20 seed of barley plant were planted in two kg of used soils. The soil samples were treated by 0.0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0% rates of cationic surfactant CS12. The agricultural management processes were introduced as the general recommendations of the agronomists. The obtained results showed that all the investigated parameters were improved by increasing doses of cationic surfactant treatments over the control. This results may be due to the positive effect of CS12 on improving soil and plant conditions.

[Mohamed M.M. Effect of Cationic Surfactant on Some Growth Parameters and Nutrient Uptake of Barley Plant. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):84-87]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.10


Keywords: Cationic surfactant-growth parameters -sandy soil-calcareous soil- barley plant.

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Study the job satisfaction and its affected factors in Kermanshah hospitals nurses 2013


Arash Ziapour, Negar Kazemi, Neda Kiani pour, Meghdad Ziapour


Kermanshah University of medical sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

arash.ziapour@kums.ac.ir / naka25@yahoo.com


Abstract: The vast majority of staffing the health system is nurses. Job satisfaction caused to increase the organization productivity and employees are committed to the organization and his physical and mental health will be guaranteed. Identifying the affected factors in nurses' job satisfaction can be useful in increase their job satisfaction and create necessary motivation to do their therapeutic, education and research tasks. In this study, the job satisfaction and its affected factors in Kermanshah hospitals nurses 2013, were studied. This is an Analytic-Descriptive study that was done on 629 nurses in Kermanshah hospitals who have been selected on step sampling methods. Data collection tools include demographic information and standardized job satisfaction questionnaire (Herzberg) and job satisfaction was categorized in three levels. The results showed that job satisfaction among workers in eight areas on average are as follows: the workplace (75/2 percent), relationship with colleagues (49 percent), compensation (75/1 percent), job status (60/5 percent), job security (64/6 percent), monitoring and supervision (64 percent), management policy (59/2 percent) and personal life (65/7%). Most satisfaction was about communication with co-workers and least satisfaction was in hard working benefits, establish equity and non-discrimination and the amenities. Chi-square test showed a significant association between gender, education, type of employment, career and administrative shift. Our results indicate that overall satisfaction was generally in a satisfactory condition. Considering the research findings it is recommended to the Ministry of health, education and medical treatment that make greater effort in order to improve job satisfaction in the fields of on time payment of salaries, as well as conservative design, hard working benefits and facilities.

[Arash Ziapour, Negar Kazemi, Neda Kiani pour, Meghdad Ziapour. Study the job satisfaction and its affected factors in Kermanshah hospitals nurses 2013. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):88-92]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.11


Keywords: job satisfaction, nurse, hospital, Kermanshah

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Effect of foliar application of GA3 and Some Nutrients on Yield and Fruit Quality of Valencia Orange Trees


Baghdady, G.A., Abdelrazik, A. M., Abdrabboh, G. A. and Abo-Elghit, A. A


Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: This work was done  to study the effect of foliar application of GA3, some macro and micro-nutrients either individually or in combinations  on fruit set %, yield and fruit quality of Valencia orange trees during two successive seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012). The results indicated that foliar spraying of Valencia orange trees with GA3  at either 15 or 25 ppm increased fruit set %,yield and some fruit quality such as fruit juice, TSS, V.C and TSS/Acid ratio than in comparison to those of control. Chelated calcium, Chelated zinc and boron significantly increased fruit set %, fruit quality, fruit weight (g), number of fruits/tree and the estimated yield (kg/tree) at harvest in comparison to control and other treatments.  In this respect, applying any of combined treatments might be considered as a promising treatment specially chelated calcium +boric acid.

[Baghdady, G.A., Abdelrazik, A. M., Abdrabboh, G. A. and Aboelghit, A. A. Effect of foliar application of GA3 and Some Nutrients on Yield And Fruit Quality of Valencia Orange Trees. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):93-100]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.12


Key words: GA3, nutrients, foliar spraying, yield and fruit quality, Valencia orange.

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Induction of DRIS for foliar diagnosis of cationic micronutrients for mulberry (Morus sp.) growing under plains of West Bengal


R. Kar1, M. K. Ghosh1, S. K. Majumder2 and S. Nirmal Kumar1


1Soil Science and Chemistry Section, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Berhampore-742101, West Bengal, India


2Basic Seed Farm, National Silkworm Seed Organization, Central Silk Board, Dhubulia, West Bengal, India


Abstract: The study aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) indices and foliar concentrations of cationic micronutrients, to ascertain optimum foliar concentration of the same for mulberry crop growing under plains of West Bengal. Foliar concentrations of cationic micronutrients from 78 mulberry (Morus sp.) commercial gardens were analyzed to calculate DRIS indices. Regression analysis was used to fit a model relating DRIS indices to foliar concentrations of the micronutrients under study. There was a positive and significant relationship between foliar micronutrient concentrations of mulberry and DRIS indices. The optimum foliar concentrations of cationic micronutrients for mulberry growing under plains of West Bengal are 16.56 mg kg-1 for Zn, 6.37 mg kg-1 for Cu, 163.84 mg kg-1 for Fe and 45.24 mg kg-1 for Mn, respectively. DRIS norms evaluated are useful to correct nutritional imbalances and to increase mulberry yield.

[R. Kar, M. K. Ghosh, S. K. Majumder and S. Nirmal Kumar. Induction of DRIS for foliar diagnosis of cationic micronutrients for mulberry (Morus sp.) growing under plains of West Bengal. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):101-105]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.13


Key words: Cationic micronutrients, DRIS indices, foliar concentration, mulberry

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Detection of Erythromycin Resistance Genes erm(A), erm(B), erm (C) and msr(A) in Staphylococcus Nasal carriers in Khartoum State


Makarem Ahmed Salih1, Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla2 and Mai Abdul Rahman Masri1


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sebha University, Libya

E-mail: alsadig58@yahoo.com


Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus continues to be one of the most difficult pathogens to treat because of its resistance to antibiotics. The significant prevalence of nosocomial infections caused by multi-resistant S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) has been documented. Resistance to erythromycin in staphylococci is usually associated with resistance to other macrolides. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of S. aureus strains isolated from nostrils of patients to erythromycin antibiotic by disc diffusion method. And detection of S. aureus species specific gene (sau gene) and Erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA) by using PCR technique. A total of 50 nasal swabs samples collected from outpatients at admission to Academic Charity Hospital (Khartoum). The organisms isolated were 50 Staphylococci and they were classified as, Staphylococcus aureus 12, Staphylococcus epidermidis 26, Staphylococcus hyicus 12. All S.aureus isolates were positive for the presence of (S. aureus specific gene) and all the CoNS isolates were negative. All the S. aureus strains were sensitive to erthromycin antibiotic by using disc diffusion method. Ten out of the twelves S.aureus isolates were found negative for the presence of Erythromycin resistance genes (ermAb, ermB, ermC and msrA), when ermAb gene was found positive in 2 isolates out of 12.

[Makarem Ahmed Salih, Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla and Mai Abdul Rahman Masri. Detection of Erythromycin Resistance Genes erm(A), erm(B), erm (C) and msr(A) in Staphylococcus Nasal carriers in Khartoum State. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):106-110]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.14


Keywords: Molecular detection, antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus bacteria

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Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria among students in a tertiary institution in ibadan, Nigeria.


Alabi O. S.1, Onyenwe N. E.2, Satoye K. A.3 and Adeleke O. E.4


1-4 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

o_nathejik@yahoo.com, mailpharmmuyiwa@yahoo.com


Abstract: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics, particularly the extended-spectrum antibiotics in Nigeria has assisted the principle of selection pressure for the highly resistant strains of bacteria. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of asyptomatic bacteriuria as well as antibiotic susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among bacterial isolates from healthy students in a tertiary institution in southwest Nigeria. The results of the mid-stream urine catch that was collected and analysed in a total of 100 students , all within the age range 17 to 26 years, were found to contain bacterial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (5%), Escherichia coli (3%), Citrobacter frundii (4%), Proteus spp. (26%), Klebsiella spp. (40%), Moganella morganni (4%) and Providencia stuartii (4%). Visible bacterial growth occurred in 86% of the urine samples with 41% from males and 45% from females. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, quinolone, aminoglycoside, macrolide and nitrofuran were used for antibiotic susceptibility test against the isolates. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was determined among cephalosporin resistant Gram-negative isolates. This study showed high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with multidrug resistance and some ESBL-producing bacteria among healthy students of University of Ibadan. Thus concerted effort in the control of the use of extended-spectrum antibiotics should be made, so as to avoid high prevalence of human reservoirs of multidrug resistant and ESBL-producing bacteria. http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

[Alabi O. S., Onyenwe N. E., Satoye K. A. and Adeleke O. E. Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria among students in a tertiary institution in ibadan, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):111-114]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.15


Keywords: Bacteriuria, ESBL, multidrug-resistant, asymptomatic bacteriuria, antibiotic.

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Quality Assessment and Acceptability of Pounded Yam from Different Varieties of Yam


Adeyeye Samuel Ayofemi 1and Oluwatola Olatunde Jacob 2


1. Department of Food Science & Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2. Consumer Protection Agency, Abuja, Nigeria



Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the quality of pounded yam produced from different varieties of yam. Pounded yam is a very popular delicacy in Nigeria. Pounded yam was produced from four yam varieties, Dioscorea esculenta (TDE 170), (TDR 179), Dioscorea cayenensis (TDC 760), and Dioscorea alata (OMD 840). A traditional protocol for the production of pounded yam was simulated in the laboratory. Samples of the pounded yam produced were analyzed for yield, lump quantity, proximate composition, flavour and textural acceptability. Data obtained were evaluated. The results obtained suggested that there were increases in the moisture content of the pounded yam compared with the yam. There were also increases in crude fibre and ash contents of the lumps while protein and fat contents decrease in the lump. OMD 840 gave high quantity of lumps among the yam varieties used, followed by TDC 760, TDR 179 and TDE 170. The results of sensory analyses done showed that pounded yam samples from TDE 170 were more acceptable than those from TDE 179, TDC 760 and OMD 840.

[Adeyeye Samuel Ayofemi and Oluwatola Olatunde Jacob. Quality Assessment and Acceptability of Pounded Yam from Different Varieties of Yam. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):115-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.16


Keywords: pounded yam, yam varieties, quality, assessment, acceptability

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Efficacy of Exogenous Elicitors against Tuta Absoluta on Tomato


Hussein, Nehal, M. 1, M.I. Hussein2, S.H. Gadel Hak3, M.A. Hammad2 and H.S. Shaalan1


1Plant Protection Institute, ARC, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Pant Protection Dep., Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Shoubra El-Kheima, Cairo, Egypt

3Horticulture Dep., Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ., Minia, Egypt


Abstract: Plant defensive systems against herbivores such as leafminers can be induced by application of biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study we examined the effect of some elicitor treatments on the response of tomato hybrid cultivar Gold Stone against (Tuta absoluta). Also, their effects on the growth characteristics of tomato were studied in the successive summer seasons of 2011 and 2012. The treatments were salicylic acid (SA) at 200 ppm, L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) at 200 ppm and at 500 ppm, benzothiadiazole (BTH) at 200 ppm, effective microorganisms (EM) at 5m/L., ethanol (solvent) at 1m/L. and tap water (control). The application were treated three times in three stages of growth. L-AA at 200 ppm followed by BTH at 200 ppm were significantly reduced the percentage of (Tuta absoluta) density population and significantly reduced the percentage of infested leaflets on tomato. Also, most of growth characteristics were responded. SA and L-AA at 200 ppm as well as EM treatments enhanced significantly L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Moreover, SA treatment at 200 ppm significantly decreased tomato yield in both seasons.

[Hussein, Nehal, M., M.I. Hussein, S.H. Gadel Hak, M.A. Hammad and H.S. Shaalan. Efficacy of Exogenous Elicitors against Tuta Absoluta on Tomato. Nat Sci 2014;12(4):120-128]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120414.17


Key words: Salicylic acid (SA), L-ascorbic acid (L-AA), Benzothiadiazole (BTH), Effective microorganisms (EM), Tuta absoluta, Tomato.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from March 12, 2014.
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